Ferradini, V.; Vacca, D.; Belmonte, B.; Mango, R.; Scola, L.; Novelli, G.; Balistreri, C.R.; Sangiuolo, F. Genetic and Epigenetic Factors of Takotsubo Syndrome: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci.2021, 22, 9875.
Ferradini, V.; Vacca, D.; Belmonte, B.; Mango, R.; Scola, L.; Novelli, G.; Balistreri, C.R.; Sangiuolo, F. Genetic and Epigenetic Factors of Takotsubo Syndrome: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9875.
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), recognized as stress’s cardiomyopathy, or better as left ventricular apical balloon syndrome in the recent years, is a rare pathology, described for the first time by Japanese researchers in 1990. TTS is characterized by an interindividual heterogeneity in onset and progression, and by the strong predominance in postmenopausal women. The clear causes of these TTS features are uncertain, given the reduced understanding of this intriguing syndrome until now. However, the increasing frequency of TTS cases in the last years, and particularly correlated to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, leads us to imperative necessity both of a complete knowledge of TTS pathophysiology for identifying biomarkers facilitating its management, and targets for specific and effective treatments. The suspect of a genetic basis in TTS pathogenesis has been evidenced. Accordingly, familial form of TTS has been described. But a systematic and comprehensive characterization of the genetic or epigenetic factors significantly associated with TTS is lacking. Thus, we, here, conducted a systematic review of literature before June 2021, to contribute to identify potential genetic and epigenetic factors associated with TTS. Interesting data were evidenced, but of reduced number and with diverse limitations. Consequently, we concluded further work is needed to address the gaps discussed, and probably a clear evidence may arrive using multi-omics investigations.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS); biomarkers; specific and effective treatments; TTS management; genetic and epigenetic factors; systematic review
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