Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Cosmic Speed beyond Light: Gravitational and Cosmic Redshift

Version 1 : Received: 3 October 2023 / Approved: 3 October 2023 / Online: 3 October 2023 (11:59:49 CEST)

How to cite: Thakur, S. N.; Bhattacharjee, D. Cosmic Speed beyond Light: Gravitational and Cosmic Redshift. Preprints 2023, 2023100153. Thakur, S. N.; Bhattacharjee, D. Cosmic Speed beyond Light: Gravitational and Cosmic Redshift. Preprints 2023, 2023100153.


This research explores the intricate relationship between gravitational and cosmic redshift phenomena, unveiling a profound understanding of how light behaves as it traverses the cosmos. The study begins with an examination of gravitational redshift, a well-established concept occurring when photons move away from massive gravitational sources, such as stars within galaxies. Gravitational redshift, expressed as λ/λ0, manifests within the gravitational influence and extends to the boundary of the observed "zero-gravity sphere" enveloping galaxies. Within this remarkable zero-gravity sphere, gravitational effects persist, while the antigravity influence of dark energy remains negligible. As a result, gravitational redshift dominates, and cosmic redshift is notably absent within the sphere. Photons within this sphere maintain their constant speed 'c' and undergo gravitational redshift exclusively. However, as photons exit the zero-gravity sphere at a distance 'r' equivalent to the source star's radius, they encounter the onset of cosmic redshift, quantified as {(λobs - λemit)/ λemit}. Cosmic redshift blends with gravitational redshift, forming the effective redshift of the photon. Critically, the effective cosmic redshift surpasses gravitational redshift, illuminating a profound revelation: photons traverse a greater "light-traveled distance" than their proper distance from the source. In essence, cosmic redshift signifies that photons move across their intended distances at their intrinsic speed c, while the expanding universe introduces a relative distance expansion, influenced by antigravity. This research delves into the intricate dance between gravitational and cosmic redshift, shedding light on their remarkable implications for our comprehension of the expanding universe.


gravitational redshift; cosmic redshift; effective redshift; zero gravity sphere; cosmic expansion


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

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