Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

High Mobility Group Box 1 and Dickkopf-Related Protein 1 as New Biomarkers of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Increased Glucose Toxicity and Atherogenicity and Lower β Cell Function

Version 1 : Received: 2 June 2020 / Approved: 3 June 2020 / Online: 3 June 2020 (05:41:03 CEST)

How to cite: Al-Hakeim, H.K.; Al-Kaabi, Q.J.; Maes, M. High Mobility Group Box 1 and Dickkopf-Related Protein 1 as New Biomarkers of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Increased Glucose Toxicity and Atherogenicity and Lower β Cell Function. Preprints 2020, 2020060011 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0011.v1). Al-Hakeim, H.K.; Al-Kaabi, Q.J.; Maes, M. High Mobility Group Box 1 and Dickkopf-Related Protein 1 as New Biomarkers of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Increased Glucose Toxicity and Atherogenicity and Lower β Cell Function. Preprints 2020, 2020060011 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0011.v1).

Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased atherogenicity and inflammatory responses, which may be related to increased levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). Objective: The role of HMGB1 and DKK1 in T2DM is examined in association with lipid and insulin profiles. Methods: Serum HMGB1 and DKK1 were measured in T2DM with and without hypertension and compared with controls. Results: HMGB1 and DKK1 are significantly higher in T2DM irrespective of hypertension. T2DM was also accompanied by increased atherogenicity indices. HMGB1 and DKK1 are significantly correlated with HbA1c, glucose, indices of insulin resistance, β-cell function, and glucose toxicity, and different atherogenic indices. A large part of the variance in the β-cell index (30.5%) and glucose toxicity (34.8%) was explained by the combined effects of HMGB1 and DKK1 and hypertension. We found that 18.3% of the variance of the atherogenic index of plasma was explained by HMGB1 and DKK1 levels and that 31.2% was explained by glucose toxicity, HMGB1 and body weight. Conclusion: The higher serum HMGB1 and DKK1 levels in T2DM patients and the associations with atherogenicity indicate that low grade inflammation and disorders in the Wnt pathways are associated with T2DM and that both HMGB1 and DKK1 may contribute to increased atherogenicity in T2DM. Moreover, both biomarkers may cause more deficits in β-cell function and increase glucose toxicity leading to the development of more inflammation and diabetic complications. HMGB1 and the Wnt pathways are new drug targets in the treatment of T2DM.

Subject Areas

diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; inflammation; biomarkers; atherogenicity

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