Akil, A.-S. .-S.; Jerman, L.F.; Yassin, E.; Padmajeya, S.S.; Al-Kurbi, A.; Fakhro, K.A. Reading between the (Genetic) Lines: How Epigenetics is Unlocking Novel Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes. Cells2020, 9, 2403.
Akil, A.-S. .-S.; Jerman, L.F.; Yassin, E.; Padmajeya, S.S.; Al-Kurbi, A.; Fakhro, K.A. Reading between the (Genetic) Lines: How Epigenetics is Unlocking Novel Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes. Cells 2020, 9, 2403.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune cells destroy their insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells leading to dysregulated glycaemia. Individuals with T1D control their blood glucose through exogenous insulin replacement therapy, often using multiple daily injections or pumps. However, failure to accurately mimic intrinsic glucose regulation results in glucose fluctuations and long-term complications impacting key organs such as the heart, kidneys, and/or the eyes. It is well-established that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the initiation and progression of type 1 diabetes, but recent studies show that epigenetic modifications are also important. Here, we discuss key epigenetic modifications associated with type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and discuss how recent research is finding ways to harness epigenetic mechanisms to prevent, reverse, or manage type 1 diabetes.
chromatin; DNA methylation; epigenetics; histone modifications; metaboloepigenetics; miRNA; therapy; type 1 diabetes
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