Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Effective Connectivity between Major Nodes of the Limbic System, Salience and Frontoparietal Networks Differentiates Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders from Healthy Controls

Version 1 : Received: 23 August 2021 / Approved: 23 August 2021 / Online: 23 August 2021 (14:57:10 CEST)

How to cite: Kandilarova, S.; Stoyanov, D.; Paunova, R.; Todeva-Radneva, A.; Aryutova, K.; Maes, M. Effective Connectivity between Major Nodes of the Limbic System, Salience and Frontoparietal Networks Differentiates Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders from Healthy Controls. Preprints 2021, 2021080456 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0456.v1). Kandilarova, S.; Stoyanov, D.; Paunova, R.; Todeva-Radneva, A.; Aryutova, K.; Maes, M. Effective Connectivity between Major Nodes of the Limbic System, Salience and Frontoparietal Networks Differentiates Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders from Healthy Controls. Preprints 2021, 2021080456 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0456.v1).

Abstract

This study was conducted to examine whether there are quantitative or qualitative differences in the connectome between psychiatric patients and healthy controls and to delineate the connectome features of major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and the severity of these disorders. Toward this end, we have performed effective connectivity analysis of resting state functional MRI data in these three patient groups and healthy controls. We have used spectral Dynamic Causal Modeling (spDCM), and the derived connectome features were further subjected to machine learning. The results outlined a model of 5 connections, which discriminate patients from controls, comprising major nodes of the limbic system (amygdala (AMY), hippocampus (HPC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)), the salience network (anterior insula (AI), fronto-parietal and dorsal attention network (middle frontal gyrus (MFG) corresponding to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye field (FEF)). Notably, the alterations in the self-inhibitory connection of the anterior insula emerged as a feature of both mood disorders and SCZ. Moreover, 4 out of the 5 connectome features that discriminate mental illness from controls are features of mood disorders (both MDD and BD), namely the MFG→FEF, HPC→FEF, AI→AMY, and MFG→AMY connections, whereas one connection is a feature of SCZ, namely the AMY→SPL connectivity. A large part of the variance in the severity of depression (31.6%) and SCZ (40.6%) was explained by connectivity features. In conclusion, dysfunctions in the self-regulation of the salience network may underpin major mental disorders, while other key connectome features shape differences between mood disorders and SCZ, and can be used as potential imaging biomarkers.

Keywords

psychiatry; effective connectivity; depression; salience network; schizophrenia; mood disorders

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