ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0170.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Manufacturing equipment; Fractional order calculus; Effective evaluation; Operational status
Online: 9 February 2023 (15:02:18 CET)
The operation status of manufacturing equipment is directly related to the reliability of the operation of manufacturing equipment and the continuity of operation of the production system. Based on the analysis of the operation status of manufacturing equipment and its characteristics, it is proposed that the concept of assessing the operation status of manufacturing equipment can be realized by applying real-time acquisition of accurate inspection data of important parts of weak motion units and comparing them with their motion status evaluation criteria. Through the study of the application characteristics of fractional-order calculus theory, a differential data fusion model based on the fractional-order differential operator is established. The advantages of Internet of Things (IoT）technology and fractional order differential fusion algorithm are integrated to obtain real-time high-precision data of the operating parameters of manufacturing equipment, and the research objective of operating condition assessment of manufacturing equipment is realized. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method are verified by the application of the method in machining center operation status assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0125.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: COVID-19; Effective reproductive number; Lockdown.
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:25:56 CEST)
In 2020, the world was plagued with COVID-19 which was first identified in Wuhan, China in November 2019. During the early phase of the pandemic with no known treatment and WHO-approved vaccines, most government and public health officials were pushing for non-pharmaceutical intervention in trying to curb the spread of COVID-19. One such intervention is the restriction on movement to reduce social mixing. However, the economic cost of locking down cities especially in developing countries is unbearable as most of these countries are running economies that were on life support before the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyze the daily COVID-19 cases in Ghana to evaluate whether there was a significant change in transmission of COVID-19 after the partial lockdown of the two main cities (Kumasi and Accra) was lifted. The results showed that there was no increase in the transmissibility of COVID-19 after the partial lockdown was lifted. Contrary to the expectation that transmissibility will increase after lifting the partial lockdown, there was a reduction of the time-dependent reproduction ratio from 3.17 to 1.23.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: effective anesthesia; earthquake; orthopedic; victim’s management
Online: 25 February 2020 (12:14:03 CET)
Lombok earthquake that occurred in July 2018 has three large magnitude earthquakes that caused huge losses; 564 victims died, 1684 injured, 445 343 refugees, and 215 628 houses were damaged. The role of anesthesiology is very important to give prompt therapy for injured victims. This research gave an overview of the important role of Anesthesiologist and the selection of anesthesia techniques during the natural disasters’ victims’ management. This study was conducted by collecting data of all earthquake victims treated at the emergency room (ER) of RSUD NTB on August 6th and 7th 2018 and all victims operated during August 5 – 25th 2018. All data were recorded, analyzed, and presented in descriptive form using frequency, pie chart, and bar diagrams. The result shown that the highest number of patients treated in ER are during the first seven days after the earthquake and reduced to several weeks. The majority of patients treated are trauma patients who need orthopedic surgery. Since limited number of anesthesiologist should be considered with the right selection of anesthesia techniques, so that the disaster preparedness could be prepared well and the disaster management could run well. General anesthesia was widely used than regional anesthesia, but the different is not significant. The type of regional anesthetic drug usually used is lidodex in combination with catapres. The role of anesthesiologist during disaster is important to handle a safe and optimal surgical condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0137.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Effective actions, Renormalization Group, Semiclassical contributions
Online: 14 February 2019 (12:24:26 CET)
We review past and present results on the non-local form-factors of the effective action of semiclassical gravity in two and four dimensions computed by means of a covariant expansion of the heat kernel up to the second order in the curvatures. We discuss the importance of these form-factors in the construction of mass-dependent beta functions for the Newton's constant and the other gravitational couplings.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: DNA charge transfer; effective Hamiltonians; renormalization techniques
Online: 6 November 2020 (09:05:14 CET)
By introducing a suitable renormalization process the charge carrier and phonon dynamics of a double-stranded helical DNA molecule is expressed in terms of an effective Hamitonian describing a linear chain, where the renormalized transfer integrals explicitly depend on the relative orientations of the Watson-Crick base pairs, and the renormalized on-site energies are related to the electronic parameters of consecutive base pairs along the helix axis, as well as to the low-frequency phonons dispersion relation. The existence of synchronized collective oscillations enhancing the π-π orbital overlapping among different base pairs is disclosed from the study of the obtained analytical dynamical equations. The role of these phonon-correlated, long-range oscillation effects on the charge transfer properties of double standed DNA homopolymers is discussed in terms of the resulting band structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0170.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Shear Strength; FRP; Anchorage devices; effective FRP strain
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:27:32 CEST)
All over the world, externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer systems used to strengthen concrete elements improve building sustainability. However, reports issued by the American Concrete Institute Committee 440 called for heavy scrutinizing before actual field implementation. The very limited number of proposed equations lacks reliability and accuracy. Thus, further investigation in this area is needed. In addition, machine learning techniques are being implemented successfully in developing strength models for complex problems. This study aims to provide a reliable machine learning model based on an experimental database. The proposed model was developed and validated against the experimental database and the very limited models in the literature. The model showed improved agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: seahorse; effective day degrees; temperature; stable isotopes; Hippocampus
Online: 17 August 2020 (08:11:00 CEST)
Relations between nutrient assimilation and growth rate in fishes may vary with abiotic factors such as temperature. The effects of feeding status, ontogeny and temperature regimes (15, 18 and 21 °C) on stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) patterns were assayed and modelled in juveniles of the seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus. The use of effective day degrees (D°eff) and chronological time (age) were compared as development progress indices. Newborn seahorses were maintained at three temperature levels both deprived of food (5 days) or fed (30 days) on copepods or/and Artemia. Isotopic signatures in fed seahorses clearly differed from those in unfed juveniles. Temperature had a significant effect on δ13C values in fed juveniles throughout the experimental period. δ15N values also varied significantly with age, but not with temperature level. Faster growth and food assimilation in seahorses held at 18 and 21 °C were supported by faster variations in isotopic values. Our findings demonstrate that effective day degrees should be preferred over chronological time as index of developmental progress in temperature fluctuating scenarios or for comparative studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0249.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: Embedding; Gravity; Growth matter evolution; Effective Newtonian constant
Online: 15 May 2020 (08:06:03 CEST)
The acceleration of the universe is described as a consequence of the extrinsic curvature of the space-time embedded in a bulk space, defined by the Einstein-Hilbert. Using the linear approximation of Nash-Green theorem, we obtain the related perturbed equations in which just the gravitational-tensor field equations contribute to propagation of cosmological perturbations. In accordance with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and solar constraints, we calculate numerically the effective Newtonian function Geff to constrain the related parameters of the model. We numerically solve the growth density equation for two possible family of solutions leading to an interesting overdensity and, in some cases, a mild damping of the growth profiles, with a top amplification of the growth perturbations around 14% in comparison with LCDM model and quintessence. The effective gravitational Phi and Newtonian curvature Psi are also analysed showing mild perturbations in early times induced only by the extrinsic curvature differently from the LambdaCDM standards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0463.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Protrusion, illumination, height, effective pixel, gray level, teaching
Online: 24 September 2018 (15:02:56 CEST)
Protrusive defects on the color filter of thin-film transistor (TFT) liquid crystal displays (LCDs) frequently damage the valuable photomask. An fast method using side-view illuminations associated with digital charge-couple devices (CCDs) to detect the protrusive defect in the four substrates, which are the black matrix (BM), red, green, and blue. Between the photomask and substrate, the depth of field (DOF) is normally 300 μm for the proximity-type aligner; we select the four substrates to evaluate the detectability in the task. The experiment is capable of detecting measurements of 300 μm and even lower than 100 μm can be assessed successfully. The maximum error of the measurement is within 6% among the four samples. Furthermore, the uncertainty analysis of three standard deviations is conducted. Thus, the method is cost-effective to prevent damage for valuable photomasks in the flat panel display industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0067.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: cost effective; stochastic frontier; maize; technical efficiency; tobit
Online: 8 May 2017 (17:25:58 CEST)
This paper aimed to assess the technical efficiency of maize seed production and the major factors contributing on technical efficiency. Maize is the second most important staple crop in Nepal, but the average yield of maize is very low as compared to other countries having similar agro-climatic requirements. Inefficient use of resources had led to low yield in maize crop. The software Raosoft was used to determine the required sample size and total of 182 samples were selected using simple random technique in June, 2016. Stochastic production frontier model and Tobit model were used to derive the results. The average technical efficiency of maize seed production ranged from 0.25-0.92 with an average of 0.71which revealed the scope of increasing technical efficiency by 29 percent. The majority of the farmers (29.1%) were at higher technical efficiency level of 0.8-0.9 followed by 28.6 percent at 0.7-0.8 and 23.1 percent at 0.6-0.7. Age and schooling of household head, experience on maize seed production, area shared by maize crop and dummies variables such as livestock holding, source of seed and access to extension service had found significantly affecting on the technical efficiency level. For the least developed country like Nepal it would be better to use the available resources wisely and improvement of existing technologies would be more cost effective than that of discovering new technologies. The study recommended that the concerned organizations should focus on mixed agricultural farming system, access to better quality seed and provide technical knowledge which would help in improving technical efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0029.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: crown cover; effective size; reproduction; seed; status number; variation
Online: 3 April 2023 (14:02:32 CEST)
The effect of biotic (e.g., growth characteristics) and a-biotic (e.g., crown closure) factors on cone production, fertility variation and gene diversity was evaluated in two consecutive years in 130 year old natural populations of Taurus cedar also called cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani A. Rich.). The a-biotic factors viz., altitude, temperature, aspect and rainfall varied; while some of them can be managed by cultural operations like management of crown and stand density. Impact of crown closure on cone production, fertility variation and related parameters were observed in Taurus cedar’s natural populations sampled from southern Turkey. Maximum cone production of 29 and 40/tree was recorded with full crown closure in two consecutive years by large differences among individuals within crown closure class. For instance, cone productions were between 10 and 67 in full crown closure of first year. The sibling coefficient, which is a measure of the fertility variation in a stand, was the highest (1.16) for full crown closure in the first (meaning 86% fertile trees) and the second year (1.55, 65%), while it was the lowest for medium crown closure (1.09, 92%) in both years. Gene diversity decreased from a degraded patch (0.987) to that with full crown closure (0.984). Results of variance analysis showed significant (p≤0.05) difference between crown closure classes for cone production within second year, and between years. Significant positive (p0.05) correlations were noted between years for cone production (r=0.22), and between cone production and crown closure in first and second years (r=0.29). However, growth characteristics had no effective on cone productions in individual crown closure classes, while there were significant (p0.05) correlations between diameter at breast height and cone production for both years (r= 0.15 and 0.17) in pooled populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0456.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: psychiatry; effective connectivity; depression; salience network; schizophrenia; mood disorders
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:57:10 CEST)
This study was conducted to examine whether there are quantitative or qualitative differences in the connectome between psychiatric patients and healthy controls and to delineate the connectome features of major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and the severity of these disorders. Toward this end, we have performed effective connectivity analysis of resting state functional MRI data in these three patient groups and healthy controls. We have used spectral Dynamic Causal Modeling (spDCM), and the derived connectome features were further subjected to machine learning. The results outlined a model of 5 connections, which discriminate patients from controls, comprising major nodes of the limbic system (amygdala (AMY), hippocampus (HPC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)), the salience network (anterior insula (AI), fronto-parietal and dorsal attention network (middle frontal gyrus (MFG) corresponding to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye field (FEF)). Notably, the alterations in the self-inhibitory connection of the anterior insula emerged as a feature of both mood disorders and SCZ. Moreover, 4 out of the 5 connectome features that discriminate mental illness from controls are features of mood disorders (both MDD and BD), namely the MFG→FEF, HPC→FEF, AI→AMY, and MFG→AMY connections, whereas one connection is a feature of SCZ, namely the AMY→SPL connectivity. A large part of the variance in the severity of depression (31.6%) and SCZ (40.6%) was explained by connectivity features. In conclusion, dysfunctions in the self-regulation of the salience network may underpin major mental disorders, while other key connectome features shape differences between mood disorders and SCZ, and can be used as potential imaging biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0418.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: metamaterials; negative effective mass; plasma oscillations; low frequency plasmons
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:39:01 CEST)
We report the negative effective mass metamaterials based on the electro-mechanical coupling exploiting plasma oscillations of a free electron gas. The negative mass appears as a result of vibration of a metallic particle with a frequency of ω which is close the frequency of the plasma oscillations of the electron gas m_2 relatively to the ionic lattice m_1. The plasma oscillations are represented with the elastic spring k_2=ω_p^2 m_2, where ω_p is the plasma frequency. Thus, the metallic particle vibrated with the external frequency ω is described by the effective mass m_eff=m_1+(m_2 ω_p^2)/(ω_p^2-ω^2 ) , which is negative when the frequency ω approaches ω_p from above. The idea is exemplified with two conducting metals, namely Au and Li.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0269.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: Computed Tomography; radiation dose; cancer risk; CTPA; effective diameter
Online: 3 January 2020 (11:21:25 CET)
This study aims to evaluate the patient’s dose exposure from Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) examination and to estimates the cancer risk induced from the examinations based on the patient’s size. One hundred patients were recruited, and data information was collected retrospectively. A multi-detector (MDCT) (Philips Brilliance 128, USA) scanner were utilized for the CTPA examination, and dose data were obtained from the system. The effective diameter of each subjects’ image was measured for the Size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs). All subjects divided into Group 1 (19 – 25 cm), Group 2 (25-28 cm) and Group 3 (28-38 cm), where the association between gender were analysed. Effective dose (E), SSDE, organ dose and cancer risk of each group were evaluated and compared statistically using independent t-test and one-way ANOVA. The range of mean CTDIvol, DLP and E values were (6.44 – 17.42 mGy), (239 – 631 mGy), (5.19 – 13.90 mSv), respectively. In respective with the patient’s effective diameter, the mean SSDE value for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were 9.93 ± 3.89 mGy, 13.70 ± 9.04 mGy and 22.29 ± 7.35 mGy. The organ dose and cancer risk attained for breast, lung and liver were 17.05 ± 10.40 mGy (194 per one million procedure), 17.55 ± 10.86 mGy (192 per one million procedure) and 15.04 ± 9.75 mGy (53 per one million procedure), respectively. Lung and breast with more massive patient’s effective diameter received the highest dose exposure which increases the probability of the cancer risk. CTDIvol was found to be underestimated, and SSDE provides more accurate in describing the radiation dose and cancer risk. Body effective diameter found to be significant on the estimation except for gender. Therefore, it is essential to apply optimised protocols in order to reduce patient’s exposure during CTPA examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0274.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: meteorological drought; effective drought index; bangladesh; frequency of drought
Online: 24 September 2019 (12:17:36 CEST)
This study aims to assess the spatiotemporal characteristics of meteorological droughts in Bangladesh during 1981–2015 using the Effective Drought Index (EDI). Monthly precipitation data for 36 years (1980-2015) obtained from 27 metrological stations, were used in this study. The EDI performance was evaluated for four sub-regions over the country through comparisons with historical drought records identified at the regional scale. Analysis at a regional level showed that EDI could reasonably detect the drought years/events during the study period. The study also revealed that the overall drought severity had increased during the past 35 y; the most significant increasing trend was observed in the central region. The characteristics (severity and duration) of drought were also analysed in terms of spatiotemporal evolution of the frequency of drought events. It was found that the western and central regions of the country are comparatively more vulnerable to drought. Moreover, the southwestern region is more prone to extreme drought, whereas the central region is more prone to severe droughts. In addition, the central region was more prone to extra-long-term droughts, while the coastal areas in the southwestern as well as in the central and north-western region were more prone to long-term droughts. The frequency of droughts in all categories significantly increased during the last quinquennial period (2011 to 2015). The seasonal analysis showed that the north-western areas were prone to extreme droughts during the Kharif (wet) and Rabi (dry) seasons. The central and northern regions were affected by recurring severe droughts in all cropping seasons. Further, the most significant increasing trend of the drought-affected area was observed within the central region, especially during the pre-monsoon (March-May) season. The results of this study can aid policymakers in the development of drought mitigation strategies in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1446.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: conductivity; electromigration; effective charge; metal solutions; Drude-Sommerfeld; consistency rule
Online: 19 May 2023 (15:35:07 CEST)
The phenomena of electrical conductivity and electromigration in metallic systems are related, since in both cases the basic physical process is the scattering of conduction electrons by metal ions. Numerous searches have been made for equations connecting the conductivity with electromigration. In the case of a liquid metal, when using the Drude-Sommerfeld (DS) conduc-tivity equation, it was not possible to obtain a quantitative relationship between these phenomena, which would be correct. Attempts to find such a relationship when taking into ac-count the N. Mott correction (g - factor) in the DS equation were unsuccessful. This article proposes a different correction (b - factor) to the DS equation, which takes into account the pos-sibility of varying the momentum transferred by the conduction electron to a metal ion during the scattering. This correction allows to establish a quantitative relationship between conductivity and electromigration, as well as between electromigration in various binary systems with common components, in agreement with experiment. The proposed theory describes well, in particular, two- and multi-component metal systems of any concentration (the consistency rule for triangles A-B, B-C, C-A). The value of b - factor smoothly changes depending on the heat of vaporization of the metal, per unit volume.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0181.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: metamaterials; negative effective mass; negative density; negative thermal capacity; resonance.
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:36:03 CET)
One-dimensional chain of core-shell pairs connected by ideal springs enables design of the metamaterial demonstrating the negative effective density and negative specific thermal capacity. We assume that the molar thermal capacity of the reported metamaterial is governed by the Dulong-Petit law in its high temperature limit. The specific thermal capacity depends of the density of the metamaterial; thus, it is expected to be negative, when the effective density of the chain is negative. The range of the frequencies enabling the effect of the negative thermal capacity is established. Dependence of the effective thermal capacity on the exciting frequency for various core/shell mass ratios is elucidated. The effective thermal capacity becomes negative in the vicinity of the local resonance frequency ω0 in the situation when the frequency ω approaches ω0 from above. The effect of the negative effective thermal capacity is expected in metals in the vicinity of the plasma frequency.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Poincaré–Weyl gauge theory; super-early Universe; effective cosmological constant
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:27:49 CEST)
The stage of a super-early scale-invariant Universe is considered on the basis of the Poincaré–Weyl gauge theory of gravity in a Cartan–Weyl space-time. An approximate solution has been found that demonstrates an inflationary behavior of the scale factor and, at the same time, a sharp exponential decrease in the effective cosmological constant from a huge value at the beginning of the Big Bang to an extremely small (but not zero) value in the modern era, which solves the well-known “cosmological constant problem”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0048.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: effective transition field, volume stability, thermal shock durability, self-restoration
Online: 4 December 2018 (08:52:15 CET)
In this study, a parameter of volume stability was proposed for the first time to design polymorph zirconia ceramics used for special components. A series of heterogeneous polymorph zirconia ceramics with various amounts of monoclinic (M) phase were fabricated by two-step sintering. Samples with about 27%, 31%, and 51% M phase content were selected to study the properties. The thermal shock durability was found to be associated with thermal expansion behavior and noncritical micro cracks, which both based on M phase initial content. In good agreement with experimental results, the correlation of normalized K versus M phase initial content was established. It could provide a repeatable reference to prepare special zirconia components without loss of density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0118.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: quasielastic electron scattering; superscaling analysis; relativistic mean field; relativistic effective mass
Online: 7 March 2023 (02:04:58 CET)
Superscaling in electron scattering from nuclei is re-examined paying special attention to the definition of the averaged single-nucleon responses. The validity of the extrapolation of nucleon responses in the Fermi gas has been examined, which previously lacked a theoretical foundation. To address this issue, we introduce new averaged responses with a momentum distribution smeared around the Fermi surface, allowing for momenta above the Fermi momentum. This approach solves the problem of negativity in the extrapolation away from the scaling region and, at the same time, validates its use in the scaling analysis. This work has important implications for the interpretation of scaling data and contributes to the development of a more complete understanding of the scaling approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0502.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: deterministic chaos; multifractals; effective field theory; Lyapunov exponents; Renormalization Group; selfsimilarity
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:16:54 CEST)
Fractals and multifractals are well-known trademarks of nonlinear dynamics and classical chaos. The goal of this work is to tentatively uncover the unforeseen path from multifractals and selfsimilarity to the framework of effective field theory (EFT). An intriguing finding is that the partition function of multifractal geometry includes a signature analogous to that of gravitational interaction. Our results also suggest that multifractal geometry may offer insights into the non-renormalizable interactions presumed to develop beyond the Standard Model scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0056.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Relativity, EPR, Superluminal, Ether, Sudarshan, Effective mass, time dilation, length contraction
Online: 5 March 2019 (11:32:04 CET)
This paper seeks to investigate the questions of: How does the constancy of the speed of light come about? Why does time dilation and length contraction occur? Are they physical effects with a mechanism? Does mass have a role is in these effects? Is Relativity an emergent phenomenon? The enquiry is along a different tact than the standard Lorentzian invariance canon but in the realm of readily known experimental facts or analogies and theory in the domain of wave propagation and solid state physics. These analogies, to almost prosaic physics, have a small following and are called Ether Theories, which modern physics has implicitly reinstated by General Relativity and Quantum Field Theories. In the category of Ether Theories based on analogies to solid state physics, this presentation is unique in not being Lorentz invariant; it is based on earlier papers by the author enquiring into the speed of coincidence counting of the Bell Inequality and a communication protocol. It is believed that Lorentz invariance emerges from the Ether and all Relativistic Mechanics can be built from the bottom up. The conclusion is that space-time is not really curved but the effects are all ascribable to mass gain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: combine harvesting; effective field capacity; greenhouse gas emission; manual harvesting; reaper harvesting
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:41:15 CEST)
In this study, three paddy harvesting systems; manual harvesting of paddy (MHP), reaper harvesting of paddy (RHP), and combine harvesting of paddy (CHP) were evaluated considering field capacities, field efficiencies, time and fuel consumption, mechanization indices, greenhouse gas emissions, straw availability, and direct and indirect costs. Field experiments were conducted in North central province of Sri Lanka. The effective field capacity, field efficiency and fuel consumption of the combine harvester were 0.34 hah-1, 60.8%, and 34.1 Lha-1, respectively, and those of the paddy reaper were 0.185 hah-1, 58.2%, and 3.8 Lha-1, respectively. The total time consumed by MHP, RHP, and CHP were 76.05 hha-1, 39.76 hha-1, and 2.94 hha-1, respectively. The highest energy utilization was recorded by the CHP, at 1851.09 MJha-1, while MHP recorded the lowest at 643.20 MJha-1. The direct cost of the MHP was 1.50 and 1.52 times higher than those of the CHP and RHP, respectively. MHP recorded the lowest greenhouse gas emissions (32.94 kgCO2eqha-1), while CHP recorded the highest (176.29 kgCO2eqha-1). The RHP exhibited an intermediate level in all aspects. Although the CHP has higher field performance and direct costs, it brings higher GHG emissions and indirect costs. Therefore, an optimum level of mechanization should be introduced for the long-term sustainability of both the environment and farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Brownian dynamics; effective diffusion; potential of mean force; partition coefficient; release setups
Online: 16 December 2022 (02:55:23 CET)
Lipid mesophases are being intensively studied as potential candidates for drug-delivery purposes. Extensive experimental characterization has unveiled a wide palette of release features depending on the nature of the host lipids and of the guest molecule, as well as on the environmental conditions. However, only few simulation works have addressed the matter, which hampers a solid rationalization of the richness of outcomes observed in experiments. Particularly, to date there are no theoretical works addressing the impact of hydropathy on the transport of a molecule within lipid mesophases, despite the significant fraction of hydrophobic molecules among currently-available drugs. Similarly, the high heterogeneity of water mobility in the nanoscopic channels within lipid mesophases has also been neglected. To fill this gap, we introduce here a minimal model to account for these features in a lamellar geometry, and systematically study the role played by hydropathy and water-mobility heterogeneity by Brownian-dynamics simulations. We unveil a fine interplay between the presence of free-energy barriers, the affinity of the drug for the lipids, and the reduced mobility of water in determining the net molecular transport. More in general, our work is an instance of how multiscale simulations can be fruitfully employed to assist experiments in release systems based on lipid mesophases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: pediatric onset multiple sclerosis; POMS; highly effective treatments; disease modifying drugs; DMD
Online: 1 September 2022 (08:48:04 CEST)
Introduction: Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis (POMS) is characterized by high inflammatory disease activ-ity. Our aim was to describe the treatment sequencing and report the impact Highly Effective Disease Modifying Treatment (HET) had on disease activity. Materials and Methods: 2/5 consecutive POMS were administered HET as initial therapy after diagnosis. Data on treatment sequencing, relapses and MRIs were collected during the follow-up. Results: Our patients had an average age of 13.8 years (range 9-17) at di-agnosis and 13.4 years (range 9-16) at disease onset, 2/5 (40%) POMS were female. The pre-treatment aver-age annualized relapse rate was 1.6 (range 0.8-2.8) and the average follow-up length was 5 years (range 3-7). A total of 2/5 (40%) patients were stable on HET at initial therapy, 3/5 (60%) required an escalation to more aggressive treatment, even if two of them had been put on HET as initial treatment. Four out of five patients (80%) had No Evidence of Disease Activity-3 status (NEDA-3) at an average follow-up of 3 years (range 2-5). Conclusion: it has been observed that in a recent time period all the cases had prompt diagnosis, early HET or escalation to HET with a good outcome in 80% of the cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: laminate; soft material; thin interlayer; guided waves; edge waves; effective boundary conditions
Online: 13 January 2022 (18:45:28 CET)
Laminate structures composed of stiff plates and thin soft interlayers are widely used in aerospace, automotive and civil engineering encouraging the development of reliable non-destructive strategies for their condition assessment. In the paper, elastodynamic behaviour of such laminate structures is investigated with emphasis on its application in ultrasonic based NDT and SHM for the identification of interlayer mechanical and interfacial contact properties. A particular attention is given to the practically important frequency range, in which the wavelength considerably exceeds the thickness of the film. Three layer model with spring-type boundary conditions employed for imperfect contact simulation is used for numerical investigation. Novel effective boundary conditions are derived via asymptotic expansion technique and used for analysis of the peculiar properties of elastic guided waves in considered laminates. It is revealed that the thin and soft film influences the behaviour of the laminate mainly via the effective stiffnesses being a combination of the elastic moduli of the film, its thickness and interface stiffnesses. To evaluate each of these parameters separately (or to figure out that the available experimental data are insufficient), a step-wise procedure employing the effective boundary conditions is proposed and tested versus the laser Doppler vibrometry data for Lamb waves in Aluminium/Polymer film/Alumunium structure. The possibility of using film-related thickness resonance frequencies to estimate the film properties and contact quality is also demonstrated. Additionally, the rich family of edge waves is also investigated, and the splitting of fundamental edge waves into pairs is revealed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: resting state functional MRI; effective connectivity; dystonia; movement disorders; subcortical; basal ganglia
Online: 8 December 2021 (11:55:16 CET)
AbstractIn the evolving modern era of neuromodulation for movement disorders in adults and children, much progress has been made recently characterizing the human motor network (MN) with potentially important treatment implications. Herein is a focused review of relevant resting state fMRI functional and effective connectivity of the human motor network across the lifespan in health and disease. The goal is to examine how the transition from static functional to dynamic effective connectivity may be especially informative of network-targeted movement disorder therapies, with hopeful implications for children.Impact StatementWhile functional connectivity has elucidated much MN properties with relation to age, disease, and behavior, effective connectivity has been shown to be useful in MN-informed therapies in adults. Thus, effective connectivity may have potential to impact childhood movement disorder therapies, given the lower to no patient demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: particulate-reinforced composite materials; homogenization; effective field method; numerical analysis; optimal design
Online: 25 December 2017 (08:37:21 CET)
A microstructure-based model is developed to study the effective anisotropic properties (magnetic, dielectric or thermal) of two phase particle-filled composites. The Green’s function technique and the effective field method are used to derive theoretically the homogenized (averaged) properties for a representative volume element containing isolated inclusion and an infinite, chain-structured particles. Those results are compared with the FE approximations conducted for the assumed representative volume element. In addition, as a special case, the Maxwell–Garnett model is retrieved when particle interactions are not taken into consideration. We shall also give some information on the optimal design of the effective anisotropic properties taking into account the shape of magnetic particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0087.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Schwarzschild; external electrostatic field; particle motion; Jacobi-elliptic integrals; Lyapunov exponent; effective force
Online: 1 June 2023 (12:24:38 CEST)
In this paper, we discussed the motion of neutral and charged particles in Schwarzschild black hole immersed in an electromagnetic universe (SEBH). The SEBH represents a mass M coupled to an external electromagnetic field that was derived from the metric of colliding electromagnetic waves with double polarization. Our study examine how the external electromagnetic field affects the trajectory of neutral and charged particles. First, the trajectories of both photon and test particle are studied. Then, the exact solutions for the trajectories are obtained in terms of the Jacobi-elliptic integrals for all possible energy and angular momentum of test particle and photon. We have also discussed the motion of charged particle and obtained the radius of the innermost circular orbit (ISCO). It is especially interesting when the charge sign is positive since this creates a conflict between gravitational (attraction force) and electric (repulsion force). Furthermore, we discuss the Lyapunov exponent and the effective force influencing particles in SEBH spacetime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Metal-air batteries cell; electrode materials; open cell foam; replication process; effective conductivity
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:24:22 CEST)
The global context of research for new sustainable energy storage technologies makes it a very active sector with significant scientific and economic challenges. Indeed, due to the irregular development of renewable energies and the shutdown of traditional power facilities, it is difficult to maintain a stable balance in terms of supply and demand: energy storage can help in particular for substantial changes in the latter. Metal air batteries have a higher energy density and are safer than other available energy storage devices. Based on the existing and proven lead-acid battery technology, this paper proposed an open cell foam manufactured by the Excess Salt Replication process for use as an anode for lead-air battery cellsies with sulphuric acid as the electrolyte. This will save lead and reduce the battery weight. A 25% antimonial lead alloy was used to produce open cell foams with a cell diameter between 2 mm and 5 mm for the antimonial lead-air battery. Preliminary results of the effective electrical conductivity of self-discharged primary battery cells, measured experimentally, showed that all antimonial lead foam-air battery cellsies performed better than that made from the same dense non porous antimonial lead alloy. This is generally due to their important specific surface area where oxidation-reduction reactions took place. A correlation between the effective electrical conductivity and the cell diameter has been established and the highest conductivity was obtained with a cell diameter of 5mm. The feasibility of such an electrical system has been demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0140.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: detection efficiency; effective detection range; abundance; tidal energy; MHK turbine; fish-turbine encounter
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:56:44 CEST)
Semidiurnal tidal currents can exceed 5 ms−1 in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy, where a tidal energy demonstration area has been designated to generate electricity using marine hydrokinetic turbines. The risk of harmful fish-turbine interaction cannot be dismissed for either migratory or local fish populations. Individuals belonging to several fish populations have been acoustically-tagged and monitored by using acoustic receivers moored within Minas Passage. Detection efficiency ρ is required as the first step to estimate probability of fish-turbine encounter. Moored Innovasea HR2 receivers and high residency (HR) tags were used to obtain detection efficiency ρ as a function of range and current speed, for near-seafloor signal paths within the tidal energy development area. Strong tidal currents moved moorings so HR tag signals, and their reflections from the sea surface, were used to measure ranges from tags to receivers. HR2 self-signals that reflected off the sea surface showed which moorings were displaced to lower and higher levels on the seafloor. Some of the range testing paths had anomalously low ρ which might be attributed to variable bathymetry blocking the line of sight signal path. Clear and blocked signal paths accord with mooring levels. Application of ρ is demonstrated for calculation of abundance, effective detection range, and detection-positive intervals. High residency signals were better detected than pulse position modulation (PPM) signals. Providing the presently obtained ρ applies to tagged fish that swim higher in the water column, there is a reasonable prospect that probability of fish-turbine encounter can be estimated by monitoring fish that carry HR tags.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: metamaterials; negative effective mass; plasma oscillations; low frequency plasmons; optical and acoustical branches.
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:38:18 CEST)
We report the negative effective mass metamaterials based on the electro-mechanical coupling exploiting plasma oscillations of a free electron gas. The negative mass appears as a result of vibration of a metallic particle with a frequency of ω which is close to the frequency of the plasma oscillations of the electron gas m_2 relatively to the ionic lattice m_1. The plasma oscillations are represented with the elastic spring k_2=ω_p^2 m_2, where ω_p is the plasma frequency. Thus, the metallic particle vibrated with the external frequency ω is described by the effective mass m_eff=m_1+(m_2 ω_p^2)/(ω_p^2-ω^2 ) , which is negative when the frequency ω approaches ω_p from above. The idea is exemplified with two conducting metals, namely Au and Li embedded into various matrices. The one-dimensional lattice built of the identical metallic micro-elements m_eff connected by ideal springs k_1 representing various media such as polydimethylsiloxane and soda-lime glass is treated. The optical and acoustical branches of longitudinal modes propagating through the lattice are elucidated for various ratios ω_1/ω_p . The 1D lattice built of the thin metallic wires giving rise to the low frequency plasmons is treated. The possibility of the anti-resonant propagation, strengthening the effect of the negative mass occurring under = p = 1 is addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0511.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ductile fracture, ductile fracture mechanisms, critical effective plastic strain, stress triaxiality, Lode angle
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:44:38 CEST)
In this paper, the ductile fracture mechanism is discussed. The results of the numerical and experimental analyses are used to estimate of the onset of the crack front growth . It is assumed that the ductile fracture in front of the crack starts at the location along the crack front where the accumulated effective plastic strain reaches a critical value. It is also assumed that the critical effective plastic strain depends on the stress triaxiality and the Lode angle. The experimental programme was performed using five different specimen geometries, three different materials and three different temperatures of +20°C, -20°C and -50°C. Using the experimental data and the results of the finite element computations, the critical effective plastic strains are determined for each material and each temperature. However, before the critical effective plastic strain is determined, a careful calibration of the stress–strain curves was performed after modification of the Bai–Wierzbicki procedure. Finally, by analysing the experimental results recorded during the interrupted fracture tests and scanning microscopy observations, the research hypothesis is verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0367.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: effective cloud albedo; solar surface irradiance; optical flow; cloud motion vectors; renewable energies
Online: 28 April 2018 (11:32:20 CEST)
The increasing use of renewable energies as a source of electricity has led to a fundamental transition of the power supply system. The integration of fluctuating weather-dependent energy sources into the grid already has a major impact on the load flows of the grid. As a result, the interest in forecasting wind and solar radiation with a sufficient accuracy over short time horizons grew. In this study the short-term forecast of the effective cloud albedo based on optical flow estimation methods are investigated. The optical flow method utilized here is TV-L1 from the open source library OpenCV. This method uses a multi-scale-approach to capture cloud motions on various spatial scales. After the clouds are displaced the solar surface radiation will be calculated with SPECMAGIC NOW which computes the global irradiation spectrally resolved from satellite imagery. Due to a high temporal and spatial resolution of satellite measurements the effective cloud albedo and thus solar radiation can be forecasted from 5 minutes up to 4 hours with a resolution of 0.05°. In the following there will be a brief description of the method for the short-term forecast of the effective cloud albedo. Subsequently evaluation results will be presented and discussed. Finally an outlook of further developments will be given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0127.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: true gravity; effective gravity; gravity disturbance vector; geoid undulation; gravity field mode EIGEN-6C4
Online: 7 February 2023 (10:40:58 CET)
Newton’s law of universal gravitation applies between two point-masses. True gravitation of solid Earth is volume integration of gravitation of all point-masses inside the solid Earth on a point-mass in atmosphere. However, in meteorology the Earth “shrinks” into a point-mass located at Earth center with entire Earth mass to identify the Earth gravitation (untrue). Combination of untrue gravitational and centrifugal accelerations gives effective gravity (geff). Combination of true gravitational and centrifugal accelerations leads to true gravity (g). The true gravity g minus the effective gravity geff is the gravity disturbance vector, δg = g – geff. With the true gravity g used in the basic equations, seven non-dimensional numbers are proposed to identify the importance of δg versus traditional forcing terms such as horizontal pressure gradient force and Coriolis force. These non-dimensional numbers are calculated from two publicly available datasets with the geoid undulation (N) from the static gravity field model EIGEN-6C4 and long-term mean geopotential height (Z), wind velocity (u, v), and temperature (Ta) at 12 pressure levels in troposphere from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyzed climatology. The results demonstrate δg nonnegligible in hydrostatic equilibrium, geostrophic wind, geostrophic vorticity, Ekman pumping, Q vector, and Omega equation, but negligible in thermal wind relation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0482.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Solute Transport; Bio-geo-chemical reactions; Dispersion; Mixing; Heterogeneity; Effective transport; Microbial communities, Biofilms
Online: 25 November 2021 (15:53:41 CET)
Reactive transport (RT) couples bio-geo-chemical reactions and transport. RT is important to understand numerous scientific questions and solve some engineering problems. RT is highly multidisciplinary, which hinders the development of a body of knowledge shared by RT modelers and developers. The goal of this paper is to review the basic conceptual issues shared by all RT problems, so as to facilitate advance along the current frontier: biochemical reactions. To this end, we review the basic equations to point that chemical systems are controlled by the set of equilibrium reactions, which are easy to model, but whose rate is controlled by mixing. Since mixing is not properly represented by the standard advection-dispersion equation (ADE), we conclude that this equation is poor for RT. This leads us to review alternative transport formulations, and the methods to solve RT problems using both the ADE and alternative equations. Since equilibrium is easy, difficulties arise for kinetic reactions, which is especially true for biochemistry, where numerous frontiers are open (how to represent microbial communities, impact of genomics, effect of biofilms on flow and transport, etc.). We conclude with the basic 10 issues that we consider fundamental for any conceptually sound RT effort.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: early childhood development; stimulating parenting practices; effective early childhood reading practices; rural China; mixed methodology
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:26:49 CET)
Studies have shown that nearly half of rural toddlers in China have cognitive delays due to an absence of stimulating parenting practices, such as early childhood reading, during the critical first three years of life. However, few studies have examined the reasons behind these low levels of stimulating parenting, and no studies have sought to identify the factors that limit caregivers from providing effective early childhood reading practices (EECRP). This mixed-methods study investigates the perceptions, prevalence and correlates of EECRP in rural China, as well as associations with child cognitive development. We use quantitative survey results from 1,720 caregiver-child dyads across 100 rural villages/townships in northwestern China and field observation and interview data with 60 caregivers from these same sites. The quantitative results show significantly low rates of EECRP despite positive perceptions of early reading and positive associations between EECRP and cognitive development. Qualitative results suggest that low rates of EECRP in rural China are not due to the inability to access books, financial or time constraints, or the absence of aspirations. Rather, the low rate of book ownership and absence of reading to young children is driven by the insufficient and inaccurate knowledge of EECRP among caregivers, which leads to their delayed, misinformed reading decisions with their young children, ultimately contributing to developmental delays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: framing; online discourse strategies; ethical behaviour; work-life blurred boundaries; effective teamwork; individual virtuousness; alignment
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:02:03 CET)
The present paper brings to the fore issues relating to the meaning and construction of ethics in online team communication by exploring the discursive strategies that contribute to the construction of a team’s sense of duty and individual virtuousness. The study relies on a complex toolkit which includes ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistics, discourse and conversation analysis. Data consist in a one-day interaction unit as part of a larger set of real communication exchanges (ca. 34,000) over a time period of six months, observation notes, as well as unstructured interviews. Our empirical analysis has revealed that individual virtuousness and sense of duty are actually interrelated. A virtuous team climate leads team members to share positive perceptions about the team, which in turn increases team commitment. Furthermore, we argue that the blurring of private and professional life not only allows for the enactment of ethic-driven discourse strategies that result in enhanced cooperation and improved team performance but also for high levels of interconnectivity and improved social interaction. The results of the analysis supplement organisational literature based on ethics-centred observations on the effectiveness of virtual work, and show how a discourse-driven approach can provide tools for further theorisations about the practices and the ecology of digital communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0053.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: effective discharge; suspended sediment load; magnitude–frequency analysis; sub-bankfull flow; temporal variation; geomorphic threshold
Online: 4 September 2018 (04:54:01 CEST)
Effective discharge, which represents the flow, or range of flows, that transport the most sediment over long term, was determined based on the mean daily flow discharge and mean daily suspended sediment discharge recorded between 1994 and 2014 at four gauging stations along the Trotuș River. This study proposes an efficient method for the estimation of effective discharge based on observed values of the suspended sediment load. By employing this method the suspended sediment load is no longer either under- or overestimated as in the cases when the assessment is based on sediment rating curves. The assessment on effective discharge was performed at two distinct levels: for the entire data series during the investigated time spans and, subsequently, for flows less than the bankfull discharge. The effectiveness curves of the suspended sediment transport characteristics revealed highly multimodal characteristics with many peaks, indicating ample ranges for the effective discharges. The main effective discharge corresponded to large flood events, which are typical for the upper end of the discharge range, whereas the secondary effective discharges corresponded to sub-bankfull flows, which are more frequent. The changes that occurred in the channel bed are reflected by the temporal variations in the effective discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1413.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Smart Government Strategies; Crisis Environments; Governance Robustness; Institutional Capacities; Effective Local Governance; Evaluation; Indicators Analytical Model.
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:40:37 CEST)
Crisis environments, which are becoming systemic, pose significant challenges to smart government strategies. The paper aims to contribute to academic debate by proposing an analytical framework for examining the institutional capacities of smart government systems in addressing local crises. The paper focuses on the recent approach of robust governance and highlights a set of variables that promote effective smart government: contingency planning capacity, analytical capacity, organizational management capacity, and collaborative capacity. The study presents an analytical model for evaluating the robustness and effectiveness of local smart government systems in crises. One of the significant findings of this study has been the identification of critical indicators that inform institutional capacities of smart government systems. By analyzing these indicators, the proposed analytical framework provides a comprehensive approach to assess the preparedness of smart government systems in dealing with crises. Moreover, it can be used to benchmark the performance of local smart government systems in similar contexts and identify best practices for improving crisis management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0374.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ship detection; synthetic aperture radar (SAR); context information; effective receptive field; you only look once (YOLO)
Online: 6 May 2023 (04:17:18 CEST)
Ship detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been extensively utilized in both the military and civilian fields. On account of complex backgrounds, large scale variations, small-scale targets, and other challenges, it is difficult for current SAR ship detection methods to strike a balance between detection accuracy and computation efficiency. To overcome those challenges, ESarDet, an efficient SAR ship detection method based on context information and large effective receptive field (ERF) is proposed. We introduce the anchor-free object detection method YOLOX-tiny as a baseline model and make several improvements on it. First, the CAA-Net, which has a large ERF, is proposed to better merge the context and semantic information of ships in SAR images to improve ship detection, particularly for small-scale ships with complex backgrounds. Further, to prevent the loss of semantic information regarding ship targets in SAR images, we redesign a new spatial pyramid pooling network, namely A2SPPF. Finally, in consideration of the challenge posed by the large variation in ship scale in SAR images, we design a novel convolution block, called A2CSPlayer, to enhance the fusion of feature maps from different scales. Extensive experiments are conducted on three publicly available SAR ship datasets, DSSDD, SSDD, and HRSID, to validate the effectiveness of the proposed ESarDet. The experimental results demonstrate that ESarDet has distinct advantages over current state-of-the-art (SOTA) detectors in terms of detection accuracy, generalization capability, computational complexity, and detection speed.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: bovine colostrum; bacteria; pathogens; probiotic bacteria; cost-effective processing; heat treatment; pasteurization; contamination control; immunoglobulins; enzymes
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:51:18 CEST)
The main purpose of bovine colostrum, being the milk secreted by a cow after giving birth, is to transfer passive immunity to the calf. The calves have an immature immune system as they lack immunoglobulins (Igs). Subsequently, the supply of good quality bovine colostrum is required. The quality of colostrum is classified by low bacterial counts and adequate Ig concentrations. Bacterial contamination can contain a variety of human pathogens or high counts of spoilage bacteria, which becomes more challenging with emerging use of bovine colostrum as food and food supplements. There is also a growing risk for the spread of zoonotic diseases originating from bovines. For this reason, processing based on heat treatment or other feasible techniques are required. This review provides an overview of literature on the microbial quality of bovine colostrum and processing methods to improve its microbial quality and keep its nutritional values as food. The highlights of this review are: high quality colostrum is a valuable raw material in food products and supplements, the microbial safety of bovine colostrum is increased using appropriate processing-suitable effective heat treatment, which does not destroy the high nutrition value of colostrum, the heat treatment processes are cost-effective compared to other methods, and heat treatment can be performed in both small- and large-scale production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS); biomarkers; specific and effective treatments; TTS management; genetic and epigenetic factors; systematic review
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:07:01 CEST)
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), recognized as stress’s cardiomyopathy, or better as left ventricular apical balloon syndrome in the recent years, is a rare pathology, described for the first time by Japanese researchers in 1990. TTS is characterized by an interindividual heterogeneity in onset and progression, and by the strong predominance in postmenopausal women. The clear causes of these TTS features are uncertain, given the reduced understanding of this intriguing syndrome until now. However, the increasing frequency of TTS cases in the last years, and particularly correlated to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, leads us to imperative necessity both of a complete knowledge of TTS pathophysiology for identifying biomarkers facilitating its management, and targets for specific and effective treatments. The suspect of a genetic basis in TTS pathogenesis has been evidenced. Accordingly, familial form of TTS has been described. But a systematic and comprehensive characterization of the genetic or epigenetic factors significantly associated with TTS is lacking. Thus, we, here, conducted a systematic review of literature before June 2021, to contribute to identify potential genetic and epigenetic factors associated with TTS. Interesting data were evidenced, but of reduced number and with diverse limitations. Consequently, we concluded further work is needed to address the gaps discussed, and probably a clear evidence may arrive using multi-omics investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0409.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Effective Construction; Waste Reduction; achieving Sustainable Development Goals; partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)
Online: 19 July 2021 (12:11:42 CEST)
As a result of rapid population growth, an exponentially growing human population, and industrial expansion, it has become increasingly difficult to manage municipal solid wastes throughout the world. Decentralized waste management systems have created difficult situations in developing countries such as Malaysia. Wastes generated in the country, due to various cultural, social, and religious activities, organic and contributing to environmental pollution (air, water, and soil) and human health troubles. A questionnaire survey was participated by 220 construction professionals in Malaysia using structured and semi-structured methods. The framework was assessed using A partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to target sustainable development goals (SDG). Statistical analysis results indicate a significant effect between SCW management, since(r(270)=.687, P<0.001). Improving factors has strong relationship with SCW management, since(r(270)=.723, P<0.001). The mediation results also suggested a significant indirect positive effect of improving factors drivers on SCW management through policy-related factors sinceβ=0.688, t=8.254, P<0.001, 95% CI for β=0.536,0.866. Finally, policy-related factors construct has a strong relationship with SCWM) management, since(r(270)=.811, P<0.001) With the R Square of 0.787 and 0.785. The developed framework can improve construction waste management in the construction industry and enhance construction waste management to achieve global sustainable development goals. The findings show that one of the most critical issues of enhancing profitability is using preventive policies to reduce construction waste. This study could guide construction industry stakeholders in identifying the different waste management features during a building project's construction and design stage
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0524.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: MXenes; Biomimicry; Brick-and-mortar structures; Micromechanical models; Finite Element Method; Computational Analysis; Effective Interface Model
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:29:40 CET)
Deformation behavior of MXene based polymer composites with bioinspired brick and mortar structures is analyzed. MXene/Polymer nanocomposites are modeled at microscale using bioinspired configurations of nacre-mimetic brick-and-mortar assembly structure. MXenes (brick) with polymer matrix (mortar) are modeled using classical analytical methods and numerical methods based on Finite Elements (FE). The analytical methods provide less accurate estimation of elastic properties compared to numerical one. MXene nanocomposite models analyzed with FE method provide estimates of elastic constants in the same order of magnitude as literature reported experimental results with good consistency. Bioinspired design of MXene nanocomposites results in the effective Young’s modulus of the nanocomposite increase by 25.1 % and the strength (maximum stress capacity within elastic limits) increase by 42.3 %. The brick and mortar structure of the nanocomposites leads to interlocking mechanism between MXene fillers in polymer matrix, resulting in effective load transfer, good strength, and damage resistance. This is demonstrated in this paper by numerical analysis of MXene nanocomposites subjected to quasi-static loads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0291.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Effective Drought Index (EDI); meteorological drought; climate change; GCMs under RCP scenarios; future drought projections; Bangladesh
Online: 26 September 2019 (03:49:09 CEST)
The impacts of climate change on precipitation and drought characteristics over Bangladesh were examined by using the daily precipitation outputs from 29 bias-corrected general circulation models (GCMs) under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. A precipitation-based drought estimator, namely, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), was applied to quantify the characteristics of drought events in terms of the severity and duration. The changes in drought characteristics were assessed for the beginning (2010–2039), middle (2040–2069), and end of this century (2070–2099) relative to the 1976–2005 baseline. The GCMs were limited in regard to forecasting the occurrence of future extreme droughts. Overall, the findings showed that the annual precipitation will increase in the 21st century over Bangladesh; the increasing rate was comparatively higher under the RCP8.5 scenario. The highest increase of rainfall is expected to happen over the drought-prone northern region. The general trends of drought frequency, duration, and intensity are likely to decrease in the 21st century over Bangladesh under both RCP scenarios, except for the maximum drought intensity during the beginning of the century, which is projected to increase over the country. The extreme and medium-term drought events did not show any significant changes in the future under both scenarios except for the medium-term droughts, which decreased by 55% compared to the base period during the 2070s under RCP8.5. However, extreme drought days will likely increase in most of the cropping seasons for the different future periods under both scenarios. The spatial distribution of changes in drought characteristics indicates that the drought-vulnerable areas are expected to shift from the northwestern region to the central and the southern region in the future under both scenarios due to the effects of climate change.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: single-molecule; fluorescence; burst; photon rate; effective detection volume; point-spread function; Brownian; diffusion; simulation; threshold.
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:55:07 CEST)
Single-molecule fluorescence detection (SMFD) experiments are useful in distinguishing sub-populations of molecular species when measuring heterogeneous samples. One experimental platform for SMFD is based on a confocal microscope, where molecules randomly traverse an effective detection volume. The non-uniformity of the excitation profile and the random nature of Brownian motion, produce fluctuating fluorescence signals. For these signals to be distinguished from the background, burst analysis is frequently used. Yet, the relation between the results of burst analyses and the underlying information of the diffusing molecules is still obscure and requires systematic assessment. In this work we performed three-dimensional Brownian motion simulations of SMFD, and tested the positions at which molecules emitted photons that passed the burst analysis criteria for different values of burst analysis parameters. The results of this work verify which of the burst analysis parameters and experimental conditions influence both the position of molecules in space when fluorescence is detected and taken into account, and whether these bursts of photons arise purely from single molecules, or not entirely. Finally, we show, as an example, the effect of bursts that are not purely from a single molecule on the accuracy in single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: renewable energy sources; wind uncertainty; effective budget of uncertainty; second-order conic relaxation; AC power flow equations
Online: 30 March 2022 (03:26:12 CEST)
Integrating large-scale wind energy in modern power systems is demanding more efficient mathematical models to properly address classical assumptions in power system problems. In particular, there are two main assumptions in power system problems with wind integration that have not been adequately studied yet; First, non-linear AC power flow equations have been linearized in most of the literature. Such simplifications can lead to inaccurate power flow calculations that may result in other technical issues. Second, wind power uncertainties are inevitable and have been mostly modelled using the traditional uncertainty modelling approaches, that may not be suitable for large-scale wind power integration. In this paper, we address both challenges: we present a tight second-order conic relaxation (SOCR) for optimal power flow (OPF) problem, and simultaneously, implement the new effective budget of uncertainty approach for uncertainty modelling that determines the maximum wind power admissibility first and then addresses the uncertainty in the model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that proposes an effective robust second-order conic programming (ERSOCP) model that simultaneously addresses the issues of power flow linearization and wind power uncertainty with the new paradigm on the budget of uncertainty approach. Our numerical results show the merit of the proposed model against traditional linearized power flow equations as well as traditional uncertainty modelling approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0012.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Self-similarity; fractal geometry; generalized homogeneous functions; general covariance; Self -organized criticality; Lie groups; effective field theory
Online: 1 December 2020 (10:29:47 CET)
The goal of this work is to show that the underlying symmetries of effective field theory can be traced to the onset of self-similarity. In particular, we argue that the scale-free structure of fractal geometry lies at the heart of invariance principles in classical and Quantum Field Theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: antibiotics residue; antimicrobial resistance; ethno-veterinary practices; Herbal formulations; cattle health; dairy farmers; cost effective health care model
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:56:26 CET)
This study demonstrated that antibiotic residue in milk can be reduced when dairy farmers use Ethno-veterinary Practices (EVP) based on herbal alternatives to prevent and cure common clinical conditions in cattle instead of antibiotics. Of the 220 farmers selected for the study, 140 were trained and motivated to use validated herbal formulations, 80 were kept as control. Milk samples from the selected farmers (except Thirukanurpatti milk society) tested positive for antibiotic residue in the baseline survey. One year after interventions, the milk from 123 (87.86%) farmers out of 140, were without any detectable antibiotic residue, while samples from 11 farmers (7.85%) were low positive for either Beta-lactams or sulphonamides and 6 (4.29%) were positive for Beta lactams and/or sulphonamides. These 17 (11 + 6) farmers had used antibiotics along with herbal formulations. The milk samples from the control groups were positive for beta lactam and sulphonamide. There was suggestive significance of change in knowledge, attitude and practice of EVP among the farmers from Kerala and Tamil Nadu. A progressive reduction in the incidence of mastitis, enteritis, repeat breeding and cowpox were observed from 2016 to 2019 among the cows treated with EVP. Use of herbal alternative also resulted in a significant reduction in health care expenditure of cattle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: aquatic macrophytes; freshwater systems; salinity tolerance; intraspecific variation; lethal concentration; genotypic variability; ecotype; salt stress; effective concentration; growth rate
Online: 10 January 2020 (06:49:09 CET)
Increased salinity caused by saltwater intrusion or runoff from de-icing salts can severely affect freshwater vegetation and deteriorate aquatic ecosystems. These habitats can be restored with freshwater ecotypes (locally adapted populations) that tolerate above-normal salinity. Vallisneria americana is a prominent species in many freshwater ecosystems that responds differently to abiotic conditions such as substrate composition and fertility, so in this study we evaluated the effects of salt stress on 24 ecotypes of V. americana. Instant Ocean aquarium salt was used to create saline solutions [0.2 to 20.0 parts per thousand (ppt)], then plants were abruptly exposed to these solutions and maintained in these concentrations for 5 weeks before being visually assessed for quality and destructively harvested. Analysis of variance and non-linear regression were used to calculate LC50 values – the lethal concentration of salt that reduced plant biomass and quality by 50% compared to control treatment. Growth rate and visual quality varied significantly among ecotypes, and ecotypes that were most and least sensitive to salt had 50% biomass reductions at 0.47 and 9.10 ppt, respectively. All ecotypes survived 10.0 ppt salinity concentration but none survived at 20.0 ppt, which suggests the maximum salinity concentration tolerated by these ecotypes is between 15.0 and 20.0 ppt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0379.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: exchange rate misalignment; real effective exchange rate; undervaluation; overvaluation; growth; autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach; Trinidad and Tobago
Online: 25 June 2018 (10:46:41 CEST)
Conventional economic theory outlines that developing countries experience economic growth through an undervalued exchange rate and that exchange rate overvaluations has negative long term effects on economic growth. This paper examined the impact of exchange rate movements as well as exchange rate misalignments on economic growth for the Trinidad and Tobago economy over the period 1960 to 2016. We find statistically significant evidence that both exchange rate appreciation and misalignments impact negatively on economic growth in the T&T economy. Drilling deeper we find interestingly that there exist no non-linear effects of exchange rate misalignments on growth. Specifically we find statistically significant evidence that both overvaluations and undervaluations hamper economic growth in the Trinidad and Tobago economy. We attribute this to T&T’s small and underdeveloped manufacturing sector that tends to be overlooked on account of its energy resources, in addition to the fact that its manufacturing sector is highly import oriented. A major policy recommendation would be for the critical reassessment of the rules governing the HSF, as government expenditure was allowed to follow energy revenues due to its current limitations.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: 2011-2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity; biodiversity outcomes; indicators; management effectiveness; other effective area-based conservation measures; post-2020; protected areas
Online: 25 March 2020 (04:31:56 CET)
Work has begun in earnest to formulate a post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework which will outline the vision and targets for the next decade of biodiversity conservation and beyond. However, the performance of the 2011-2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity suggests that even a meaningful target can fail to deliver if not accompanied by fit-for-purpose indicators. Here we provide a review of how ‘protected area’ effectiveness was addressed in the 2011-2020 plan and based on this, provide recommendations for fit-for-purpose indicators that will measure how such efforts contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. Indicators need to be built on quantitative data from site-level biodiversity monitoring of species and ecosystems combined with measurements of the state of nature in near-time, informed by remote-sensed products and other technologies. Additionally, indicators need to capture whether the essential elements of good management are in place including the identification of ecological values, threats, and objectives, equitable governance, and sufficient management resources and capacity. These fit-for-purpose indicators will require multilateral collaboration to galvanize support for, and resources to develop, the necessary infrastructure to collate and store information from countries.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Effective connectivity network, Partial directed coherence (PDC), Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), Default Mode Network (DMN), Electrophysiological biomarkers (EEG), Resting state network (RSN), Granger
Online: 19 May 2021 (23:06:43 CEST)
Recent brain imaging findings by using different methods (e.g., fMRI and PET) have suggested that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is correlated with alterations in regional or network-level brain function. However, due to many limitations associated with these methods, such as poor temporal resolution and limited number of samples per second, neuroscientists could not quantify the fast dynamic connectivity of causal information networks in SAD. In this study, SAD-related changes in brain connections within the default mode network (DMN) were investigated using eight electroencephalographic (EEG) regions of interest. Partial directed coherence (PDC) was used to assess the causal influences of DMN regions on each other and indicate the changes in the DMN effective network related to SAD severity. The DMN is a large-scale brain network basically composed of the mesial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, and lateral parietal cortex (LPC). The EEG data were collected from 88 subjects (22 control, 22 mild, 22 moderate, 22 severe) and used to estimate the effective connectivity between DMN regions at different frequency bands: delta (1–3 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), low beta (13–21 Hz), and high beta (22–30 Hz). Among the healthy control (HC) and the three considered levels of severity of SAD, the results indicated a higher level of causal interactions for the mild and moderate SAD groups than for the severe and HC groups. Between the control and the severe SAD groups, the results indicated a higher level of causal connections for the control throughout all the DMN regions. We found significant increases in the mean PDC in the delta (p = 0.009) and alpha (p = 0.001) bands between the SAD groups. Among the DMN regions, the precuneus exhibited a higher level of causal influence than other regions. Therefore, it was suggested to be a major source hub that contributes to the mental exploration and emotional content of SAD. In contrast to the severe group, HC exhibited higher resting-state connectivity at the mPFC, providing evidence for mPFC dysfunction in the severe SAD group. Furthermore, the total Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was positively correlated with the mean values of the PDC of the severe SAD group, r (22) = 0.576, p = 0.006 and negatively correlated with those of the HC group, r (22) = −0.689, p = 0.001. The reported results may facilitate greater comprehension of the underlying potential SAD neural biomarkers and can be used to characterize possible targets for further medication.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: effective communication; community pharmacy; pharmacist’s role; modern society; modern services; on-line pharmacy; pharmacy educational methodologies; communication skills improvement; pharmacist’s professionalism; efficient consultancy service
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:33:33 CET)
Ever since pharmacy has become a profession, pharmacist's role has been continuously subjected to changes due to specific influences from historical, socio-economic, political, and scientific context. Nowadays the classic perception of pharmaceutical profession in Community Pharmacy is facing worldwide extinction due to many factors. Modern services, such as online, mail-order, and telephone-order pharmacies are increasingly gaining ground thanks to their ability to facilitate customer demand. However, at the same time, they are endangering “face-to-face” contact, affecting the building of customer loyalty based on direct “human” interaction, and consequently reducing pharmacists to mere commercial figures. Communication is in fact emphasized as the essential element to build a solid and appropriate interpersonal relationship with the client, to make the consultancy process effective, and to strengthen pharmacist's professionalism in community pharmacy. The aim of this work is to analyze pharmacist’s role in modern society by pinpointing the factors affecting pharmacy profession practice. Specific purpose will be improving both the academic training of future professionals and their capacity to approach public relations through a deepened study and practice of behavioral, communication, educational, and sociological methodologies and techniques that would allow the development of more effective communication skills useful for providing an efficient consultancy service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: effective number of bits ADC; ADC driver; operational amplifier; maximum output voltage slew rate; signal delay in ADC driver; linear and nonlinear operational amplifier modes
Online: 7 December 2022 (02:26:54 CET)
The influence of linear and nonlinear modes of ADC driver on the operational amplifier (Op-Amp), which has different values of maximum output voltage slew rate, on the effective number of bits of ADC is considered. It is shown that the effective number of bits of ADC when op-amps on bipolar transistors with input signal amplitudes exceeding 50-100 mV is determined by the nonlinear modes of its input differential stage.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0371.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Space Science Keywords: monad and dyad methods; effective rest mass concept; scalar gravitational field; 5D geodetic equation; cylindrical symmetry condition; 5D Ricci identities; Maxwell equations; magnetic monopole; topological second-order transition in cosmology
Online: 6 August 2021 (11:10:50 CEST)
It is shown that the 5D geodetic equations and 5D Ricci identities give us a way to create a new viewpoint on some problems of Modern Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology. Specifically, the application of the 5D geodetic equations in (4+1) and (3+1+1) splintered forms obtained with the help of the monad and dyad methods made it possible to introduce a new, effective generalized concept of the rest mass of the elementary particle. The latter leads one to novel connections between the General Relativity and quantum field theories, as well as all of that, including the (4+1) splitting of the 5D Ricci identities, brings about a better understanding of the magnetic monopole problem and the vital difference in the origins of the Maxwell equations and gives rise to surprising connections between them. The obtained results also provide new insight into the mechanism of the 4D Universe’s expansion and its following acceleration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0269.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: radiation thermometry; non-contact thermometry; model of radiation thermometry; direct model of radiation thermometry; inverse model of radiation thermometry; spectral emissivity; effective emissivity; instrumental emissivity; traceability; radiation thermometry for real objects
Online: 16 February 2023 (04:28:36 CET)
Despite great technical capabilities, the theory of non-contact temperature measurement is usually not fully applicable to the use of measuring instruments in practice. While black body calibrations are in practice well established and easy to accomplish, this calibration protocol is never fully applicable to measurements of real objects under real conditions. Currently, the best approximation to real world radiation thermometry is grey body radiation thermometry, which is supported by most measuring instruments to date. Nevertheless, the metrological requirements necessitate traceability, therefore real body radiation thermometry is required for temperature measurements of real bodies. This article documents the current state of temperature calculation algorithms for radiation-thermometers and the creation of a traceable model for radiation thermometry of real bodies that uses a digital twin model of the system of measurement to compensate for the loss of data, caused by spectral integration, which occurs when thermal radiation is absorbed on the active surface of the sensor. To solve this problem, a hybrid model with variable scalar inputs is proposed, in which the scalar input parameters are calculated to correspond to the system of measurement. The method for calculating the effective parameters is proposed and verified with the theoretical model of non-contact thermometry. The sum of effective instrumental parameters is presented for different temperatures to show that the rule of radiation thermometry of grey bodies, according to which the sum of instrumental emissivity and instrumental reflectivity equals to 1, does not hold in radiation thermometry for real bodies. Using the derived models of radiation thermometry, the uncertainty of radiation thermometry due to the uncertainty of spectral emissivity is analysed by simulated measurements along the temperature ranges of various radiation thermometers, enabling traceable non-contact temperature measurements with known measurement uncertainty under any known conditions.