ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0055.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: finite element method; smoothed particle method; fem-sph algorithm; large deformation; super high speed collision
Online: 14 October 2016 (11:05:45 CEST)
In this paper, we first discuss the research status and application progress of the finite element method and the smoothed particle method. By analyzing the advantages of the smoothed particle method and the finite element method, a new coupling algorithm, namely FEM-SPH algorithm, is proposed. By the method of comparison, it shows that finite element method and SPH method in the simulation of large deformation problems each have advantages and disadvantages, the finite element method smoothed particle coupling algorithm is effective to achieve the performance of high computational efficiency and can naturally simulate large deformation problems across. In the process of calculation, the large deformation unit can be freely into an algorithm to facilitate the calculation accuracy and efficiency of three methods of numerical simulation. Through the study found, FEM-SPH algorithm not only overcome the defect of smooth particle tensile instability, but also overcomes the problem of low efficiency of finite element computation. To further test the FEM-SPH algorithm has advantages in the practical engineering, we have carried out the actual test to the example of the super high speed collision, concluded that, since the target of most of the computational domain is always finite element, smoothed particle focused only in contact with the projectile and target of local area, particle number is not much, the whole calculation process just ten minutes, computational efficiency has been greatly improved, at the same time in the simulation of large deformation, the advantage is very obvious .This provides a criterion for the actual project, depending on the specific material deformation mode and choose a more appropriate conversion algorithm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0161.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: High Performance Computing (HPC); big data; High Performance Data Analytics (HPDS); con-vergence; data locality; spark; Hadoop; design patterns; process mapping; in-situ data analysis
Online: 9 November 2022 (01:38:34 CET)
Big data has revolutionised science and technology leading to the transformation of our societies. High Performance Computing (HPC) provides the necessary computational power for big data analysis using artificial intelligence and methods. Traditionally HPC and big data had focused on different problem domains and had grown into two different ecosystems. Efforts have been underway for the last few years on bringing the best of both paradigms into HPC and big converged architectures. Designing HPC and big data converged systems is a hard task requiring careful placement of data, analytics, and other computational tasks such that the desired performance is achieved with the least amount of resources. Energy efficiency has become the biggest hurdle in the realisation of HPC, big data, and converged systems capable of delivering exascale and beyond performance. Data locality is a key parameter of HPDA system design as moving even a byte costs heavily both in time and energy with an increase in the size of the system. Performance in terms of time and energy are the most important factors for users, particularly energy, due to it being the major hurdle in high performance system design and the increasing focus on green energy systems due to environmental sustainability. Data locality is a broad term that encapsulates different aspects including bringing computations to data, minimizing data movement by efficient exploitation of cache hierarchies, reducing intra- and inter-node communications, locality-aware process and thread mapping, and in-situ and in-transit data analysis. This paper provides an extensive review of the cutting-edge on data locality in HPC, big data, and converged systems. We review the literature on data locality in HPC, big data, and converged environments and discuss challenges, opportunities, and future directions. Subsequently, using the knowledge gained from this extensive review, we propose a system architecture for future HPC and big data converged systems. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such review on data locality in converged HPC and big data systems.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0271.v1
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:08 CEST)
UHPC is a type of cement-based composite used in new construction and/or rehabilitation of existing buildings to extend service life. It is a novel composite material that can serve as an alternative to concrete construction in hostile climates. Following decades of study and production, a diverse variety of commercial UHPC compositions are now available globally to meet the rising number of applicants and demand for high-quality building materials. Although UHPC offers major benefits over normal concrete, its utilization is restricted due to restrictive design rules and exorbitant costs. As a result, a thorough examination of the durability properties of UHPC is required to give important information for material testing requirements and processes, as well as to broaden its practical uses. This report is aimed at increasing basic understanding of UHPC and supporting more UHPC research and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1443.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: ultra-high performance concrete； tensile-stress sensing；electrical resistivity；fractional resistance change； carbonation temperature
Online: 22 November 2023 (16:48:06 CET)
Although Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) has good cementitious property, previous researchers have primarily aimed to improve the mechanical performance of conventional concrete or cement-based composites. Research is lacking on ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), especially regarding tensile self-sensing properties. This paper aimed to comprehensively evaluate the SCBA effect on the UHPC’s mechanical, electrical, and tensile self-sensing properties. The results showed that SCBA below the critical incorporation concentration (CIC) improved the UHPC’s mechanical properties compared to steel fibers alone. Furthermore, adding 3.0wt% SCBA remarkably enhanced the UHPC mechanical properties where the compressive, flexural, and tensile strengths increased by 13.1%, 17.4%, and 20.6%, respectively. The SCBA content of 0.3wt% achieved the maximum UHPC electrical resistivity since values smaller or greater than this content decreased the resistivity. The SCBA-enhanced UHPC showed better tensile stress-sensing performance than UHPC without SCBA due to improved linearity and reversibility, lower hysteresis, higher sensitivity, and superior repeatability. UHPC with 0.3wt% SCBA achieved the best linearity, while UHPC with 0.9wt% SCBA showed the highest sensitivity, lowest hysteresis, and best repeatability. Overall, the content of 0.9wt% SCBA is the best in improving the overall mechanical, electrical, and tensile self-sensing performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: satellite communication, antenna optimization, high gain antenna
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:59:04 CET)
Patch antennas are compact, less complex, planar structures and therefore, widely used in small satellite missions for telecommand, data link, and intersatellite link, particularly in S- band and X- band. Improved performance of these patch antennas in terms of gain and compactness will di-rectly affect the communication efficiency of small satellite missions. Especially the coming IoT (Internet of Things) constellations require high gain and efficient antenna arrays. An optimization of single patch antenna elements is an important cornerstone for the missions. Therefore, the ef-fects of various antenna enhancement techniques, such as slotted ground plane, resistor and ca-pacitor integration, parasitic patch elements, are analyzed. These techniques were applied on a rectangular patch antenna with parameter variation to identify the optimal performances with respect to bandwidth, operating frequency, gain, polarization, and power flow. Finally, the techniques were combined to obtain an optimized antenna in terms of gain and compactness. The results were compared to a slotted reference antenna. For the scenario of a 2.4 GHz patch antenna, a gain optimization of 27 % (from 7.09 to 8.14 dBi) or size reduction of 52 % (from 96.04 to 46.2 cm²) could be achieved. Overall, our study revealed an effective way to increase the patch antenna performance, which can directly contribute to more efficient communication links and design of antenna arrays.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete; Fresh properties
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:50:18 CEST)
UHPC is a cement-based composite that is used in new construction and/or renovation of existing structures to increase their service life. It is a unique composite material that may be used as an alternative to concrete in harsh conditions. Following decades of research and development, a wide range of commercial UHPC compositions are now accessible across the world to fulfill the growing number of applications and demand for high-quality construction materials. Although UHPC has significant advantages over conventional concrete, its use is limited because of rigid design restrictions and excessive pricing. As a consequence, a detailed analysis of UHPC's durability qualities is necessary to provide critical information for material testing requirements and methods, as well as to widen its practical applications. The goal of this study is to learn more about UHPC and to encourage more research and use of UHPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0042.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high volume fly ash, high fluidity concrete, early strength, field application
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:44:54 CET)
In the recent concrete industry, high fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high fluidity concrete that using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated that fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration and drying shrinkage of concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Meta-analysis; Effect size; Precision; Ultra-high strength concrete; Ultra-high strength fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 7 April 2020 (13:28:16 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis that shows the influence of fiber on ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high performance concrete. The internet scholarly search engines and ScienceDirect article references were used to illustrate the papers concerning the experimental investigations of mechanical properties of ultra-high strength concrete with and without fiber with clearly, completely and comparative raw data. The normal concrete test results were dismissed from this search. Seven trials were identified based on the adopted inclusion and exclusion criteria above. The meta-analysis based on standardized mean difference was carried out on the basis of a fixed-effects model for the major outcomes of the ultimate compressive and tensile properties of ultra-high performance concrete. A total of 888 test specimens were enrolled in these seven trials. The combined analysis yielded a sign of a significant improvement in ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high strength concrete with fiber addition of 2% by concrete volume. The summary effect size of ultimate compressive strength was 2.34 while a more improvement in term of tensile strength with effect size of 2.64. By addition fiber of 2% provides a significant benefit in mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs, data transmission, filters, high bandwidth, optical
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:49:59 CET)
Microcombs provide a potential compact and efficient light source for multi-Terabit-per-second optical superchannels. However, as the bandwidth of these multi-wavelength light sources is increased, this can result in low per-line power. Optical amplifiers can be used to overcome power limitations, but the accompanying spontaneous optical noise can degrade performance in optical systems. To overcome this issue, we propose wideband noise reduction for comb lines using a high-Q microring resonator, whose resonances align with comb lines. When applying the proposed distillation to a superchannel system with 18 Gbaud, 64-QAM sub-channels in a > 10 Tb/s optical superchannel, we find that noise-corrupted comb lines can reduce the optical signal-to-noise ratio required for the comb by ~ 9 dB when used as optical carriers at the transmitter side, and by ~ 12 dB when used as a local oscillator at the receiver side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land Cover; High-performance computing; Remote sensing; Workflow; Automation
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:50:07 CEST)
Large-scale land cover plays a crucial role in global resource monitoring and management, as well as research on sustainable development. However, the complexity of the mapping process, coupled with significant computational and data storage requirements, often leads to delays between data processing and product publication, creating challenges for dynamic monitoring of large-scale land cover. Therefore, improving the efficiency of each stage in large-scale land cover mapping and automating the mapping process is currently an urgent and critical issue that needs to be addressed. We propose a high-performance automated large-scale land cover mapping framework(HALF) that introduces high-performance computing technology to the field of land cover production. HALF optimizes key processes, such as automated sample point extraction, sample-remote sensing image matching, and large-scale classification result mosaic and update. We selected several 10°×10° regions globally and the research makes several significant contributions:(1)We design HALF for land cover mapping based on docker and CWL-Airflow, which solves the heterogeneity of models between complex processes in land cover mapping and simplifies the model deployment process. By introducing workflow organization, this method achieves a high degree of decoupling between the production models of each stage and the overall process, enhancing the scalability of the framework. (2)HALF propose an automatic sample points method that generates a large number of samples by overlaying and analyzing multiple prior products, thus saving the cost of manual sample selection. Using high-performance computing technology improved the computational efficiency of sample-image matching and feature extraction phase, with 10 times faster than traditional matching methods.(3)HALF propose a high-performance classification result mosaic method based on the idea of grid division. By quickly establishing the spatial relationship between the image and the product and performing parallel computing, the efficiency of the mosaicking in large areas is significantly improved. The average processing time for a single image is around 6.5 seconds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hypertension; blood pressure; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; extremely high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; body mass index; big data
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:53:04 CEST)
Background Although high-density lipoprotein has cardioprotective effects, the association between serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and hypertension is poorly understood. Objective We investigated whether low and high concentrations of HDL-C are associated with hypertension using a large healthcare dataset. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,493,152 Japanese people aged 40–74 years who underwent a health checkup, blood pressures and clinical parameters, including nine HDL-C concentrations (20–110 mg/dL or over) were investigated. Results A crude U-shaped relationship was observed between the nine HDL-C concentrations and blood pressure in males (n = 830,669), while a left-to-right inverted J-shaped relationship was observed in females(n = 662,483). An age-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed J-shaped relationships (left-to-right inversion in females) between HDL-C and odds ratios for hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg), with lower limits of 60–79 mg/dL in males and 90–99 mg/dL in females, which were unchanged after adjusting for smoking, habitual exercise, alcohol consumption, and pharmacotherapy for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. However, further adjustment for body mass index and serum triglyceride concentration revealed latent positive linear associations between HDL-C and hypertension, although the association between extremely high HDL-C (≥100 mg/dL) and hypertension was attenuated in non-alcohol drinkers. Conclusion Both low and extremely high HDL-C concentrations are associated with hypertension. The former association may be dependent on excess fat mass, which is often concomitant with low HDL-C, whereas the latter association may be dependent on frequent alcohol consumption.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1112.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: GPA; high school; academic potential; predictive property; weighted GPA;
Online: 17 July 2023 (11:39:06 CEST)
The GPA is a universally recognised and utilised metric of academic performance that is considered to also measure a student’s potential for academic performance in the future. In this short communication we examine to what extent the GPA of the first grade of high school predicts performance in the later grades of high school, either generally (as classified in excellent student, strong student, weak student or very weak student) or more accurately (as indicated by the exact GPA in the next grade). We also put to the test the widely held notion that it might be best if core courses such as language and mathematics contributed more to the calculation of the GPA compared to secondary courses such as physical education or music. Our findings confirm the predictive properties of the GPA but strongly rebut the notion that a weighted GPA might achieve a better reflection of students’ potential. The study is based on the academic records of every student in Greece that progressed from first to third grade of high school in the 2016-2019 period. This data set contains records of more than 85,000 students, making it one of the most extensive studies ever conducted on the topic of the properties of the GPA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: performance-based building design; PBBD; high-rise residential.
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:46:46 CEST)
The complexity of the design in high-rise residential projects is a challenge for the construction industry in completing projects that fit the needs of users. Performance-Based Building Design (PBBD) appears as a design concept that can describe these needs into performance requirements. In this case designing a building can be considered as an iterative process of exploration, where desired functional properties can be created, the shapes are suggested, and evaluation processes is used, so as to bring together the shapes and functions of the building. This concept is a container for designers to produce high-performance buildings. This study aimed to identify the performance-based building design factors applied by architect designers and engineers in high-rise residential building in Surabaya. As part of this study, primary data was collected based on surveys conducted through observation and questionnaire distributed to designers who had or were involved in the high-rise residential design process in Surabaya. A total of sixty-eight respondents were included in this study. Descriptive analysis through a mean and standard deviation scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used in the analysis of PBBD application factors. From the results of the analysis, four factors were obtained for the application of PBBD in high-rise residential buildings in Surabaya, namely; the interests of occupants, the sustainability of building operations, the design collaboration process, and the risk of loss. Future research is the influence relationships and measure the success model of PBBD at a higher level into BIM (Building Information Modeling) interoperability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0550.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: microcombs; data transmission; filters; high bandwidth; optical
Online: 24 February 2021 (12:59:47 CET)
We report world record high data transmission over standard optical fiber from a single optical source. We achieve a line rate of 44.2 Terabits per second (Tb/s) employing only the C-band at 1550nm, resulting in a spectral efficiency of 10.4 bits/s/Hz. We use a new and powerful class of micro-comb called soliton crystals that exhibit robust operation and stable generation as well as a high intrinsic efficiency that, together with an extremely low spacing of 48.9 GHz enables a very high coherent data modulation format of 64 QAM. We achieve error free transmission across 75 km of standard optical fiber in the lab and over a field trial with a metropolitan optical fiber network. This work demonstrates the ability of optical micro-combs to exceed other approaches in performance for the most demanding practical optical communications applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0193.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Ultra-high performance concrete; Steel slag powder; Alkali activated materials; Curing condition; microstructure
Online: 11 April 2023 (04:59:19 CEST)
The accumulation of steel slag and other industrial solid wastes has caused serious environmental pollution and resource waste. The resource utilization of steel slag is imminent. In this paper, alkali activated materials ultra-high performance concrete (AAM-UHPC) was prepared by replacing GGBFS powder with different proportions of steel slag powder, and its workability, mechanical properties, curing condition, microstructure, and pore structure were investigated. The results illustrate that the incorporation of steel slag powder can significantly delay the setting time and improve the flowability of AAM-UHPC, making it possible for engineering applications. The mechanical properties of AAM-UHPC showed a tendency to increase and then decrease with the increase of steel slag dosing, and reached the best performance at 30% dosage of steel slag. The maximum compressive strength and flexural strength are 157.1 MPa and 16.32 MPa, respectively. High temperature steam or hot water curing at early age was beneficial to the strength development of AAM-UHPC, but continuous high temperature hot and humid curing would lead to strength inversion. When the dosage of steel slag is 30%, the average pore diameter of the matrix is only 8.43nm, and the appropriate steel slag dosage can reduce the heat of hydration and refine the pore size distribution, making the matrix more dense.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0162.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: High-spatial-resolution images; Geology; Deep learning; Remote sensing
Online: 7 November 2018 (13:17:40 CET)
Geologists employ high-spatial-resolution (HR) remote sensing (RS) data for many diverse applications as they effectively reflect detailed geological information, enabling high-quality and efficient geological surveys. Applications of HR RS data to geological and related fields have grown recently. By analyzing these applications, we can better understand the results of previous studies and more effectively use the latest data and methods to efficiently extract key geological information. HR optical remote sensing data are widely used in geological hazard assessment, seismic monitoring, mineral exploitation, glacier monitoring, and mineral information extraction due to high accuracy and clear object features. Compared with optical satellite images, synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images are stereoscopic and exhibit clear relief, strong performance, and good detection of terrain, landforms, and other information. SAR images have been applied to seismic mechanism research, volcanic monitoring, topographic deformation, and fault analysis. Furthermore, a multi-standard maturity analysis of the geological applications of HR images using literature from the Science Citation Index reveals that optical remote sensing data are superior to radar data for mining, geological disaster, lithologic, and volcanic applications, but inferior for earthquake, glacial, and fault applications. Therefore, geological remote sensing research needs to be truly multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary, ensuring more detailed and efficient surveys through cross-linking with other disciplines. Moreover, the recent application of deep learning technology to remote sensing data extraction has improved automatic processing and data analysis capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ultra high performance concrete (UHPC); concrete; compression strength; durability; nano additions; additions.
Online: 30 September 2021 (15:23:02 CEST)
This paper seeks to optimize the mechanical and durability properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). To meet this objective, concrete specimens were manufactured by using 1,100 kg/m3 of binder, water/binder ratio 0.20, silica sand and last generation of superplasticizer. Silica fume, metakaolin and two types of nano silica were used for improving the performances of the concrete. Additional mixtures included 13mm long OL steel fibers. Compressive strength, electrical resistivity, mercury intrusion porosimetry tests and differential and thermogravimetric thermal analysis were carried out. The binary combination of nano silica and metakaolin, and the ternary combination of nano silica with metakaolin and silica fume, led to the best performances of the UHPC, both mechanical and durable performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0269.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: forecasting methods; statistical learning; high-frequency order book
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:24:12 CET)
This paper proposes a forecast-centric adaptive learning model that engages with the past studies on the order book and high-frequency data, with applications to hypothesis testing. In line with the past literature, we produce brackets of summaries of statistics from the high-frequency bid and ask data in the CSI 300 Index Futures market and aim to forecast the one-step-ahead prices. Traditional time series issues, e.g. ARIMA order selection, stationarity, together with potential financial applications are covered in the exploratory data analysis, which pave paths to the adaptive learning model. By designing and running the learning model, we found it to perform well compared to the top fixed models, and some could improve the forecasting accuracy by being more stable and resilient to non-stationarity. Applications to hypothesis testing are shown with a rolling window, and further potential applications to finance and statistics are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1486.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Polycarboxylate-ether superplasticizer (PCE); Rheology; Molecular architecture; High performance concrete; Carboxylic groups
Online: 22 August 2023 (12:15:00 CEST)
The incorporation of polycarboxylate ether superplasticizer (PCE) type polymer and silica fume (SF) in high-performance concretes (HPC) leads to the achievement of remarkable rheological and mechanical improvements. In the fresh state, PCEs are adsorbed on cement particles and dispersants, in turn promoting the workability of the concrete. Silica fume enables a very well compacted concrete to be obtained, which is characterized by high mechanical parameters in its hardened state. Some PCEs are incompatible with silica fume, which can result in the loss of slump and in poor rheological behavior. The main objective of the research is the study of the influence of three types of PCEs, which all have a different molecular architecture, on the rheological and mechanical behavior of high-performance concretes containing 10% of SF as a partial replacement of cement. The results show that the carboxylic density of PCE has an influence on its compatibility with SF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1861.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: grain yield; biomass; N application rate; high-quality rice
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:23:37 CEST)
High-quality rice (Oryza sativa L.) is increasingly widely planted in China with the improvement of people's living standards and the achievement of rice breeding efforts in recent years. However, the agronomic and physiological performances of high-quality indica rice (HQIR) under different nitrogen(N) application conditions in southern China are little known. Two-year consecutive field experiments were conducted with two HQIR and two ordinary-quality indica rice (OQIR) varieties under moderate and high N application rates, with yield and yield components, biomass, N up-take, and their related traits investigated. We found that grain yields of HQIR were slightly de-creased, but grain yields of OQIR were significantly increased by 6.60%-8.88% under high N rate compared with moderate N rate in both years. Thereby, OQIR produced 8.34%-11.87% and 22.00%-22.50% higher grain yield than HQIR under moderate and high N rates, respectively. The different responses of grain yield to N application rates were mainly due to decreased grain set-ting rate in HQIR and increased spikelets m-2 in OQIR under high N rate. Furthermore, high N rate significantly reduced pre-anthesis AE and improved grain-leaf area ratio, while did not in-crease post-anthesis DM compared with moderate N rate in HQIR, which might result in carbon metabolic deterioration and imbalance of source-sink relationship and subsequently lower supply of carbohydrate to panicle. Our results suggest that a moderate N rate (165 kg N ha-1) is beneficial for HQIR varieties to balance the maximum grain yield and high quality in southern China
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: High temperature tunnel; Red mud; Grouting materials; Thermal insulation performance; Viscosity
Online: 6 November 2023 (08:09:21 CET)
Grouting materials with good insulation and reinforcement performance are key factors in solving the temperature control problem of high temperature tunnels using curtain grouting, while existing grouting materials cannot balance their working performance and insulation performance in high-temperature environments. In response to the above issues, this article uses red mud to prepare high ground temperature red mud based grouting materials (RMGS), and conducts tests on the working performance (viscosity, setting time, compressive strength) and insulation performance (thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity) of grouting materials at different temperatures (20, 40, 60, and 80 ℃), and analyzes the variation patterns and micro mechanisms of various characteristics with temperature. The results indicate that an increase in temperature will accelerate the viscosity development and condensation of the grouting material, and lead to a decrease in thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity. In addition, an appropriate temperature can also improve the compressive strength of the material. The increase in temperature will accelerate the hydration reaction rate of the grouting material and the development of internal pores, which is the reason why temperature affects the performance of the grouting material. In engineering applications, cement slurry is suitable for static water grouting, cement-sodium silicate slurry is suitable for dynamic water grouting, and RMGS is suitable for high-temperature tunnel grouting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0065.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: energy systems; resilience; vulnerability; high-performance computing; IMDG; scientific workflows
Online: 2 November 2023 (00:23:09 CET)
Implementing High-Performance Computing to solve In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG)-based energy infrastructure resilience research problems in a heterogeneous environment presents a challenge to workflow management systems. Large-scale energy infrastructure needs multi-variant planning and tools to allocate and dispatch resources in IMDG taking into account the subject domain specificity, resource characteristics, and constraints and quotas for resource use. To that end, we propose a workflow management system using our Orlando Tools framework. To scale computing resources, we provide their integration and use corresponding software to determine key application parameters that can significantly impact the processed data size and the required number of allocated resources. We automated the IMDG cluster launch for the workflow executions. To demonstrate the advantage of our solution, we apply it to evaluate the resilience of the existing energy infrastructure model. Compared to similar approaches, our approach explores large infrastructures by modeling many simultaneously failed elements of different types up to the number of network elements. In terms of problem-solving efficiency and resource use, we achieve near-linear speedup with increasing the number of nodes of each resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1895.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Polycaprolactone; Cellulose Nanocrystal; Optimum Mixing Ratio; High-Performance Cement Composite; Filler effect; Hydration product
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:35:58 CEST)
This experimental study examined the application effect of polycaprolactone (PCL), an organic resin material with excellent elasticity and ductility, on improving the mechanical performance of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) cement composites. To analyze the effect, a test specimen containing CNC and PCL mixed, containing only CNC, and a control (plain) specimen containing nothing were compared. PCL was compared according to its shape, and in the case of Granules, which is the basic shape, interfacial adhesion with cement was not achieved, so a DCM solution was used to dissolve and use the Granules form. As a method for bonding PCL to the CNC surface, the CNC surface was modified using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and surface silylation was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) analysis. To evaluate the dispersibility according to the application of PCL to the modified CNC, particle size analysis (PSA) and zeta potential analysis were performed according to the PCL mixing amount (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 vol.% compared with those of CNC) and size distribution. Through the zeta potential value, the highest dispersion stability was shown at 1 vol.%. The cohesive force of CNC was low and the dispersion stability was high according to the application of PCL. According to the results of the dispersion stability evaluation, the degree of hydration of the dissolved PCL 1 vol.%, CNC-only specimens, and plain specimens were analyzed. Hydration products increased by increasing the degree of hydration in the unhydrated area. However, the incorporation of PCL showed a low degree of hydration, and the analysis of strength characteristics also showed a decrease of approximately 27% compared with that of plain specimens. This was because the bonding with SiO2 was not smooth owing to the solvent, thus affecting internal hydration. To investigate the effect of the PCL shape, the compressive and flexural strength characteristics were compared using PCL powder as an additional parameter. The compressive and flexural strength values were improved by approximately 54% and 26%, respectively, compared with those of the plain specimen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis determined that the filler effect that made the micropore structure denser, affected the mechanical performance improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2118.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Diels-Alder reaction; furan-maleimide resin; thermally reversible cross-linking resins; high performance resin
Online: 30 June 2023 (02:37:09 CEST)
Two reversible furan-maleimide resins, in which there are rigid -Ph-CH2-Ph- structure and flexible -(CH2)6- structures in bismaleimides, were synthesized from furfuryl glycidyl ethers (FGE), 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA), N,N'-4,4'-diphenylmethane-bismaleimide (DBMI) and N,N'-hexamethylene-bismaleimide (HBMI). The structures of the resins were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis, and the thermoreversibility was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis as well as sol-gel transformation process. Mechanical properties and recyclability of the resins were preliminarily evaluated by the flexural test. The results show the Diels-Alder (DA) reaction occurs at about 90°C and reversible DA reaction does at 130-140°C for the furan-maleimide resin. Thermally reversible furan-maleimide resins have high mechanical properties. The flexural strength of cured FGE-ODA-HBMI resin arrives at 141 MPa. The resins have a repair efficiency of over 75%. After being hot-pressed for three times, two resins display higher flexural strength than 80 MPa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0336.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Particle packing; packaging models; packaging density; concrete; addition; nano addition; ultra-high-performance concrete
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:44:45 CET)
This paper describes the packaging models that are fundamental for the design of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC), and their evolution. They are divided into two large groups: continuous and discrete models. The latter are those that provide the best answer in obtaining an adequate simulation of the packing of the particles up to nanometric size. This includes the interaction among the particles by means of loosening and wall coefficients, allowing a simulation of the virtual and real compactness of such particles. In addition, a relationship between virtual and real compactness is obtained, through the compaction index, which may simulate the energy of compaction that the particles undergo in their placement in the mold. The use of last-generation additives allows such models to be implemented with water-cement (w/c) ratios close to 0.18. However, the premise of maximum packing as a basic pillar for the production of UHPC should not be the only one. The cement hydration process affected by nanoadditions and the ensuing effectiveness in the properties in both fresh and hardened state according to the respective percentages in the mixture should also be studied. An adequate ratio and proportion of these additions may lead to an obtaining of better results even with lower levels of compactness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0182.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: strategic flexibility; technology configuration capabilities; organizational performance; complex-dynamic environment, Chinese high-tech organizations
Online: 21 March 2018 (03:55:52 CET)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating effect of technology configuration capability on the relationship between strategic flexibility and organizational performance through different stages of technological life cycle. Through the empirical research on the 439 Chinese high-tech organizations, it shows that a technological configuration capability has enhanced the effect of strategic flexibility to the organizational performance in the complex dynamic environment. However, the impact on the different stages of technological life cycle is different. In addition, this paper explored strategic flexibility on different stages of technological life cycle on the basis of empirical study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0926.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), SAR micro-motion (m-m), High-voltage power transmission monitoring, electric cables, electric towers, vibrations, high-power voltage monitoring.
Online: 11 August 2023 (12:05:59 CEST)
Today electricity is distributed to the individual users via physical Copper connections. From the power stations, the energy is transported through transmission lines where the electricity, sinusoidally modulated at a fixed frequency of about 50 Hz, is raised up to a voltage in a range approximately variating between 30, and 110 kV. When electrons, aligned at this voltage, pass through the transmission lines, they cause coherent vibrations, sometimes even audible in the acoustic frequencies. In the spectrum of movements to which electric cables are subjected, there are also unexpected and sporadic movements caused by winds and rain. The problem of carrying out persistent, precise and spatially distributed monitoring of transmission line health is to use a large number of sensors physically distributed everywhere and somehow transmit the results to a control station. The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data could be a viable solution of persistent and wide-area high-voltage vibration monitoring. In this paper we produce a comprehensive survey on how to monitor both movements in terms of vibrational displacement, due to weathering, and those due to electricity transmission, normally fixed at about 50 Hz. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of an operational use of SAR for these purposes in the very short term. This would allow the possibility of monitoring malfunctions such as black-outs or other frequency anomalies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0697.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: high power semiconductor laser; Constant Current Driving; LCC-type resonant-circuit; Low Ripple; Laser Drive Power Circuit
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:36:10 CET)
Abstract: High power semiconductor laser is a kind of photoelectric device with high efficiency and high stability, the performance of its drive system directly affects its output characteristics and service life. In order to solve the problems of stability and robustness of the output power of semiconductor laser, a semiconductor laser driving power supply with high efficiency, low ripple and strong anti-interference ability was developed. The power supply adopts full-bridge LCC resonant power topology. Firstly, a mathematical model is established to analyze the relationship between LCC resonator parameters and output current gain. Secondly, a LCC resonator parameter design method is proposed to reduce the current stress of components, and the variable frequency phase shift (PFM-PWM) composite control strategy and linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) algorithm are proposed, which not only ensures the zero voltage (ZVS) conduction of MOS tube, but also reduces the on-off loss of MOS tube. Improved power efficiency and suppressed output current ripple; At the same time, the instability of the output current is ensured due to the input voltage, load and parasitic parameter change of the circuit. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that the power supply can be continuously adjustable in the output current range of 0-40A, the current ripple is less than 0.8%, and the working efficiency is up to 92%. It has the characteristics of high stability, small ripple, high efficiency, low cost and good robustness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; cetane improver; ethanol; high content of oxygen; ignition quality; waste plastic pyrolysis oil
Online: 7 June 2018 (08:32:07 CEST)
Alternative fuels available at low cost, friendly to natural environments and meet the energy needs and demands, have witnessed a growing demand and use today. Ethanol is an attractive renewable energy source with a high content of oxygen. Ethanol can be produced through ethanolisis, however for this work direct blending of conventional diesel, waste plastic pyrolysis oil and ethanol with commercial fuel improver CI-0808 purchased from Innospec company was attempted. The primary purpose of adding a cetane improver was to improve the combustion characteristics of the blends by at least 1- 3 ignition quality points. Five mixing ratios were chosen in the following order, 50:25:25, 60: 20:20, 70: 15:15, 80: 10:10 and 90: 5:5 for Waste Plastic Pyrolysis Oil (WPPO), ethanol and conventional diesel (CD) respectively. However, for the fuel additive mixing ratio the total volume percentage was considered and the ratio put at 0.01% of the total quantity of blended fuel. In this work WPPO, diesel blends and fuel additives improvers were used as alternative fuel. This was to evaluate their performance and emission characteristics in a stationary single cylinder water cooled experimental diesel engine. The CI-0808 was added due to its potential power to reduce emissions of CO, UHC, NOX, PM and improved engine performance. The results obtained were compared carefully to ASTM standards and discussed using graph curves figures and tabulated values. The conclusion was that ethanol and WPPO blends can be used in diesel engines as alternative fuel without modification. Used in combination with cetane improvers the emissions reduce significantly and performance improved equalling that of conventional diesel fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Displacement measurement; High performance computing; Radar interferometry; Synthetic aperture radar
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:57:56 CEST)
Sentinel-1 satellite system continuously observes European countries in a relatively high revisit frequency of 6 days per orbital track. Given the Sentinel-1 configuration, most areas in Czechia are observed every 1–2 days by different tracks in a moderate resolution. This is attractive for various types of analyses by various research groups. The starting point for processing is an original data provided by ESA, for interferometry (InSAR) this level is a Single Look Complex (SLC) data. This work represents advantages of storing data augmented to a specifically corrected level of data, SLC-C. The presented database contains Czech nation-wide Sentinel-1 data stored in burst units that have been preprocessed to the state of a consistent well-coregistered dataset of SLC-C. These are resampled SLC data with their phase values reduced by a topographic phase signature, ready for fast interferometric analyses (an interferogram is generated by a complex conjugate between two stored SLC-C files). The data can be used directly into multitemporal interferometry techniques, e.g. Persistent Scatterers (PS) or Small Baseline (SB) techniques applied here. A further development of the nation-wide system utilising SLC-C data would lead into a dynamic state where every new pre-processed burst triggers a processing update to detect unexpected changes from InSAR time series and therefore provide a signal for early warning against a potential dangerous displacement, e.g. a landslide, instability of an engineering structure or a formation of a sinkhole. An update of the processing chain would also allow use of cross-polarised Sentinel-1 data, needed for polarimetric analyses. The current system is running at a national supercomputing centre IT4Innovations in interconnection to the Czech Copernicus Collaborative Ground Segment (CESNET), providing fast on-demand InSAR results over Czech territories. A full nation-wide PS processing using data over Czechia has been performed in 2017, discovering several areas of land deformation. Its downsampled version and basic findings are demonstrated within the article.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1773.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: HALEU; High-Assay LEU; Advanced Reactors; Validation; DOE; NRC
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:45:44 CEST)
Many advanced reactor concept designs rely on high-assay low-enriched uranium (HALEU) fuel, enriched up to approximately 19.75% 235U by weight. Efforts are underway by the US government to increase HALEU production in the United States to meet anticipated needs. However, very little data exists for validation of computational models that include HALEU, beyond a few fresh fuel benchmark specifications in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project. Nevertheless, there is other data with potential value available for developing into quality benchmarks for use in data and software validation efforts. This paper reviews the available evaluated HALEU fuel benchmarks and some of the potentially relevant benchmarks for fresh highly enriched uranium. It then introduces experimental data for HALEU fuel irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory, from relatively recent irradiation programs at the Advanced Test Reactor. Such data should be evaluated and, if valuable, collected into detailed benchmark specifications to meet the needs of HALEU-based reactor designers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0592.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: data transmission; data stream; input output buffers; telecommunication devices; data packets; blocks of memory; switching matrix; high priority packets; bitstaffing
Online: 30 September 2018 (04:04:41 CEST)
In computer networks, loss of data packets is inevitable, in particular, because of the buffer memory overflow of at least one of the nodes located on the path from the source to the receiver, including the latter. Such losses associated with overflows are hereinafter referred to as congestion of network nodes. There are many ways to prevent and eliminate overloads; these methods, in the majority, are based on the management of data flows. A special place is taken by the maintenance of packages, taking into account their priorities. The article considers a number of original technical solutions to improve the quality of control and reduce the required amount of buffer memory of network nodes. The ideas of these solutions are quite simple for their implementation in the development of appropriate software and hardware for telecommunication devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: High-efficient irrigation-system; hydraulic ram pump; water use efficiency; economic viability; solar pump
Online: 29 June 2023 (12:44:28 CEST)
Glacial meltwater has been lifeline of agriculture in Gilgit-Baltistan for centuries which is being effected by the climatic changes and associated challenges. The government line institutions and development agencies have been investing to sustain and further extend the cultivated areas by leveraging the available glacial meltwater source. However, approximately 13% arable land, laying mainly along river banks, has limited access to glacial meltwater. Moreover, already cultivated areas also need alternate and sustainable irrigation water supplies to insurefood security. Hence, there is need to explore more potential options to address these challenges and bringing arable land under irrigation for regional prosperity and environmental gains. The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and its partners piloted solutions for aforementioned issues in Gojal, District Hunza. These solutions included river water lifting through solar and Hydraulic Ram Pumps, uphill water storages and application through drip irrigation systems. In order to assess the technical and economical viabilities of these piloted systems, a semi-structured questionnaire survey, field observation visits to collect data and economic assessment studies were carried out in Morkhun and Khyber. Both piloted systems have been proven as climate resilient, adaptable, environment friendly and economically viable. The cost to benefit ratio for solar powered drip irrigation and Hydraulic Ram Pump drip irrigation systems are 2.96 and 4.21 respectively, with payback period of 9.21 and 8.25 years respectively. The drip irrigation systems at Khyber and Morkhun sites have exhibited excellent hydraulic performance with Coefficient of Uniformity 92.61 and 93 % respectively. However, the field application efficiency of drip irrigation systems estimated for Khyber and Morkhun sites are 85.24 and 88.88% which are lower than the optimal value mainly due to lesser water holding capacity. The Hydraulic Ram Pump can lift four times more water to greater height, while comparing to solar pump of approximately similar capacity and higher capital costs. Both water lifting systems have some limitations and requires local customization for sustainable use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0068.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Feature engineering; vibration; high performance computing (HPC); dataset; prognostics and availability management (P&AM)
Online: 3 September 2021 (14:21:24 CEST)
The Industrial Internet of things (IIoT) enabled smart system has entered into a golden era of rapid technology growth. IIoT is a concept to make every system interrelated such that they are able to collect and transfer data over a wireless network without human intervention. In this paper, we discuss the development of an IoT enabled system to monitor the vibration signature of equipment as part of prognosis and availability management system (P&AM) that serves to prevent unplanned operation downtime and catastrophic failure of a whole system. In order to simply the complexity of processing video content and performing inference, the Intel OpenVINO platform was selected because of it’s simplicity, portability across Intel AI processors, performance and comprehensiveness of it’s analytical and diagnostics capabilities that can be tested in Intel’s DevCloud. The IIoT system consists of a High Performance Computing (HPC) platform based on Intel’s Xeon processors and Movidius AI accelerator, Intel’s OpenVINO toolkit for AI, a Regul high performance programmable controller capturing vibration data through sensors and a low-latency network connection. Notifications of anomalies are sent to a smartphone. This paper reveals an approach for the features extraction and selection, known as feature engineering, of the equipment component we want to protect. Feature engineering is the first step for the P&AM of these components and extends to the whole system. The broader aim of this paper is to help technical leaders at the exploring or experimenting stages of their AI framework to learn the concepts of implementing algorithms using datasets that have real value to their companies. Datasets generated and referred to in this paper were generated by simulation under various material failure scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC); mechanical properties; extrusion; 3D concrete printing (3DCP)
Online: 29 November 2019 (10:45:46 CET)
This paper presents the systematic development and performance characterization of a non-proprietary 3D-printable ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) for digital construction. Several fresh and hardened properties of the developed 3D-printable UHPFRC matrix (without fiber) and composite (with 2% volume fraction of steel fibers) were evaluated and compared to that of conventionally mold-cast UHPFRC. Additionally, the effects of testing direction on the compressive and flexural strengths of the printed UHPFRC were investigated. The fresh properties of the UHPFRC developed in this study satisfied the criteria for extrudability, buildability, and shape-retention-ability, which are relevant for ensuring printability. The printed UHPFRC exhibited superior flexural performance to the mold-cast UHPFRC due to alignment of the short fibers in the printing direction. The high compressive and flexural strengths, along with the deflection-hardening behavior, of the developed UHPFRC can enable the production of thin 3D-printed components with significant reduction or complete elimination of conventional steel bars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0544.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Maternal high-fat diet; multiomics; sexual dimorphism; hippocampus
Online: 9 October 2023 (13:18:25 CEST)
Early-life exposure to high-fat diet (HF) can program metabolic and cognitive alterations in adult offspring. Although the hippocampus plays a crucial role in memory and metabolic homeostasis, few studies reported the impact of maternal HF on this structure. We assessed the effects of maternal HF during lactation on physiological, metabolic and cognitive parameters in young adult offspring mice. To identify early-programming mechanisms in hippocampus, we developed a multi-omics strategy in male and female offspring. Maternal HF induced a transient increased body weight at weaning, a mild glucose intolerance only in 3-month-old male mice with no change in plasma metabolic parameters in adult male and female offspring. Behavioral alterations revealed by Barnes maze test were observed both in 6-month-old male and female mice. Multi-omics strategy unveiled sex-specific transcriptomic and proteomic modifications in the hippocampus of adult offspring. These studies that were confirmed by regulon analysis, showing that, although genes whose expression was modified by maternal HF were different between sexes, the main pathways affected were similar with mitochondria and synapses as main hippocampal targets of maternal HF. The effects of maternal HF reported here may help to better characterize sex-dependent molecular pathways involved in cognitive disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Feature extraction; Prognostics; Self-attention transfer network; High-dimensional data
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:21:32 CEST)
Machinery degradation assessment can offer meaningful prognosis and health management in-formation. Although numerous machine prediction models based on artificial intelligence have emerged in recent years, they still face a series of challenges: (1) Many models continue to rely on manual feature extraction. (2) Deep learning models still struggle with long sequence prediction tasks. (3) Health indicators are inefficient for remaining useful life (RUL) prediction with cross-operational environments when dealing with high-dimensional datasets as inputs. This research proposes a health indicator construction methodology based on a transformer self-attention transfer network (TSTN). This methodology can directly deal with the high-dimensional raw dataset and keep all the information without missing when the signals are taken as the input of the diagnosis and prognosis model. First, we design an encoder with a long-term and short-term self-attention mechanism to capture crucial time-varying information from a high-dimensional dataset. Second, we propose an estimator that can map the embedding from the encoder output to the estimated degradation trends. Then, we present a domain dis-criminator to extract invariant features from different machine operating conditions. The case studies with the FEMTO-ST bearing dataset and the Monte Carlo method for RUL prediction during the degradation process are conducted. The experiment results fully exhibited the signif-icant advantages of the proposed method compared to other state-of-the-art techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0062.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Underground space, information detection, fractional differentiation, high accuracy remote data
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:37:27 CET)
The quality of underground space information has become a major problem that endangers the safety of underground spaces. Currently, the main methods for the high-precision and long-distance transmission of detection information are radar and optical methods. However, in practical applications, we found that the radar method has the shortcomings of large energy loss and poor anti-jamming ability, which limit the accuracy of information data transmission and distance. The optical method has the shortcomings that the weather has a great impact on its accuracy and can only be applied to static objects above ground; therefore, it has the limitation of application objects and use environment. More importantly, the current high-precision information remote detection methods are limited to the detection of overground space objects and are not applicable to the detection of various information data in underground space. In this study, we analyze the spectral properties of the fractional differential operator and find that it is suitable for studying non-linear, non-causal, and non-stationary signals. The theory of fractional calculus is applied to the field of data processing, and a mathematical model of remote transmission and high-precision detection of information based on fractional difference is established, which realizes the functions of high-precision and remote detection of information. By fusing the information data to detect the mathematical model over a long distance and with high accuracy, a mathematical model for stratum data processing used to provide long-distance and high-accuracy data was established. Through application in engineering practice, the effectiveness of this method for underground space information data detection was verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: broadband; circular polarization; CubeSat; dual band; high-gain antenna; polarizer; reflectarray; satellite communications
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:18:48 CEST)
This paper presents two designs of high-efficiency polarizer reflectarray antennas able to generate a collimated beam in dual-circular polarization using a linearly polarized feed, with application to high-gain antennas for data transmission links from a Cubesat. First, an 18 cm x 18 cm polarizer reflectarray operating in the 17.2 - 22.7 GHz band has been designed, fabricated and tested. The measurements of the prototype show an aperture efficiency of 52.7% for right-handed circular polarization (RHCP) and 57.3% for left-handed circular polarization (LHCP), both values higher than those previously reported in related works. Then, a dual-band polarizer reflectarray is presented for the first time, which operates in dual-CP in the frequency bands of 20 and 30 GHz. The proposed antenna technology enables a reduction of the complexity and cost of the feed chain to operate in dual-CP, as a linear-to-circular polarizer is no longer required. This property, combined with the lightweight, flat profile and low fabrication cost of printed reflectarrays, makes the proposed antennas good candidates for Cubesat applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: auto-encoder; high sparse binary data; feature extraction; SNV integration
Online: 10 August 2022 (10:27:32 CEST)
Genomics involving tens of thousands of genes is a complex system determining phenotype. An interesting and vital issue is that how to integrate highly sparse genetic genomics data with a mass of minor effects into prediction model for improving prediction power. We find that deep learning method can work well to extract features by transforming highly sparse dichotomous data to lower dimensional continuous data in a non-linear way. This idea may provide benefits in risk prediction based on genome-wide data associated e.g. integrating most of the information in the genotype data. Hence, we developed a multi-stage strategy to extract information from highly sparse binary genotype data and applied it for risk prediction. Specifically, we first reduced the number of biomarkers via a univariable regression model to a moderate size. Then a trainable auto-encoder was used to extract compact representations from the reduced data. Next, we performed a LASSO problem process over a grid of tuning parameter values to select the optimal combination of extracted features. Finally, we applied such feature combination to two prognostic models, and evaluated predictive effect of the models. The results of simulation studies and real data applying indicated that these highly compressed transformation features could better improve predictive performance and did not easily lead to over-fitting.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Discrete element method, simulation, multibody dynamics, particle replacement, high-pressure grinding rolls.
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:36:08 CEST)
It has been known that the performance of the High-Pressure Grinding Rolls (HPGR) varies as a function of method used to confine laterally the rolls, their diameter/length (aspect) ratio as well as their condition, if new or worn. However, quantifying these effects through direct experimentation in machines with reasonably large dimensions is not straightforward given the challenge, among others, of guaranteeing that the feed material remains unchanged. The present work couples the discrete element method (DEM) to multibody dynamics (MBD) and a novel particle replacement model (PRM) to simulate the performance of pilot-scale HPGRs grinding pellet feed. It shows that rotating side plates, in particular when fitted with studs, allow reaching more uniform forces along the bed, which also translates in a more constant product size along the rolls as well as higher throughput. It also shows that the edge effect is relatively constant with roll length, leading to substantially larger proportional edge regions for high-aspect ratio rolls. On the other hand, the product from the center region of such rolls was found to be finer when pressed at identical specific forces. Finally, rolls were found to have higher throughput, but generate a coarser product when worn following the commonly observed trapezoidal profile. The approach used in industry to compensate for roller wear by increasing the specific force and roll speed has then been demonstrated to be effective to maintain and potentially even increase product fineness and throughput, as long as the minimum safety gap is not reached.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0488.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: heart rate variability; machine learning; abnormality detection; window shifting; high accuracy prediction
Online: 25 July 2018 (14:22:10 CEST)
The use of machine learning techniques in predictive health care is on the rise with minimal data used for training machine-learning models to derive high accuracy predictions. In this paper, we propose such a system, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as features for training machine learning models. This paper further benchmarks the usefulness of HRV as features calculated from basic heart-rate data using a window shifting method. The benchmarking has been conducted using different machine-learning classifiers such as artificial neural network, decision tree, k-nearest neighbour and naive bays classifier. Empirical results using MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database shows that the proposed system can be used for highly efficient predictability of abnormality in heartbeat data series.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Crisis Resource Management; obstetric hemorrhage; non-technical skills; High Fidelity Simulation; delivery room
Online: 15 December 2017 (08:54:25 CET)
Human factors are the most relevant issues contributing to adverse events in obstetrics. Specific training of Crisis Resource Management (CRM) skills (i.e., problem solving and team management, resource allocation, awareness of environment, and dynamic decision-making) are now widespread and are often based on High Fidelity Simulation. In order to be used as a guideline in simulated scenarios, they need to be translated into specific and observable behavioral markers. To this purpose, we developed a set of observable behaviors related to the main elements of CRM in the delivery room. The observational tool was then adopted in a two-days seminar on obstetric hemorrhage where teams working in obstetric wards of six Italian hospitals took part to simulations. The tool was used as guide for the Io and as a peer-to-peer feedback. It was then rated for its usefulness in facilitating the reflection upon one’s own behavior, its ease of use, and its usefulness for the peer-to-peer feedback. The ratings were highly positive, around 4 in a 5-point scale. The CRM observational tool is therefore a useful, quick and easy solution to facilitate the debriefing, the peer-to-peer feedback and, most of all, the transfer of safe behavior from simulation to everyday practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: high-performance buildings; energy-saving technology; primary energy consumption; CO2 emission; Korean climate; EnergyPlus; reference building
Online: 14 March 2018 (10:05:02 CET)
This study aims to suggest a basis for the selection of technologies for developing high-performance buildings to reduce energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions. Energy-saving technologies comprising of 15 cases were categorized into passive, active, and renewable energy systems. EnergyPlus v8.8 was used to analyze the contribution of each technology in reducing the primary energy consumptions and CO2 emissions in the Korean climate. The primary energy consumptions of the base model were 464.1 and 485.1 kWh/m²a in the Incheon and Jeju, respectively, and the CO2 emissions were 83.4 and 87.4 kgCO2/m²a, respectively. Each technology (cases 1–15) provided different energy-saving contributions in the Korean climate depending on their characteristics. The heating, cooling, and other energy-saving contributions of each technology indicate that their saving rates can be used when selecting suitable technologies during the cooling and heating seasons. Case 15 (active chilled beam with dedicated outdoor air system + ground source heat pump) showed the highest energy saving rate. In case 15, the Incheon and Jeju models were reduced by 189.4 (59.2%) and 206.2 kWh/m²a (57.4%) compared to the base case, respectively, and the CO2 emissions were reduced by up to 32.7 (60.8%) and 35.6 kgCO2/m²a (59.3%), respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0165.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Multiparametric MRI; image preprocessing; intensity harmonization; intensity standardization; high-grade glioma; radiomics signatures
Online: 10 January 2023 (01:20:12 CET)
Purpose: This study investigates the impact of different intensity normalization (IN) methods on the overall survival (OS) radiomics models’ performance of MR sequences in primary (pHGG) and recurrent high-grade glioma (rHGG). Methods: MR scans acquired before radiotherapy were retrieved from two independent cohorts (rHGG C1: 197, pHGG C2: 141) from multiple scanners (15, 14). The sequences are T1 weighted (w), contrast-enhanced T1w (T1wce), T2w, and T2w-FLAIR. Sequence-specific significant features (SF) associated with OS, extracted from the tumour volume, were derived after applying 15 different IN methods. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard (CPH) and Poisson regression (POI) models. A ranking score was assigned based on the 10-fold cross-validated (CV) concordance index (C-I), mean square error (MSE), and the Akaike information criterion (AICs), to evaluate the methods’ performance. Results: Scatter plots of the 10-CV C-I and MSE against the AIC showed an impact on the survival predictions between the IN methods and MR sequences (C1/C2 C-I range: 0.62-0.71/0.61-0.72, MSE range: 0.20-0.42/0.13-0.22). White stripe showed stable results for T1wce (C1/C2 C-I: 0.71/0.65, MSE: 0.21/0.14). Combat (0.68/0.62, 0.22/0.15) and histogram matching (HM, 0.67/0.64, 0.22/0.15) showed consistent prediction results for T2w models. They were also the top-performing methods for T1w in C2 (Combat: 0.67, 0.13; HM: 0.67, 0.13), however, only HM achieved high predictions in C1 (0.66, 0.22). After eliminating IN impacted SF using Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient, a mean decrease in the C-I and MSE of 0.05 and 0.03 was observed in all four sequences. Conclusion: The IN method impacted the predictive power of survival models. Thus, performance is sequence-dependent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0360.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Random Forest; Iterative Random Forest; gene expression networks; high performance computing; X-AI-based eQTL
Online: 31 October 2019 (02:33:17 CET)
As time progresses and technology improves, biological data sets are continuously increasing in size. New methods and new implementations of existing methods are needed to keep pace with this increase. In this paper, we present a high performance computing(HPC)-capable implementation of Iterative Random Forest (iRF). This new implementation enables the explainable-AI eQTL analysis of SNP sets with over a million SNPs. Using this implementation we also present a new method, iRF Leave One Out Prediction (iRF-LOOP), for the creation of Predictive Expression Networks on the order of 40,000 genes or more. We compare the new implementation of iRF with the previous R version and analyze its time to completion on two of the world's fastest supercomputers Summit and Titan. We also show iRF-LOOP's ability to capture biologically significant results when creating Predictive Expression Networks. This new implementation of iRF will enable the analysis of biological data sets at scales that were previously not possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0214.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: soccer performance; supplements; diet; systematic review; high carbohydrate diet; creatine supplementation; tart cherry; betaine; bicarbonate and minerals; professional players
Online: 11 April 2023 (08:47:56 CEST)
Background: More than 270 million participants and 128,893 professional players play soccer. Research only weakly supports the impact of diets and supplements on the performance and recovery of professional soccer players. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search in Pub-Med, Scopus, Web of Science, and clinical trial registers. Inclusion criteria focused on professional or semi-professional soccer players, nutrition or diet interventions, performance improvement outcomes, and randomized clinical trial study types. We assessed quality using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. We identified 16 eligible articles involving 310 participants. No nutritional intervention during the recovery period effectively improved recovery. However, several perfor-mance-based interventions showed positive effects, such as tart cherry supplementation, raw pistachio nut kernels, bicarbonate and mineral ingestion, creatine supplementation, betaine consumption, symbiotic supplements, and a high carbohydrate diet. These interventions influenced various aspects of soccer performance, including endurance, speed, agility, strength, power, explosiveness, and anaerobic capacity. Conclusions: Specific strategies, such as solutions with bicarbonate and minerals, high carbohydrate diets, and supplements like creatine, betaine, and tart cherry, can enhance the performance of professional soccer players. These targeted nutritional interventions may help optimize performance and provide the competitive edge required in professional soccer. We did not find any dietary interventions that could enhance recovery during recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0637.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ultra-high performance concrete; waste; granite gang saws; steel fibres, compressive strength, flexural strength, elasticity modulus
Online: 31 January 2021 (11:08:23 CET)
The purpose of this study is to analyse the feasibility of using waste from granite gang saws (GCW-GS) to manufacture ultra-high performance, steel-fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC). These machines cut granite blocks by abrasion using a steel blade and slurry containing fine steel grit. The waste generated by gang saws (GCW-GS) contains up to 15% Fe2O3 and up to 5% CaO. This is the main difference from the waste produced by diamond saws (GCW-D). Consequently, the second objective of this study is to compare the results of the waste obtained with gang saws with that from diamond saws, in order to determine the influence of iron and calcium oxides. The waste from cutting granite with gang saws was used in different percentages to replace micronized quartz powder of natural origin in the manufacture of UHPRFC. All the test specimens were analysed to determine their compressive strength, elasticity modulus, flexural strength and indirect tensile strength. The final conclusion is that wastes from both gang saws and diamond saws can be used to manufacture UHPFRC with an improvement in the mechanical properties up to a 35% replacement. The results for GCW-GS are better, mainly due to the pozzolanic effect of the iron dioxide. For higher percentage replacements the mechanical properties are close to the control concrete with small decreases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1171.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: poly(butylene succinate); high density polyethylene; blend; nanofillers; anti-dripping; physical properties.
Online: 18 October 2023 (11:21:28 CEST)
A twin-screw extruder was used to fabricate poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) blends (7:3 weight ratio) and blend-based nanocomposites. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and organoclays (15A and 30B) served as the nanofiller, while maleated HDPE (PEgMA) acted as an efficient compatibilizer for the blend. In the composites, individual nanofillers were mostly localized in HDPE domains, but some fillers were also observed at PBS-HDPE interfaces. The sea-island morphology of compatibilized blend evolved into a pseudo-co-continuous morphology in the composites. Differential scanning calorimetry results confirmed that PEgMA with HDPE evidently accelerated the crystallization of PBS in the blend. The possible nucleation effect of added fillers on PBS crystallization was obscured by the formation of quasi-connected HDPE domains, causing less PBS nucleation sites. The presence of nanofillers improved the thermal stability and burning anti-dripping behavior of the parent blend. The anti-dripping efficiency of added fillers followed the sequence: CNT>15A>30B>GNP. Rigidity of the blend was increased after formation of nanocomposites. In particular, adding GNP resulted in 31% increase in flexural modulus. Development of a pseudo-network structure in the composites was confirmed by measurement of rheological properties. Electrical resistivity of the blend was reduced by more than 6 orders of magnitude at 3 phr CNT loading, demonstrating the achievement of double percolation morphology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0348.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: multiple influencing factors; data detection error; fractional partial differential; high accuracy detection
Online: 21 February 2023 (03:04:58 CET)
In engineering practice, various types of information data are affected by many factors during the collection process. For example, information data measurement errors are caused by equipment performance and the working environment. During the transmission of detection information, the signal distortion caused by energy loss and signal interference causes unpredictable detection errors in the collected information data. Through the study of fractional calculus theory, it was found that it is suitable for studying nonlinear, non-causal, and non-stationary signals, and has the dual functions of improving detection information and enhancing signal strength. Therefore, under the influence of many factors, we applied the fractional difference algorithm to the field of information data processing. Multi-sensor detection data fusion algorithm based on the fractional partial differential equation was adopted to establish its online detection data. A multi-sensor detection data fusion algorithm based on a fractional partial differential equation is established, which effectively fuses the information data detection errors caused by various influencing factors and greatly improves the detection accuracy of information data. The effectiveness of this method is proved through its application in an experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: digital industry; promising research issues; bibliometric metadata; high-cited publications; Scopus; VOSviewer
Online: 5 October 2022 (14:00:07 CEST)
The article is devoted to identifying promising research issues on the topic of Digital Industry based on the analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus platform for 2018–2022. The definition of promising issues derived from the titles, additionally abstracts, of highly cited works by authors with high publication activity. Authors' Scopus profiles were used to determine their affiliations, which are important for in-depth analysis of selected promising Digital Industry tasks. Metadata filtering to identify highly cited papers on particular issues was performed by keywords, Subject Areas, affiliations with countries and sponsoring organizations. Additionally, bibliometric metadata were clustered based on the co-occurrence of terms using VOSviewer. Within these clusters, articles of interest were identified for the formulation of promising research issues on the topic of Digital Industry, which will be subjected to in-depth analysis in separate papers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0823.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: galaxies; distances and redshifts - galaxies; high-redshift - stars; gamma ray burst; general - cosmology; cosmological parameters
Online: 13 November 2023 (12:18:40 CET)
Hubble diagrams are examined for SN1a supernovae in the redshift range z = 0.01–1.3 and for gamma ray bursts in the range z = 0.034–8.1. It is shown that in the low redshift range, the Hubble diagram shows an innate equivocality between the ΛCDM and the tired light model. This means that the strong agreement between the z/µ data, calculated with the parameters of the ΛCDM model, and the experimentally measured z/µ values cannot be considered as definite evidence for the expansion hypothesis. The exponential function , which is characteristic of the tired light redshift mechanism, fits the data with similarly high accuracy. Hence, on the premise of low redshift data, a decision for or against either model is completely arbitrary. The Hubble diagram for high redshift gamma ray bursts shows poor agreement with the ΛCDM model, but concurs with the exponential energy decay following from the tired light redshift hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1150.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: promethazine; promethazine sulfoxide; monodesmethyl-promethazine; swine edible tissues; high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:45:26 CEST)
To determine promethazine (PMZ) and its metabolites promethazine sulfoxide (PMZSO) and monodesmethyl-promethazine (Nor1PMZ) in swine muscle, fat, kidney, and liver, a sample preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis method were established and validated. The sample was extracted with 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile, and the extract was purified with acetonitrile-saturated n-hexane. After concentration by rotary evaporation, the extract was re-dissolved in 0.1% formic acid-water and acetonitrile (80:20, v/v). The HPLC-MS/MS column used was a Waters Symmetry C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm), with 0.1% formic acid-water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase, and the target compounds were determined by positive ion scan and multiple reaction monitoring. PMZ and Nor1PMZ were quantified with deuterated promethazine (PMZ-d6) as the internal standard, while PMZSO was quantified by external standard method. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of PMZ and PMZSO in muscle, liver, and kidney spiked samples were 0.05 μg/kg and 0.1 μg/kg, respectively, while those of Nor1PMZ were 0.1 μg/kg and 0.5 μg/kg, respectively. The LOD and LOQ of analytes in fat spiked sample were 0.05 μg/kg and 0.1 μg/kg, respectively. The sensitivity of this method reaches or exceeds its presented in previous reports. The analytes PMZ and PMZSO showed good linearity within the range of 0.1 μg/kg to 50 μg/kg, while Nor1PMZ showed good linearity within the range of 0.5 μg/kg to 50 μg/kg, with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.99. The recoveries of the target compounds in the sam-ples were between 81.73% and 107.17%, and the precision ranged from 1.78% to 10.47%. This study developed for the first time an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of PMZ and its metabolites PMZSO and Nor1PMZ in four swine edible tissues, comprehensively covered target tissues of monitoring object, which is applicable for monitoring veterinary drug residues in ani-mal-derived foods and ensuring food safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0668.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: magnetic solid-phase extraction; CoFe2O3 Nanoparticles; polyphenol; Lawsone; high-performance liquid chromatography
Online: 27 September 2020 (08:01:06 CEST)
A novel polyphenol‑coated CoFe2O4 system was synthesized as a magnetic adsorbent by chemical oxidative polymerization process for magnetic solid-phase extraction of lawsone. The synthesized nanoadsorbent showed a spherical morphology with diameters under 50 nm by scanning electron microscopy images. The extraction efficiency of this adsorbent was studied towards the extraction of lawsone from saline aqueous solution in dispersion mode. Major parameters including the type and volume of desorption solvent, amount of sorbent, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength and pH were optimized. Under the optimum conditions the relative standard deviation in 0.005 µg mL-1 (inter-day n = 6; intra-day: n = 6; and adsorbent to adsorbent n = 4) were obtained as 5.2, 8.07 and 11.7%, respectively. A linear calibration curve in the range of 0.003–0.5 µg mL-1 with R2 = 0.993 was obtained. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method were 0.001 µg mL-1 and 0.003 µg mL-1, respectively. The relative recovery percentages were in range of 90-96.4% for henna leaves, henna shampoo, and henna dermal lotion real samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: supervised machine learning; flood inundation mapping; high-resolution; synthetic aperture radar; height above nearest drainage; sentinel-1; inundated vegetation
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:48:14 CEST)
Floods are one of the most wide-spread, frequent, and devastating natural disasters that continue to increase in frequency and intensity. Remote sensing, specifically synthetic aperture radar (SAR), has been widely used to detect surface water inundation to provide retrospective and near-real time (NRT) information due to its high-spatial resolution, self-illumination, and low atmospheric attenuation. However, the efficacy of flood inundation mapping with SAR is susceptible to reflections and scattering from a variety of factors including dense vegetation and urban areas. In this study, the topographic dataset height above nearest drainage (HAND) was investigated as a potential supplement to Sentinel-1A C-Band SAR along with supervised machine learning to improve the detection of inundation in heterogeneous areas. Three machine learning classifiers were trained on two sets of features SAR only (VV & VH) and VV, VH & HAND to map inundated areas. Three study sites along the Neuse River in North Carolina, USA during the record flood of Hurricane Matthew in October 2016 were selected. The binary classification analysis (inundated as positive vs. non-inundated as negative) revealed significant improvements when incorporating HAND in several metrics including classification accuracy (ACC) (+37.1%), true positive rate (TPR) (+51.2%), and negative predictive value (NPV) (+23.7%), A marginal improvement of +1.4% was seen for positive predictive value (PPV), but true negative rate (TNR) fell -15.1%. By incorporating HAND, a significant number of areas with high SAR backscatter but low HAND values were detected as inundated which increased true positives. This in turn also increased the false positives detected but to a lesser extent as evident in the metrics. This study demonstrates that HAND could be considered a valuable feature to enhance SAR flood inundation mapping especially in areas with heterogeneous land covers with dense vegetation that interfere with SAR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0257.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: impervious surface mapping; multi-temporal data; change detection; high-resolution imagery; LiDAR; object-based post-classification fusion
Online: 15 June 2018 (14:32:50 CEST)
Impervious surface mapping with high-resolution remote sensing imagery has attracted increasing interest as it can provide detailed information for urban structure and distribution. Previous studies have suggested that the combination of LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery for impervious surface mapping performs better than using only high-resolution imagery. However, due to the high cost of the acquisition of LiDAR data, it is difficult to obtain the multi-sensor remote sensing data acquired at the same acquisition time for impervious surface mapping. Consequently, real landscape changes between multi-sensor remote sensing data at different acquisition times would lead to the error of misclassification in impervious surface mapping. This issue has mostly been neglected in previous works. Furthermore, the observation differences generated from multi-sensor data, including the problems of misregistration, missing data in LiDAR data, and shadow in high-resolution images would also challenge the final mapping result in the fusion of LiDAR data and high-resolution images. In order to conquer these problems, we propose an improved impervious surface mapping method incorporating both LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery at different acquisition times in consideration of real landscape changes and observation differences. In the proposed method, a multi-sensor change detection by supervised multivariate alteration detection is employed to obtain changed areas and misregistration areas. The no-data areas in the LiDAR data and the shadow areas in the high-resolution imagery are extracted by independent classification yielded by its corresponding single sensor data. Finally, an object-based post-classification fusion is proposed to take advantage of independent classification results with single-sensor data and the joint classification result with stacked multi-sensor data. Experiments covering the study site in Buffalo, NY, USA demonstrate that our method can accurately detect landscape changes and obviously improve the performance of impervious surface mapping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0362.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: 3D reconstruction; 3D data smoothing; mesh simplification; high resolution micro-CT images
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:34:27 CEST)
Three-dimensional reconstruction plays an important role in assisting doctors and surgeons in diagnosing bone defects’ healing progress. Common three-dimensional reconstruction methods include surface and volume rendering. As the focus is on the shape of the bone, volume rendering is omitted. Many improvements have been made on surface rendering methods like Marching Cubes and Marching Tetrahedra, but not many on working towards real-time or near real-time surface rendering for large medical images, and studying the effects of different parameter settings for the improvements. Hence, in this study, an attempt towards near real-time surface rendering for large medical images is made. Different parameter values are experimented on to study their effect on reconstruction accuracy, reconstruction and rendering time, and the number of vertices and faces. The proposed improvement involving three-dimensional data smoothing with convolution kernel Gaussian size 0.5 and mesh simplification reduction factor of 0.1, is the best parameter value combination for achieving a good balance between high reconstruction accuracy, low total execution time, and a low number of vertices and faces. It has successfully increased the reconstruction accuracy by 0.0235%, decreased the total execution time by 69.81%, and decreased the number of vertices and faces by 86.57% and 86.61% respectively.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: attention mechanism; building mapping; data fusion; EfficientNet; HAFNet; high-resolution imagery (HRI); light detection and ranging (LiDAR); mapping; urban areas
Online: 19 August 2021 (08:50:20 CEST)
Automated extraction of buildings from earth observation (EO) data is important for various applications, including updating of maps, risk assessment, urban planning, policy making. Combining data from different sensors such as high-resolution multispectral (HRI) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has shown great potential in building extraction. Deep learning (DL) is increasingly used in multimodal data fusion and urban object extraction. However, DL-based multimodal fusion networks may underperform due to insufficient learning of “joint features” from multiple sources and oversimplified approaches to fusing multimodal features. Recently, an hybrid attention-aware fusion network (HAFNet) has been proposed for building extraction from a dataset including co-located Very-High-Resolution (VHR) optical images and Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) joint data. The system reported good performances thanks to the adaptivity of the attention mechanism to the features of the information content of the three streams but suffered from model overparametrization, which inevitably leads to long training times and heavy computational load. In this paper the authors propose a restructuring of the scheme, which involved replacing VGG-16-like encoders with the recently proposed EfficientNet, whose advantages counteract exactly the issues found with the HAFNet scheme. The novel configuration was tested on multiple benchmark datasets, reporting great improvements in terms of processing times, and also in terms of accuracy. The new scheme, called HAFNetE (HAFNet with EfficientNet integration), appears indeed capable of achieving good results with less parameters, translating into better computational efficiency. Based on these findings, we can conclude that, given the current advancements in single-thread schemes, the classical multi-thread HAFNet scheme could be effectively transformed by the HAFNetE scheme by replacing VGG-16 with EfficientNet blocks on each single thread. The remarkable reduction achieved in computational requirements moves the system one step closer to on-board implementation in a possible, future “urban mapping” satellite constellation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0056.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Novaya Zemlya; Altimetry; Gravity; Russian High Arctic; Glaciers and Ice Caps; Remote Sensing; Climate Change;
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:37:48 CEST)
We examine the mass balance of the glaciers in the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, located in the Russian High Arctic using time series of time-variable gravity from the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, laser altimetry data from the NASA Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission, and radar altimetry data from the ESA CryoSat-2 mission. We present a new algorithm for detecting changes in glacier elevation from these satellite altimetry data and evaluate its performance in the case Novaya Zemlya by comparing the results with GRACE. We find that the mass loss of Novaya Zemlya increased from 10±5 Gt/yr over 2003-2009 to 14±4 Gt/yr over 2010-2016, with a brief period of near mass balance between 2009 and 2011. The results are consistent across the gravimetric and altimetric methods. Furthermore, the analysis of elevation change from CryoSat-2 indicates that 60\% of the mass loss occurs at low elevation, where thinning rates are highest. We also find that marine-terminating glaciers in Novaya Zemlya are thinning significantly faster than land-terminating glaciers, which indicates an important role of ice dynamics of marine-terminating glaciers. We posit that the glacier changes have been caused by changes in atmospheric and ocean temperatures. We find that the increase in mass loss after 2010 is associated with a warming in air temperatures, which increased the surface melt rates. There is no enough information on the ocean temperature at the front of the glaciers to conclude on the role of the ocean, but we posit that the temperature of subsurface ocean waters must have increased during the observation period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1244.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Surrogate models; Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations; variable geometry; high Reynolds number; turbulence modeling
Online: 30 April 2023 (03:02:34 CEST)
Physics-informed neural networks are a promising method to yield surrogate models of flow fields. We present a metamodeling technique for variable geometries based on physics-informed neural networks. The method was applied to the DU99W350 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 1×105. The model predicted the Reynolds-averaged velocity and pressure field around the airfoil for arbitrary angles of attack between 10.0° and 17.5°. The model was trained with data from CFD simulations for a limited set of angles of attack. Additionally, satisfaction of the a priori known boundary conditions as well as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were trained. A sensitivity analysis concerning the Reynolds number, the amount and distribution of training data, and the turbulence model was conducted showing the superiority of the pseudo-Reynolds stress method and the demand of labeled training data in the domain. The trained network was capable of predicting the developing flow separation on the suction surface and exhibited excellent agreement with CFD results even in the proximity to the wall for interpolations as well as extrapolations from the labeled data set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0086.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: atmosphere; high-level clouds; ice particles; polarization lidar; interpretation of lidar data; radiosonde observations; ERA5 reanalysis.
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:12:44 CEST)
This article presents results of the polarization laser studies of the optical and microphysical characteristics of the high-level clouds (HLC). The high-altitude matrix polarization lidar (HAMPL; Tomsk, Russia) is described. HAMPL measures vertical profiles of all elements of the backscattering phase matrix (BSPM) of the HLC. Based on the joint analysis of lidar and radiosonde observations it is shown that the spatial structure of the HLC containing oriented ice crystals is inhomogeneous in the horizontal wind direction. It includes local areas with oriented particles; the sizes of such areas are estimated together with the most probable meteorological conditions of their formation. The shortcomings of the radiosonde observations performed closest to the location of the HAMPL are described. The applicability of the ERA5 reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts for use as an alternative source of information on the vertical profiles of meteorological quantities for the interpretation of HLC lidar sensing data in Western Siberia was checked.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0309.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: phenyltin derivatives; tetraphenyltin; triphenyltin chloride; triphenyltin acetate; triphenyltin hydroxide; fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Online: 24 April 2018 (07:45:23 CEST)
This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection (FPSE-HPLC-UV) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of four phenyltin derivatives that include triphenyltin hydroxide, triphenyltin acetate, triphenyltin chloride and tetraphenyltin in environmental water (agricultural waste water and municipal waste water) and canned food samples. The selected analytes were well resolved by Waters Nova pack C18 column (3.9 x 150 mm, 4 µm particle size) in isocratic elution mode within 15 minutes. The new microextraction media has been analytically evaluated using phenyltin derivatives as model compounds. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of FPSE have been evaluated and the optimum extraction conditions were determined. Under these optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for sol-gel C18 coated fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) media in combination with HPLC-UV for the analysis of the phenyltin derivatives were in the range of 10-100 ng/mL with high precision (low relative standard deviation) at 10 ng/mL concentration with good absolute recoveries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first FPSE extraction procedure applied to environmental water and canned food samples for the simultaneous determination of phenyltin derivatives and could be readily adopted as a rapid and robust green analytical tool for routine environmental and food analytical laboratories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: thermal design; miniaturization; high power; high density; automation
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:22:44 CEST)
Multi-board electronic cases with high density and high power modules are widely used in industrial power supply management. With the improvement of case performance and miniaturization requirements, heat dissipation becomes one of the important factors to be considered in the design process. First,The existing small electronic thermal design methods focus on heat dissipation structure or heat source layout optimization,and ignores on-load test for modeling analysis. Second,The selected power module has on-load power consumption, resulting in relatively low calorific value and the effectiveness of thermal design cannot be verified. Third, The thermal lacks Intelligent monitoring and feedback control mechanism. In order to solve these problems, this paper designs a kind of heat dissipation case with intelligent temperature control based on high-power and high-density power supply array. Based on the extremely miniaturization design principle, we adopt the composite heat dissipation mode based on conduction and supplemented by forced air cooling . The case is made of magnesium and aluminum alloy with a perforated design. Finally, we compare and analyze with the existing cooling design. The results show that the case is smaller in volume, and the cooling performance parameters are slightly better than the existing case. Under the condition of high-density and high-power design, The output power of the whole system is not less than 10kw and the lowest packing-level density is not less than 47w/cm2 with high reliability, portability and practicability. It also provides technical support and prototype support for the standardized design of similar power arrays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast neoplasms, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), gene expression profiling, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), paraffin embedding, sequence alignment, transcriptome
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:23:25 CET)
The rapid expansion of transcriptomics from increased affordability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies generates rocketing amounts of gene expression data across biology and medicine, and notably in cancer research. Concomitantly, many bioinformatics tools were developed to streamline gene expression analysis and quantification. We tested the concordance of NGS RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis outcomes between the two predominant programs for reads alignment, HISAT2 and STAR, and the two most popular programs for quantifying gene expression in NGS experiments, edgeR and DESeq2, using RNA-seq data from a series of breast cancer progression specimens, which include histologically confirmed normal, early neoplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ and infiltrating ductal carcinoma samples microdissected from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) breast tissue blocks. We identified significant differences in aligners’ performance: HISAT2 was prone to misalign reads to retrogene genomic loci, STAR generated more precise alignments, especially for early neoplasia samples. edgeR and DESeq2 produced similar lists of differentially expressed genes in stage comparisons, with edgeR producing more conservative, though shorter, lists of genes. Albeit, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed no skewness in significant GO categories identified among differentially expressed genes by edgeR vs DESeq2. As transcriptome analysis of archived FFPE samples becomes a vanguard of precision medicine, identification and fine-tuning of bioinformatics tools becomes critical for clinical research. Our results indicate that STAR and edgeR are well-suited tools for differential gene expression analysis from FFPE samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2058.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Dermoscopy; high magnification; super-high magnification; keratinocyte; melanocyte; melanoma.
Online: 30 May 2023 (06:04:10 CEST)
Super-high (x400) magnification dermoscopy (D400) is a new non-invasive imaging technique that has been shown to add information for the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions in a pilot study. Our study aimed to confirm if D400 can add details for the discrimination of clinically atypical nevus and melanoma. This is a retrospective observational, multicentric study enrolling patients who received an x20 (D20) and x400 (D400) magnification dermoscopic examination of pigmented skin lesions. Dermoscopic images were retrospectively evaluated by three observers for the presence/absence of nine D20 and twenty D400 dermoscopic features defined in the previous pilot study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find predictors of benign and malignant behaviors. At D20 atypical pigment network, blue-whitish veil, atypical vascular pattern, regression, and homogenous pattern were more frequent in melanoma than in nevi (p<0.001). At D400 melanoma showed more frequently than benign lesions melanocytes with an irregular arrangement and irregular in shape and size (p<0.001). Network with edged papillae was more frequent in benign lesions than melanomas (p<0.001). Our study confirms that D400 can identify melanocytes with an irregular arrangement and irregular in shape and size in melanomas, adding information to the conventional D20 examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: strawberry; high-temperature and high-light; AsA-GSH cycle
Online: 3 February 2023 (09:54:45 CET)
Chitosan (CTS) is widely used in agriculture as a soil amendment, plant growth regulator and promoter of cold resistance. However, the effects of CTS on strawberry seedlings under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light are unclear. In this study, Xuelixiang strawberry was used as a test material, and 100 mg·kg-1 CTS solution was sprayed onto the leaves. We measured the chlorophyll content, membrane peroxidation, reactive oxygen species content, antioxidant enzyme content, AsA-GSH cycle activity and other related indicators of strawberry seedling leaves under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light and found that CTS can increase the contents of antioxidants, increase the contents of osmotic adjustment substances, increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes activity,; remove reactive oxygen species over time, reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species to photosynthetic organs and cell membranes, and improve the photosynthesis efficiency of leaves of strawberry plants under high-temperature and high-light stress, thereby reducing damage to strawberry seedlings caused by high-temperature and high-light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Oil shale; Permeability; Pyrolysis; High temperature and high pressure
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:14:56 CEST)
In-situ injection of steam for heating of the subsurface is an efficient method for the recovery of oil and gas from oil shale where permeability typically evolves with temperature. We reported measurements on Jimusar oil shales(Xinjiang, China) at different temperatures to 600℃ and under recreated in situ triaxial stresses to obtain permeability evolution with temperature and stress. Permeability of tight oil shales evolves with temperature to a threshold temperature and peak temperature. The threshold temperature was subjected to triaxial stresses. For Jimusar oil shale, the threshold temperature ranges from 200℃ to 250℃ at ground stress of buried depth of 500m and from 350℃ to 400℃ at buried depth of 1000m. The peak temperature was almost not subjected to triaxial stress and the range is from 450℃ to 500℃ for all Jimusar samples. Pyrolysis plays an important role in permeability evolution and fundamentally changes permeability tendency and magnitude. At high temperature permeability exhibits a little reduction due to stress effect but still remains a high level due to pyrolysis. The above results show that oil shale mass can change from tight porous media into highly permeable media and oil & gas can easily flow through oil shale stratum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1917.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: WASHR; co-treatment; high-rate treatment; high-strength wastewater; waste activated sludge-high rate; winery wastewater
Online: 28 July 2023 (13:02:22 CEST)
High-strength wastewaters from a variety of sources, including the food industry, domestic septage and landfill leachate, are often hauled to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for co-treatment. Due to their high organic loadings, these wastewaters can cause process upsets in both the WWTP’s liquid and solids treatment trains and consume organic treatment capacity, leaving less capacity available to service customers in the catchment area. A novel pre-treatment method, the Waste Activated Sludge-High Rate (WASHR) process, is proposed to optimize the co-treatment of high-strength wastewaters. The WASHR process combines the contact stabilization and sequencing batch reactor processes. It utilizes waste activated sludge from the municipal WWTP as its biomass source, allowing rapid start-up. Bench scale treatment trials of winery wastewater confirm the WASHR process can reduce loadings on the downstream WWTP’s liquid treatment and solids treatment trains. A case study approach is used to confirm the economic viability and environmental sustainability of the WASHR process compared to direct co-treatment using life cycle cost analyses and greenhouse gas emissions estimates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diet; Obesity; Gut microbes; High-fiber diet; High fat diet
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:50:36 CEST)
With the ever-increasing rate, obesity has become an epidemiological problem throughout the globe comprising about 39% of the world population as of now. Among several reasons, disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem might contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other associated comorbidities. Though the mechanisms related to dysbiosis are unclear, diet might play a modulating role where different dietary approaches manipulate microbial richness and abundance as well as stability. For instance, shifting of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut might have a role in association with the dietary approaches and ingestion duration. Along with altered gut microbial composition, microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after ingestion of non-digestible dietary starches may have an impact on host metabolism by regulating lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation with potential associations to health and obesity. The dietary approaches like carbohydrates, fibre, protein, and/or fat diet at various arrangements can make a shift in the composition of gut microbiota if introduced for a short period. However, the unique pattern of the gut microbes usually remains the same along with the longer period of habitual diet. Though the short-term dietary intervention or circadian rhythm influences a transient change in gut microbes, other than habitual diet, the understanding related to long-term dietary change-induced permanent alterations is minimum. Alternatively, the usage of prebiotics, probiotics as well as postbiotics could be beneficial to overcome dysbiosis. This review highlights the current knowledge and the interaction between the human intestinal microbiota and diet as a modifying factor, in obesity allowing the scientists to uncover novel targets and tools to use as customized therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0007.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: machine learning; neural network; Gaussian process regression; curse of dimensionality; high-dimensional model representation; energy conversion and storage; heterogeneous catalysis.
Online: 1 March 2022 (07:04:37 CET)
Machine learning (ML) has found increasing use in research on energy conversion and storage technologies, in particular, so-called sustainable technologies. While often ML is used to directly optimize the parameters or phenomena of interest in the space of features, in this perspective, we focus on using ML to construct objects and methods that help in or enable the modeling of the underlying phenomena. We highlight the need for machine learning from very sparse and unevenly distributed numeric data in multidimensional spaces in these applications. After a brief introduction of some common regression-type machine learning techniques, we will focus on more advanced ML techniques which use these known methods as building blocks of more complex schemes and thereby allow working with extremely sparse data and also allow generating insight. Specifically, we will highlight the utility of using representations with sub-dimensional functions by combining the high-dimensional model representation ansatz with machine learning methods like neural networks or Gaussian process regressions in applications ranging from heterogeneous catalysis to nuclear energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis; high to ultra high spatial resolution; high to very high temporal resolution; NDVI; NIR; neural network modelling, Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:35:50 CET)
The salt marshes, lying at the land-sea temperate interface, furnish a plethora of ecosystems services such as biodiversity niche support, ocean-climate change regulation, ornithology recreo-tourism or plant gathering by hand. They undergo significant worldwide losses due to their conversion into crop fields and to their spatial compression between the rising sea-level and the armoring shoreline. Their monitoring however requires to use a suite of remote sensing sensors to embrace the regional scale while capturing the plant details. This research innovatively adopts a multiscale approach using a cascading spaceborne and airborne process, from the 10-m Sentinel-2, through the 3-m Dove, to the 0.03-m unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) imageries. The high to very high temporal resolution of the Sentinel-2 and Dove enabled to cover twenties and tens of km2 over five and four years, respectively, in the form of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes, associated with microphytobenthos, low, medium and high salt marsh vegetation, including the opportunistic Elyma genus. The NDVI was then modelled at the UAV scale (a few km2) using a three-layered NN prediction, providing the final near-infrared (NIR), and the intermediate red, green and blue reflectance imageries, calibrated/validated/tested with the Dove reflectance imageries (R2NIR=0.98, R2red=0.88, R2green=0.84, and R2blue=0.90). The 100fold increase in pixel size allowed to detect the decimeter-scale objects of the tidal flats and salt marshes, to enlarge the NDVI class ranges, and hold great promise to model other spectral bands at the UAV scale for further deeply enhancing the salt marsh mapping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0489.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: High pressure X-ray crystallography; high pressure magnetometry; high pressure absorption spectroscopy; high pressure EPR; molecule-based magnets; single-molecule magnets; single-ion magnets
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:48:58 CEST)
The cornerstone of molecular magnetism is a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and magnetic behaviour, i.e. the development of magneto-structural correlations. Traditionally, the synthetic chemist approaches this challenge by making multiple compounds that share a similar magnetic core but differ in peripheral ligation. Changes in the ligand framework induce changes in the bond angles and distances around the metal ions which are manifested in changes to magnetic susceptibility and magnetisation data. This approach requires the synthesis of series of different ligands and assumes that the chemical/electronic nature of the ligands and their coordination to the metal, the nature and number of counter ions and how they are positioned in the crystal lattice, and the molecular and crystallographic symmetry have no effect on the measured magnetic properties. In short, the assumption is that everything outwith the magnetic core is innocent, which is a huge oversimplification. The ideal scenario would be to have the same complex available in multiple structural conformations, and this is something that can be achieved through the application of external hydrostatic pressure, correlating structural changes observed through high pressure single crystal X-ray crystallography with changes observed in high pressure magnetometry, in tandem with high pressure inelastic neutron scattering (INS), high pressure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and high pressure absorption/emission/Raman spectroscopy. In this review, which summarises our work in this area over the last 15 years, we show that the application of pressure to molecule-based magnets can (reversibly): (1) lead to changes in bond angles, distances and Jahn-Teller orientations; (2) break and form bonds; (3) induce polymerisation/depolymerisation; (4) enforce multiple phase transitions; (5) instigate piezochromism; (6) change the magnitude and sign of pairwise exchange interactions and magnetic anisotropy and (7) lead to significant increases in magnetic ordering temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0174.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high-pressure water jet; high-pressure abrasive water- jet; rock processing
Online: 9 December 2022 (09:22:30 CET)
Rocks are materials with a wide variety of structures and properties. These can be unprocessed conglomerates of conglomerated minerals as well as crystallized outcrop or metamorphic rocks. Their processing, especially shaping, poses many technological difficulties. Therefore, it is very important to answer the question of how these natural materials yield to high-pressure water jet and abrasive water. It is equally important to determine the effect of key process parameters such as pressure, water nozzle diameter and feed rate on cutting efficiency. The first two parameters determine the water output and power of the jet, while the third determines the jet erosion time per unit volume of material. Their interdependence, using appropriate evaluation indicators, allows to determine the energy intensity of processing and directions for its minimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC converter; photovoltaic energy storage system; high voltage gain; high efficiency
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:40:50 CEST)
Intended for the high voltage gain and wide-range operation of DC/DC converters for photovoltaic energy storage systems, a topology for four-phase interleaved DC/DC converters for photovoltaic power generation is proposed. This topology increases output voltage for output in series, and reduces the input current ripple by paralleling the input. Compared with traditional boost converter topology, the proposed topology reduces the output current and output voltage ripple, reduces the stress of the switching device, and reduces the withstanding voltage of the output capacitor under the premise of ensuring the boost ratio. Experimental results show that the maximum efficiency of the converter reaches 95.37%. Compared with traditional boost converters, the proposed converter offers obvious advantages in efficiency under the conditions that the output voltage and load are variable.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0655.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high stable; stable zone; water jet guided laser; green laser; high repetition frequency
Online: 9 November 2023 (15:11:15 CET)
This paper presents the design and experimental results of a long cavity length Nd: YAG laser with large stable zone for water jet guided laser (WJGL) applications. The design is based on the light transmission matrix and resonator stability conditions, aiming to achieve a large stable zone and a short cut-off thermal focal length (CTFL). A folded concave resonator is researched to enhance the cavity length, and the influence of the tun-able cavity arm length on the oscillating beam in the resonator and in the YAG crystal is theoretically studied. Moreover, the effects of the output mirror curvature and the cavity arm length on the range of the stable area and the cut-off thermal focal length are also investigated. Experimental results show that a stable green laser output is obtained after second harmonic generation (SHG), with a pulse width ranging from 43ns to 143ns within the laser operating frequency range of 5-20kHz. At an operation frequency of 10kHz, the output power is 21.33W, and the instability of the output power within 400 minutes is 0.88%. The laser source achieves a maximum power of 25.7W at 20kHz, and the maximum single pulse energy reaches 2.7mJ at 6kHz. Finally, this is used as the laser source to couple with a water jet with a diameter of 100 microns, achieving a lossless water conductivity transmission over 60mm length with a peak power density of 0.742GW/cm2. These results demonstrate the suitability of the designed laser source for WJGL technology research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: high voltage alternating current; high voltage direct current; particle swarm optimization; power losses
Online: 16 September 2022 (07:52:57 CEST)
Indonesia's SUMBAGUT 150 kV transmission of High Voltage Alternating Current Network (HVAC) system has considerable power losses. These power losses are a critical problem in the transmission network system. Meanwhile, this study provides one solution to reduce power losses using a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) network system. Determining the location to convert HVAC into HVDC is very important. The authors use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to get the optimal location on the 150 kV SUMBAGUT HVAC transmission network system. The study results showed that before using the HVDC network system, the power losses were 122.26 MW. Meanwhile, power losses with one transmission HVDC in the "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan" are 84.16 MW, "Porsa-P. Siantar" 90.83 MW, "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 104.14 MW. Then power losses with two transmission HVDC in "Paya Pasir-Sei Rattan" and "Porsa-P. Siantar" is 71.24 MW, "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan" and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 77.46 MW, "Porsa-P. Siantar" and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 78.52 MW. The last result, power losses with three transmission HVDC in "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan," "Porsa-P. Siantar," and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" lost 64.57 MW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0070.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Web app; Cloud computing; High Availability; High performance computing; Docker container; Horizontal Scaling
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:33:58 CET)
This study analyses some of the leading technologies for the construction and configuration of IT infrastructures to provide services to users. For modern applications, guaranteeing service continuity even in very high computational load or network problems is essential. Our configuration has among the main objectives of being highly available (HA) and horizontally scalable, that is, able to increase the computational resources that can be delivered when needed and reduce them when they are no longer necessary. Various architectural possibilities are analysed, and the central schemes used to tackle problems of this type are also described in terms of disaster recovery. The benefits offered by virtualisation technologies are highlighted and are bought with modern techniques for managing Docker containers that will be used to build the back-end of a sample infrastructure related to a use-case we have developed. In addition to this, an in-depth analysis is reported on the central autoscaling policies that can help manage high loads of requests from users to the services provided by the infrastructure. The results we have presented show an average response time of 21.7 milliseconds with a standard deviation of 76.3 milliseconds showing excellent responsiveness. Some peaks are associated with high-stress events for the infrastructure, but the response time does not exceed 2 seconds even in this case. The results of the considered use case studied for nine months are presented and discussed. In the study period, we improved the back-end configuration and defined the main metrics to deploy the web application efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0400.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: galaxies; distances and redshift; high redshift; stars; Gamma ray bursts; individual; supernovae; individual; cosmology; distance scale; observations
Online: 24 May 2020 (19:07:56 CEST)
Analyses of the Hubble diagrams are presented for SN1a supernovae and gamma ray bursts in the redshift ranges z = 0.01–1.3 and 0.034–8.1, respectively. Data are presented on the typical z/μ scale and also on the less common yet increasingly sensitive photon flight time t/(z+1) scale. The primary conclusion is that on the basis of the presently accessible data in the redshift range z = 0.01–8.1, the slope of the Hubble diagram is, or is extremely close to, exponential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1099.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: photocatalysis; BiOCl; nanosheets; high-crystallinity
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:20:10 CEST)
: The stability of semiconductor catalysts is a very important property in the field of catalytic reactions. Materials necessitate resistance to mechanical abrasion and chemical erosion for better overall performance. In this work, high crystallinity BiOCl nanosheets were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The photocatalysts demonstrate full UV light absorption ability and excellent photocatalytic norfloxacin degradation performance. 84 % of highly toxic norfloxacin were photocatalytically eliminated within 180 min. The internal structure and surface chemical state of BiOCl were analyzed by SEM, TEM, Raman, FTIR, UV-vis, XPS, and other techniques. Such high crystallinity makes BiOCl molecules closely arranged and the molecular chains strongly connected, thus exhibiting a high level of photocatalytic stability and recyclability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0088.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: High-temperature superconductivity; critical temperature
Online: 6 January 2022 (12:36:26 CET)
The dependence of the critical temperature $T_c$ of high-temperature superconductors of various families on their composition and structure is proposed. A clear dependence of the critical temperature of high-temperature superconductors (hydrides, Hg- and Y-based cuprates) on the serial number of the constituent elements, their valence and crystal lattice structure has been revealed. For cuprates, it is shown that it is possible to obtain even higher temperatures of superconducting transitions at normal pressure by implanting mercury atoms into the crystal lattice of cuprate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: biofilm; antimicrobial; high-throughput analysis
Online: 9 August 2018 (00:20:24 CEST)
The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microbial species that are present either as planktonic cells, or incorporated into biofilms. The majority of the oral microbes are commensal organisms. Those that are pathogenic microbes can result in oral infections, and at times initiate systemic diseases. Biofilms that contain pathogens have been challenging to control. Many conventional antimicrobials have proven to be ineffective. Recent advances in science and technology are providing new approaches for pathogen control and containment and methods to characterize biofilms. This perspective provides: 1) A general understanding of biofilm development; 2) A description of emerging chemical and biological methods to control oral biofilms; 3) An overview of high-throughput analytical approaches to analyze biofilms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart home electricity management system; bidirectional DC-AC converter; high power quality; high efficiency.
Online: 14 July 2018 (20:25:57 CEST)
The management of the electrical energy still raises a huge interest for end-users at the household level. Home electricity management systems (HEMS) have recently emerged both to warrant uninterruptible power and high power quality, and to decrease the cost of electricity consumption, by either shifting it in off peak time or smoothing it. Such a HEMS requires a bidirectional DC-AC converter, specifically when an energy transfer is required between a storage system and the AC-grid, and vice versa. This article points out the relevance of an innovative topology based on sinusoidal waveforms from the generation of sine half-waves. Such a topology is based on a DC-DC stage equivalent to an adjustable output voltage source and a DC-AC stage (H-bridge) which are in series. The results of a complete experimental procedure prove the feasibility to improve the power quality of the output signals in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD-values about 5%). The complexity of the proposed converter is minimized in comparison with multilevel topologies. Finally, wide band-gap semiconductor devices (SiC MOSFETs) are helpful both to warrant the compactness and the high efficiency (about 96%) of the bidirectional converter, whatever its operation mode (inverter or rectifier mode).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0515.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: efficient ultrasonic transceivers, broadband piezoelectric transducers, industrial NDE, medical imaging, pulsed high-power spikes, HV capacitive-discharge pulsers, high-current driving, high dynamic range.
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:16:39 CET)
Ultrasonic imaging & NDE applications can greatly improve their signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) by driving each transducer (composing piezoelectric arrays) with a spike giving pulsed power of k-Watts, repetitively at a PRF = 5000 spikes/s, by using a HV capacitive-discharge generator. However very-high levels, of pulsed intensities (3-10 A) and voltages (300-700 V) must be considered for a rigorous spike modeling. Even though the consumed "average" power will be small, the intensity through each transducer achieves several amperes, so the pulsed powers delivered by each HV generator can attain levels higher than in CW high-power ultrasonic applications: e.g., up to 5 kW / spike. This is concluded here from a transient modeling of the loaded generator. Then, unforeseen phenomena rise: intense brief pulses of driving power & emitted force in transducers, and non-linearities in driver semiconductors, because their characteristic curves only include linear ranges. But fortunately, piezoelectric devices working in this intense regime do not show serious heating problems, because the average power remains being moderate. Intensity, power and voltage, driving a broadband transducer from a HV capacitive pulser, are calculated to drastically improve (in ≅ 40 dB) the ultrasonic net dynamic range available, with emitted forces ≅ 250 Newtons pp and E/R received pulses of 70 V pp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0543.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: mining unloading valve; high pressure; large flow; high-water-based fluid; digitally controlled unloading valve
Online: 8 September 2023 (05:09:06 CEST)
In order to create a smart mine, it is necessary to digitize the existing emulsion pumping station. Existing research does not achieve this task, this paper designs and manufactures a high-pressure, high-flow, high-water-based mining digital controlled unloading valve (abbreviated as HLHMDCUV), which achieves good results in both theoretical analysis and experimental testing. In order to obtain the accurate dynamic characteristics, this valve was analyzed by simulation using AMESim. Based on the dynamic performance analysis and the flow field analysis inside the valve body, the structure has been optimized to improve the performance of HLHMDCUV. The results show that the HLHMDCUV has a better dynamic characteristics, which were also demonstrated in the experiment. At the same time, the HLHMDCUV is easy to disassemble and maintain. This paper provides a theoretical basis for the design of such valves, which is conducive to the subsequent promotion of intelligent mine transformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Policosanol; high cholesterol diet; high-density lipoproteins; apoA-I; inflammation; interleukin-6; liver; testis; ovary
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:27:04 CEST)
Although many policosanols from different sources, such as sugar cane, rice bran, and insects, have been marketed worldwide, there has been no comparative study of the in vivo efficacy using a hyperlipidemic animal model. This study compared the efficacy of treating dyslipidemia with four different policosanols, including one sugar cane wax alcohol from Cuba (Raydel®) and three policosanols from China (Xi’an Natural sugar cane, Xi’an Realin sugar cane, and Shaanxi rice bran) in hyperlipidemic zebrafish. After 12 weeks of consumption of each policosanol (final 0.1% in diet, wt/wt) and high cholesterol diet (HCD, final 4%, wt/wt) in a tetrabit, the Raydel policosanol group and Xi’an Natural policosanol group showed the highest survivability of approximately 81%, whereas the Xi’an Realin policosanol group and Shaanxi policosanol group showed 57% and 67% survivability, respectively. Among five HCD groups, the Raydel policosanol group showed the lowest serum total cholesterol (TC, p<0.001 versus HCD control) and triglyceride (TG, p<0.001 versus HCD control) with the highest percentage of high-density lipoproteins (HDL)-C in TC. The Raydel policosanol group also showed the lowest serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels with the least infiltration of inflammatory cells and interleukin-6 production in hepatocytes. In the ovary, the Raydel policosanol group also showed the highest contents of mature vitellogenic oocytes with the lowest production of reactive oxygen species and cellular apoptosis in ovarian cells. In the testis, the Raydel policosanol group also showed the healthiest morphology for spermatogenesis with the least interstitial area and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in testicular cells. In conclusion, 12 weeks of Raydel policosanol consumption resulted in remarkable improvement of the blood lipid profile, amelioration of inflammation in the liver, and enhancement of the cell morphology in the ovary and testis with the highest survivability under the HCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0120.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: refractory high-entropy alloys; fused slurry method; silicide coating; Si-20Cr-20Fe; high-temperature oxidation
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:43:24 CEST)
The poor oxidation resistance of refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) is a major obstacle for their use in high-temperature engineering applications. Anti-oxidation coating technology is an effective method for improving the oxidation resistance. In this paper, the Si-20Cr-20Fe coating was prepared on MoNbTaTiW RHEA by a fused slurry method. The microstructural evolution and compositions of the silicide coating under high-temperature oxidation environment were studied. The results show that the silicide coating could effectively prevent the oxidation of the MoNbTaTiW RHEA. The initial silicide coating had a double-layer structure; a high silicon-content layer mainly composed of MSi2 as the outer layer and a low silicon-content layer mainly contained M5Si3 as the inner layer. Under high-temperature oxidation conditions, the silicon element diffused from the silicide coating to the RHEA substrate while the oxidation of the coating occurred. After oxidation, the coating was composed of an outer oxide layer and an inner silicide layer. The silicide layer moved toward the inside of the substrate, led to the increase of its thickness. Compared with the initial silicified layer, its structure did not change significantly. The structure and compositions of the oxide layer on the outer surface strongly depended on the oxidation temperature. This paper provides a strategy for protecting RHEAs from oxidation at high-temperature environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0322.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: java virtual machine (jvm); high level programming languages; high performance computing (hpc); php framework; compiler
Online: 29 September 2019 (05:01:46 CEST)
With the existence of several programming languages such as C/C++, Java, C#, LISP, Prolog, Python, Simula, F#, Go, Haskell, Scala, Ruby, Dart, Swift, Groovy etc. and diverse paradigms like structured, object-oriented, list, aspect-oriented, service-oriented, web, mobile and logic programming, there is a need to perform an exhaustive comparative analysis of diverse compilers and environments before making a choice of implementation technology in software engineering. Optimization of compilers helps to reduce execution time by making use of high speed processor registers, thereby, eliminating redundant computation. This paper reports some series of performance analysis done with some popular programming languages including Java, C++, Python and PHP. Programs involving recursive and iterative functions like factorial of large numbers and binary search of large arrays were run on the various platforms with the execution time recorded in milliseconds and represented in a chart. This can aid in making a selection of the appropriate language to use for a given application domain.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0486.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: high altitude, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, physiologic adaptation, travel to high altitude cities, high altitude physiology, pulmonary hypertension, lung disease, hemoglobin, tolerance to hypoxia, oxygen content.
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:22:04 CEST)
Acute high altitude illnesses are of great concern for physicians and people traveling to high altitude. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) can be better understood through the Oxygen Transport Triad which involves the Pneumo-Dynamic Pump (Ventilation), the Hemo-Dynamic Pump (Heart and circulation), and Hemoglobin. The two pumps are the first physiologic response upon initial exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Hemoglobin is the balancing energy-saving time-evolving equilibrating factor. The increased hemoglobin at high altitude reduces the percentage of dissolved oxygen in the arterial oxygen content with respect to sea level. At high altitude, the acid-base balance must be adequately interpreted using the high altitude Van-Slyke correction factors. Pulse-oximetry measurements during breath-holding at high altitude allow for the evaluation of high altitude diseases. The Tolerance to Hypoxia Formula shows that, paradoxically, the higher the altitude the more tolerance to hypoxia. All organisms adapt physiologically and optimally to a high-altitude environment to survive. Reduction of pulmonary hypertension in HAPE through oxygen administration results in a favorable outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1092.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Antarctica; High Arctic; fungi; climate change
Online: 17 July 2023 (09:48:48 CEST)
The Antarctica and High Arctic regions are extreme environments, with average maximum temperatures below 0 °C for most days of the year. Interestingly, fungi inhabit these regions. This review describes the history of fungal surveys near the Syowa Station and the fungal diversity in this region. In the High Arctic region, I summarized the changes in fungal communities in glacial retreat areas of Ny-Ålesund, Norway and Ellesmere Island, Canada in response to climate change. In addition, growth and enzyme secretion ability of Antarctic and Arctic fungi at sub-zero temperatures are presented. Finally, I have also provided the future directions of Antarctic and Arctic fungal research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: high blood pressure; Cancer; malignancies; hypertension
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:05:11 CET)
Background of the Study: We investigated the link between hypertension and cancer since it has been suggested that hypertension may raise the long-term risk of cancer. Previous large observational cohort studies found that greater blood pressure (BP) was related to a higher risk of cancer. Mendelian randomization (MR) was utilized to produce less confounded blood pressure estimates (BP) on overall and site-specific malignancies. The study aims to draw conclusions on the relationship between high blood pressure and cancer. Methods: Studies on high blood pressure and various malignancies are inconclusive, except for renal cell carcinoma. However, given that most meta-analyses only contained a limited number of trials, some relative risks had small to moderate magnitudes, and several may have been impacted by residual confounding, careful interpretation is necessary. The study was conducted using the meta-analysis technique. Cochran's Q test and I2 test were used to assess statistical heterogeneity between studies in the current investigation for research involving two or more cause and outcome combinations. Results: Positive correlations were also reported between high blood pressure and esophageal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, liver, and squamous cell carcinoma. However, most studies lacked multivariable adjustments. Physical and numerical risk of cardiovascular disease is linked to bowel cancer but no other cancers. According to a meta-analysis, hypertensive persons could also be at increased danger of gastrointestinal and breast cancer. Most meta-analyses comprised several trials with moderate or mild hazard ratios.ConclusionDifferent types of cancers have been noted to be directly caused by hypertension. In addition, some treatments have also been associated with the side effects of cancer treatments to cause hypertension. Women facing hypertension have an increased risk of getting breast cancer. Although some cancers showed a real relationship with hypertension, others had no connection at all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0598.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: high-velocity oxygen fuel; chromium; abrasion
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:24:14 CEST)
This research work studies the characteristics of wear and wear resistance of composite powder coatings, deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel, which contain composite mixtures Ni-Cr-B-Si having different chromium concentrations – 9.9%; 13.2%; 14%; 16% and 20% , at one and the same size of the particles and the same content of the remaining elements. The coating of 20% Cr does not contain B and Si. Out of each powder, composite coatings have been prepared without any preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate and with preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate up to 650оС. The coatings have been tested under identical conditions of dry friction over a surface of solid firmly attached abrasive particles using the tribological testing device „Pin-on-disk“. Results have been obtained and the dependences of the hardness, mass wear, intensity of the wearing process, absolute and relative wear resistance on the Cr concentration under identical conditions of friction. It has been found out that for all the coatings the preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate leads to a decrease in the wear intensity. Upon increasing Cr concentration the wear intensity diminishes and it reaches minimal values at 16% Cr. In the case of coatings having 20% Cr concentration, the wear intensity is increased, which is due to the absence of the components B and Si in the composite mixture, whereupon no inter-metallic structures are formed having high hardness and wear resistance. The obtained results have no analogues in the current literature and they have not been published by the authors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0493.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; filters; high bandwidth; RF photonics
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:51:34 CEST)
Soliton crystal micro-combs are powerful tools as sources of multiple wavelength channels for radio frequency (RF) signal processing. They offer a compact device footprint, large numbers of wavelengths, very high versatility, and wide Nyquist bandwidths. Here, we demonstrate integral order RF signal processing functions based on a soliton crystal micro-comb, including a Hilbert transformer and first- to third-order differentiators. We compare and contrast results achieved and the tradeoffs involved with varying comb spacing, tap design methods, as well as shaping methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Dyad Model; Caring; High Risk Pregnancy
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:30:25 CEST)
Background Pregnancy is a process of maturity for women that requires adaptation to the changes in their new roles. Adjustment to a new role is not easy, especially if the pregnancy is accompanied by risks, so it is necessary to get treatment to minimize complications. Dyad models that optimize husband or family support are very important to prevent the risk of complications and adapt mothers to their new roles. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the dyad model on high-risk pregnancies. The method used with a literature review is through the collection of articles from Scopus, ebsco, ProQuest and PubMed. The results obtained were articles from Scopus 9, Ebsco 107, PubMed 214 and ProQuest 85 which carried out identification, screening and eligibility for 25 articles. Overall results mention. Journals are categorized into 4 groups, Dyad Model and social support, high-risk pregnancy, maternal role and Self Efficacy. Conclusion, there is an effect of the dyad model on care for high-risk pregnancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; filters; high bandwidth; RF photonics
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
We demonstrate an RF photonic fractional Hilbert transformer based on an integrated Kerr micro-comb source featuring a record low free spectral range of 49 GHz. By programming and shaping the comb lines according to calculated tap weights for up to 39 wavelengths across the C-band, we achieve tunable bandwidths ranging from 1.2 to 15.3 GHz as well as variable center frequencies from baseband to 9.5 GHz, for both standard integral and arbitrary fractional orders. We experimentally characterize the RF amplitude and phase response of the tunable bandpass and lowpass Hilbert transformers with 90 and 45-degree phase shifts. The experimental results show good agreement with theory, confirming the effectiveness of our approach as a powerful way to implement standard and fractional order Hilbert transformers with broad and variable bandwidths and center frequencies, with high reconfigurability and greatly reduced size and complexity. Tan, and D. J. Moss are with the Optical Sciences Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia. (Corresponding e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Xu is with the Electro-Photonics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, 3800 VIC, Australia
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0069.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: high school; student; leisure; leisure constraints
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:54:20 CEST)
The aim of this research is to determine the factors that may prevent high school students from participating in recreational activities and to investigate whether these factors differ within the scope of various variables. This study consisted of total 1459 (681 women and 778 men) student volunteers who educated in high school level. Sampling method was preferred for easy sampling. The face-to-face survey method was used to collect the data. The "Leisure Constraints Scale" developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997) and adapted to Turkish by Gürbüz, Öncü, and Emir (2012) was used to determine the factors that might prevent individuals from participating in leisure activities. The data obtained for the research were first transferred to the computer and then analyzed by SPSS packet program. The error margin level in the study was taken as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha of the study was found to be 0.91. As a result, it was found that women participated in the leisure time more than men. It was also observed that the participants met with more leisure constrain in Turkey's eastern regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: survivin; high expression; gastrointestinal cancer; prognostic
Online: 11 April 2017 (10:51:06 CEST)
Previous studies on the prognostic impact of survivin expression in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer have yielded inconsistent results. This study was initiated to assess the relationship between survivin expression and overall survival (OS) or disease free survival (DFS) in GI cancer patients. We applied system literature searches on EMBASE, PubMed, Web of science, and the Cochrane library to conduct this up-to-date meta-analysis. Thirty studies with totally 3622 GI cancer patients were collected. The prevalence of high survivin expression in GI cancer was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.51-0.63). High survivin expression was significantly associated with shorter OS (HR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.42-1.74) and DFS (HR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.21-1.58). Subgroup analysis also showed significant association between high survivin expression and poorer OS or DFS in gastric cancer or colorectal cancer. In summary, our study indicated that high survivin expression was related to poor prognosis in GI cancer. Well-designed studies with large sample and more convincing data are needed to confirm our conclusion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0496.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids; high tunnel; greenhouse; plant factory; non-dormant; substrate; container; evergreen; high density
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:56:10 CEST)
Southern highbush blueberry plantations have been expanded into worldwide non-traditional growing areas with elite cultivars and improved horticultural practices. This article presents a comprehensive review of current production systems – alternatives to traditional open field production – such as production in protected environments, high-density plantings, evergreen production, and container-based production. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system and compare their differences to the open field production. In addition, potential solutions have been provided for some of the disadvantages. We also highlight some of the gaps existing between academic studies and production in industry, providing a guide for future academic research. All these alternative systems have shown the potential to produce high yields with high quality berries. Alternative systems, compared to the field production, require higher establishment investments and thus create an entry barrier for new producers. Nevertheless, with their advantages, alternative productions have potential to be profitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0050.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: mefenamic acid; diamond anvil cell; high-pressure; polymorphism; high-pressure crystallization; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Online: 8 March 2017 (08:58:38 CET)
High pressure crystallization technique has been successfully used to prepare an elusive form II of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Mefenamic acid. Single crystal of form II was grown at 0.3 GPa from an 4:1 methanol/ ethanol mixture as a solvent using Diamond Anvil Cell. Comparison of crystal structures show that the efficient packing of MA molecules in Form II results from the structural flexibility of MA acid molecules. Compression studies performed on the single crystal of form I resulted in 14 % decrease of unit cell volume up to 2.5 GPa. No phase transition was observed up to this pressure. A reconstructive phase transition is required to induce conformational changes in the structure, which is confirmed by crystallization at high pressure results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0747.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: bronze relics; powder rust; high-permeability; stabilization
Online: 12 October 2023 (02:12:19 CEST)
Under the influence of various factors, the bronze ware unearthed by archaeology has various diseases of different degrees, and the mineralization problem is more prominent. The physical properties of mineralized bronzes have been destroyed, and the whole is loose and fragile, which is in urgent need of reinforcement and protection. Common reinforcement and protection materials mainly consider surface sealing, matrix bonding reinforcement and penetration reinforcement. Considering the low matrix strength and complex disease types of fragile bronzeware, it is difficult to achieve targeted protection with commonly used reinforcement and protection materials. In view of the problems such as poor permeability and easy discoloration of commonly used protection materials, this paper uses self-developed reinforcement and protection material AMC to compare its reinforcement and protection performance with B72, which has a high comprehensive evaluation on the performance of commonly used reinforcement and protection materials. The matrix strength was increased, and the appearance intervention degree was less than B72.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: characteristic mode; Chinese characters; WiFi; high isolation
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:42:23 CEST)
In this paper, a dual-band WiFi antenna and its Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system application is designed, fabricated, and measured based on the Chinese characters “Men” and “Wei”. The antenna uses a 40×40×1.6 mm3 Fr4 substrate to analyze the combinatorial structure of Chinese characters using the theory of characteristic modes (TCM), to optimize the antenna dimensions by analyzing the mode current distribution, and to broaden the antenna bandwidth by etching rectangular slots on the ground. The measured and simulated results show that the four-element MIMO antenna covers 5.68-8.01 GHz, the isolation between the antennas is higher than 20 dB in the working band, the Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC) and the channel capacity losses (CCLs)of the simulation is lower than 0.001 and 0.18 bits/s/HZ, respectively. The efficiency of the antenna is higher than 90%, and it can be used for WiFi communication band (5.8 GHz and 6 GHz).