Working Paper Review Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Bovine Colostrum for Human Consumption - Improving Microbial Quality and Maintaining Bioactive Characteristics through Processing

Version 1 : Received: 6 July 2021 / Approved: 12 July 2021 / Online: 12 July 2021 (17:46:44 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 15 September 2021 / Approved: 17 September 2021 / Online: 17 September 2021 (11:51:18 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Fasse, S.; Alarinta, J.; Frahm, B.; Wirtanen, G. Bovine Colostrum for Human Consumption—Improving Microbial Quality and Maintaining Bioactive Characteristics through Processing. Dairy 2021, 2, 556-575. Fasse, S.; Alarinta, J.; Frahm, B.; Wirtanen, G. Bovine Colostrum for Human Consumption—Improving Microbial Quality and Maintaining Bioactive Characteristics through Processing. Dairy 2021, 2, 556-575.

Journal reference: Dairy 2021, 2, 44
DOI: 10.3390/dairy2040044

Abstract

The main purpose of bovine colostrum, being the milk secreted by a cow after giving birth, is to transfer passive immunity to the calf. The calves have an immature immune system as they lack immunoglobulins (Igs). Subsequently, the supply of good quality bovine colostrum is required. The quality of colostrum is classified by low bacterial counts and adequate Ig concentrations. Bacterial contamination can contain a variety of human pathogens or high counts of spoilage bacteria, which becomes more challenging with emerging use of bovine colostrum as food and food supplements. There is also a growing risk for the spread of zoonotic diseases originating from bovines. For this reason, processing based on heat treatment or other feasible techniques are required. This review provides an overview of literature on the microbial quality of bovine colostrum and processing methods to improve its microbial quality and keep its nutritional values as food. The highlights of this review are: high quality colostrum is a valuable raw material in food products and supplements, the microbial safety of bovine colostrum is increased using appropriate processing-suitable effective heat treatment, which does not destroy the high nutrition value of colostrum, the heat treatment processes are cost-effective compared to other methods, and heat treatment can be performed in both small- and large-scale production.

Keywords

bovine colostrum; bacteria; pathogens; probiotic bacteria; cost-effective processing; heat treatment; pasteurization; contamination control; immunoglobulins; enzymes

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 17 September 2021
Commenter: Sylvia Fasse
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Changes were made according to the comments recieved from reviewers.
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