Psychiatry and Mental Health
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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1941.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal Depression; Attachment Style; Coping Strategies; Gender Medicine; Women Health
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:42:26 CEST)
Abstract Peripartum depression (PPD) is a major complication of pregnancy and many risk factors have been associated with its development, including dysfunctional coping strategies and insecure attachment styles, both during pregnancy and postpartum. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of coping strategies in mediating the relationship between women’s attachment style and PPD in pregnancy, and one week after childbirth, in a large cohort of women. We hypothesized that the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and PPD would be mediated by use of maladaptive coping strategies. The assessment instruments were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE), Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR). The results indicated that the effect of insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant attachment) on antepartum depressive symptomatology was partially mediated by dysfunctional coping styles. Anxious attachment has also an indirect significant effect on postpartum depression through emotional coping; however, avoidant attachment does not seem to be significantly related to postpartum depression. Our findings revealed that not only it is important to consider attachment in understanding PPD but also that coping plays an important role in these relationships. These findings would help a preventive coping-based intervention strategy to enhance the capacity of women with insecure attachment styles to use more adaptive coping during and after pregnancy.
Tue, 23 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs); major depressive disorder (MDD); obesity; metabolic dysregulation; comorbidities
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:54:21 CEST)
The co-occurrence of depression and obesity has become a significant public health concern worldwide. Recent studies have shown that metabolic dysfunction, which is commonly observed in obese individuals and characterized by inflammation, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and hypertension, is a critical risk factor for depression. This dysfunction may induce structural and functional changes in the brain, ultimately contributing to depression's development. Given that obesity and depression mutually increase each other's risk of development by 50-60%, there is a need for effective interventions that address both conditions. The comorbidity of depression with obesity and metabolic dysregulation is thought to be related to chronic low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and C-reactive protein (CRP). As pharmacotherapy fails in at least 30-40% of cases to adequately treat major depressive disorder, a nutritional approach is emerging as a promising alternative. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are a promising dietary intervention that can reduce inflammatory biomarkers, particularly in patients with high levels of inflammation, including pregnant women with gestational diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and overweight individuals with major depressive disorder. Further effort directed to implement these strategies in clinical practice could contribute to improved outcomes in patients with depression and comorbid obesity and/or metabolic dysregulation.
Wed, 17 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Microbiome-Gut-Brain axis; ASD; dysbiosis; gastrointestinal functions; Immune System; and Neuroimmunogastroenterology
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:11:01 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by poor social interaction and communication, as well as restricted and stereotyped interests. Due of the high prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASD, researchers have investigated the gut microbiota as a potential contributor to its aetiology. The relationship between the microbiome, gut, and brain (microbiome-gut-brain axis) has been acknowledged as a key factor in modulating brain function and social behaviour, but its connection to the aetiology of ASD is not well understood. Recently, there has been increasing attention on the relationship between the immune system, gastrointestinal disorders, and neurological issues in ASD, particularly in relation to the loss of specific species or a decrease in microbial diversity. It focuses on how gut microbiota dysbiosis can affect gut permeability, immune function, and microbiota metabolites in ASD. Although a very complete study suggests that dysbiosis is a consequence of the disease and that it has practically no effect on autistic manifestations. This is a review of the relationship between the immune system, microbial diversity, and the microbiome-gut-brain axis in the development of autistic symptoms severity and, a proposal of a novel role of gut microbiome in ASD, where dysbiosis is a consequence of ASD-related behaviour and where dysbiosis in turn accentuates the autistic manifestations of the patients via microbiome-gut-brain axis in a feedback circuit.
Tue, 9 May 2023
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0554.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease; Pre-Clinical Protocol; Novel Combinational Formulation; In Vivo Model; In Vivo Study
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:49:48 CEST)
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the motor system of the human body. Currently, the available treatments are limited and often have undesirable side effects. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a novel combinational formulation of Apomorphine and Quetiapine and evaluate its efficacy in a rat model of PD. The formulation was prepared using the solvent evaporation technique and characterized for its physicochemical properties. The in-vitro drug release was evaluated using the Franz diffusion cell method, and the pharmacokinetics of the combination was studied in rats. The behavioural and biochemical parameters were evaluated in the rats using the Rotarod, pole test, and biochemical assays. The results showed that the developed formulation had satisfactory physicochemical properties and exhibited sustained drug release. The pharmacokinetic studies showed that the combination exhibited a longer residence time than the individual drugs. The behavioural and biochemical parameters showed that the combination was effective in improving motor function and reducing oxidative stress. In conclusion, the developed Apomorphine and Quetiapine combination formulation showed promising results in improving motor function and reducing oxidative stress in rat model of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the developed formulation in humans.
Sat, 6 May 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Veterans; psychiatric disorders; equine-assisted services; PTSD; psychotherapy incorporating horses; military sexual trauma
Online: 6 May 2023 (05:14:12 CEST)
Equine-assisted services (EAS) are being increasingly used as complementary interventions for military veterans who have experienced trauma. However, there is limited evidence of benefit for this population and almost no literature describing desired potential outcomes and possible mechanisms of action. The aim of this article is to address these gaps by reviewing the extant literature of animal-assisted interventions in general, and equine-assisted services in particular, with the goal of providing guidance for future investigations in the field. Currently, the field is in the early stage of scientific development, but published results are promising. Interventions that enhance treatment compliance and/or outcomes could benefit this population. Preliminary results, reviewed herein, indicate that EAS interventions might benefit the military veteran population by enhancing treatment engagement and therapeutic alliance, as well as contributing to symptom reduction and resulting in various transdiagnostic benefits. It is recommended that future studies include exploration of potential beneficial outcomes discussed herein as well as investigate suggested mechanisms of action.
Fri, 28 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: bipolar risk; hippocampal subfields; amygdala nuclei; MRI; machine learning
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:03:44 CEST)
The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) remains mostly unclear. Yet, a valid biomarker is necessary to improve early detection of this serious disorder. Patients with manifest BD display reduced volumes of the hippocampal subfields and amygdala nuclei. In this pre-registered analysis, we used structural MRI (N=271, 7 sites), to compare volumes of hippocampus, amygdala, and their subfields/nuclei between help-seeking subjects divided in risk groups for BD as estimated by BPSS-P, BARS and EPIbipolar. We performed between-group comparisons using linear mixed effects models for all three risk assessment tools. Additionally, we aimed to differentiate the risk groups using linear support vector machine. We found no significant volume differences between the risk groups for all limbic structures during the main analysis. However, the SVM could still classify subjects at risk according to BPSS-P criteria with a balanced accuracy of 66.90% (95% CI 59.2– 74.6) for 10-fold cross-validation and 61.9% (95% CI 52.0– 71.9) for leave-one-site-out. Structural altera-tions of hippocampus and amygdala may not be as pronounced in young people at risk, nonetheless, ma-chine learning can predict estimated risk for BD above chance. This suggests that neural changes may not merely be a consequence of BD and may have prognostic clinical value.
Mon, 24 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0832.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; age of onset; TAOC; cognitive function; oxidative stress
Online: 24 April 2023 (06:22:23 CEST)
Schizophrenia patients with an earlier age of onset have been found to have more serious negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. Oxidative stress is thought to be implicated in cognitive impair-ment in schizophrenia. Total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) is an essential indicator of oxidative stress. However, the association between age of onset, TAOC, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia is still unexplored. In this study, 201 patients (age: 26.5±9.6 years, male: 53.2%) with drug naïve schizophrenia were recruited. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Plasma TAOC levels were an-alyzed using established procedures. Results showed that early-onset (EO) patients had higher TAOC levels, more severe negative symptoms and performed worse on Visuospatial/Constructional, Language and RBANS total score compared with non-EO patients. After Bonferroni correction, only non-EO patients showed a significant inverse relationship between TAOC levels and RBANS language, attention, and total scores. Our findings suggest that early /late age of onset may be correlated with psychopathological symptoms, cognitive impairment and oxidative responses in schizophrenia. Furthermore, the age of onset may moderate the relationship between TAOC and cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that improving oxidative stress status in non-EO schizophrenia patients may enhance their cognitive function.
Thu, 20 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0627.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: coffee consumption; tea consumption; mild cognitive impairment; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; nutrition; epidemiology; apolipoprotein E; MCI
Online: 20 April 2023 (07:55:34 CEST)
Background: Studies exploring the possible protective effect of coffee and tea consumption on dementia showed inconsistent results so far. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of tea and different types of coffee at midlife are associated with dementia later in life and, whether sex or ApoE4 influence such association. Methods: We included 7381 participants from the Norwegian HUNT Study. Self-reported questionnaires assessed daily consumption of coffee and tea at baseline. After 22 years, individuals 70 years or older were screened on cognitive impairment. Results: General coffee consumption and tea consumption was not associated with dementia risk. Compared to daily consumption of 0-1 cups of coffee, daily consumption of ≥8 cups of boiled coffee was associated with increased dementia risk in women (OR:1.83, 95% CI: 1.10-3.04, p-value for trend=0.03) and daily consumption of 4-5 cups of other types of coffee was associated with a decrease in dementia risk in only men (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.32-0.72, p-value for trend =0.05). Furthermore, the association between boiled coffee and increased dementia risk was only found in ApoE4 non-carriers. Differences by sex or ApoE4 carrier status were not supported by strong statistical evidence for interaction. Conclusion: Type of coffee may play a role in the direction of the association between coffee-drinking habits and dementia later in life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0611.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Hypersexuality; Nymphomania; Satyriasis; Personality disorders; Bipolarism; Sexual arousal
Online: 20 April 2023 (05:42:07 CEST)
Introduction: The concept of hypersexuality belongs to modern parlance, according to a predominantly clinical meaning, understood as a psychological and behavioural alteration as a result of which sexually motivated stimuli are sought in inappropriate ways, often experienced in a way that is not completely satisfactory. Methods: Literature up to February 2023 was reviewed. Results: Forty-two articles were included in the review. Conclusion: Hypersexuality is a potentially clinically relevant condition, consisting of one or more dysfunctional and pathological behaviours of one's sexual sphere and graded according to the severity of impairment of subjective acting out; for this reason, the Perrotta Hypersexuality Global Scale (PH-GS) is suggested, which distinguishes high-functioning forms (pro-active and dynamic hypersexuality) from those of attenuated and corrupted functioning (dysfunctional and pathological hypersexuality of grade I and II). Future research is hoped to address the practical needs of this condition, such as the exact etiopathology, the role of oxytocin in dopaminergic hypotheses (and its ability to attenuate the symptomatology suffered by the patient in terms of manic drive), the best structural and functional personality framing of the subject, and the appropriate therapy to pursue.
Wed, 19 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: perinatal mental health, integrated care, psychiatry consultation, collaborative care, implementation science
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:35:06 CEST)
Mood and anxiety disorders affect pregnant people and their families at increased rates throughout the perinatal period. Geographic, financial, and social barriers persist in identification and access to care that preclude adequate diagnosis and treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. These challenges have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for Black and Indigenous People and People of Color (BIPOC) who already experience increased risk for adverse mental health outcomes and faced structural barriers to accessing perinatal mental health care at baseline. The literature shows that integrated care can improve mental health outcomes and save billions of dollars in annual healthcare costs. This study evaluated a novel statewide integrated care effort designed to facilitate access to perinatal mental health care for OB/GYN patients. In addition to enrollment data, variables studied were maternal program satisfaction, retention rates, and preliminary maternal mental health outcomes. 285 patients were ever referred for care. Of this, we contacted 259 patients (91%) and enrolled 209 (72%). Of the 209, 48 were lost to follow up, while 107 remained enrolled at the time of data analysis. 54 patients met their treatment goals. 97% of individuals asserted they were satisfied with the services they received. Black race and public insurance predicted faster attrition from treatment; risk for interpersonal violence exposure and substance use were not related to attrition. Preliminary mental health outcomes showed significant decreases in anxiety and depression, with the most dramatic decreases in the first month of treatment. The MC3 Perinatal care program is a viable, patient-endorsed collaborative care model that increases access to perinatal mental health and facilitate access to outside resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0564.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: serotonin antagonist/reuptake inhibitors; comorbidity; psychiatric disorders; trazodone; neurobiology; emotion
Online: 19 April 2023 (07:52:17 CEST)
Personality disorders (PD) are described as enduring patterns of markedly deviant and pervasive inner experiences and behaviors, with onset in adolescence, which lead to severe distress or impairment. Patients suffering with major depressive disorder (MDD) display higher rates of comorbidity with personality disorders, often complicating the treatment, and worsening the outcome. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the most common of PD and is frequently associated with MDD, with which shares several features. The most part of research agrees on the fact that comorbid BPD in MDD patients quite double the poor response to treatments. Moreover, no treatment strategy stands out currently to emerge as more effective in these cases, thus urging the call for the need of a new approach. Herein, we revise the current literature on BPD, its neurobiology and comorbidity with MDD, as well as the more recent treatment strategies used. Then, based on its pharmacology, we propose a possible role of trazodone as a valuable tool to approach underlying BPD in MDD
Tue, 18 April 2023
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: disenfranchised grief; widowhood; rural India; COVID-19 pandemic; bioecological model; coping
Online: 18 April 2023 (05:02:59 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the past century's deadliest and most widespread viral outbreaks, with higher mortality rates in men than women. Disruptions in funeral rituals and customs, no social recognition of the loss, and limited social support intricate the grieving process and are linked with disenfranchised (not openly acknowledged, socially recognized, or publicly mourned) grief. Depression is also highly comorbid with complicated grief. Losing a spouse can be devastating, but more severe for women with limited or no resources, vulnerable to the patriarchal society. In the current COVID-19 era, increased uncertainty and disenfranchised grief can worsen the clinical scenario and intervention, as highlighted by the present case report of disenfranchised grief with depressive symptoms in a 30 years old woman from rural India who, after a year of her marriage, lost her husband due to COVID-19. This case study emphasizes the impact of multiple axes of disadvantages due to sociodemographic and cultural determinants that can complicate the grieving process in the current context. The bioecological model of grief recovery considered the individual features and the societal/environmental factors to postulate the appropriate intervention. Finding meaning and purpose in life, and restoration-oriented coping were successful for clinical management.
Mon, 10 April 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Neuromodulation; Brain Stimulation; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation; Neurodevelopment Disorder; ADHD; ADD
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:39:24 CEST)
ADHD, a neurodevelopmental condition, is distinguished by a triad of symptoms including inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is frequently accompanied by comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, and learning disabilities. As a result, clinicians often face challenges in accurately diagnosing ADHD and differentiating it from other conditions. As a prospective remedy for ADHD, scientists have investigated Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique of stimulating the brain. It involves applying low-intensity electrical currents to specific regions of the brain to modulate neural activity. This review paper aims to provide an overview of the comorbidities associated with ADHD and the differential diagnosis of the condition. It also explores the potential of tDCS as a treatment option for ADHD, including its mechanisms of action and efficacy in improving ADHD symptoms. The comorbidities discussed in this review include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. These comorbidities are frequently seen in individuals with ADHD and can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The paper also highlights the importance of considering comorbidities when assessing ADHD, as well as the potential impact of these conditions on treatment outcomes. The differential diagnosis section of the paper explores conditions that can present with symptoms similar to ADHD, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and learning disabilities. It emphasizes the need for a thorough assessment and differential diagnosis to identify ADHD and differentiate it from other conditions accurately. The final section of the paper discusses the potential of tDCS as a treatment option for ADHD. It examines the mechanisms of action of tDCS and its efficacy in improving ADHD symptoms, including attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It also explores the potential for tDCS to improve comorbid conditions associated with ADHD. Overall, this review provides a comprehensive overview of comorbidities and differential diagnoses in ADHD and the potential of tDCS as a treatment option. The paper highlights the importance of a thorough assessment and personalized treatment plan for individuals with ADHD, particularly those with comorbidities.
Fri, 31 March 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder; dementia; Parkinson’s disease; β-amyloid; inflammation; hippocampus; white matter integrity; genetics
Online: 31 March 2023 (02:12:57 CEST)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that occurs following exposure to traumatic events. The prevalence of PTSD is estimated to be 5-10% worldwide, and it is associated with significant distress and disability. Recent evidence suggests that PTSD may be a risk factor for the development of subsequent neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s dementia and Parkinson’s disease. Identification of biomarkers known to be associated with neurodegeneration in patients with PTSD would shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms linking these disorders, and would also help in the development of preventive approaches aimed at reducing the risk of neurodegenerative disorders in PTSD. In the current review, the PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for studies aimed at identifying genetic, biochemical, neuroimaging or behavioral markers associated with neurodegeneration in patients with PTSD. Out of a total of 342 citations retrieved, 29 relevant studies were identified for inclusion in the review. The results of these studies suggest that several potentially relevant biological markers, including cerebral cortical thinning, disrupted white matter integrity, specific genetic polymorphisms, immune-inflammatory alterations, vitamin D deficiency, metabolic syndrome and parasomnias, may be associated with an increased risk of neurodegeneration in patients with PTSD. Though many of these results need replication, they highlight a number of biological pathways that plausibly link PTSD with neurodegenerative disorders, and suggest potentially valuable avenues for prevention and early intervention in this patient population.
Wed, 22 March 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: ACSo; cognitive function; depression; PDQ; psychosis; real-world functioning; schizophrenia; SFS; social functioning
Online: 22 March 2023 (06:36:20 CET)
Background: In schizophrenia (SZ), social cognition mediates the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning. Although people with major depressive disorder (MDD) also exhibit cognitive impairments, which are often prolonged, little is known about the role of social cognition in MDD. Methods: Using data obtained through an internet survey, 210 patients with SZ or MDD were selected using propensity score matching based on their demographic information and illness duration. Social cognition, neurocognition, and social functioning were evaluated using the Self-Assessment of Social Cognition Impairments, Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, and Social Functioning Scale, respectively. The mediation effects of social cognition on the relationship between neurocognition and social functioning were examined in each disease group. Invariances of the mediation model across the two groups were then analyzed. Results: The SZ and MDD groups had mean ages of 44.49 and 45.35 years, contained 42.0% and 42.8% women, and had mean illness durations of 10.76 and 10.45 years, respectively. In both groups, social cognition had significant mediation effects. Configural, measurement, and structural invariances across the groups were established. Conclusion: The role of social cognition in patients with chronic depression was similar to that in schizophrenia. Social cognition could be a common endophenotype for various psychiatric disorders.
Mon, 6 March 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: violence; depression; pregnancy; primary prevention; mental health
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:48:40 CET)
Violence can promote various mental complications such as depression, however, the type of violence that promotes it has not been estimated in detail. The purpose of this study was to assess whether depression is associated with domestic violence in pregnant women treated at a Peruvian health center, 2022. A quantitative, observational, cross-sectional analytical study. A total of 180 pregnant adults who attend the health facility in person were selected. Intrafamily violence was assessed using a questionnaire from the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations of Peru and depression using the Beck Depression Inventory. The study has the approval of the ethics committee of the university and the permission of the head of the health establishment. 36.11% [95%CI: 29.39-43.43] of the pregnant women presented depression and 1.11% severe de-pression; likewise, 41.67% [95%CI: 36.64-49.05] reported having experienced domestic violence. It was identified that presenting domestic violence increases the probability of presenting depression during pregnancy (aPR: 9.89; p<0.001). The associated types of violence were psychological (aPR: 10.44; p<0.001) and physical (aPR: 1.78; p=0.007). There is an association between domestic violence and depression during pregnancy, the types of violence associated being psychological and physical.
Wed, 1 March 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical trials; Mental health; Vaccination; CTU workforce
Online: 1 March 2023 (10:44:52 CET)
The overall objective of this mixed-method digital-based observational study was to determine the mental health impact among CTU staff working during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Qualtrics Core XM platform was used to deploy the questionnaire where a quantitative analysis was conducted. The qualitative part of the study used the Microsoft Teams digital application to complete the interviews. Various validated mental health assessments were administered: Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pandemic Stress Index (PSI), Burnout Assessment Tool-12 (BAT-12), General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE) and The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS). A total of 485 participants took part, of which 73.4% were female and 70.1% of the sample were white British. A high prevalence of anxiety, exhaustion and depression were identified across all participants. A significant mental health impact was identified among the CTU workforce where wellbeing was compromised during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Mon, 27 February 2023
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cannabidiol; liposomal cannabidiol; NegEnt; panic disorders; cognitive psychotherapy; alprazolam
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:07:43 CET)
The article presents the potential of liposomal cannabidiol in the treatment of Panic Disorder, when used in integration with Complex Cognitive Psychotherapy. The advantages of the integrated treatment, developed by the Author, and based on the use of liposomal cannabidiol combined with cognitive psychotherapy, are discussed. A new and original tool is presented and described, developed, and tested for the first time by the Author and called NegEnt Panic Blocker.
Wed, 22 February 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0035.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: BRFSS; Binge Drinking; Population Survey; Bereavement; SDG#3; Mental Health
Online: 22 February 2023 (14:30:30 CET)
Binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol abuse. Its prevalence and associated risk factors are not well documented. Heavy drinking, on the other hand, has a well-studied association with bereavement . This report uses a cross-sectional, population-based survey to estimate prevalence of bingeing and its association with new bereavement. Bingeing is defined as 4 or more drinks (women) or 5 or more drinks (men) in a 2-to-4-hour setting. For the first time, the Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) included a bereavement item, ‘Have you experienced the death of a family member or close friend in the years 2018 or 2019?’. Methods: Georgia BRFSS is a complex sampling survey administered annually. It is designed to represent the 8.1 million persons in the U.S. state of Georgia aged 18 years and older. Alcohol consumption patterns are routinely measured in the common core. In the 2019 field survey, the state added a new item probing for bereavement in the prior 24 months predating the pandemic of COVID-19. Imputation and weighting techniques were applied to yield population prevalence rates of new bereavement, bingeing, and their co-occurrence with other high-risk health states. Models, adjusted for age, gender, and race were used to estimate the risk for other unhealthy behaviors posed by the co-occurrence of bereavement and bingeing. Results: In Georgia, bereavement is common (45.8 %), and alcohol consumption is common (48.8 %). Bereavement and alcohol use co-occurred among 1,796,817 persons (45 % of all drinkers). The subset of co-occurring bereavement and binging totaled 608,282 persons. Within this group, the highest rates of bereavement were associated with death of a friend / neighbor (30.7%) or 3 plus deaths (31.8%). Conclusions: While bingeing is a known risk to public health, its co-occurrence with recent bereavement is a new observation. Public health surveillance systems need to monitor this co-occurrence to protect both individual and societal health. In a time of global bereavement, documenting its influence on binge drinking can support the work towards Sustainable Goal #3 – Good health and Well-Being. Keywords: BRFSS, Binge Drinking, Population Survey, Bereavement, SDG#3. Mental Health
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: serotonin antagonist/reuptake inhibitors; comorbidity; psychiatric disorders; neurological disorders; dementia; primary care
Online: 22 February 2023 (08:42:51 CET)
Depression is estimated to be a leading contributor to the global mental health-related burden. The determinants of this huge prevalence lie in the fact that depressive symptoms may be comorbid in a wide variety of disorders, thus complicating and exacerbating their clinical pictures. This makes the treatment of depressive symptoms even more difficult since many pharmacological and pharmacokinetic interactions should be considered by physicians approaching the therapy. Hence, depression still represents a challenge for both psychiatrists and the other clinicians, in terms of its high rates of relapse and resistance despite well-established protocols. It is also complicated by the well-known latency in its complete response to current antidepressant treatments. In this context, the search for new strategies in antidepressant treatment is mandatory; even including revising the use of “old” pharmacotherapies by considering their specific features may help to perfecting the treatment of depression, both in its standalone psychiatric manifestation and in the framework of other clinical conditions. The results of a consensus of experts regarding the possible use of trazodone as a valuable strategy for addressing the “real world” unmet needs of depression treatment is herein reported. This is based on the unique characteristics of this drug possibly delivering a rapid antidepressant action as compared to other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as well as on its pharmacodynamic malleability and pharmacokinetic tolerability when used in the milieu of other drugs in treating comorbid depressive symptoms.
Wed, 15 February 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: dementia; mild cognitive impairment; elderly; primary care; GP; family physician
Online: 15 February 2023 (01:36:03 CET)
Background: dementia is a significant health issue worldwide. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can transform into dementia over time. General practitioners may be the first to notice the cognitive deficit, so they may need a screening test in the event of suspicion, which they must be able to use under great time pressure. We examined the usability of the Hungarian Test Your Memory (TYM-Hun) self-administered dementia test in general practice, and with the results of the received tests, we tried to draw conclusions regarding the population. Methods: In the four Hungarian cities with medical universities, general practitioners filled out 368 questionnaires with their clients over 50 years of age. Results: the total scores of the test showed a significant correlation with education and the type of occupation, while a significant negative correlation with age. We found the clock drawing test and recall indicates cognitive decline the earliest. Based on the TYM-Hun results, the prevalence levels for MCI and dementia are slightly higher in Hungary than globally. Conclusion: the test can sensitively indicate MCI and early-stage dementia as a screening test, and two of its subtests can raise the possibility of cognitive impairment at an earlier age than the others.
Tue, 14 February 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: health psychology; mental distress; stress; population; psychometric property; validation; Mongolia
Online: 14 February 2023 (03:03:17 CET)
Abstract: (1) Background: We hypothesized measuring the extent of brain overwork can extrapolate the burden of mental distress. This study aimed to develop a scale that measures mental distress and validate it in the general population. (2) Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional study, we recruited a total of 739 adults aged 16-65 years from 64 sampling centers of a clinical cohort across Mongolia to validate a 10-item self-report questionnaire. Internal consistency was measured using the McDonald’s ω. Test-retest reliability was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Construct and convergent validities were examined using the principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to evaluate the criterion validity. (3) Results: Among the participants, 70.9% were women, 22% held a bachelor's degree or higher, 38.8% were employed, and 66% were married. The overall McDonald’s ω coefficient was 0.861 demonstrating evidence of excellent internal consistency. The total intraclass correlation coefficient of the test-retest analysis was 0.75, indicating moderate external reliability. PCA and CFA established a three-domain structure that provided an excellent fit to the data (RMSEA=0.033, TLI=0.984, CFI=0.989, χ2=58, p=0.003). This 10-item scale, the Brain Overwork Scale (BOS-10), determines mental distress in three dimensions: Excessive Thinking, Hypersensitivity, and Restless Behavior. All items had higher item-total correlations with their corresponding domain than the other domains, and correlations between the domain scores ranged from 0.547–0.615. The BOS-10 correlated with the HADS, whereas it was inversely correlated with the WHOQOL-BREF. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that the BOS-10 is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing mental distress in the general population. The current findings also demonstrate that the BOS-10 is quantitative, simple, and applicable for large-group testing.
Tue, 7 February 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: connectome; dynamic functional connectivity; dynamic brain network; schizophrenia; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder
Online: 7 February 2023 (07:23:31 CET)
Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and multilayer dynamic network model, the quantified temporal stability of brain network has shown potentials in predicting altered brain functions. The present review focuses on summarizing current knowledge on the commonly-used measures of brain network’s temporal stability and the clinical research progress on them. There are a variety of widely used measures of temporal stability such as the variance/standard deviation of dynamic functional connectivity strengths, the temporal variability, the flexibility (switching rate), and the temporal clustering coefficient, while there is no consensus to date that which measure is the best. The temporal stability of human brain networks may be associated with several factors such as sex, age, cognitive functions, head motion, and data preprocessing/analyzing strategies, which should be considered in the clinical studies. Multiple common psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder have been found to be related to altered temporal stability, especially during the resting state; generally, both excessively decreased and increased temporal stabilities were thought to reflect disease-related brain dysfunctions. However, the measures of temporal stability are still far from applications in clinical diagnoses for neuropsychiatric diseases partly because of the divergent results, and further studies are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: functional MRI; group independent component analysis; depression
Online: 7 February 2023 (04:22:30 CET)
The aim of the presents study is to further expand the model of translational cross-validation by investigating the brain circuits or networks which underpin the same tasks by means of group independent component analysis for FMRI toolbox (GIFT). We hypothesized that there will be neural network patterns of activation and deactivation, which correspond to real time performance on clinical self-evaluation scales. We recruited 42 subjects: 20 healthy controls and 22 patients with major depressive episode. All subjects underwent functional MRI scanning using paradigm comprised of diagnostic clinical self-assessment depression scale contrasted to neutral scale. The data were processed with group independent component analysis for functional MRI toolbox and statistical parametric mapping. The results have demonstrated that there exist positively or negatively modulated brain networks during processing of diagnostic specific task questions for major depressive disorder. There have also been confirmed differences in the networks processing diagnostic versus off blocks between patients and controls in anterior cingulate cortex and middle frontal gyrus. Diagnostic conditions (depression scale) when contrasted to neutral conditions demonstrate differential activity of right superior frontal gyrus and right middle cingulate cortex in the comparison of patients with healthy controls. It is for the first time when potential neuroimaging state dependent biomarker has been directly linked with clinical assessment self-evaluation scale, administered as stimuli simultaneously with the fMRI acquisition. It may be regarded as further evidence in support of the ability of both methods to concordantly distinguish groups by means of incremental translational cross-validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: perceived stress; social support; health anxitety; coping; lockdown; COVID-19; international stu-dents; domestic students
Online: 7 February 2023 (02:22:04 CET)
Background: Our study aimed to examine how modulating variables such as social support, health anxiety, coping, gender, being separated from home, and lockdown can modify or amplify the effect of perceived stress as a starting variable in the point of view of the output variable, dissociation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in online form at two points in time: the beginning and the later stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: We received a total of 1711 responses. Perceived stress moderately correlated with dissociation in both International and Hungarian samples. Health anxiety showed a strong direct and indirect correlation with dissociation. Regarding social support, the support of family significantly decreased the dissociative experiences in the Hungarian sample through mediating the stress and directly as well. In the international sample, the goal-oriented coping strategy had a strong decreasing effect on all dissociation scales in the first measurement, through mediation of perceived stress. As to the Hungarian sample, positive thinking was found to decrease dissociation through decreasing perceived stress. Conclusion: The cause and effect relationship between stress and dissociation may be tinctured by health anxiety, coping and social support, influencing dissociacion directly and indirectly. Social support, mainly support of the family and problem-focused coping strategies seem to alleviate dissociation-provoking effect of stress.
Wed, 1 February 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: extended length of stay; emergency department; mental health
Online: 1 February 2023 (06:01:41 CET)
Background: Evidence suggests that children and young people (CYP) who present to the emergency department (ED) for mental health (MH) difficulties may have extended lengths of stay (LOS); however, there is a paucity of research in Australia regarding the factors associated with extended LOS. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with extended LOS for paediatric MH-related presentations to the EDs in South Western Sydney (SWS), a multicultural community in Australia. Methods: We analysed electronic medical records (eMR) of 7,409 MH-related ED encounters of CYP aged 0 up to 18 years from all six public hospitals in SWS from January 2016 to April 2022. Extended LOS was defined as encounters of more than 4 hours. We assessed factors associated with extended LOS using a multilevel logistic regression model, accounting for hospital-level clustering. Results: Approximately 57.6% of all ED presentations for paediatric MH involved extended LOS. ED presentations by adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.23, 95% CI 1.20-4.17 for 12-14 years and AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.44-5.00 for 15-17 years), and patients with a preferred language other than English (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.15-1.89) had increased odds of extended LOS compared to their counterparts. Deliberate self-harm related presentations, the most commonly presented MH condition, had higher odds of extended LOS than other MH-related presentations (AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.59-1.98). Patients with MH presentations that required urgent evaluation (triage levels 1-2) had higher odds of extended LOS (AOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.15-1.65) compared to triage level 3, whereas those with triage levels 4-5 had lower odds (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.58-0.74). Further, patients with MH-related presentations that came by ambulance (compared to other mode of presentations) and presentations that happened at night and late at night (compared to early morning and daytime presentations). The odds of extended LOS were considerably lower during the COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period (AOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.82). Additionally, extended paediatric LOS for MH issues in the ED showed notable hospital-level heterogeneity. Conclusion: A large proportion of extended LOS in ED and sociodemographic disparities reflect inequality in access to paediatric MH care. Our findings highlight the need for equitable distribution of resources directed towards at-risk CYP to improve MH outcomes and reduce health system burden.
Sun, 22 January 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mobile Application; Psychological well-being; Depressive symptoms; Adolescents
Online: 22 January 2023 (04:26:40 CET)
Background: Depressive symptoms often occurred during the adolescence period. This situation affected their psychological well-being, which is an important element for a positive youth development. Thus, there is an urgent need to prevent such mental health problems and promote psychological health outcomes among adolescents. Mobile health has been created as a platform to promote mental health to adolescents to ensure ongoing safety and effectiveness. Despite the positive evidence to support the mobile health, tailored mobile health to promote mental health and prevent psychological symptoms among adolescents in Thailand is lacking.This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of delivering digital technology intervention prototype called “MU-My-Mind Mobile Application (MU-My-mind App)” among Thai adolescents and evaluate the efficacy of this application in improving psychological health outcomes. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental research was conducted in secondary school students in Thailand. A convenience sample was recruited and participants were asked to download the MU-My-Mind App on their smart phone. Health outcomes were also evaluated by self-administered questions and focus group interview at baseline and post-intervention. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed. Quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and pair t-test. Qualitative data were analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Thirty students completed the MU-My-Mind application. Quantitative data suggested significant improvements on mindfulness, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety and stress. Qualitative data derived into six themes: a) overall feedback of the program, b) learning to manage stress and challenges, c) elevating relaxation responses and calmness, d) heightened mindfulness and concentration, e) increased awareness and management of emotions, and f) altering perspectives and managing thoughts. Overall, data suggested the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Conclusion: The “MU My Mind Mobile Application” prototype was demonstrated feasible and well acceptable among Thai adolescents to promote their psychological health outcome. However, there are some limitation and suggestion emerged during this pilot testing. Future research should be explored in a larger sample size with comparison control group and over a longer duration with a range of diverse samples to ensure the efficacy of this application.
Tue, 17 January 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gaming; IGD; adolescents; children; adult; internet; Saudi Arabia
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:45:28 CET)
Abstract: Objective: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has received attention over the past decade. Few studies have attempted to describe this disorder in the Saudi population. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of IGD and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted using translated Arabic and a validated questionnaire targeting both genders in Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire (IGD-20) and targeting Arabic-speaking children, youth, and transitional age including both genders. A snowball approach was used to sample our population using an electronic survey. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with IGD diagnosis. The study was guided by the STROBE statement. Results: Among 419 individuals who participated in the study, 171 were classified as non-IGD, 167 were at risk for IGD (RIGD), and 72 were IGD. There is no significant association between IGD diagnosis and gender, nationality, residence, and family income. Time playing per week was significantly associated with IGD diagnosis (X2=49.256, p<0.01). There is a significant association between IGD-20 groups and categorical age groups (X2=10.096, p<0.01). Among our sample, the percentages of males (54.2%) and females (45.8%) who met the criteria for IGD were comparable. Conclusion: IGD and RIGD prevalence was significantly high in both age groups. Both males and females were affected similarly.
Tue, 10 January 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Substance Use Disorder; Attitudes; Medical Students; Education; Assessment; Stigma
Online: 10 January 2023 (11:40:26 CET)
To evaluate the impact of a new Substance Use Disorder (SUD) education program on medical students' representations, we selected the Substance Abuse Attitude Survey (SAAS) questionnaire, which we adapted to our curriculum and cultural context. To validate this adapted version, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis following the administration of our 29-items bSAAS questionnaire to 657 medical students in Belgium (response rate: 71,1%). 23 items correlated to 3 factors namely "Stereotypes and moralism", "Treatment optimism" and "Specialised treatment" were retained (70% of total variance explained, Cronbach's alpha= 0.80) and constituted the new questionnaire called beSAAS. The factor "Specialised treatment", stood out from previous studies which could be explained by our target population and the impact of the formal, informal, and hidden curriculum in medical education. This study highlighted certain factors influencing stereotypical representations such as age, gender, origin, and personal or professional experience with substance use. Our study allowed us to retain the beSAAS as a good questionnaire to evaluate SUD stigma and highlighted interesting findings to improve SUD training in medicine. Further studies are needed to complete its validity and reliability.
Wed, 4 January 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: BRFSS; Bereavement; Grief; Mental Health; Physical Health; Population Surveillance; Social de-terminants of health; Multiple Imputation; Screening
Online: 4 January 2023 (01:54:29 CET)
The BRFSS is an annual survey conducted by each state and designed to identify trends in a representative sample of the resident population. In its 2019 field survey, the U.S. state of Georgia tested a new 3 – item module to measure the numbers of bereaved, resident adults. Bereavement means that participants answered, ‘Yes’ to the item ‘Have you experi-enced the death of a family member or close friend in the years 2018 or 2019?’. This analysis addresses two questions. Can estimates for bereavement prevalence be derived without large sampling errors, low precision, and small subsamples? Can multiple imputation techniques be applied to overcome non-response and missing data to support multivari-ate modeling? Analyses in this study were conducted under two scenarios. Scenario 1 ap-plies the complex sample weights created by the Centers for Disease Control and imputes values for missing responses. Scenario 2 treats the data as a panel – no weighting com-bined with removal of persons with missing data. Scenario 1 reflects the use of BRFSS data for public health and policy, while Scenario 2 reflects data as it is commonly used in so-cial science research. The bereavement item has a response rate (RR) of 70.8% (5206 of 7534 persons). Subgroups have RR of 55% or more. Under Scenario 1, the prevalence of bereavement is 45.38%, meaning that 3,739,120 adults reported bereaved in 2018 or 2019. The prevalence is 46.02% with Scenario 2 which removes persons with any missing data (4,289 persons). Scenario 2 overestimates the bereavement prevalence by 1.39%. An il-lustrative logistic model is included to show the performance of exposure to bereavement under each scenario. Recent bereavement can be ascertained in a surveillance survey without biases in response. This survey is limited to one US state in a single year and ex-cludes persons aged 17 years and younger.
Tue, 3 January 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Insomnia; Mental health; Physical health; perceived social support; Postpartum Depression
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:30:00 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD) can predispose to physical and mental health problems in women. However, PPD is associated with health and perceived social support but their causal relationship is unclear. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the association of PPD with insomnia, mental health, and physical health. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect data from 320 (52.8 %) young and middle aged postpartum women, in the outpatient departments of obstetrics and gynecology in Government Maula Bakhsh Hospital, District Head Quarter in Sargodha, Pakistan. The Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale, Pittsburg sleep quality index, Warwick-Edinburgh mental wellbeing scale, Patient health questionnaire, and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to measure study variables. Results revealed a significant positive relationship of PPD with physical health (r= .45, p=.001), while a negative relationship with insomnia (r= -.24, p<.001), and perceived social support (r= -.38, p=.001). Results further confirmed that perceived social support played a moderating role (β = .97, p=.01) in the relationship between PPD and mental health among females. This study concluded that perceived social support has an important role in PPD and women’s health. The study also concluded that poor health is a risk indicator for identifying aid in the early stages of postpartum among women.
Sat, 31 December 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0586.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Anxiety; Biogenic volatile organic compounds; Forest therapy; Monoterpenes; α-Pinene; Propensity matching.
Online: 31 December 2022 (08:04:39 CET)
Immersive experiences in green areas and particularly in forests have long been known to produce beneficial effects for human health. However, the exact determinants and mechanisms leading to healthy outcomes remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether inhaling plant-emitted biogenic volatile compounds, namely monoterpenes (MTs), can produce specific effects on anxiety. Data from 505 subjects participating in 39 structured forest therapy sessions in different Italian sites, were collected. Monoterpenes air concentration was measured at each site. STAI State questionnaires were administered before and after the sessions as a measure of anxiety. A propensity score matching analysis was then performed, considering an above-average exposure to inhalable air MTs as the treatment: the estimated effect was -1.28 STAI-S points (95% C.I. -2.51 to -0.06, p = 0.04), indicating that the average effect of exposure to high MT air concentrations during forest therapy sessions is to decrease anxiety.
Fri, 30 December 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: young children; early childhood; digital; wellbeing; review; definition; measurement; contributor; intervention.
Online: 30 December 2022 (04:29:30 CET)
Digital wellbeing concerns the balance and health we may experience in digital use, and the existing studies have focused on adolescents and adults. However, young children are more vulnerable to digital overuse and addiction than adults; thus, their digital wellbeing deserves empirical exploration. This scoping review synthesized and evaluated 35 collected studies on young children’s digital use and their wellbeing that were published until October of 2022 to understand the definitions, measurements, contributors, and interventions. The synthesis of evidence revealed that: (1) there was no consensus about its definition; (2) there were no effective measurements of young children’s digital wellbeing; (3) both child factors (duration and place of digital use, child demographic characteristics) and parent factors (digital use, parental perception, and mediation) contribute to young children’s wellbeing; and (4) there were some effective applications and interventions. This review contributes to the theoretical development by mapping the existing work on young children's digital wellbeing, proposing a model, and identifying the research gaps for future studies.
Fri, 23 December 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: stress; resilience; mindfulness; psychological well-being; university students
Online: 23 December 2022 (06:10:38 CET)
Purpose: Using an identical experimental structure with both Thai and Singaporean undergraduates, we investigated relationships (interactions) among social support, stress, resilience, mindfulness, and self-efficacy on psychological well-being (PWB). Stress indicated a negative influence on PWB, but mindfulness, resilience, self-efficacy, and social support indicated positive influences. Methods: A cross-sectional predictive design was used with 966 Thai and 673 Singaporean university students. After calculating an adequate sample size and performing convenience sampling, we administered the following six standard scales: the Perceived Stress Scale, the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, the Mindfulness Awareness Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Psychological Well-being Scale—along with a demographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling were performed for participants’ PWB. Results: Mindfulness had significant effects for both factors of PWB, including autonomy and growth, and cognitive triad, across two samples. In the Thai sample, resilience most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and perceived stress did so the cognitive triad, whereas in the Singaporean sample, perceived control most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and support from friends did so the cognitive triad. Conclusion: These findings provide specific knowledge toward enhancing psychosocial interventions and toward promoting PWB to strengthen mindfulness, resilience, perceived control of stress, and social support. stress, resilience, mindfulness, psychological well-being, university students
Wed, 14 December 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cannabis; tobacco; co-use; simultaneous use; mixing
Online: 14 December 2022 (06:30:42 CET)
Introduction: Increasing cannabis legalization raises concerns that tobacco use, frequently used with cannabis, will also increase. This study investigated the association between legal status of cannabis in place of residence and prevalence of cannabis and tobacco co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing by comparing the prevalence among adults in Canada (prior to cannabis legalization) vs. adults in US states that had legalized recreational cannabis vs. US states that had not as of September 2018. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2018 International Cannabis Policy Study, conducted with respondents aged 16-65 in Canada and the US recruited from non-probability consumer panels. Differences in the prevalence of co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing between tobacco and different cannabis products were examined using logistic regression models by legal status of place of residence among past 12-month cannabis consumers (N=6744). Results: Co-use and simultaneous use in the past 12 months were most common among respondents in US legal states. Among cannabis consumers, co-use and simultaneous use were less common in US legal states, while mixing was less frequent in US states with both legal and illegal cannabis compared to Canada. Use of edibles was associated with lower odds of all three outcomes, while smoking dried herb or hash was associated with higher odds. Conclusions: The proportion of cannabis consumers who used tobacco was lower in legal jurisdictions despite higher prevalence of cannabis use. Edible use was inversely associated with co-use suggesting that edible use does not appear to be associated with increased tobacco use.
Tue, 13 December 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: ADHD; micronutrients; neurodevelopment; disattention; hyperactivity
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:58:34 CET)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by core symptoms of impulsivity, locomotor hyperactivity, and inattention affecting around 5% of children and adolescents worldwide. Although this brain illness is wrongly considered a childhood disorder, increasing evidences suggest that it can persist into adulthood in about 65% of cases leading to significant clinical, socio-relational, and occupational disabilities. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments currently available permit to achieve numerous benefits, in particular, if started early in childhood, however, quality of life of patients affected by ADHD could be compromised in any case in terms of self-esteem, ability to finalize projects, and personal satisfaction. In this study we evaluated the impact of micronutrient formulations on ADHD symptoms in both children and adults analyzing results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials.
Thu, 8 December 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: international students, social support, depression, vital exhaustion
Online: 8 December 2022 (08:51:35 CET)
Background: Our study aimed to assess the differences between domestic and international students in terms of social support, vital exhaustion, and depression during the time of COVID-19. Methods: The online cross-sectional survey was conducted via Google Forms® at three time intervals during the pandemic. Results: Respectively 1320, 246, and 139 students completed our questionnaires in the different time intervals. International students reported significantly lower values of perceived social support. Women reached higher scores regarding vital exhaustion in both samples. Concerning depression, international female students had higher values than their male counterparts but the difference diminished with time. No differences could be found in the comparison of depression between domestic female and male students. Significant correlations were found between depression, perceived social support, and vital exhaustion. Discussion: International students perceive diminished social support just when they need more. Decreased levels of perceived social support may contribute to the development of their psychological problems.
Mon, 5 December 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Natural language processing; NLP; Text mining; Suicide; Suicide-Ideation; Mental Health
Online: 5 December 2022 (07:34:30 CET)
Introduction: Around a million people are reported to die by suicide every year, and due to the stigma associated with the nature of the death, this figure is usually assumed to be an underestimate. Suicide may be prevented if prompt intervention is taken to mitigate risk. Machine learning and artificial intelligence-based modelling, such as natural language processing (NLP) and other text analytics approaches, has the potential to become a major technique for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of people who are suffering from mental health issues. The primary aims of this research are to determine whether NLP techniques have been utilised in the field of suicide prevention, and if so, were they effective? What were their limitations? Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Global Health databases were searched for studies that reported use of NLP for suicide ideation or self-harm. Thematic analysis was used to synthesise and analyse the included studies. Findings were reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement, and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used in assessing paper quality. Result: The preliminary search of five databases generated 387 results. Removal of duplicates resulted in 158 potentially suitable studies. Twenty papers were finally included in this review. Discussion: Studies show that combining structured and unstructured data in NLP data modelling yielded more accurate results than utilizing either alone. Also, to reduce suicides, people with mental problems must be continuously and passively monitored. Further, NLP and other machine learning/artificial intelligence technologies can be used to address health inequities and electronic health records provide valuable data for creating suicide risk tools. Finally, Online, social media, and smartphone applications can be leverage in detecting people with suicide ideation. Conclusion: The use of artificial intelligence and machine learning opens new avenues for considerably guiding risk prediction and advancing suicide prevention frameworks. The review's analysis of the included research revealed that the use of NLP may result in low-cost and effective alternatives to existing resource-intensive methods of suicide prevention. To summarise, there is substantial evidence that NLP is useful in identifying people who have suicide ideation.
Wed, 30 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0555.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: nutritional risk screening; severe mental illness; psychiatric treatment; BMI; nutritional status; malnutrition; depression; schizophrenia; nutrition; diet
Online: 30 November 2022 (02:44:53 CET)
People with severe mental illness (SMI) are often in poor physical health, resulting in higher mortality and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. Although eating habits are one of the main predictors of physical health, few studies assess the nutritional status and eating behaviour of people with SMI. The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status and risk of malnutrition in people with SMI and in need of intensive psychiatric treatment. The cross-sectional study included 65 inpatients and 67 outpatients with psychotic or depressive disorders from the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Zurich. Patients’ assessments at admission included anthropometric measurements, such as weight and height, and interview data including severity of symptoms and functioning (SCL-K-9, PHQ-D, CGI, m-GAF), personal and medical data, nutrition risk screening tools (adapted NRS, MNA-SF) and laboratory values. The results showed that 32% of the inpatients (body mass index [BMI] = 25.3) and 34% of the outpatients (BMI = 27.9) were at risk of malnutrition, which was associated with higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower levels of functioning. These results indicate that a substantial proportion of psychiatric patients seem to be at risk of malnutrition, despite most being overweight, and hence they might benefit from nutritional support during their psychiatric treatment. Moreover, nutritional risk screening tools specifically developed for the mental healthcare setting are needed.
Tue, 29 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: air pollution; PM2.5; depression; inflammation; ecological analysis; climate; gender
Online: 29 November 2022 (10:12:54 CET)
Several studies have identified a relationship between air pollution and depression, particularly in relation to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure. However, the strength of this association appears to be moderated by variables such as age, gender, genetic vulnerability, physical activity and climatic conditions, and has not been assessed at a cross-national level to date. The current study examines the association between the prevalence of depression in each country, based on the most recent Global Burden of Disease Study data, and the average national level of PM2.5 based on the World Health Organization’s database. The observed associations were adjusted for age, gender, level of physical activity, income, education, population density, climate, and type of depression. It was observed that there was a modest but significant positive correlation between PM2.5 level and the prevalence of depression even after adjusting for the above confounders. This association was more marked above a certain threshold and applied chiefly to major depressive episodes. These findings are of significant public health importance in terms of preventive strategies aimed at reducing the population-level burden of depression.
Tue, 22 November 2022
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Autism; autism spectrum disorder; autophagy; macrophage polarization; neurogenesis; taurine
Online: 22 November 2022 (05:46:47 CET)
Contemporary research has found that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit aberrant immunological function, with a shift toward increased cytokine production and unusual cell function. Microglia and astroglia were found to be significantly activated in immuno-cytochemical studies, and cytokine analysis revealed that the macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFB-1), all generated in the neuroglia, constituted the most predominant cytokines in the brain. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a promising therapeutic molecule able to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and ATPase, which may be protective against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. It can also stimulate neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and reprogramming of proinflammatory M1 macrophage polarization by decreasing mitophagy (mitochondrial autophagy) and raising the expression of the markers of the anti-inflammatory and pro-healing M2 macrophages, such as macrophage mannose receptor (MMR, CD206) and IL-10, while lowering the expression of the M1 inflammatory factor genes. Taurine also induces autophagy, which is a mechanism that is impaired in microglia cells and is critically associated with the pathophysiology of the ASD. We hypothesize here that taurine could reprogram the metabolism of M1 macrophages that are overstimulated in the nervous system of people suffering from ASD, thereby decreasing the neuroinflammatory process, neuronal death, and improving cognitive functions. Therefore, we think that taurine can serve as an important lead for the development of novel drugs for the ASD treatment.
Thu, 17 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: woodworking program; MCI; mild dementia; psychological health; social health; older adults
Online: 17 November 2022 (16:13:43 CET)
ackground: This study aimed to examine the effects of a woodworking program on psychosocial health in older adults who had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia (MD) in Korea. Setting: The study was carried out in a dementia center in Seoul in Korea. Population: A total of 61 participants who had MCI or MD were allocated into two groups: the experimental group (EG, n = 35) and the control group (CG, n = 26). Methods: This study was carried out using a nonequivalent control group pre-test–post-test design. The EG participated in the woodworking program a total of 10 times for 120 min per session twice a week for 5 weeks, and the CG did not participate in the woodworking program. Both groups completed the same survey before and after the intervention. In the survey, demographic characteristics, psychological health (life satisfaction, depression, self-efficacy, and resilience), and social health (social isolation and social support) were measured. Results: In the within-group comparison, there was no significant difference between any factors of the CG before and after the intervention. In contrast, the EG had a significant improvement before and after the woodworking program. Participants in the EG with MCI and MD significantly improved their social support (p < 0.05). Psychological factors (life satisfaction, depression, and self-efficacy) were positively changed, although not significantly. Conclusions: The woodworking program promoted psychosocial health, such as life satisfaction, resilience, and social support, among older adults with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia.
Wed, 16 November 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gut-brain-axis; BDNF; bacteria; neuron; neurotrophin; hippocampus
Online: 16 November 2022 (09:54:53 CET)
Growing evidence suggests a possible involvement of the intestinal microbiota in generating new neurons, but a detailed breakdown of the microbiota composition is lacking. In this report, we systematically reviewed preclinical rodent reports addressing the connection between the composition of the intestinal microbiota and neurogenesis and neurogenesis-affecting neurotrophins in the hippocampus. Various changes in bacterial composition from low taxonomic resolution at the phylum level to high taxonomic resolution at the species level were identified. As for neurogenesis, studies predominantly used doublecortin (DCX) as a marker of newly formed neurons or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker of proliferation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was the only neurotrophin found researched in relation to the intestinal microbiota. Phylum Actinobacteria, genus Bifidobacterium and genus Lactobacillus found the strongest positive while phylum Firmicutes, phylum Bacteroidetes and family Enterobacteriaceae as well as germ-free status, showed the strongest negative correlation towards neurogenesis or BDNF mRNA expression. Age, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), obesity and chronic stress were recurring topics in all studies identified. Overall, these findings add to the existing evidence of a connection between microbiota and processes in the brain. To better understand this interaction, further investigation based on analyses of higher taxonomic resolution and clinical studies would be a gain to the matter.
Tue, 15 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: critical care; physiological measurement; nursing and nursing systems; naturalistic study; fatigue
Online: 15 November 2022 (03:18:01 CET)
Intensive care nurses are highly prone to occupational stress and burnout, affecting their physical and mental health. The occurrence of the pandemic and related events increased nurses’ workload and exacerbated stress and burnout. We conducted a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study with a cohort of nurses working in a medical ICU (COVID unit; n = 14) and cardiovascular ICU (non-COVID unit; n = 5). Each participant was followed for six 12-hour shifts. Validated questionnaires measured occupational stress and burnout prevalence. Wrist-worn wearable technologies recorded physiological indices of stress. Participants elaborated on the contributors to stress via post-study questionnaire. Data were analyzed using statistical and qualitative methods. Participants who cared for COVID patients at the COVID unit were 3.71 times more likely to experience stress (p < .001) in comparison to non-COVID unit participants. No differences in stress levels were found when the same participants worked with COVID and non-COVID patients at different shifts at the COVID unit. The cohorts expressed similar contributors to stress including communication tasks, patient acuity, clinical procedures, admission processes, proning, labs, and assisting coworkers. Nurses in COVID units, irrespective of whether they care for a COVID patient, may experience high occupational stress and burnout.
Mon, 14 November 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: tardive dyskinesia; schizophrenia; antipsychotics; deep brain stimulation
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:12:39 CET)
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a phenomenon predominantly observed as a result of the long-term use of dopamine receptor blockers (antipsychotics). TD is a group of involuntary, irregular hyperkinetic movements, mainly in the muscles of the face, eyelid muscles, lips, tongue, and cheeks, and less frequently in the limbs, neck, pelvis, and trunk. In some patients, TD takes on an extremely severe form, massively disrupting functioning, moreover, causing stigmatization and suffering. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a method used, among others, in Parkinson's disease, is also an effective treatment for TD and often becomes a method of last resort, especially in severe, drug-resistant forms. The procedure is relatively new in TD, so the available reliable clinical studies are few and consist mainly of case reports. Unilateral and bilateral stimulation of two sites has proven efficacy in TD treatment. Most authors describe stimulation of the globus pallidus internus (GPi); less frequent descriptions involve the hypothalamic nucleus (STN). In the present paper, we provide up-to-date information on the stimulation of both mentioned brain areas. We also compare the efficacy of the two methods by comparing the two available studies, which included the largest groups of patients. Although GPi stimulation is more frequently used clinically, our initial analysis indicates comparable results (reduction of involuntary movements) with STN DBS.
Tue, 8 November 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: functional connectivity; schizophrenia; EEG; neuronal networks; PLI; PLV; MST
Online: 8 November 2022 (08:52:46 CET)
Background: Modern computational solutions enabling evaluation of the global neuronal network arrangement seem to be particularly valuable for research on neuronal disconnection in schizophrenia. However, a vast number of algorithms used in these analyzes may be an uncontrolled source of results inconsistency. Objective: Our study aimed to verify whether the comparison of schizophrenia patients with healthy controls, in terms of indexes describing the organization of the neural network, will give analogous results when these parameters are calculated using two different functional connectivity measures. Methods: Resting-state EEG recordings from schizophrenia patients and healthy controls were collected. Based on these data, Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) graphs were computed two times using two different functional connectivity measures (phase lag index, PLI, and phase locking value, PLV). Results: Two series of be-tween-group comparisons regarding MST parameters calculated based on PLI or PLV gave contradictory results, in many cases the values of a given MST index based on PLI were higher in patients, and the results based on PLV were lower in patients than in the controls. Additionally, within the patients' group, selected network measures were significantly different when calculated from PLI or PLV. Conclusions: The selection of FC measures significantly affects the parameters of MST-based neural networks and might be a source of disagreement between the results of network studies on schizophrenia.
Wed, 26 October 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Anxiety; Mental Health; Hospitalized; Malaysia
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:55:34 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic creates anxiety among hospitalised SARS-CoV-2 patients. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of anxiety and its associated factors among stable inpatient COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a web-based online survey involving 401 patients from Malaysia's leading COVID-19 hospitals from 15th April until 30th June 2020 who were chosen using quota sampling. General Anxiety Disorders 7 items (GAD-7), Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory (Brief-COPE) and Socio-demographic profile questionnaire were used. Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed using SPSS v23 to determine the prevalence of anxiety and its associated factors. The results showed that prevalence of anxiety was 7.0%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that female (p < 0.05), fear of infection (p < 0.05), lack of information (p < 0.05), maladaptive coping mechanism of behavioural disengagement (p < 0.001) and self-blame (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with anxiety. Whereas adaptive coping mechanisms via instrumental support (p < 0.001) was a significant protective predictor of anxiety. COVID-19 infection has had a significant influence on the mental health of patients. Findings in our study provides baseline findings on prevalence of anxiety among stabilized COVID-19 inpatient in Malaysia. Despite the relative low prevalence, the data has the potential to improve the present mental health monitoring system and the deployment of suitable treatments in dealing with similar circumstances
Fri, 21 October 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: disruptive behavior disorders; conduct disorder; oppositional defiant disorder; aggression; atypical antipsychotics; risperidone; clozapine
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:03:40 CEST)
Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) in childhood, such as conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are characterized by high levels of irritability and aggression. Though psychological management is considered the first-line approach for these disorders, many children and adolescents require adjunctive pharmacotherapy for the control of specific symptoms. Several prior systematic reviews have examined the evidence for the use of antipsychotics in the symptomatic management of DBDs, but have concluded that their efficacy is marginal and limited by significant adverse effects. This paper updates existing reviews of this field by reviewing clinical trials of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with DBDs published in the period 2-1-2017 to 2-10-2022. The PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases were searched for relevant citations. Six relevant trials were identified during this period. These trials were critically evaluated in terms of outcome measures, efficacy and safety. Overall, the data from these trials suggests that certain atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone and clozapine, are effective in the short-term management of aggression in DBDs. They have no apparent effect on cognition, but are associated with significant metabolic adverse effects. The results of these trials, and of the earlier systematic reviews, are discussed in the light of global trends towards increasing off-label prescription of antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents, and of recent literature on the neuropharmacology of aggression in this patient population. The need for rational, short-term use of these drugs is highlighted, as well as the importance of post-marketing surveillance for long-term or severe adverse events.
Mon, 3 October 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: selenium; oxidative stress; serotonin; glutamate; anxiety disorders; obsessive-compulsive disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 3 October 2022 (15:17:24 CEST)
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders worldwide, and often respond incompletely to existing treatments. Selenium, a micronutrient that is a component of several biologically active selenoproteins, is also involved in several aspects of brain functioning, and may exert antidepressant and anxiolytic effects through multiple pathways. The current paper is a scoping review of translational, observational and interventional evidence on the potential role of selenium and its compounds in the management of anxiety and related disorders. Evidence from animal models suggests that this approach may be promising. Though evidence from observational studies in humans is inconsistent and affected by several confounding factors, the available evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that selenium supplementation may be beneficial in the management of certain anxiety-related conditions, such as anxiety in medically ill patients, prevention of anxiety following exposure to traumatic stress, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the existing evidence base, including unanswered questions that could serve as the focus of further research, and outlines the potential benefits and risks associated with the use of selenium in anxiety disorders.
Thu, 29 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cancer; anxiety; depression
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:05:29 CEST)
Introduction: Cancer is a group of diseases caused by uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth caused by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. Based on data from Dr Kariadi Hospital in 2021, lung cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer were 1,259 cases, this incident increased significantly from 2020. Based on the data obtained, the sequence of lung cancer cases was 241, breast cancer 623 , and cervical cancer 395. Both cancer and its treatment can weaken the patient's immune system, this is what makes cancer sufferers have a risk of anxiety and depression. Objective: To find out the description of anxiety and depression in cancer patients at RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. Methods: The design of this study was descriptive quantitative, with a population of 56 patients and calculated using a stratified random sampling formula so that a sample of 49 respondents was obtained. The instrument or measuring instrument in this study used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Most cancer patients experienced mild anxiety and did not experience depression or at normal levels, from the number of respondents as many as 49 respondents, 27 respondents experienced mild anxiety (55.1%) and did not experience depression or at normal levels as many as 22 respondents (44, 9%). Suggestion: It is hoped that it can provide input for nurses to provide counseling to patients as an effort to reduce the anxiety and depression felt by patients.
Wed, 28 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); antipsychotic medication; polymorphism, insertion/deletion; treatment response
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:12:20 CEST)
We investigated whether a functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) influenced antipsychotic treatment. At baseline, and after 8 weeks of treatment with various antipsychotic medications, we assessed patients’ Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, PANSS factors, and metabolic syndrome-related parameters (fasting plasma lipid and glucose levels, and body mass index). A total of 186 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis patients or nonadherent chronic psychosis individuals (99 males and 87 females) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The ACE-I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with changes in PANSS psychopathology only (p < 0.05). Compared to ACE-II homozygous males, ACE-DD homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous males manifested significantly greater decreases in PANSS positive score, PANSS excitement factor, and PANSS cognitive factor. ACE-DD homozygous females manifested higher decreases in PANSS depression factor compared to ACE-II homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous females. The polymorphism’s effect size was estimated as moderate to strong, while its contribution to the PANSS psychopathology ranged from ~5.4–8.7%, with the lowest contribution observed for PANSS positive score changes and the highest for PANSS depressive factor changes. Our results indicated that ACE-I/D polymorphism had a statistically significant but weak gender-specific impact on psychopathology data and showed no association between ACE-I/D polymorphism and metabolic syndrome-related parameters.
Mon, 26 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID 19; health personnel; Burnout, Psychological; COVID 19 stress syndrome
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:42:28 CEST)
Purpose: The healthcare pressure and emotional tension during the first year of the COVID 19 pandemic have been able to affect the health of healthcare personnel. Physical and psychological symptoms attributed to a work situation and or COVID 19 infection are describ ed in health professionals. Objective: to analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms directly or indirectly related to COVID 19 (occupational causes, illness or persistent COVID 19) after a 12 month pandemic. Methods: #COVID19PS is a cro ss sectional analytical study using an ad hoc questionnaire distributed through social media to record physical and psychological symptoms related to COVID 19 in health professionals. Variables: age, sex, geographical origin, profession, characteristics of the work environment, physical symptoms, Maslach test ( for health professionals. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis using t distribution, Chi square, ANOVA using IBM SPSS v20®. Results: N=1.159 ( women, 21.8% men; 44.6% <35 years old, 23.9% between 35 45years); 96.5% Spaniards. Professions: 17.1% medicine, 12.7% nursing, 32% physiotherapy, 24.1% occupational therapy, 14.1% others; 47.5% belonged to direct care for COVID 19 patients. 28.2% had passed the disease and 3.7% had it acti ve. 61.6% had physical symptoms ( neurological, 31.7% musculoskeletal, 29.6% general, 20.9% gastrointestinal, 20.3% skin, 19.2% cardiovascular, 16% respiratory (p= 96.9% had a medium high Burnout index (p= 48.3% with high levels of Emot ional Exhaustion, 62.9% with medium high level of Depersonalization and 74% with medium low levels of Personal Accomplishment. Conclusion: all health professions present high rates of physical and burnout consequences of the first year of COVID 19 pandemic.
Tue, 20 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional intelligence; brain injury; cognitive impairment
Online: 20 September 2022 (13:14:54 CEST)
Background: Cognitive-behavioral alterations can occur after an acquired brain injury. It is a stressful situa-tion for patient and relatives. Objectives: To develop and evaluate a synchronous online training program on emotional intelligence (EI) for caregivers of adult patients with cognitive-behavioral impairment due to acquired brain injury. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was designed, a target population of ten caregivers attended to a one-month virtual synchronous course about EI. The emotional status of caregivers was registered one-month-previous and one-month-post program using comparative measures: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: Median age of the ten caregivers was 48 years, 80% of women with a median care-time of 6 years. 50% of them were spouses of the patients. 60% of the patients were affected by stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic cause). The main cognitive impairment of the patients reported by relatives was memory deficit. After re-ceiving training, favorable changes were found regarding emotional affect measured with the PANAS, both positive (increase) and negative (decrease), as well as with the TMMS-24-mood-repair area (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Training in EI helps caregivers to make their mood more positive and improve aspects of their emotional intelligence such as emotional regulation.
Mon, 19 September 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Suicide attempt; behaviour; prevention; Facebook
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:33:36 CEST)
Background: Facebook represents a new dimension for global information sharing. Suicidal behaviours and attempts are growingly reported on Facebook. This scoping review explores the various aspects of suicidal behaviours associated with Facebook, discussing the challenges and preventive measures. Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus were searched for related articles published in English up to October 2021, using different combinations of "Facebook" and "suicide". A group of consultant psychiatrists screened the records and read the full-text articles to extract relevant data. Results: Facebook impacts suicidal behaviours in different aspects. Announcing suicides through sharing notes or personal information, which can be helpful in prediction of suicide, and harmful since negatively affects audience. Live-streaming videos of suicide is another aspect, which questions the ability of Facebook to monitor shared contents that can negatively affect the audience. Helping bereaved families to share feelings and seek support online, commemorating the lost person by sharing their photos is another positive impact. Moreover, it can provide real-world details of everyday user behaviours, which are helpful to predict suicide risk, primarily through novel machine-learning techniques, and provide early warning and valuable help to prevent it. It can also provide a timeline of the user's activities and state of mind before suicide. Conclusions: Social media can detect suicidal tendencies, provide support for those seeking help, comfort family and friends with their grief, and provide insights via timelining the users' activities leading to their suicide. The lack of quantitative studies on evaluating preventative efforts on Facebook was one of the limitations. The creators' commitment and the users' social responsibility will be required to create a mentally healthy Facebook environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 outbreak; lockdown protocols; individual and social activities; mental health challenges; older people; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:51:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic’s mandatory lockdown protocols on activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n=24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by a qualitative data analysis framework. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; migrant health; undocumented migrants; COVID-19; coping strategy; Myanmar; Thailand; mixed method
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:40:23 CEST)
Migrant population have always been vulnerable for high burden of social exclusion, mental disorders, physical illness and economic crisis. The current COVID-19 pandemic has further created the frantic plight among them, particularly for the undocumented migrant workers in global south. We have conducted a mixed method study among the undocumented Myanmar migrant workers (UMMWs) in Thailand to explore how the COVID-19 disruption has impacted on their mental health and what are the coping strategies adopted by them. Following the onset of COVID-19 and the recent coup d'etat in Myanmar, our current study is the first attempt to understand the mental health status and predicament of this neglected migrant group. A total of 398 UMMWs were included in the online survey among whom 23 participated in qualitative interviews. The major mental health issues reported by the study participants were depression, generalised anxiety disorder, frustration, stress and panic disorder while loss of employment, worries about the pandemic, social stigma, refused access to healthcare, lockdown and fear of detention were the predominant contributing factors. In response, we identified two key coping mechanisms- coping at personal layer (listening to music, playing online game, praying, self-motivation) and social layer (chatting with family and friends, visiting religious institutions). These findings point to the importance of policy and intervention programs aimed to uphold mental health at such humanitarian conditions. Sustainable institutional mental health care support and social integration for the migrant workers irrespective of their legal status should be ensured.
Thu, 15 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: functional connectivity; functional magnetic-resonance imaging; resting state; mood disorders; classification
Online: 15 September 2022 (09:20:26 CEST)
Aim. In the current study, we aimed at identifying resting-state brain networks, which are different in patients with depression compared to healthy individuals. Moreover, we analyzed the potential for clinical use of different network measures that could discriminate the two groups and thus help the diagnostic process. Method and subjects. We recruited 90 subjects: 49 healthy controls (HC) and 41 patients with a major depressive episode (MDE). All subjects underwent clinical evaluation and functional resting-state MRI. The data were processed to investigate functional connectivity network measures across the two groups using Brain Connectivity Toolbox. The statistical inferences were made at the functional networks level, using false discovery rate method. Independent samples t-test was performed on the network measures mean values to reveal differences between HC and MDE groups. Permutation-based statistical testing was used to test the significance of the difference between the distributions of the network measures by nodes for HC and MDE groups. Linear discriminant analysis was used to differentiate between the groups. Results and discussion. Significant differences in FC between depressed patients and healthy controls were found with the most prominent changes encompassing within-region as well as between-region connectivity of occipital lobe areas such as precuneus (PreCu), cuneus (Cu), superior occipital gyrus (SOG), lingual gyrus (LG), fusiform gyrus (FG), cerebellum, along with limbic structures including the hippocampus (Hipp) and cingulate gyrus. Linear discriminant analysis demonstrated that the full connectivity matrices, as well as those with only the significant connections identified in advance, were the most precise in differentiating between depression and health. These measures reached precision levels of 97% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion. Our study delivered further evidence about impairment of functional connectivity networks in MDE that may contribute to differentiate patients with depression from healthy subjects.
Wed, 14 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: community care; integrated care; mental health; service users and relatives’ interventions; service users and relatives’ interaction
Online: 14 September 2022 (16:27:56 CEST)
Relatives play an important role in mental health service users’ care. Interventions directed either at service users or their relatives may influence the other person as well. The project Activa’t per la salut mental (Get active for mental health) consisted of a series of four interventions addressed at people diagnosed with mental disorders and their relatives to help them in their recovery process, increasing their agency and quality of life. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the interaction of the participation of service users on their relatives’ outcomes and vice versa. The impact of the project was evaluated within an RCT. The treatment group had access to all the circuit interventions while the control group received treatment as usual and could only access one of the interventions. All participants were evaluated at baseline, six months, and twelve months after the end of the first intervention. Service users were evaluated with the Stages of recovery questionnaire, and relatives with the Family Burden Interview Schedule II and the Duke-UNC-11 questionnaires. The interaction between service users and their relatives was analysed by means of correlational analyses within the intervention group. Service users baseline characteristics influenced in the level of participation of relatives and vice versa. The results also indicated an interaction between service users’ recovery score changes on the change of care burden of relatives. Service users’ participation levels interacted with the decrease of relatives’ burden. These results can be extremely helpful in fostering interactive benefits in future projects addressing the wellbeing of mental health service users and their relatives. Future studies could use specific designs to explore the directionality of the causality of these effects.
Thu, 8 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Cathinones; Designer drugs; Bath salts; Neuronal injury; astroglial injury; Calpain; Caspase
Online: 8 September 2022 (09:14:34 CEST)
This study aims to examine the cytotoxicity mechanisms of synthetic cathinone (bath salts) on rat primary cultured neurons and primary astroglial cells, and to assess their neurobehavioral effects on mice. We administered methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) to both rat primary cultured neurons and primary astroglial cells to assess cell injury. We also analyzed the effects of MDPV on these cell cultures using immunocytochemistry. We utilized western blotting to assess the breakdown of αII-spectrin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) induced by MDPV. The western blotting experiment also included calpain and caspase inhibitors (SNJ1945 and Z-D-DCB, respectively) and pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic agents (Staurosporine and calcium ionophore A23187, respectively). Lastly, we assessed MDPV’s effects on behavioral effects using rotarod, locomotor activity, elevated plus maze, Morris water maze, forced swimming, and open field tests. MDPV caused a dose-dependent release of LDH in both cerebrocortical neuron-astroglia mixed cultures and primary astroglial cultures. MDPV also caused neurite breakages and astroglial process retraction on immunocytochemistry. Lastly, MDPV induced αII-spectrin breakdown in western blotting experiments. Co-administration of calpain and caspase inhibitors reduced the degradation of αII-spectrin and GFAP. MDPV administration also increased anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity in the mice. Synthetic cathinones, which share structural similarities with methamphetamine, also induce significant neurotoxic effects and neurobehavioral effects on rodent models. These neurotoxic effects are likely mediated by calpain and caspase-induced apoptosis and necrosis, while astroglial death is likely only due to calpain activation. Therefore, further research may focus on pharmacological interventions targeting these pathways to mitigate the cytotoxic impact of cathinones in humans.
Wed, 7 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: ADHD; Antisocial Behavior; Sense of Coherence; Protective Factors
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:03:25 CEST)
Numerous studies have established the link between ADHD and antisocial behavior, one of the most serious functional impairments caused by the disorder. However, research on protective factors that mitigate this link is still lacking. The Salutogenic Model of Health offers the “Sense of Coherence” (SOC), establishing that individuals who see their lives as logical, meaningful, and manageable are more resistant to various risk factors and diseases. The present study examines for the first time whether SOC is also a protective factor against ADHD-related different types of antisocial behaviors (severe/mild violent behavior, verbal violence, property crimes, public disorder, and drug abuse). 2260 participants aged 15-50 completed online questionnaires assessing the level of ADHD symptoms, antisocial behaviors, and SOC. An interaction between ADHD and SOC was found in predicting each type of antisocial behavior. The link between ADHD and antisocial behavior was significantly weaker for high than low SOC participants, regardless of age group. The current study found that people with high SOC are protected against the effect of ADHD on one of the most serious functional impairments, antisocial behavior. These findings suggest that SOC is a protective factor from the adverse effects of ADHD, justifying further prospective and intervention studies.
Mon, 5 September 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: acetylated E2F4; synapsis; tissue homeostasis; Alzheimer’s disease; 5xFAD mice; neuroinflammation; microgliosis; reactive astrocytes.
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:52:27 CEST)
E2F4 was initially described as a transcription factor with a key function in the regulation of cell quiescence. Nevertheless, a number of recent studies have established that E2F4 can also play a relevant role in cell and tissue homeostasis as well as tissue regeneration. For these non-canonical functions, E2F4 can also act in the cytoplasm, where it is able to interact with many homeostatic and synaptic regulators. Since E2F4 is expressed in the nervous system, it may fulfill a crucial role in brain function and homeostasis, being a promising multifactorial target for neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging. The regulation of E2F4 is complex as it can be chemically modified through acetylation, from which we present evidence in the brain, as well as methylation, and phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of E2F4 within a conserved threonine motif induces cell cycle re-entry in neurons, while a dominant negative form of E2F4 (E2F4DN), in which the conserved threonines have been substituted by alanines, has been shown to act as a multifactorial therapeutic agent for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have generated transgenic mice neuronally expressing E2F4DN. We have recently shown using this mouse strain that expression of E2F4DN in 5xFAD mice, a known murine model of AD, improved cognitive function, reduced neuronal tetraploidization, and induced a transcriptional program consistent with modulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide proteostasis and brain homeostasis recovery. 5xFAD/E2F4DN mice also showed reduced microgliosis and astrogliosis in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus at 3-6 months of age. Here we have analyzed the immune response in 1 year-old 5xFAD/E2F4DN mice, concluding that reduced microgliosis and astrogliosis is maintained at this late stage. In addition, the expression of E2F4DN also reduced age-associated microgliosis in wild-type mice, thus stressing its role as a brain homeostatic agent. We conclude that E2F4DN transgenic mice represent a promising tool for the evaluation of E2F4 as a therapeutic target in neuropathology and brain aging.
Fri, 26 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0458.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental illness; homicide; violence; psychiatry; Penrose hypothesis; deinstitutionalization
Online: 26 August 2022 (10:00:36 CEST)
The association between mental illness and violent crimes such as homicide is complex. In 1939, Lionel Penrose hypothesized that the availability of psychiatric hospital beds was inversely related to the prison population, presumably due to the hospitalization of potential offenders with a mental illness. Subsequent studies have found evidence for this association, but questions remain about the contributions of confounding factors. Moreover, there has been a move towards deinstitutionalization and community care of the mentally ill over the past six decades. In this study, the association between national homicide rates and three measures of the availability of psychiatric care – the numbers of psychiatrists, general hospital psychiatric beds, and psychiatric hospital beds per 100,000 population – was examined using a time-lagged correlation analysis. Associations between homicide rates and socioeconomic factors associated with crime were also examined. It was found that the availability of psychiatrists and of general hospital psychiatric beds were both negatively correlated with homicide rates, and that the association with general hospital psychiatric beds remained significant even after correction for confounding factors. These results suggest the need for a more nuanced interpretation of Penrose’s original formulation, involving the interplay of social, economic factors and psychological factors rather than linear causality.
Tue, 23 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: scale design; reliability; validity; first responders; mental health; workplace; occupational stress; humiliation; betrayal
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:50:00 CEST)
First responders, such as police officers, paramedics, and fire-fighters are at an increased risk of experiencing negative mental health outcomes compared to the general population. This predisposition can partially be attributed to common occupational stressors, such as poor workplace culture and mistreatment from leadership, which may provoke strong feelings of betrayal and humiliation. The Workplace Assessment Scale (WAS) was developed as there is currently no appropriate measure to assess such feelings in the first responder population. The scale consists of the Betrayal Subscale and the Humiliation Subscale, each comprised of 5 Likert scale questions which ask participants to report the frequency at which they experience specific feelings associated with their workplace. This pilot validation study was conducted to assess preliminary reliability and validity of the WAS, using data which was originally collected as part of a larger first responder-based observational study. Based on 21/22 (95%) participant responses, the internal consistency appeared to be strong for both sub-scales as well as the overall questionnaire. However, item 9 will likely require modification or deletion from the scale. The validity analysis found no significant correlations between WAS and other psychiatric scales. Additional research is needed for further analysis and validation of the WAS.
Fri, 19 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: developmental delay; de novo mutation; protein-protein interaction; PPI interface; protein in-teractome; PsymuKB
Online: 19 August 2022 (04:50:42 CEST)
Mutations, especially those at the protein-protein interaction (PPI) interface, have been associated with various diseases. Meanwhile, though de novo mutations (DNMs) have been proven important in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as developmental delay (DD), the relationship between PPI interface DMNs and DD has not been well studied. Here we curated developmental delay DNM datasets from the PsyMuKB database and showed that DD patients showed a higher rate and deleteriousness in DNM missense on the PPI interface than sibling control. Next, we identified 302 DD-related PsychiPPIs, defined as PPI harboring a statistically significant number of DNM missenses at their interface, and 42 DD candidate genes from PsychiPPI. We then observed that PsychiPPIs preferentially affected hub proteins in the human protein interactome network. When analyzing DD candidate genes using gene ontology and gene spatio-expression, we found that PsychiPPI genes carrying PPI interface mutations, such as FGFR3 and ALOX5, were enriched in development-related pathways and the development of the neocortex, and cerebellar cortex, suggesting their potential involvement in the etiology of DD. Our results demonstrated that DD patients carried an excess burden of PPI-truncating DNM, which could be used to efficiently search for disease-related genes and mutations in large-scale sequencing studies. In conclusion, our comprehensive study indicated the significant role of PPI interface DNMs in developmental delay pathogenicity.
Thu, 18 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: ethnic identity; mental health; migrant; transcultural psychiatry; youth
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:58:41 CEST)
Background: The number of young Japanese Brazilians, who are return migrants with Japanese ancestral roots, is increasing rapidly in Japan. However, the characteristics of their mental health and the relation between mental health and a complex ethnic identity remains unclear. Methods: This cross-sectional study compared 25 Japanese-Brazilian high school students with 62 Japanese high school students living in the same area. Research using self-report questionnaires on mental health, help-seeking behavior tendencies, and ethnic identity was conducted. The Japanese-Brazilian group was also divided into high and low ethnic identity groups, and their mental health conditions were compared. Results: The Japanese-Brazilian group had significantly poorer mental health conditions and lower ethnic identities than the Japanese group and were less likely to seek help from family members and close relatives. Among the Japanese Brazilians, those with low ethnic identity had significantly poorer mental health than those with high ethnic identity. Conclusions: Young Japanese Brazilians may face conflicts of ethnic identity that can disturb their mental health. To build an inclusive society, the establishment of community services to support mental health and to help return migrants develop their ethnic identity is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Schizophrenia; cell types proportions; differential expression genes; functional pathways; CIBERSORTx
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:05 CEST)
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe mental disorder that may result in hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking. How each cell type in the brain contributes to SCZ occurrence is still unclear. Here, we leveraged the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bulk RNA-seq data, then used the RNA-seq deconvolution algorithm CIBERSORTx to generate SCZ brain single-cell RNA-seq data for a comprehensive analysis to understand SCZ-associated brain cell types and gene expression changes. Firstly, we observed that the proportions of brain cell types in SCZ differed from normal samples. Among these cell types, astrocyte, pericyte, and PAX6 cells were found to have a higher proportion in SCZ patients (astrocyte: SCZ = 0.163, Control = 0.145, P.adj = 4.9×10-4; pericyte: SCZ = 0.057, Control = 0.066, P.adj = 1.1×10-4; PAX6 : SCZ = 0.014, Control = 0.011, P.adj = 0.014), while the L5/6_IT_CAR3 cells and LAMP5 cells are the exact opposite (L5/6_IT_Car3 : SCZ = 0.102, Control = 0.108, P.adj = 0.016; LAMP5 : SCZ = 0.057, Control = 0.066, P.adj = 2.2×10-6). Next, we investigated gene expression in cell types and functional pathways in SCZ. We observed chemical synaptic transmission dysregulation in two types of GABAergic neurons (PVALB and LAMP5), and immune reaction involvement in GABAergic neurons (SST) and non-neuronal cell types (endothelial and oligodendrocyte). Furthermore, we observed that some differential expression genes from bulk RNA-seq displayed cell-type-specific abnormal in the expression of molecules in SCZ. Finally, the cell types with the SCZ-related transcriptomic changes could be considered to belong to the same module since we observed two major similar coordinated transcriptomic changes across these cell types. Together, our results offer novel insights into cellular heterogeneity and the molecular mechanisms underlying SCZ.
Wed, 17 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: foehn wind; psychopathology; BSCL; mental health; weather; meteorological factors; climate change
Online: 17 August 2022 (04:04:41 CEST)
Psychiatric patients are particularly vulnerable to strong weather stimuli, such as foehn, a hot wind that occurs in the alps. However, there is a dearth of research regarding its impact on mental health. This study investigated the impact of foehn wind among patients of a psychiatric hospital located in a foehn area in the Swiss Alps. Analysis was based on anonymized datasets obtained from routine records on admission and discharge, including the Brief Symptom Checklist (BSCL) questionnaire, as well as sociodemographic parameters (age, sex, and diagnosis). Between 2013 and 2020 a total of 10,456 admission days and 10,575 discharge days were recorded. All meteorological data were extracted from the database of the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology of Switzerland. We estimated the effect of foehn on the BSCL items using a distributed lag model. Significant differences were found between foehn and non-foehn admissions in obsession-compulsion, Interpersonal Sensitivity, depression, Anxiety, Phobic Anxiety, Paranoid Ideation, and General Severity Index (GSI) (p <.05). Our findings suggest that foehn wind events may negatively affect specific mental health parameters in patients. More research is needed to fully understand the impact of foehn’s events on mental health.
Tue, 16 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; anxiety; depression; family income; physical activity
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:59:08 CEST)
Background: Young adults, particularly university students might be at greater risk of developing psychological distress, and exhibiting symptoms of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to explore and compare the determinants and predictors of mental health (anxiety and depression) during and after COVID-19 lockdown among university students. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a sample size of 417 students. An online survey utilizing International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form (IPAQ-SF), General Anxiety Disorder–7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was distributed to Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman students via Google forms. Results: During lockdown, family income [χ2 (1, n=124) = 5.155, p=0.023], and physical activity [χ2 (1, n=134) = 6.366, p=0.012] were associated with anxiety, while depression was associated with gender [χ2 (1, n=75) = 4.655, p=0.031]. After lockdown, family income was found to be associated with both anxiety [χ2 (1, n=111) = 8.089, p=0.004], and depression [χ2 (1, n=115) =9.305, p=0.002]. During lockdown, family income (OR=1.60, p=0.018), and physical activity (OR=0.59, p=0.011) were predictors for anxiety, and gender (OR=0.65, p=0.046) being the only predictor for depression. After lockdown, family income was a predictor for both anxiety (OR=1.67, p=0.011), and depression (OR=1.70, p=0.009). Conclusion: Significant negative effects attributed to the COVID-19 lockdown, and certain factors predisposed to the worsening of mental health status in university students. Family income, physical activity level, and gender were some of the major determinants that influenced the anxiety and depression.
Mon, 15 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: healthcare workers; workplace wellness; mental health and wellbeing; recovery; resilience; Australian bushfires; COVID-19; burnout; occupational trauma
Online: 15 August 2022 (11:58:02 CEST)
The 2019-2020 Australian bushfires followed by the COVID-19 pandemic brought the significant mental health implications of working in healthcare to the fore. The importance of appropriate support services to ensure the resilience and recovery of healthcare workers has been highlighted. In response to healthcare staff experiences during the bushfires, the SEED Wellness Program was created in 2020 in the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, in NSW Australia. SEED used a participatory action methodology to engage and collaborate with healthcare staff teams in workplace-based restorative activities. Guided by Practice Theory, this study aimed to identify and describe SEED wellness practices that supported healthcare staff. Thirty-three healthcare workers participated in focus groups or individual interviews between June 2021 and March 2022. The analysis involved inductive thematic individual and collective exploration of SEED practices, including co-analysis with participants. Eight core practices that supported participants’ wellbeing were identified including responsive and compassionate leading, engaging staff at every stage of the recovery process, creating a sense of connection with others, and collective caring. The study found that workplace wellness initiatives are optimised when place-based and grounded in local knowledge, needs, and resources incorporating a collective and supportive team approach. Moreover, to ensure engagement in, and sustainability of these initiatives, both bottom-up and top-down commitment is required.
Fri, 12 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.
Tue, 9 August 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Nitrous Oxid; N₂O; nangs; systematic review; harm reduction; drug use
Online: 9 August 2022 (11:29:40 CEST)
Background Nitrous Oxide (N₂O) is a dissociative anaesthetic that is sometimes used recreationally. The prevalence of N₂O use is difficult to quantify but appears to be increasing. Research on N₂O harms and application of harm reduction strategies are limited. The aim of this mixed method systematic review was to collate and synthesise the disparate body of research on recreational nitrous oxide use to inform harm reduction approaches tailored for young people. Methods To identify publications reporting recreational use of N₂O, a search of public health, psychology and social science databases was conducted. Databases included PubMed, CIHNAL, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Gray literature and Google advanced search were also used. Due to limited published literature on the recreational use of N₂O, no limit was placed on publication date or study type. A thematic synthesis extracted descriptive and analytical themes from the selected studies. Quality appraisal was conducted using the CASP Tool for Qualitative studies and the Joanna Briggs Institute case report assessment tool Results The search retrieved 407 reports. Thirty-four were included in the final analysis including sixteen case reports. The included studies were primarily concerned with raising awareness of the apparently increasing use and subsequently increasing harms of recreational N₂O use. There was limited reference to policy or legislative responses in any published studies, no suggestions for harm reduction strategies or application of service level responses. In general, individuals lack awareness of N2O related harms. Conclusion The review found three key areas that deserve further consideration including: 1) policy, 2) service delivery, and 3) harm associated with N₂O use. We recommend a top-down (policy) and bottom-up (services delivery/services users) approach to harm reduction for N₂O use which also includes further consultation and research with both groups. Future research could explore young people’s experience of N₂O use including benefits and problems to inform contextually relevant harm reduction strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: alcohol dependence; comorbidity; gene network; genome-wide association study; sex differences
Online: 9 August 2022 (10:35:29 CEST)
At least 50% of factors predisposing to alcohol dependence (AD) are genetic and women affected with this disorder present with more psychiatric comorbidities, probably indicating different genetic factors involved. We aimed to run a genome-wide association study (GWAS) followed by a bioinformatic functional annotation of associated genomic regions in male and female patients with AD and eight related clinical measures. A genome-wide significant association of rs220677 with AD (p-value = 1.33×10^-8 calculated with the Yates-corrected Chi-square test under the assumption of dominant inheritance) was discovered in female patients. Associations of AD and related clinical measures with seven other single nucleotide polymorphisms listed in previous GWAS of psychiatric and addiction traits were differently replicated in male and female patients. The bioinformatic analysis showed that regulatory elements in the eight associated linkage disequilibrium blocks define the expression of 80 protein-coding genes. Nearly 68% of these and of 120 previously published coding genes associated with alcohol phenotypes directly interact in a single network. This study indicates that a number of genes behind the pathogenesis of AD are different in male and female patients, but implicated molecular mechanisms are functionally connected. The results also suggest the genetic basis of sex-specific psychiatric comorbidities of AD.
Tue, 2 August 2022
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: deep sleep; slow-wave activity; evolution; comparative; physiology; homeostasis
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:46:33 CEST)
A modern definition of “deep sleep” is elusive despite being ubiquitously appreciated as an important physiological state supporting health and homeostasis. In modern times, human deep sleep is identified by specific bioelectric signatures in the electroencephalogram (EEG) emerging somewhere between periods of wakefulness. However, deep sleep has been used to describe states of quiescence well before the first electrical brain recordings in the late 1800s, highlighting its own evolution in both lay and medical literature. Furthermore, EEG states are not only ill-defined in most mammals outside of humans and laboratory rodents, but non-existent in some invertebrates. Given that all organisms rest and do so with seemingly well-defined utility, it remains a challenge linguistically, scientifically, and comparatively define what “deep sleep” means—or what it should—in a research context. Here, I explore standard definitions of deep sleep from a modern, comparative perspective, and discuss potential problems of using a strict and narrow definition of such a fleeting concept that has historically undergone significant updates. Finally, I suggest a path towards resolving inconsistencies around the meaning of “deep sleep” and consider whether it is truly reflected by any one measure.
Mon, 1 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Eritrean refugees; mental wellbeing; social resilience; Germany; ADAPT model
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:27:03 CEST)
Mental health and social resilience play a significant role in refugees’ adaptation during the resettlement process in the host country. Maintaining good mental wellbeing helps the refugees to respond to stressful experiences with healthy life choices. This study aimed to explore the mental wellbeing and social resilience of Eritrean refugees living in Germany and to identify social conditions and enablers to foster adaptation. This study employs a qualitative approach with a semi-structured, in-depth interview data collection method. Informants were identified among mostly young adult refugees living in Heidelberg, Germany, with a migration history of 3-6 years. In total, 15 informants were recruited through snowball sampling. Data were sorted and analyzed using the five pillars of the Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model. The findings suggest that Eritrean refugees experience psychological distress after resettlement in Germany, however with time, their mental health has improved. The study revealed conditions that were experienced as hindrances, as well as ones that were considered to be resources of positive mental wellbeing and social resilience for resettled refugees. Challenges described were the language barrier, discrimination, unemployment, insecure residence status, loss of family and friends, conflict within the diaspora community, and isolation. The main sources of mental wellbeing and social resilience include the feeling of being welcomed by local communities, access to social services, adopting new relationships, and educational opportunities. These experiences encouraged refugees to have a favorable view of their lives and futures as well as also found to facilitate better integration and adaptation. Understanding refugee mental wellbeing and social resilience require a multidimensional perspective. Eritrean refugees living in Germany have experienced and still are experiencing resettlement challenges, as for example loss of family and friends, negative perception of the German system, loss of past achievements, or unemployment. But they have developed adaptive and resilience mechanisms, too, such as seeing an opportunity for a better life, adopting new roles, and accepting Germany as a “second home”. In addressing those by the refugees as hindrances reported issues, these could be turned into sources of mental well-being and resilience.
Wed, 20 July 2022
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; adolescents; behavioral activation
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:48:51 CEST)
Depression continues to be a glaring global challenge. The most worrisome trend is eating up the youthful generation more than anyone could predict years back. As Addis & Martell (2004) note, these adolescents end up succumbing to conditions that can be traced wholly from depression. Behavioral activation can be a rewarding intervention that will go a long way in cutting down on these cases and ensure the youthful global population's lives are safeguarded if applied and monitored to ensure correct and collective implementation processes and systems. The insights and arguments presented in the research paper will focus on the utility of behavioral activation in reducing depression cases among adolescents.
Thu, 14 July 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: personalized psychiatry; psychiatric disorders; induced pluripotent stem cells; brain organoids
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:46:51 CEST)
The polygenic and multifactorial nature of many psychiatric disorders has hampered the personalized medicine approach implementation in clinical practice. However, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has emerged as an innovative tool for patient-specific disease modeling to expand the pathophysiology knowledge and treatment perspectives in the last decade. Current technologies enable adult human somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate neural cells and direct neural cell conversion to model organisms that exhibit phenotypes close to human diseases, thereby effectively representing relevant aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders. iPSCs reflect patient pathophysiology and pharmacological responsiveness, particularly when cultured under conditions that recapitulate spatial tissue organization in brain organoids. Recently, the application of iPSCs has been frequently associated with gene editing that targets the disease-causing gene to deepen the illness pathophysiology and conduct drug screening. Moreover, gene editing has provided a unique opportunity to repair the putative causative genetic lesions in patient-derived cells. Here, we review the use of iPSC technology to model and potentially treat neuropsychiatric disorders by illustrating the key studies on a series of mental disorders, including schizophrenia, major depression disorder, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. The future perspective will involve the development of organ-on-a-chip platforms that control the microenvironmental conditions to reflect individual pathophysiological by adjusting physiochemical parameters according to personal health data. This strategy could open new ways to build a disease model that considers individual variability and tailors personalized treatments.
Mon, 11 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: psychological distress; COVID-19 pandemic; health care workers; perceived risks; workplace relationship; support; training; workplace hazards; perceived barriers; job tension
Online: 11 July 2022 (07:40:12 CEST)
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has been widely acknowledged to affect the mental health of health care workers (HCWs), attention to measures that protect those on the front lines of health outbreak response has been limited. In this cross-sectional study, we examine workplace contextual factors associated with how psychological distress was experienced in a South African setting where a severe first wave was being experienced with an objective of identifying factors that can protect against HCWs experiencing negative impacts. Consistent with mounting literature on mental health effects, we found a high degree of psychological distress (57.4% above General Health Questionnaire cut-off value) and a strong association between perceived risks associated with the presence of COVID-19 in the healthcare workplace and psychological distress (adjusted OR = 2.35, p <.01). Our research indicates that both training (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21 – 0.81) and the reported presence of supportive workplace relationships (adjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.27 – 0.97) were associated with positive outcomes. This evidence that workplace resilience can be reinforced to better prepare for the onset of similar outbreaks in the future suggests that pursuit of further research into specific interventions to improve resilience is well merited.
Fri, 8 July 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Keywords: mitochondria; stress resilience; plasticity; stress; kynurenine; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative; depression; anxiety; psychiatric
Online: 8 July 2022 (03:56:36 CEST)
Nearly half a century has passed since the discovery of cytoplasmic inheritance of human chloramphenicol resistance. The inheritance was then revealed to take place maternally by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Later, a number of mutations in mtDNA were identified as a cause of severe inheritable metabolic diseases with neurological manifestation, and the impairment of mitochondrial functions has been probed in the pathogenesis of a wide range of illnesses including neurodegenerative diseases. Recently growing number of preclinical studies has revealed that animal behaviors are influenced by the impairment of mitochondrial functions and possibly by the loss of mitochondrial stress resilience. Indeed, as high as 54% of patients with one of the most common primary mitochondrial diseases, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, present psychiatric symptoms including cognitive impairment, mood disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles which produce cellular energy and play a major role in other cellular functions including homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene expression, among other. Mitochondrial functions are observed to be compromised and to become less resilient under continuous stress. Meanwhile, stress and inflammation have been linked to the activation of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system, which observably contributes to development of pathological conditions including neurological and psychiatric disorders. This narrative review discusses the functions of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system, the interaction of the Trp-KYN system with mitochondria, and the current understanding of the involvement of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system in preclinical and clinical studies of major neurological and psychiatric diseases.
Tue, 5 July 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Virtual reality; health professionals; anxiety; immersive therapy
Online: 5 July 2022 (16:01:27 CEST)
Background: Immersive therapy through virtual reality represents a novel strategy used in psychological interventions, but there is still a need to strengthen the evidence on its effects on health professionals’ mental health. Objective: To analyze the results of immersive therapy through virtual reality in the levels of anxiety and secondly, well-being of the health professionals working in a regional hospital in Olot (Spain). Methods: Pilot quasi-experimental study including a group of 35 women (mean age=45.7, SD=8.43) health professionals who undertook immersive therapy for 8 weeks. The intervention was implemented through virtual reality, and its effect on anxiety levels and well-being was evaluated through the Hamilton and Eudemon scales, respectively. Data on age, gender, active pharmacological or psychological treatment, mental health disorders and number of sessions were also collected. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.001) improvement in anxiety and well-being was found, with large and moderate effect sizes (0.90 and 0.63 respectively). In addition, these changes were clinically significant. No significant associations were found between the improvements and the different variables, but a greater trend was identified among the group of professionals with untreated or unidentified levels of anxiety. Conclusion: This group of health professionals showed statistically and clinically significant improvement in anxiety and well-being after the application of immersive therapy using virtual reality. Further studies with a control group are necessary to further analyze this novel intervention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: suicide; social pain; psychache; endogenous opioid system; oxytocin; serotonin; endocannabinoids; buprenorphine; psilocybin; ketamine
Online: 5 July 2022 (07:43:48 CEST)
Suicidal behaviour is a public health problem whose magnitude is both substantial and increasing. Since many individuals seek medical treatment following a suicide attempt, strategies aimed at reducing further attempts in this population are a valid and feasible secondary prevention approach. An evaluation of the available evidence suggests that existing treatment approaches have limited efficacy in this setting, highlighting the need for innovative approaches to suicide prevention. Existing research on the neurobiology of social pain has highlighted the importance of this phenomenon as a risk factor for suicide, and has also yielded several attractive targets for pharmacological preventive strategies. In this paper, the available evidence related to these targets is synthesized and critically evaluated. The way in which social pain is related to the “anti-suicidal” properties of recently approved treatments, such as ketamine and psilocybin, is also examined. Such strategies may be effective for the short-term reduction of suicidal ideation and behaviour in individuals who have made a suicide attempt suicide prevention, particularly in cases where social pain is identified as a contributory factor. These pharmacological approaches may be effective regardless of the presence or absence of a specific psychiatric diagnosis.
Wed, 29 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mental Health; Primary Health Care; Collaborative Care; Health Assessment
Online: 29 June 2022 (05:05:41 CEST)
The supply of mental health processes in primary care has gaps. This study aims to analyze the association of agreement criteria and flows between primary care teams and the Family Health Support Center (NASF) for mental health collaborative care, considering the difference between capital and non-capital cities in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement Program. Agreement criteria and flows were obtained from 3883 NASF teams of the matrix support or collaborative care. The Chi-square test and multiple Poisson regression were used; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence ratios of negative associations demonstrated protective factors for support actions: follow-up at Psychosocial Care Center, management of psychopharmacotherapy, offer of other therapeutic actions, care process for users of psychoactive substances, and offer of activities to prevent the use of psychoactive substances. Collaborative care in primary care was effective, and capital cities were a protective factor compared with non-capital cities.
Fri, 24 June 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: adolescent; health reproductive; peer counselor
Online: 24 June 2022 (02:52:51 CEST)
The serious impact of Adolescent’s Free Sex Behavior will affect their developmental task. Having proper education and having optimal sex counseling are related to sexual behavior in adolescents. The alternative for this phenomenon recently has involved adolescents participating as peer counselors because they are more susceptible to peer influence. Online peer counselor programs may promote progression into depth understanding of sexual behavior among adolescents. This paper provides an overview of the effect of peer counselors on reproductive health among adolescents. It describes many conceptual frameworks about free sex behaviors, risk factors among adolescents, and the role of peer counselors in improving health reproductive behavior among adolescents.
Tue, 21 June 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: new materialism; assemblage; storyboarding; HIV; adherence; antiretroviral therapy; young people; perinatal infection; qualitative evidence synthesis; biopsychosocial
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:54:56 CEST)
Young people living with perinatal infections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (YLPHIV) face a chronic disease, with treatment including adherence to life-long antiretroviral treatment (ART). The aim of this QES was to explore adherence to ART for YLPHIV as an assemblage within the framework of the BPS model with a new materialist perspective. We searched up to November 2021 and followed the ENTREQ and Cochrane guidelines for QES. All screening, data extraction and critical appraisal was done in duplicate. We analysed and interpreted the findings innovatively, by creating images of meaning, a storyboard, and storylines. We then reported the findings in a narrative first person story. We included 47 studies and identified 9 storylines. We found that treatment adherence has less to do with humans’ preferences, motivations, needs and dispositions, and more to do with how bodies, viruses, things, ideas, institutions, environments, social processes, and social structures assemble. This QES highlights that adherence to ART for YLPHIV is a multisensorial experience in a multi agentic world. Future research into rethinking the linear and casual inferences we are accustomed too in evidence-based health care is needed if we are to adopt multidisciplinary approaches to address pressing issues such as adherence to ART.
Wed, 1 June 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Long-COVID; cognitive disorders; rehabilitation
Online: 1 June 2022 (05:50:58 CEST)
There is mounting evidence that patients with severe COVID-19 disease may have symptoms that continue beyond the acute phase, extending into the early chronic phase. Often referred to as 'Long COVID'. Simultaneously, case investigations have shown that COVID-19 individuals might have a variety of neurological problems. The accurate and accessible assessment of cognitive function in patients post COVID-19 infection is thus of increasingly high importance for both public and individual health. Little is known about the influence of COVID-19 on the general cognitive levels but more importantly, at sub functions level. Therefore, we first aim to summarize current level of evidence supporting a negative impact of COVID-19 infection on cognitive functions. 27 studies have been included in the systematic review representing a total of 94,103 participants (90,317 COVID-19 patients and 3,786 healthy controls). We then performed a meta-analysis summarizing the results of 5 studies (959 participants, 513 patients) to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive functions. The overall effect, expressed in Standardized Mean Differences, is -0.56 [95%CI -0.79 ; -0.34]. To prevent disability, we finally discuss the different approaches available in rehabilitation to help these patients and to avoid long-term complication.
Tue, 31 May 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: financial capacity instruments; Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity; deci-sional capacity; mild cognitive impairment; gamification
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:37:21 CEST)
Financial capacity instruments are psychometric tools designed to evaluate individual decisional capacity based on financial decisions. As tests are complex and need special conditions for administration and evaluation, it is difficult to use them in daily geriatric clinics. Our scoping review objective was to evaluate existing financial capacity instruments from the perspective of simplicity and portability. We evaluated one English speaking knowledge database (Medline) using a dedicated MeSH terminology. The review yielded one independent instrument, The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity, that can be easy adapted for every-day clinical use. It is simple to understand and perform and do not need trained personnel for administration. It can be finalized in 15 minutes. Initially validated on 261 subjects (with different forms of cognitive impairment), it showed good accuracy and precision mainly in subjects with cognitive impairment. The test is less apt to detect early or fluctuating cognitive impairment. Simplicity, the main advantage of the test, allows gamification fact that increases portability. Familiar images (coins, money) that are used for performing simple tasks does not need complex translation and adaptation. In form of a game, the test is suitable for serial administration, increasing the chance for early capacity reduction detection. Results reflect a physician judgement related to the subjects’ capacity to understand and execute simple financial instructions and not financial proficiency scores. The main limitation of our review is that we investigated only one, English speaking, knowledge database. The scoping strategy generated a financial capacity instrument that can be used in geriatric clinics for early diagnostic of decisional capacity reduction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the test in conditions of serial administration and in populations having various financial experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: childhood trauma; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; sex difference; age
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:39:57 CEST)
Background. We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report was investigated. Methods. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used the data documented in the electronic medical records of patients who were hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. The CM was assessed using the 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which evaluates emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect. The linear and logistic regression models were used (α = 0.01). Results. Three hundred thirty five patients with MDD (255 women and 80 men) and 168 with BD (97 women and 71 men) were included. In both samples, considerable CM rates were identified, but no statistically significant sex differences were detected in the variety of CTQ-based CM aspects. There was a significant association, with no sex differences, between the increasing patients’ age and a decreasing burden of CM. Conclusion. Both women and men with MDD or BD experienced a similar and considerable CM burden. Our findings support the routine CM assessment in psychiatric clinical practice.
Tue, 24 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0291.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); depression; healthcare workers; insomnia; anxiety; PHQ-8 (Pa-tient Health Questionnaire-8); ISI (Insomnia Severity Index); digital health
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:49:45 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant medical and psychological challenges worldwide, and not only exceeded the capacity of hospitals and intensive care units but also an individuals’ ability to cope with life. Health-care workers have continued to provide care for patients despite exhaustion, fear of transmission to themselves and their family, illness or death of friends and colleagues, and losing many patients. They have also faced additional stress and anxiety due to long shifts combined with unprecedented population restrictions, including personal isolation. In this study, we study the effect of an app-based Yoga of Immortals (YOI) intervention on mental health of healthcare workers. In this study, the health care workers were digitally recruited, and their psychological parameters were measured using validated questionaries. The participants were randomly grouped into control and test groups. The validated psychological measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scales. The digital YOI intervention significantly reduced the anxiety, depression symptoms, and insomnia in healthcare workers of all age groups. In contrast, there was no improvement in the control group. This study details the effectiveness of an app-based YOI intervention in healthcare workers.
Mon, 23 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); depression, healthcare workers; insomnia; anxiety; PHQ-8 (Pa-tient Health Questionnaire-8); ISI (Insomnia Severity Index); digital health
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:07:43 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant medical and psychological challenges worldwide, and, in many cases, not only exceeded the capacity of hospitals and intensive care units (ICUs) but also an individuals’ ability to cope with life. Health-care workers have continued to provide care for patients despite exhaustion, fear of transmission to themselves and their family members, illness or death of friends and colleagues, and the loss of many patients. They have also faced many additional sources of stress and anxiety, and long shifts combined with unprecedented population restrictions, including personal isolation. This study digitally measured the psychological parameters of health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by an app-based yoga of immortal (YOI) intervention. Participants in this study completed validated psychological measures including the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scales. The digital YOI intervention significantly reduced the anxiety, depression symptoms, and insomnia in healthcare workers.
Thu, 12 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Bibliometric; Parkinson’s Disease; Phenolic compound
Online: 12 May 2022 (07:58:20 CEST)
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the 100 most cited articles on Parkinson's disease (PD) and phenolic compounds (PCs). Methods: Articles were selected in the Web of Science Core Collection up to January 2022 based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and the following bibliometric parameters were extracted: the number of citations, title, keywords, authors, year, study design, tested PC and therapeutic target. MapChart was used to create worldwide networks, and VOSviewer software was used to create bibliometric networks. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to identify the most researched PCs and therapeutic targets in PD. Results: The most cited article was also the oldest. The most recent article was published in 2020. Asia and China were the continent and the country with the most articles in the list (55% and 29%, respectively). In vitro studies were the most common experimental designs among the 100 most cited articles (46%). The most evaluated PC was epigallocatechin. Oxidative stress was the most studied therapeutic target. Conclusion: Despite the demonstrations in laboratorial studies, the results obtained point to the need for clinical studies to better elucidate this association.
Tue, 10 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal depression; prognosis; prognostic modeling; nomogram; Pakistan
Online: 10 May 2022 (15:40:48 CEST)
Task sharing approaches are challenged by the barriers fundamental to the use of non-specialists who lack specialist mental health training required to triage the candidates who could benefit from task-shared treatments. However, these challenges could be offset by using standardized and easy-to-implement algorithmic devices (e.g., nomograms) to help with the targeted dissemination of interventions. Therefore, the present investigation posits a prognostic model and a nomogram to predict the prognosis of perinatal depression among women in rural Pakistan. This secondary analysis utilizes data based on 903 pregnant women with depression who participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of the Thinking Healthy Program in rural Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The participants were recruited from 40 union councils in two sub-districts of Rawalpindi and randomly assigned to intervention and enhanced usual care. Sixteen sessions of the THP intervention were delivered by trained community health workers to women with depression over pregnancy and the postnatal period. A trained assessment team used the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-4 current major depressive episode module to diagnose depression at the baseline and post-intervention. The intervention received by the participants emerged as the most significant predictor in the model. Among clinical factors, baseline severity of core-emotional symptoms emerged as an essential predictor, followed by atypical symptoms and insomnia. Higher severity of these symptoms was associated with a poorer prognosis. Other important predictors of a favorable prognosis included living with paternal and maternal grandmothers, financial empowerment, higher socioeconomic class, and living in a joint family system. This prognostic model yielded acceptable discrimination (c-statistic =0.75) and calibration to aid in personalized delivery of psychological treatment.
Thu, 21 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; emotion-focused coping; infection control practices; perceived stress; relation-ship-focused coping
Online: 21 April 2022 (10:06:24 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 has placed tremendous pressure on the global public health system and has changed daily life. Aim: To examine the relationships between the perceived threat, perceived stress, coping responses and infection control practices towards the COVID-19 pandemic among university students in China. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey, 4,392 students were recruited from six universities in two regions of China. Methods: Data were collected via an online platform using self-reported questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict the variables on COVID-19 infection control practices. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed a significant negative relationship between perceived stress and COVID-19 infection control practices. A significant positive relationship was observed between wishful thinking and empathetic responding, and infection control practices. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that gender, geographical location, perceived stress and emotion-focused and relationship-focused coping responses were predictors of COVID-19 infection control practices. Conclusions: The findings suggest that university students displayed moderate levels of stress, using wishful thinking and empathetic responses as coping strategies. Counselling services should therefore emphasise reassurance and empathy. Male university students tended to be less compliant with social distancing. Both counselling and public health measures should recognise the importance of gender differences. Nurses should integrate these findings into future health program planning and interventions.
Wed, 13 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cancer; insomnia; sleep; circadian; the DBST index
Online: 13 April 2022 (08:36:14 CEST)
Patients with cancer experience insomnia or sleep disturbances. This study aimed to explore whether the discrepancy between a patient's desired time in bed and total sleep time (DBST) index is a measurement tool for insomnia severity or sleep onset latency [SOL] in patients with cancer. This retrospective medical records review study gathered clinical information and rating scale scores including Insomnia Severity Scale (ISI), Cancer-related Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep scale (C-DBS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items (PHQ-9), State subcategory of State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Short form of Fear of Progression Questionnaire. Sleep indices of time variables (bedtime, sleep onset time, and wake-up time), duration variables [SOL, time in bed (TIB), time in bed for 24 hours (TIB/d), and duration from wake-up time to bedtime (WTB)], and the DBST index were calculated. The ISI score was predicted by PHQ-9 (β=0.34, P<0.001), C-DBS (β=0.17, P=0.034), and DBST index (β=0.22, P=0.004) with a significant correlation with the DBST index (r=0.19, p=0.020). The DBST index was significantly correlated with long SOL (r=0.23, P=0.005). Long SOL was predicted by early bedtime (β=0.18, P=0.045), short WTB (β=-0.26, P=0.004), and high DBST index (β=0.19, P=0.013). The DBST index was significantly correlated with a predicting variable each for insomnia severity and SOL in patients with cancer.
Thu, 24 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: tryptophan; kynurenine; kynurenic acid; passive avoidance; cognitive domain; memory; cognitive enhancer; neurotransmission; receptor blockers; translational
Online: 24 March 2022 (08:57:45 CET)
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous tryptophan (Trp) metabolite known to possess neuroprotective property. KYNA plays critical roles in nociception, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation. A lower level of KYNA is observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases or psychiatric disorders such as depression and autism spectrum disorders, whereas a higher level of KYNA is associated with the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Little is known about the optimal concentration for neuroprotection and the threshold for neurotoxicity. In this study the effects of KYNA on memory functions were investigated by passive avoidance test in mice. Six different doses of KYNA were administered intracerebroventricularly to previously trained CFLP mice and they were observed following 24 hours. High doses of KYNA (i.e., 20-40 μg/2 μl) significantly decreased the avoidance latency, whereas a low dose of KYNA (0.5 μg/2 μl) significantly elevated it compared with controls, suggesting that the low dose of KYNA enhanced memory function. Furthermore, six different receptor blockers were applied to reveal the mechanisms underlying the memory enhancement induced by KYNA. The series of tests revealed the possible involvement of the serotonergic, dopaminergic, α and β adrenergic, and opiate systems in the nootropic effect. The study confirmed that a low dose of KYNA improved a memory component of cognitive domain, which was mediated by, at least in part, four systems of neurotransmission in an animal model of learning and memory.
Mon, 21 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: recovery; mental illness; mental health; psychiatry; social inclusion; occupational therapy; occupations; time use; activities of daily living; work.
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:56:09 CET)
Research has consistently found that people with mental illness (known as consumers) experience lower levels of participation in meaningful activities, which can limit their opportunities for recovery support. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of participation in a group program designed to address all stages of activity participation, known as Pathways to Participation (P2P). A descriptive longitudinal design was utilized, collecting data at three time points. Outcomes were measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal (CANSAS), Recovery Assessment Scale – Domains and Stages (RAS-DS), Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Living in the Community Questionnaire (LCQ) and time use diaries. All data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and Chi square analyses. Seventeen consumers completed baseline data, eleven contributed post program data and eight provided follow up data. Most were female (63.64%) and had been living with mental illness for 11.50 (± 7.74) years on average. Reductions in unmet needs and improvements in self-rated recovery scores were re-ported, but no changes were identified in either time use or psychosocial health. The findings indicate the P2P program may enable consumers to achieve positive activity and participation out-comes as part of their personal recovery.
Thu, 17 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: biomarkers; electroencephalography; event related potentials; heart rate variability; diagnosis; sensitivity; specificity
Online: 17 March 2022 (15:19:38 CET)
The combination of statistical learning technologies with large databases of psychophysiological data has appropriately generated enthusiastic interest in future clinical applicability. It is argued here that this enthusiasm should be tempered with the understanding that significant obstacles must be overcome before the systematic introduction of psychophysiological measures into neuropsychiatric practice becomes possible. The nonspecificity of psychophysiological measures complicates their use in diagnosis. Low test-retest reliability complicates use in longitudinal assessment, and quantitative psychophysiological measures can normalize in response to placebo intervention. Ten cautionary observations are introduced and, in some instances, possible directions for remediation are suggested.
Mon, 14 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; GAD-7; mental health; quality of life; Asia
Online: 14 March 2022 (16:20:20 CET)
This study aims to identify factors associated with anxiety levels of adults living in Singapore before the pandemic and during the COVID-19 outbreak. Data were collected using a cross-sectional web-based survey conducted from July to November 2020 accruing 264 eligible participants. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), ranked as minimal (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), and severe (15-21) before the pandemic and during the pandemic. About 74% of participants were female, 50% were aged 25-34, and 50% were married. The GAD-7 level went up from pre-pandemic for both moderate (from 12.5% to 16%) and severe GAD (from 2% to 11%). Alcohol consumption (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.04-3.06), loneliness (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and difficulty in switching off social media (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.29-3.79) predicted increased GAD-7 levels. The quality of life (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90) was significantly associated with decreased GAD-7 levels. The results heighten the awareness that early initiation of mental health support is crucial for the population in addition to the various financial support measures provided by the government as they are adapting to live with the COVID-19 pandemic.
Mon, 7 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: long-acting injectable; antipsychotic; depot; schizophrenia spectrum disorder; schizophrenia; schizoaffective; inpatient; prescribing pattern
Online: 7 March 2022 (12:33:39 CET)
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) offer many benefits to patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). They are used with very different frequencies due to questions of eligibility or patients’ and prescribers’ attitudes towards LAI use. We assessed the prescribing rates of LAIs in a large academic psychiatric hospital with public service mandate in Switzerland and compared them with other countries and health care systems. To our knowledge this study is the first to investigate the inpatient LAI-use in Europe. Medical records of all patients diagnosed with SSD discharged from the Clinic of Adult Psychiatry of the University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich over a 12-month period from January to December 2019 were evaluated regarding the prescribed antipsychotics at the time of discharge. The rates of use of LAIs among all patients and among patients receiving LAI eligible antipsychotic substances were assessed retrospectively. We assessed records of 885 patients with SSD. Among all cases 13.9% received an LAI. Among patients who received antipsychotic medication that was eligible for LAI use 28.3% (n=434) received an agent as LAI. These included paliperidone palmitate (69.9%), aripiprazole monohydrate (14.6%), risperidone (4.9%) and first-generation LAIs (9.8%). Compared to international frequencies of LAI administration, the prescription rate of LAIs in SSD patients was low. Further studies will evaluate patient- and prescriber-related reasons for this low rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0156.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: esketamine; ketamine; ketamine assisted psychotherapy; eating disorder; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; binge eating disorder; pharmacology; psychedelics; treatment
Online: 7 March 2022 (08:34:11 CET)
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious, life-threatening psychiatric conditions associated with physical and psychosocial impairments, as well as high morbidity and mortality. Given the chronic refractory nature of EDs and the paucity of evidence-based treatments, there is a pressing need to identify novel approaches for this population. The noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ketamine, has recently been approved for treatment-resistant depression, exerting rapid and robust antidepressant effects. It is now being investigated for several new indications, including obsessive-compulsive, post-traumatic, and substance use disorder; and shows transdiagnostic potential for EDs, particularly among clinical non-responders. As such, the aim of this review is to examine contemporary findings on the treatment of EDs with ketamine, whether used as a primary, adjunctive, or combination psychopharmacotherapy. Avenues for future research are also discussed. Overall, results are encouraging and point to therapeutic value, yet are limited to case series and reports on anorexia nervosa. Further empirical work is thus needed to explore ketamine efficacy across ED subgroups; establish safety profiles and optimize dosing; and develop theory-driven, targeted treatment strategies at the individual patient level.
Thu, 3 March 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Major depression; inflammation; sickness behaviour; mechanism; model; microglia; zcitokynes; CRP; blood brain barrier; choroid plexus
Online: 3 March 2022 (10:28:08 CET)
Current lines of research into mood disorders indicate that immune mediators participating in the pathophysiology of chronic somatic disorders have potent influences on brain functions, even when these mediators are produced in peripheral tissues. Elevated levels of circulating immune molecules have been consistently associated with depressive symptoms in a number of clinical populations and experimental models, to the extent that major depressive disorder (MDD) is now seen, at least in part, as a disorder of immunity. This paradigm has brought to the fore the use of anti-inflammatory therapies as adjunctive to standard antidepressant therapy with the hope to improve treatment efficacy, particularly in those cohorts that do not respond well to standard medication. Such new practice requires the availability of biomarkers to tailor these new therapies to those most likely to benefit but also clear mechanisms of action describing the interaction between peripheral immunity and brain function. These mechanisms are generally studied in preclinical models that try to recapitulate the human disease through peripherally induced sickness behaviour as the model for immune-induced MDD. After an appraisal of the data in rodent models and their adherence to the data in clinical cohorts, we propose a modified model of periphery-brain interaction that goes beyond the currently established view of interaction between peripheral cytokines and microglia cells as the driver of depression. Instead, we suggest that brain barriers are primary actors in the communication between body and brain and, as a consequence, in the pathophysiology of the disease. This model suggests novel biomarkers, novel targets for therapies as well as a novel mechanism for resistance to standard treatments.
Wed, 23 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Bullying; Oral health; Indigenous; Children; Australia
Online: 23 February 2022 (05:26:35 CET)
Making life better for Indigenous peoples is a global priority. Although bullying and oral health have always been a topic of concern, there is limited information regarding the impact of this problem in the general population, with no evidence in this regard among the Australian Indigenous population. Thus, we aimed to quantify the relationship between bullying victimization and oral health problems by remoteness among 766 Australian Indigenous children aged between 10–15-year-olds using data from the LSIC study. Bivariate and multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analyses were employed. Findings indicated children self-reported bullying more than parents reported their children were being bullied (44% vs 33.6%), with a higher percentage from rural/remote areas than urban areas. Parents reported oral health problem increases the probability (OR 2.20, p<0.05) of being bullied in Indigenous children living in urban areas. Racial discrimination, lower level of parental education and poor child oral hygiene increase the risk of bullying victimization. Parental happiness with life and a safe community was associated with a lower risk of bullying. Dental problems are linked with Australian Indigenous children experiencing bullying victimization. Cultural resilience and eliminating discrimination maybe two modifiable paths to ameliorating health issues associated with bullying in the Australian Indigenous community.