ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; rupture; patellar dislocation; mechanisms; magnetic resonance imaging; bone bruise pattern
Online: 20 September 2023 (07:47:41 CEST)
Different bone bruise patterns observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and lateral patellar dislocation may indicate different injury mechanism of knee. In order to investigate the typical bone bruising patterns after ACL rupture and patellar dislocation. In this study, 77 ACL rupture and 77 patellar dislocation patients’ knee MR images with bone bruises between August 2020 and March 2022at our institution were selected and analyzed, respectively. Sagittal and transverse planes images were used to determine the bone bruise location in the lateral-medial and superior-inferior directions of the MR images. The presence, location, and intensity of the bone bruises within specific compartments of the femur and tibial after ACL rupture and patellar dislocation were recorded. Relative bone bruise patterns of the ACL rupture and patellar dislocation were classified and analyzed. Results showed that there were 4 kinds of bone bruise (1-,2-,3-,4- bone bruises) patterns after ACL rupture. The most common two patterns after ACL rupture were 3- bone bruises (including lateral side of femur and both lateral and medial side of tibia, LF+BT; both lateral and medial side of femur and lateral side of tibia, BF+LT, medial side of femur and both lateral and medial side of tibia, MF+BT) followed by 4- bone bruises (both lateral and medial side of femur and tibia, BF+BT), 2- bone bruises (LF+LT, lateral side of femur and tibia; MF+LT, medial side of femur and lateral side of tibia; LF+MT, lateral side of femur and medial side of tibia; MF+MT, medial side of femur and tibia; 0+BT, both lateral and medial side of tibia;), and 1- bone bruise (0+LT, only lateral side of tibia). There was only 1 pattern bone bruise (latera femur and medial patella bone bruise) of patellar dislocation, the most common pattern of patellar dislocation was in the inferior medial patella and lateral anterior inferior femur. The results suggest that the pattern of bone bruise after ACL rupture and patellar dislocation is completely different. There were 4 kinds of bone bruise patterns after non-contact ACL rupture while there was only 1 kind of bone bruise pattern after patellar dislocation bone bruise patients which was in the inferior medial patella and lateral anterior inferior femur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: unilateral neck pain; myofascial stiffness; indentometry; pain pressure threshold
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:29:35 CEST)
(1) Background: Globally, neck pain is prevalent, affecting around thirty percent of the population annually. To better understand the influence of pain on the myofascial layers, the present study investigated these on the upper trapezius muscle in unilateral, more severe neck pain. (2) Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. Forty patients (42.2 ± 14.7) with a confirmed diagnosis of unilateral neck pain were examined using durometry and indentometry. The study evaluated stiffness, elasticity, and pressure pain threshold of both sides of the neck (symptomatic side: SS; healthy side: HS). Furthermore, the range of motion of the cervical spine (lateral flexion, rotation) was quantified using a digital goniometer. (3) Results: A significant lateral discrepancy was observed in stiffness between groups (durometry: SS – 33.76 ± 7.78, HS – 29.75 ± 7.45, p<0.001; indentometry: SS – 59.73 ± 33.93, HS – 4.18 ± 12.69, p=0.024). In contrast, no differences were found between the comparison sides of the upper trapezius for the parameter’s elasticity (SS – 0.101 ± 1.09, HS – -0.006 ± 0.29, p=0.416), cervical spine mobility (lateral flexion: SS – 37.08 ± 8.15, HS – 37.73 ± 7.61, p=0.559; rotation: SS – 73.55 ± 12.37, HS – 72.85 ± 11.10, p=0.660) and algometry (SS – 36.41 ± 17.53, HS – 37.22 ± 17.00, p=0.657). (4) Conclusion: Overall, it can be concluded that more severe neck pain unilaterally shows differences in stiffness on the same side. Future research is needed to investigate the links.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: scoliosis; botulinum; yoga
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:19:28 CEST)
Incobotulinumtoxin A and Yoga-like Isometric Exercise in Adolescent Idiopathic Lumbar Scoliosis – a randomized pilot study Abstract: Background: Approximately 90% of scoliosis is adolescent idiopathic (AIS). From its first appearance at 10-14 until age 18 it is most vulnerable to deterioration; young people are most susceptible to the condition worsening. An effective non-surgical means of remediation would be welcome. Design: Randomized control two-arm study, assessing the safety and efficacy of combining incobotulinum injections with yoga to reverse lumbar and thoracolumbar AIS. Methods: In a private clinic setting, non-pregnant healthy 12 – 18 year-olds were either taught a symmetrical “placebo” yoga pose (control sub-group 1), given the side plank (Vasisthasana) done thrice daily with placebo injection (control sub-group 2) or given the thrice-daily side-plank with botulinum injection (Intervention group 3). Injection: 33 IU of incobotulinum toxin type A (Xeomin) injected into concave-side lumbar paraspinals and quadratus lumborum at L2-3 and the psoas muscle at L3-4, or injected similarly with placebo. Randomization by Random.com. Objective: Assess whether muscular asymmetry treated with botulinum toxin injection and the side-plank are safe and effective in AIS.Results: Outcome: Twelve intervention and 12 placebo patients (Groups 1 + 2), 12 -18 years old completed the three-month study period. Mean daily side-plank time = 165 seconds. Mean initial lumbar curvature was 36.9 degrees (SD 14.36), (p<0.0001); mean curvature at 3 weeks was 29.5 degrees. (SD 14.23) (p<0.0001); mean curvature at 3 months was 26.0 degrees (SD 12.81) Onset vs 3-month value: p<0.0001. Two patients in Group 3 complained of shoulder pain, and 2 of wrist pain that resolved when the side-plank was done on the elbow. Conclusion: Muscle asymmetry appears relevant to AIS treatment. Incobotulinum injections combined with the side-plank done with the convex side downward may be safe and helpful in adolescent idiopathic lumbar scoliosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0546.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Sacroiliac joint dysfunction; Sacroiliac joint fusion; Minimally invasive surgery; Virtual surgical planning; Simulated fluoroscopic images; Implant placement accuracy; Patient-specific modeling
Online: 7 September 2023 (10:44:29 CEST)
Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction can lead to debilitating pain but can be treated with minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion (SIJF). This treatment is commonly performed using 2D fluoroscopic guidance. This makes placing the implants without damaging surrounding neural structures challenging. Virtual surgical planning (VSP) using simulated fluoroscopic images may improve perioperative guidance. This article describes a workflow with VSP in SIJF using simulated fluoroscopic images and evaluates achieved implant placement accuracy. Routinely collected survey data on the added value of VSP were also evaluated. Ten interventions were performed on 10 patients by the same surgeon, comprising 30 implants; the median age was 39 years, and all patients were female. The overall mean implant placement accuracy was 4.9 ± 1.26 mm and 4.0 ± 1.44°. There were no malpositioning complications. The VSP helped the surgeon understand the anatomy and determine the optimal position and length of the implants. The average Likert scale score of the survey was 4.7, suggesting a positive role of VSP for SIJF. Planned positions of the implants could be reproduced in surgery with clinically acceptable accuracy and VSP was a valuable asset for the surgeon.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Clinodactily; Syndactyly; Wedge osteotomy; Congenital; Flaps; Plastic surgery; Hand surgery
Online: 7 September 2023 (08:47:27 CEST)
Syndactyly is the most common congenital malformation of the hand, leading to the fusion of the digits, frequently affecting the ring and middle fingers. The incidence is one out of 2500 children, predominantly occurring in boys and Caucasians. Clinically, the malformation may present as soft tissue or bony fusion, resulting in the union of the fingers characterised as complete or incomplete. This fusion may involve the phalanges but may also extend to the carpal/tarsal bones, even to the metacarpal’s or metatarsal’s level, rarely to the distal end of the forearm and lower leg. Mostly isolated but may occur together with other disorders or malformations such as synostosis, acro-syndactyly, cleft hand, clinodactyly, or polydactyly. Syndromic syndactyly can be observed in cases of Apert Syndrome, Poland’s Syndrome, Pfeiffer Syndrome and many others. A girl born in June of 2019 was diagnosed with congenital malformation of the right hand at birth —affecting the right middle, ring and little fingers, respectively. After X-ray imaging, the fusion of the third and fourth proximal phalanges to a common metacarpal was identified, forming a unique diagnosis of clino-syndactyly with metacarpal aplasia. Surgical intervention was advocated for, including a wedge osteotomy to correct the synchondrosis at the phalangeal base and a dorsal flap to close the interdigital space created during the correction of the III and IV. fingers. A trapezoid flap for the release of the syndactyly of the IV and V. fingers was applied. The paper aims to present the surgical correction and its results regarding an atypical case of syndactyly with clinodactyly and metacarpal aplasia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Cervical spine; dynamic MRI; foraminal stenosis; kinetic MRI; Spurling test
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:31:16 CEST)
Diagnosing cervical foraminal stenosis with intermittent arm radiculopathy is chal-lenging due to discrepancies between MRI findings and symptoms. This can be attributed to the fact that MRI images are often obtained in a relaxed supine position. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of the Dynamic MRI Compression System (DMRICS) and to assess possible changes in cervical foramina, with both quantitative measurements and qualitative grading systems, with MRI during a simulated Spurling test. Ten patients (5 women and 5 men, ages 29-45) with previously confirmed cervical foraminal stenosis underwent MRI scans using DMRICS. MRIs were acquired in both relaxed and provoked states. A radiologist assessed 30 foramina (C4-C7) on the symptomatic side in both patient positions. Quantitative and qualitative measures were performed including the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and the Park and Kim grading systems. The provoked state induced concordant neck and arm pain in 9 of 10 patients. Significant shifts in Park and Kim fo-raminal gradings were noted: 13 of 27 Park gradings and 9 of 27 Kim gradings escalated post-provocation. No quantitative changes were observed. This pilot study indicates that the DMRICS device has potential to improve diagnostic accuracy for cervical radicu-lopathy, demonstrating induced cervical foraminal changes during a simulated Spurling test while performing MRI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: rotator cuff; shoulder; rehabilitation; physiotherapy; physical therapy; exercise, pain.
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:23:45 CEST)
Rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair is crucial for functional recovery and for minimizing the risk of retear. There are two rehabilitation protocols (early and traditional) and the debate about which is the best is still open. This umbrella review aimed to compare the effect of these rehabilitation protocols in terms of reduction of pain, functional recovery and retear risk. We selected systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2012 to 2022 dealing with the aim. Nineteen systematic reviews were included. No significant differences were found between early and traditional protocols in terms of pain reduction. Early rehabilitation provided better short-term results regarding Range of Motion improvement, but long-term functional outcomes were similar. Retear risk remains a significant concern for the early protocol. We found major differences between the analyzed protocols. This review suggests that both protocols are useful to recover global shoulder function, but the standard protocol has a greater safety profile for larger tears. On the other hand, the early protocol may be preferable for smaller lesions, allowing a faster recovery and having less impact on medical costs. Further research is needed to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies tailored to the individual patient's needs and characteristics.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Scaffold-Based; Microfractures; Chondral defects; Knee surgery; Surgical Approaches
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:10:29 CEST)
Articular cartilage injuries are found in up to 60 % of patients who undergo an arthroscopic knee procedure, those that totally affect articular cartilage (grade IV) have limited regenerative capac-ity and extended time for recovery, 3-D scaffolds represent a novel solution to address this type of injury. Our purpose was to analyze MRI findings and functional status of patients that underwent repair of chondral defects either by microfractures or Hyaluronan (HA) 3-D Scaffold. We con-ducted a retrospective study of patients with chondral defects. The outcomes analyzed in this study included anatomical changes envaulted by the Henderson score (based on MRI findings) at baseline, 6, and 12 months after surgery; and improvement in functionality, evaluated by the Modified Cincinnati Knee Rating System (MCKRS) at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Clini-cal and demographic characteristics were similar for both groups. There was a statistically sig-nificant improvement in Henderson score for the 3-D scaffolding treated group at 6 months, ver-sus the microfracture group (p < 0.0001). Improvement in functionality, measured by MCKRS was more frequently found in the 3-D scaffold treated group. In conclusion the use of HA 3-D scaf-folding was superior with faster recovery, evident after 6 months of the surgery, that progress to full recovery in all patients after a year of surgery. Future studies with a randomized design might help to sustain our findings. This study provides a level III of evidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Humeral resurfacing arthroplasty; long-term outcomes; rheumatoid arthritis; avascular necrosis
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:03:19 CEST)
Humeral resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) entails the substitution of the articular surface alone with a prosthetic cap without stem. It is a more conservative procedure which can be easily converted in a total arthroplasty if necessary. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiographical outcomes in a series of patients treated with HRA. 33 patients with a mean fol-low-up of 11 years were clinically (Constant score; Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score, DASH) and radiographically assessed before and after surgery. Constant and DASH score improved significantly after surgery, and only 2 cases needed revision surgery. HRA represents a valid therapeutic option in selected cases to improve the quality of life and delaying the need for more invasive procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: C-arm free; minimally invasive spine surgery; adult spinal deformity; lateral access spine surgery; oblique lumbar interbody fusion
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:51:02 CEST)
Background and Objectives: C-arm free MIS techniques can offer significantly reduced rates of postoperative complications such as blood loss and hospitalization time. Another advantageous long-term aspect is the notably diminished exposure to radiation which is known to cause ma-lignant changes. This study emphasizes that, in some cases of spinal conditions which require a procedural intervention, C-arm free MIS techniques hold stronger indications than open surgeries guided by image intensifier. Materials and Methods: In this research, a retrospective analysis and review of various cervical and thoracic spinal procedures, performed in our hospital, by applying C-arm free techniques. The course of the study explains the basic steps of the procedures and demonstrating postoperative or intra-operative results. For anterior cervical surgery, we performed OPLL resection, while for posterior cervical surgery, we performed posterior fossa decompression for Chiari malformation, minimally invasive cervi-cal pedicle screw fixation (MICEPS) and modified Goel technique with C1 lateral mass screw for atlantoaxial subluxation. Re-garding the thoracic spine, we performed anterior correction for Lenke type 5 scoliosis, and transdiscal screw fixation for DISH fractures. Results: C-arm free techniques are safe procedures that offer precise and high-quality postoperative results by offering sufficient spine alignment and adequate decompression depending on the case. Blood loss, postoperative pain and wound infection are other important aspects of spine surgery that must be always taken into consideration. Conclusions: Navigated C-arm free techniques are safe and precise procedures implemented in the treatment of surgically demanding conditions. They can significantly increase accuracy while decreasing the operative time. They represent the advancement in the field spine surgery and are hailed as the future of the same
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1983.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: additive manufacturing; bioactive scaffolds; porous materials; finite element simulation; pore design; microstructure, biocompatibility; mechanical properties, titanium alloys
Online: 30 August 2023 (02:25:24 CEST)
We overview recent findings achieved in the field of model-driven development of additively manufactured porous materials for development of a new generation of bioactive implants for orthopedic applications. Porous structures produced of biocompatible titanium alloys by selective laser melting can present a promising material to design scaffolds with regulated mechanical properties and with capacity to be loaded with pharmaceutical products. Adjusting pore geometry, one could control elastic modulus and strength/fatigue properties of the engineered structures to be compatible with bone tissues, thus preventing the stress shield effect when replacing a diseased bone fragment. Adsorption of medicals by internal spaces would make it possible to emit the antibiotic and anti-tumor agents into surrounding tissues. We critically analyze the recent advances in the field featuring model design approaches, virtual testing of the designed structures, capabilities of additive printing of porous structures, biomedical issues of the engineered scaffolds and so on. A special attention is paid to highlight the current troubles in the field and the ways of their solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1833.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: aerobic exercise; elderly Korean women; arterial stiffness; cell adhesion molecule; oxidized-LDL
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:20:09 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise on carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), cell adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1), and endothelial selectin (E-selectin), and oxidized-LDL in elderly women aged 70–85 years, and to identify the effect of and correlation with vascular stiffness. Forty participants were recruited and divided into three groups; vascular stiffness (VSG, n=14), obesity (OG, n=14), and normal (NG, n=12). All groups were given a 16-week intervention of aerobic exercise, and the data collected before and after exercise were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 23.0. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate between-group and time-dependent interaction effects. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate between-group variations. In addition, the significance was tested using a post-hoc test (Scheffe). The within-group variations by time before and after exercise were examined using a paired t-test, and correlation analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Simple regression analysis was performed for variables showing significant differences. The results indicated interaction effects for cf-PWV (p<.001), VCAM-1 (p<.01), E-selectin (p<.05) and oxidized LDL (p<.001). The rate of change of cf-PWV was positively correlated with that of VCAM-1 (r=.352, p<.05) and that of oxidized-LDL (r=.325, p<.05) with statistical significance. To determine the effect of the rate of change of cf-PWV on the rate of change of VCAM-1, the variables were tested, and the coefficient of determination in the regression analysis was .124, indicating that 12.4% of the tested variables fit the standard regression line. The variables for the effect of the rate of change of cf-PWV on the rate of change of oxidized LDL were also tested, and the coefficient of determination in the regression analysis was .106, indicating that 10.6% of the tested variables fit the standard regression line. Thus, the 16-week regular and consistent aerobic exercise program had significant effects on the cf-PWV, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and oxidized-LDL in elderly Korean women with vascular stiffness, suggesting improvements in vascular stiffness, based on which the intervention is predicted to contribute to the prevention of vascular dysfunction by lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis, as well as having a positive effect in the prevention of impairment of vascular endothelial cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1690.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: hip-spine; planning; THA; patient-specific
Online: 24 August 2023 (04:01:46 CEST)
Obtaining a proper position for THA’s components is a crucial aspect for the implant perfor-mance and consequently patient outcomes. Patient specific kinematic seems to be a key factor to reach the optimal implant positioning. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and safety of a computed dynamic analysis system which through patient specific guides tries to improve implant positioning and functional orientation according to patient’s spinopelvic mobility and anatomy.A total of 100 consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled. All patients received an OPS dynamic hip preoperative planning. A TC scan protocol follow up analysis has done at 6 month after surgery.The mean deviation from the planned acetabular inclination and anteversion was 4.3° e 3.8° respectively. The 98% of cases was within +/- 10° of Lewinnek safe zone both for inclination and anterversion. The height of osteotomy deviated on the average of 1.6mm. The 100% cases were included within 4mm of osteotomy. Patient specific and laser guided instru-mentation is safe and accurately reproduce the dynamic planning in terms of components orien-tation, osteotomy level, leg length and offset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Cervical Pain; Patient-Reported Outcome Measure; Validation Study; Poland
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:33:55 CEST)
This study aimed to translate and psychometrically validate the Neck Outcome Score (NOOS) in the Polish population according to the recommendations of American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) for the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Health Status Measures. Participants completed the NOOS, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain assessment. The questionnaires were completed by 57 women and 32 men with cervical spine ailments. A retest was performed in all patients after 48 hours. The analysis confirmed the high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.95) of the Polish NOOS. No floor / ceiling effects were observed. The Polish NOOS showed a significant correlation with NDI (0.87; p<0.001) and VAS (0.79; p<0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test-retest was found to be high (0.97). The Polish version of NOOS can be used for clinical and research purposes as an equivalent to the original English version. This study contributes to the area of patient-reported outcome measures available in the Polish language.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1523.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy, focused extracorporeal shock waves, radial extracorporeal shock waves, ESWT, rESWT, fESWT
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:03:08 CEST)
This article is a commentary on the publication Guo J, Hai H, Ma Y. Application of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in nervous system diseases: A review. Front Neurol. (2022) 13:963849. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2022.963849 (1). In the opinion of the authors of this commentary the information provided in the Section "Principles of ESWT" in (1) is partly incorrect and misleading. This is due to the fact that important, published knowledge regarding focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (fESWT) and radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) was disregarded in (1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0987.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Pediatric Spine fractures; suicidal jumpers fracture; spine fracture surgery; Covid-19; suicidal attempts during covid-19 pandemic
Online: 14 August 2023 (07:12:30 CEST)
Introduction: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15 to 19-years-olds in Europe. From the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, literature confirms a significant increase in mental health disease in children and adolescents. At Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital emergency department (Rome, Italy) there was a dramatic increase of suicidal attempts, and particularly a rise of suicidal jumpers. Many of these patients presented vertebral fractures. Material and Methods: This retrospective study includes all suicidal jumpers with vertebral fractures treated at our Pediatric Hospital from April 1, 2017 to March 31, 2023. We collected and compared data from three years before to three years after pandemic spreading analyzing vertebral fractures. Results: From April 1 2019 to March 31, 2020 141 cases of suicide attempt arrived at Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital emergency department. Five of these patients were suicidal jumpers but none had a vertebral fracture. From April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2023, 362 cases of suicide attempts arrived in the same emergency department and 19 were suicidal jumpers; 12 reported vertebral fractures and were included in this study. Mean age was 14 years. Most common level of fracture was L1. Four patients presented with preoperative neurologic impairment and two cases recovered completely. There was a transforaminal sacral fracture, a spinopelvic dissociation and an Anderson-D’Alonso C2 type II fracture. Two cases with thoracolumbar vertebral fractures were conservatively treated. Seven patients were treated by percutaneous pedicle fixation to achieve an indirect decompression and to restore a better sagittal balance. Only three patients needed an open spinal surgery by posterior approach and in two cases a posterior decompression was performed. One case with cervical fractures was treated by Halo-Vest. Conclusions: Recent literature highlights concern about the consequences of COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric population mental health. This is the first report that shows a significant increase in vertebral body fractures due to suicide jumping attempt. The comparison between three years pre and post pandemic is sufficient to demonstrate a sharp increase of these cases. This could be a new epidemiological phenomenon that could persist or even increase over time because of COVID-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0813.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: calcaneus; calcaneal fracture; ORIF; conservative; operative; extensile lateral approach (ELA); sinus tarsi approach (STA)
Online: 10 August 2023 (04:39:50 CEST)
Background: Calcaneal fractures are the most frequent traumatic injuries of the hindfoot and can cause severe disability with social and economic sequelae; since 1980 an increasing number of studies and new technologies have led to an improvement in their management and complications but treatment is still controversial. The purpose of the study to review the secondary scientific literature looking for the optimal management of calcaneal fracture; Methods: through the PubMed MEDLINE database, 4856 articles were identified; only meta-analyses and systematic reviews were included in the study. Results: 59 reviews with more than 10,000 calcaneus fractures were examined and results were divided into various topics; the majority of articles agree on the superiority of surgical versus conservative treatment; minimally invasive access to the sinus tarsi shows better results and fewer complications than traditional extended lateral access; reduction and osteosynthesis with percutaneous and/or minimally invasive techniques seem to provide better outcomes if compared to open treatments. Conclusions: The management of calcaneus fractures requires an individualized planning based on the functional demands of the patient, the type of fracture and associated injuries. New technologies and further studies may still improve the management of these lesions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: accuracy; distance; angle; augmented reality (AR); orthopaedics; knee
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:18:09 CEST)
Background: Recent advances allow the usage of Augmented Reality (AR) for many medical procedures. We perform different AR-assisted knee surgery techniques using optical surgical navigation with ArUco-type artificial marker sensors. Our study aimed to evaluate the system’s accuracy using an in vitro protocol. We hypothesised that the system’s accuracy was equal to or less than 1mm and 1° for distance and angular measurements, respectively. Methods: Our research was an in-vitro laboratory with a 316 L steel model. We evaluated absolute reliability according to the Hopkins criteria with seven independent evaluators. Each observer measured the thirty palpation points and the trademarks to acquire direct angular measurements on three occasions separated by at least two weeks. Results: The accuracy of the system to assess distances had a mean error of 1.203mm and an un-certainty of 2.062, and for the angular values, a mean error of 0.778° and an uncertainty of 1.438. The intraclass correlation coefficient was for all intra-observer and inter-observer almost perfect or perfect. Conclusions: The mean error for the distance’s determination has been statistically larger than 1mm (1.203mm) but with a trivial effect size. The mean error assessing angular values was sta-tistically minor than 1°. Our results are similar to those published by other authors in accuracy analyses of AR systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0583.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; cerebral palsy; neuromuscular conditions; pediatrics; orthopedics
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:30:27 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented challenges in the care of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromuscular complex chronic conditions (NCCC). The purpose of this study was to explore the direct impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare delivery. From May to August 2020, medical professionals caring for CP and NCCC patients across multiple countries and disciplines completed a self-administered cross-sectional survey comparing practices before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 79 healthcare workers from 8 countries who participated—predominantly pediatric orthopedic surgeons (32%), pediatricians (30%), and pediatric physiatrists (23%)—most felt that caring for NCCC patients during the pandemic presented with unique difficulties and reported a significant decrease in in-person NCCC clinic volume (p<0.001), multidisciplinary appointments (p<0.001), surgical cases (p=0.005), and botulinum toxin/phenol injections. Most providers affirmed that institutional guidelines for perioperative emergent/urgent and elective procedures, workplace settings, and technology were modified to accommodate the ongoing public health crisis. Usage of telemedicine significantly increased for NCCC patient visits (p<0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, many children with NCCC lost access to routine, multidisciplinary care. Telemedicine became an integral part of communication and management. In the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic and threat of future healthcare disruptions, these data lay the foundation for trending the evolution of healthcare delivery and accelerating best practice guidelines for children with CP and NCCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: knee; arthroplasty; tranexamic acid; local infiltration analgesia; blood loss
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:37:38 CEST)
Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of TXA supplemented with local infiltration analgesia (LIA) in reducing blood loss in patients undergoing total knee replacement. Materials: A retrospective study on 530 individuals with a mean age of 71,44 years after posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty was evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups, corresponding to the method of bleeding control: I - patients without additional bleeding protocol (control group); II - patients with iV TXA administration (TXA group); III - patients with exact TXA protocol combined with intraoperative local infiltration analgesia (TXA + LIA group). Blood loss was measured as a substitute for blood loss by maximal Hb drop compared to preoperative Hb level. Results: The mean hospitalization for patients from the control group was 7.02 (SD 1.34) days, 6.08 (SD 1.06) days for the TXA group, and 5.56 (SD 0.79) for the TXA + LIA group. The most significant hemoglobin drop was found in the control group, which amounted to an average of 30.08% output value. In the TXA group, the decrease in hemoglobin was, on average, 25.17% (p<0.001), and in the TXA + LIA group, it was 23.67% (p<0.001). A decrease in the rate of allogeneic blood transfusions was observed, which was 24.4% in the control group, 9.9% in the TXA group, and 8% in TXA + LIA group (p<0.01). Conclusions: Compared to the separate administration of tranexamic acid, the combination of perioperative administration with local infiltration analgesia statistically significantly reduces blood loss in patients after total knee replacement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1566.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: rotator cuff; retears; revision; augmentation; platelet concentrate; patch graft
Online: 24 July 2023 (07:07:21 CEST)
Background: Arthroscopic revision rotator cuff repair (ARRCR) is challenging. Biologic strategies seem to be promising. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of combination of microfractures of the greater tuberosity, augmentation with collagen patch graft, and platelet concentrate injections in ARRCR. Methods: A retrospective comparative study was conducted on patients that underwent ARRCR with minimum two-years follow-up. Patients in the augmentation group underwent ARRCR combined with microfractures, collagen patch graft, and postoperative subacromial injections of platelet concentrate. A standard rotator cuff repair was performed in the control group. Primary outcome: Constant Murley score (CMS). Secondary outcomes: disease-specific health-related quality of life by using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score; assessment of tendon integrity with magnetic resonance at least six months after surgery. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Forty patients were included. Mean follow-up was 36.2 + 8.7 months. The mean CMS was greater in the augmentation group (p = 0.022). No differences could be found for DASH score. Healing failure rate was higher in the control group (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Biologic augmentation of ARRCR by combination of microfractures, collagen patch graft and subacromial injections of platelet concentrate is an effective strategy in improving tendon healing rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1331.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: pandemic; COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; children; trauma center; suicide
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:30:20 CEST)
Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate patients after suicide attempts treated at the Department of Trauma Surgery for Children before and after the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. Material and methods: Retrospective review of the medical database at equal time intervals of 24 months to identify patients treated before and after the COVID-19 was done. Thorough analysis including injury mechanism, medical procedures, history of previous mental disorders or suicidal behavior was performed. Furthermore, results were compared with the Polish police suicide statistics. Results: Based on our retrospective review we found 4 patients treated in our department before the pandemic and 10 patients treated after COVID-19 outbreak. The group before SARS-Cov-2 era consisted of three girls and one boy with a mean age of 14.97 (12.7-17.6). The group treated in the pandemic crisis consisted of 8 boys and 2 girls, the mean age was 15.49 (10.8-17.2). In the pre-COVID-19 group, 2 out of 4 patients had received psychiatric treatment before, but none had attempted suicide before. In the COVID-19 group, 6 out of 10 patients had previously received psychiatric treatment, moreover 3 of them attempted suicide before. Based on our analysis, the number of individuals who displayed suicidal attempts has raised. Between 2018 and 2021 the largest number of suicides concerned the 13-18 y.o. group, both for the Silesian Voivodeship (H=9.374; p=0.0092) and for the whole country (H= 10.203; p=0.0061). Conclusions: 1. Results of our study indicate that the pandemic may have caused a wide range of negative mental health consequences for young individuals; 2. During the SARS-Cov-2 era, we observed an alarming 2.5-fold increase in the number of patients treated after suicide attempts at the children's orthopedic trauma department; 3. Suicide attempts in children are often related with high energy trauma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: knee; anterolateral ligament; all; ligament injury; paediatrics; anterolateral capsule
Online: 17 July 2023 (08:13:05 CEST)
The knowledge on anatomy, function, biomechanics, and role on surgical procedures of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee is still controversial. Only a few papers have examined the ALL in children. The aim of this review is to analyse all the available literature about ALL in pediatric population. Following the PRISMA criteria, the literature was systematically reviewed, examining all the articles about ALL in pediatric patients. Eight articles were involved in the study. Five cadaveric studies, 2 diagnostic studies and 1 Cross-sectional study were found. The identification of the ALL is not always possible in diagnostic studies using the Magnetic Resonance (MRI) or in dissecting specimens. A high variability in the presence of the ligament, in its origin and insertion were found among the studies. In younger patients is more difficult to identify the ligament than in older children, suggesting that its presence may develop at some point during the growth. Further studies are needed for a detailed knowledge of the ALL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0892.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: total hip arthroplasty; car; muscle strength; rehabilitation
Online: 13 July 2023 (07:04:48 CEST)
There are no studies that have investigated the characteristics of car use across THA patients, including those who do not drive. This study aimed to evaluate, in THA patients, (1) postoperative car usage, (2) comfort while entering and exiting a car, and (3) whether lower limb muscle strength affects action comfort. One hundred seventy-two post-THA patients completed the questionnaire in 2020, along with assessments of hip abductor and knee extensor muscle strength before surgery and at discharge. Patients whose overall comfort level was judged as “comfortable” were defined as the “comfort” group; others were placed in the “discomfort” group. Of the 172 patients, 161 reported car usage at a mean of 5.6 years after THA. Of these, 114 and 47 patients were placed in the "comfort" and "discomfort" groups, respectively. Patients in the "discomfort" group were three times more likely to experience discomfort using the contralateral side door than the surgical side door, and about twice as many patients experienced discomfort when entering as when exiting. Lower preoperative contralateral hip abductor muscle strength was the only independent predictor for discomfort. The take-home messages were that prevention of contralateral-side weakness may improve comfort during the action after THA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0858.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: 3D imaging; foot; ankle; optical scanner; anthropometry; analysis of variance
Online: 12 July 2023 (13:45:52 CEST)
Background: Our objective was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the reproducibility of foot and ankle anthropometric measurements with a three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner. Methods: We evaluated thirty-nine different anthropometric parameters obtained with 3D Laser UPOD-S Full-Foot Scanner in a healthy population of twenty subjects. We determined the variance of the measurements for each foot/ankle, and the average variance among different subjects. Results: For 40 feet and ankles (15 women and 5 men; mean age 35.62 +/- 9.54 years, range 9-75 years), the average variance was 1.4 ± 2 (range 0,1 to 8). Overall, the mean absolute measurement error was < 1 mm, with a maximum variance percentage of 8.3%. Forefoot and midfoot circumferences had a low variance < 2.5, with variance percentages < 1%. Hindfoot circumferences, malleolar heights, and the length of the first and fifth metatarsal to the ground contact points showed the highest variance (range 1 to 7). Conclusion: This optical scanner achieved a good reproducibility of a large set of foot and ankle anthropometric measurements. It is a valuable tool for clinical and research purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Head posture; biomechanical parameters; sports performance; posture; gait; jump.
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:06:31 CEST)
This study assessed the relationship between head posture displacements and biomechanical parameters in three different tasks. One hundred male and female students (20 ± 3yrs) were assessed via the PostureScreen Mobile app to quantify postural displacements of head rotations and translations including: 1) the cranio-vertebral angle (CVA) (°), 2) anterior head translation (AHT) (cm), 3) lateral head translation in the coronal plane (cm), and 4) lateral head side bending (°). Biomechanical parameters during gait and jumping were measured using the G-Walk sensor. The assessed gait spatiotemporal parameters were cadence (steps / min), speed (m / s), symmetry index, % left and right stride length (% height), and right and left propulsion index. The pelvic movement parameters were: 1) tilt symmetry index, 2) tilt left and right range, 3) obliquity symmetry index, 4) obliquity left and right range, 5) rotation symmetry index, and 6) rotation left and right range. The jump parameters measured were: 1) flight height (cm), 2) take off force (kN), 3) impact Force (kN), 4) take off speed (m / s), 5) peak speed (m / s), 6) average speed concentric phase (m / s), 7) maximum concentric power (kW), 8) average concentric power (kW) during the counter movement jump (CMJ), and 9) CMJ with arms thrust (CMJAT). At a significance-level of p ≤ 0.001, moderate to high correlations (0.4 < r < 0.8) were found between CVA, AHT, lateral translation head and all the gait and jump parameters. Weak correlations (0.2 < r < 0.4) were ascertained for lateral head bending and all the gait and jump parameters except for gait symmetry index and pelvic symmetry index, where moderate correlations were identified (0.4 < r < 0.6). The findings indicate moderate to high correlations between specific head posture displacements, such as CVA, lateral head translation and AHT with the various gait and jump parameters. These findings highlight the importance of considering head posture in the assessment and optimization of movement patterns during gait and jumping. Our findings contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may have implications for clinical practice and sports performance training. Further research is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and establish causality in these relationships, which could potentially lead to the development of targeted interventions for improving movement patterns and preventing injuries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0652.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: CT; artrhography; dual energy; shoulder; hip
Online: 11 July 2023 (08:17:51 CEST)
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the potential applications of dual energy CT (DECT) in improving image quality and diagnostic capabilities of CT arthrography (CTA) in clinical practice. The paper covers the use of virtual non contrast (VNC) images, in which the injected contrast medium is reduced from the articular cavity, in order to better analyze 2D and 3D images of the bone. Moreover , virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI) applications and their potential use for the reduction of metal artifacts and improving image contrast are reviewed. The role of virtual non calcium (VNCa) in detecting bone marrow edema surrounding the imaged joint will be discussed. Furthermore , the role of iodine map to enhance the contrast between soft tissues, optimizing the visualization of contrast material, and to distinguish contrast material from calcifications is described. Finally, a case series including different joints is provided to underline the additional advantages of high spatial resolution dual energy CT reconstructed images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: orthopaedic surgery, surgical site infection, bone graft, bacteria, S. aureus, biofilm, adhesion
Online: 10 July 2023 (03:40:37 CEST)
There was no significant difference in bacterial adhesion between the 3 bone graft types tested, regardless of the bacterial strain used (p > 0.22). After 72 hours of culture, there was no significant difference between the Fresh and Frozen bone groups, while the number of CFU in the Decellularised group was significantly lower (p < 0.01), averaging -0.72 +/- 0.08 lg, -0.20 +/- 0.01 lg and -0.78 +/- 0.48 lg with S. epidermidis, S. aureus and E. coli respectively. Absolute values differences are low, and considering fresh bone (equivalent to autograft) as the gold standard due to its low infection rates in clinical studies, we can conclude that adhesion and biolfilm development characteristics are similar between Fresh, Frozen and Decellularised bone grafts..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: bone, cartilage; extrinsic innervation; genicular nerve; intrinsic innervation; joint pain; osteoarthritis; subchondral bone
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:50:03 CEST)
Pain in osteoarthritis (OA) results from erosion of joint cartilage, resulting in bone contacting bone without an intervening cushion. The periosteum, including its nociceptive innervation, ends at the border of the cartilage meaning that there is no extrinsic neuronal pathway between the opposing denuded bone surfaces to carry a bone-on-bone pain signal to the brain. The pain signaling pathway must therefore originate in nociceptive sensory endings within the subchondral bone itself. Selective ablation of this intrinsic nerve pathway, using any of a variety of approaches, is expected to permanently eliminate OA pain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: patella; instability; diagnosis; treatment; knee
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:40:30 CEST)
The patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is a complex articulation between the patella and the femur, in-volved in the extensor mechanism of the knee. Patellofemoral disorders can be classified into ob-jective patellar instability, potential patellar instability, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. An-atomical factors such as trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, and tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance contribute to instability. Patellofemoral instability can result in various types of dislocations, and the frequency of dislocation can be categorized as recurrent, habitual, or per-manent. Primary patellar dislocation requires diagnostic framing, including physical examina-tion and imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for assessing the extent of damage, such as bone bruises, osteochondral fractures, and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) rupture. Treatment options for primary dislocation include urgent surgery for oste-ochondral fragments or conservative treatment for cases without lesions. Follow-up after treat-ment involves imaging screening and assessing principal and secondary factors of instability. Detecting and addressing these factors is crucial for preventing recurrent dislocations and opti-mizing patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1838.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Multifidus; Grip strength; elderly; muscle atrophy; fatty infiltration
Online: 27 June 2023 (02:38:48 CEST)
Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle. The multifidus muscle stabilizes the lumbar spine and undergoes adipose accumulation with age, leading to functional decline in the elderly. Therefore, quantitative assessment of the multifidus muscle can be beneficial for the elderly when formulating treatment strategies and reducing future complications. Fifty-seven patients (mean age, 73.89 ± 6.09; 23 male patients) who underwent lumbar Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were prospectively recruited. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the multifidus from the L2-S1 level and the CSA of the L4-5 level psoas muscle were measured. The functional CSA (fCSA) of the multifidus muscle was measured by excluding the fat infiltration area from the multifidus CSA. The CSA to fCSA ratio was obtained by multiplying 100 by the value obtained by dividing CSA by the fCSA. Pfrrmann classification was used to evaluate the degree of disc degeneration. The functional disability measurements were the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), grip strength, and functional reach test (FRT). Pearson's correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between the functional disability measurements and the multifidus muscle. The CSA to fCSA ratio value was relatively constant at each spine level and showed a significant correlation with the SPPB, grip strength, FRT, and psoas index (p<0.05). However, degree of disc and multifidus muscle degeneration were not statistically significant. So, age-related changes play a significant role in developing back muscle fatty infiltration than disc dgeneration. Moreover, Grip strength showed a stronger relationship with the quality of the multifidus muscle than other functional disability measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1830.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: supracondylar humeral fractures; children, statistical image analysis, Procrustes method
Online: 26 June 2023 (14:58:18 CEST)
Shape of supracondylar fracture of the humeral of pediatric patients is analysed with Procrustes method. XR–images of fractures are considered both in anterio-posterior (AP) view (66 images) and in a lateral (L) view (24 images). Applying Procrustes method for both views mean images are constructed and compared. Variability of shapes is quantified with a shape principal component analysis. Non-parametric tests (permutational and bootstrap) do not indicate statistical difference between Procrustes mean shapes in anterio-posterior and lateral projections. It is shown, however, that AP and L shapes of humeral fractures differ in their variability quantified by shape principal components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1565.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Forefoot deformities; flatfoot syndrome
Online: 21 June 2023 (14:26:14 CEST)
Classifications of AAFD/PCFD have evolved with an increased understanding of the pathology involved. A review of classification systems helps identify deficiencies and respective contributions to the evolution in understanding the classification of AAFD. Using multiple electronic database searches (Medline, PubMed) and Google search, original papers classifying AAFD were identified. Nine original articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Johnson's original classification and multiple variants provided a significant leap in understanding and communicating the pathology but remained tibialis posterior tendon focussed. Drawbacks of these classifications include the implication of causality, linearity of progression through stages, an over-simplification of stage 2 deformity and a failure to understand multiple tendons react, not just tibialis posterior. Later classifications, such as the PCFD classification, are deformity-centric. Early instability in non-cavus feet and all stages of cavus feet can present pain and instability with minor/no deformity. These may not be captured in deformity-based classifications biased to planus feet.' The authors developed the 'Triple Classification' (TC) understanding that primary pathology is a progressive ligament failure/instability that presents as tendon reactivity, deformity, and painful impingement. There is a variable manifestation dependent on starting foot morphology. This review has identified deficiencies within classification systems used in AAFD/PCFD and, as a result, was used to help develop a more comprehensive 'Triple classification'. Advantages of the TC include representing foot types with no deformity, defining complex secondary instabilities, delinking of foot types, tendon reactivity/ligament instability and deformity to represent these independently in a more comprehensive classification system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1503.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: osteoarthritis; arteriosclerosis; cardio-ankle vascular index; total knee arthroplasty; age; body mass index
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:28:00 CEST)
Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major risk factor for mortality in patients with osteoarthritis, and comorbidities increase postoperative complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Arteriosclerosis plays a major role in hemodynamic dysfunction and CVD; however, arteriosclerosis has not been preoperatively evaluated before TKA using the cardio–ankle vascular index (CAVI). In this study, we evaluated the degree of preoperative arteriosclerosis using the CAVI in patients undergoing TKA, as well as its correlations with several preoperative patient factors. Methods: Arteriosclerosis was evaluated in 209 consecutive patients (251 knees) with osteoarthritis who underwent TKA at our institution between May 2011 and June 2022. The CAVI was measured in the supine position 1 day before TKA, and the correlations between the CAVI and several clinical factors were analyzed. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The CAVI was normal in 62 knees (25%), borderline in 71 knees (28%), and abnormal in 118 knees (47%). Univariate analysis revealed a moderate positive correlation between preoperative CAVI and age (r = 0.451, p < 0.001) and a weak negative correlation between preoperative CAVI and body weight (r = −0.306, p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.319, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that age (β = 0.349, p < 0.001) and BMI (β = −0.235, p < 0.001) were significantly correlated with preoperative CAVI. Conclusion: Arteriosclerosis should be carefully managed intraoperatively and postoperatively in patients with osteoarthritis undergoing TKA, particularly in older patients and patients with a low BMI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0046.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Lumbar spinal stenosis; Spinal decompression; Minimally invasive surgery; Mini-open; Disc herniation; Post-decompression; Instability
Online: 19 June 2023 (15:17:06 CEST)
BackgroundIndex level disc herniation following lumbar spinal decompression is somewhat overlooked as postoperative complication, resulting in return of symptoms. It is proposed that the combination of local instability and degenerated disc is more likely to result in disc herniation. There is no literature comparing post-decompression disc herniation rates between different techniques. This study compares the postoperative disc herniation rates of the "mini-open" laminectomy versus the tubular system decompression.MethodsIn a retrospective comparative study, 563 patient files who underwent primary lumbar spinal decompression, were reviewed and divided into two groups, distinguished by surgical technique. Demographic, clinical, and postoperative data were collected and compared using independent two-tailed t-test and Fisher's exact test with significance set at p<0.05. Primary outcome: comparison of post-decompression surgery, index level, disc herniation occurrence between two surgical techniques.ResultsPostoperative index level disc herniation was significantly lower in the minimally invasive surgery group with 2 cases (0.8%) versus 19 cases (5.8%) in the "mini-open" group [p=0.002]. Disc herniation following single level and multi-level operations were also significantly lower in the minimally invasive group compared with the "mini-open" group (2 versus 11 and 0 versus 8 respectively; p<0.05).ConclusionPostoperative index level disc herniation following lumbar spinal decompression occurs in 3.7% of surgeries. Minimally invasive surgery is found to result in less herniations then "mini-open".
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1252.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Native collagen; Osteoarthritis; Food Supplement
Online: 16 June 2023 (14:04:29 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of pain and disability in adults. Dietary supplements such as undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) have shown to have some benefits in OA treatment. This study aimed to assess changes in pain levels among knee OA patients treated with UC-II for 6 months. Patients with knee OA of any grade were given a daily 40 mg dose of UC-II (CondroArtil®) as a dietary supplement for 6 months. Pain levels were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) before starting UC-II 6 months thereafter. A total of 100 patients (62/38: male/female) with a mean age of 46.3 ± 13.8 years participated in the study. Most patients (60%) had mild to moderate OA (grade I or II). The UC-II supplementation was shown to significantly reduce pain levels (p<0.001) with a negative correlation between pain reduction and age (p=0.006) and BMI (p=0.049). The OA severity also affected pain reduction (p=0.011), with grade II OA experiencing higher pain levels. Previous physical therapy and food supplements had a significant impact on pain reduction (p=0.017 and p=0.012, respectively). The study suggests that UC-II is an effective treatment for reducing pain in patients with knee OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Global sagittal balance; Transforaminal epidural steroids injections; Lumbar spinal stenosis
Online: 7 June 2023 (12:10:35 CEST)
Patients' functional adaptation to pain can affect global sagittal alignment. This study evaluated the short-term spinal sagittal alignment change after Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection (TFESI) in lumbar spinal stenosis patients. Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis who underwent TFESI were retrospectively examined. Clinical outcomes were Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Before and two weeks after the intervention, whole spine lateral standing view radiographs were taken. Radiographic parameters, e.g., Sagittal Vertical Axis (SVA), C2C7 Cobb, Thoracic Kyphosis (TK), Lumbar Lordosis (LL), Pelvic Incidence (PI), Pelvic Tilt (PT), Sacral Slope (SS), and Lumbopelvic Mismatch (PI-LL), were measured. Ninety-nine patients (mean age 64.3 ± 9.2 years) were included in this study. Both VAS and ODI outcomes were statistically improved after two weeks of intervention. Radiographic parameters showed that SVA, PT, and PI-LL mismatch were significantly decreased, while C2C7 Cobb, TK, SS, and LL were significantly increased after the intervention. SVA was improved by 29.81% (52.76 ± 52.22 mm to 37.03 ± 41.07 mm, P < 0.001). PT was also decreased significantly from 28.71° ± 10.22° to 23.84° ± 9.96° (P < 0.001). Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection (TFESI) significantly improves VAS, ODI, and global sagittal parameters in lumbar spinal stenosis patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Knee; alignment; radiographs; TKA
Online: 6 June 2023 (04:09:30 CEST)
Background: There is a growing interest in TKA components alignment, especially around the kinematic technique, which aims at reestablishing the alignment of the native knee. However, the practical application of this technique has some limitations; (2) Methods: A series of consecutive full weight-bearing lower limbs radiographs performed in our Hospital without signs of osteoarthritis, post-traumatic deformities, and any previous surgical procedure (e.g. any joint replacement , osteotomy, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction) were included. Several radiological parameters as the bisector line were measured by three members of our orthopedic unit and were then used to assess the inter-observer reliability.; (3) Results: 110 radiographic images belonging to 59 patients (both legs for 51 patients and one leg for 8 patients) were finally included in the present analysis. The bisector of the trochelar groove was perpendicular to the femoral joint line (mean 89.4°).; (4) Conclusions: The main finding of the current study was that the new anatomic landmark investigated, the bisector of the trochlear groove, was perpendicular to the femoral joint line viewed in the AP weight-bearing radiograph of the entire lower limbs of the healthy knee and therefore could potentially simplify the achievement of the kinematic alignment during a TKA procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Posture; Athletic performance; Athletes; Cardiopulmonary performance
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:37:32 CEST)
This study assessed the relationship between body posture displacements and cardiopulmonary function test (CPET) and skill related physical fitness tests. One hundred male (60%) and female collegiate athletes (22.2 ± 4yrs) with a normal body mass index (BMI up to 24.9) were assessed via the PostureScreen Mobile app to quantify postural displacements as head, thorax and pelvis rotations and translations. CPET and physical performance tests including the agility T-test, the vertical jump test, the stork static balance test (SSBT) and the dynamic Y-balance test (YBT) were performed. Spearman correlation (r) and p-values are reported. Postural parameters were found to have moderate-to-high associations with CPET and the agility test, moderate correlations with the vertical jump test and the SSBT (head and pelvic postures only), and weak correlations with the YBT. As postural parameters were more asymmetric, both CPET and performance skills scores were worse. For examples: 1) a medium positive correlation was found between cranio-vertebral angle (CVA) and vertical jump test (r = 0.54; p-value < 0.001) and SSBT (r = 0.57; p-value < 0.001), while a strong negative correlation was found between CVA and agility test (r = -0.86; p-value < 0.001). 2) A strong positive correlation was found between CVA and oxygen uptake efficiency slope, load watts VO2 at VT, VO2 / kg, load watts at respiratory compensation point (RCP), (r = 0.65 and r = 0.71; p < 0.001). Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between CVA and VE / VO2 at VT (r = -0.61; p < 0.001). Postural rotations and translations of the head, thorax and pelvis were statistically correlated with physical performance skills and CPET in young collegiate athletes. There were moderate-to-high associations with cardiopulmonary functions and agility tests, moderate correlations with the vertical jump test, and weak correlations with the YBT. Postural alignment may be important for optimal physical performance and optimal cardiopulmonary function. Further research is necessary to elucidate reasons for these correlations as found in our sample of young and healthy athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Fractures; Greater tuberosity; Humerus; Malreduction; Resorption
Online: 1 June 2023 (09:15:14 CEST)
(1) Background: Proximal humerus fractures can be a debilitating condition if not properly treated. These fracture patterns are varied and differ in every patient. Functional outcomes may be determined by the integrity of the shoulder girdle involving the rotator cuff insertion. The post-operative resorption or malreduction of the greater tuberosity is an important factor contributing to the poor functional outcome of a patient. (2) Methods: A single-center retrospective comparative study was performed to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients undergoing operative fixation for this injury. A total of 387 consecutive cases treated operatively from 2019-2021 were included for analysis. (3) Results: 94 cases fulfilled our criteria for analysis. A matched-group comparison of 19 patients each was performed to compare demographics, post-operative fracture characteristics and functional outcomes. (4) Conclusions: The resorption or malreduction of the greater tuberosity contributes greatly to the prognostic outcome in patients treated with ORIF surgery. In our demographic study, obesity is another contributing factor affecting the parameters of post-operative reduction in proximal humerus fractures. Appropriate surgical planning and post-operative multidisciplinary care must be taken into consideration to attain a satisfactory prognostic outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: epidemiology; baseball injury; young baseball players; injury prevalence; early single sport specialization
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:06:25 CEST)
This study aimed to describe the injury profiles of young Korean baseball players according to position and age as the proportion and distribution of injuries based on playing position and age remains unclear. A total of 271 elite youth baseball players aged 8 to 16 years were divided into two groups: elementary school (ES) (n=135) and middle school (MS) (n=136). The participants' basic, baseball practice, and injury information were collected. Injuries in the MS group were not limited to the elbow and shoulder, and the injury prevalence varied by age group and baseball position. The most injured body region in the ES group was the elbow joint, regardless of the position. In contrast, the most injured body region in the MS group was the lower back, except for infielders whose elbows were the most injured. Additionally, the MS group was more likely to experience injuries of the lower back (OR=4.27, 95% CI=2.47–7.40), shoulder (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.08–3.43; P=0.024), and knee (OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.17–3.94; P=0.012). Our findings indicate that excessive practice and lack of rest during MS (growth spurt period) can significantly increase the risk of lower back problems in young baseball players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1867.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: knee pain; frequency of knee pain; exercise training; physical activity
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:38:21 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Adolescents frequently self-report pain, according to epidemiological research. The knee is one of the sites where the pain is most common. One of the main factors contributing to the number of years people spend disabled and having substantial personal, societal, and economic burdens globally is musculoskeletal disorders. Insidious, slowly building onset that neither the adolescent nor the parent is aware of . Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is a clinical knee pain commonly affecting adolescents. In the present study, the authors aimed to estimate the frequency of knee pain in Saudi adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional survey carried out from June to November 2022 included 676 adolescents, ages 10 to 18. The data are presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare means between groups, while the chi-square test was used for the comparison of categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Adolescents were invited to take part in the study; 57.5% were female and 42.5% were male, and 68.8% were aged between 15 and 18. The prevalence of knee pain was considerably high among females (26%), while it was 19.2% among males. Moreover, age was a significant predictor for knee pain, and BMI was as well. We also found a significant difference between BMI classification and stiffness of the knee (p = 0.008). There is a difference between adolescents who do physical activities in leisure and difficulty bending (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Our study noted a high rate of knee pain among adolescents, so we need to raise awareness about risk factors. Adolescent knee pain can be prevented with conservative methods and some minor lifestyle/activity modifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1805.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sagittal alignment; knee flexion; compensation parameter; spinopelvic sagittal balance; healthy subjects; compensation; Knee-spine syndrome
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:54:10 CEST)
Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate involvement of whole-body compensatory alignment in different conditions of spinopelvic sagittal balance (compensated/decompensated). Methods: We enrolled 330 healthy subjects and divided them according to sagittal vertical axis (SVA): the compensated group, < 4 cm, (group C) and the decompensated group, ≥ 4 cm, (group D). The correlation between lack of ideal lumbar lordosis (iLL), which is calculated by using the Schwab formula, and the compensatory radiographic parameters in each group were analyzed. The threshold value of KF angle that indicates a spinopelvic sagittal imbalance (SVA ≥ 4) was determined by ROC curve analysis. Results: Correlation analysis of lack of iLL and each com-pensatory parameter showed a strong correlation for pelvic tilt (PT) (r = -.723), and a weak cor-relation for thoracic kyphosis (TK) (r = 275) in Group C. In Group D, the correlations were strong for PT (r = -.796), moderate for TK (r = .462), and KF (r = -.415). The optimal cutoff value for KF angle was determined to be 8.4 degrees (sensitivity 89%, specificity 46%). Conclusions: The pre-sent study showed differences between compensated/decompensated spinopelvic sagittal balance in the correlation strength between lack of iLL and whole-body compensatory parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: shoulder arthroplasty; ambulatory care; day surgery; surgical complications; postoperative pain; revision surgery
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:19:51 CEST)
Abstract: Introduction: A retrospective case-controlled study was performed to evaluate the out-comes of shoulder arthroplasty performed as a day case in carefully selected patients, compared to the traditional inpatient approach. Materials & Methods: Patients who had total or hemiarthro-plasty of the shoulder performed as a day case or inpatient procedure were recruited. The primary outcome compared rates of uneventful recovery, defined by the absence of any complications or readmission to hospital within six months of surgery, between Inpatient and Outpatient groups. Secondary outcomes included examiner-determined functional scores and patient-determined pain scores at one, six, twelve, and twenty-four weeks post-surgery. A further assessment of pa-tient determined pain scores was carried out at a minimum of two years post-surgery (5.8 ± 3.2). Results: 73 patients (36 Inpatients and 37 Outpatients) were included in the study. Within this time frame 25/36 inpatients (69%) had uneventful recoveries compared to 24/37 outpatients (65%) (p = 0.17). Outpatients showed significant improvement over pre-operative baseline levels in more of the secondary outcomes (strength and passive range-of-motion) by six months post-operation. Outpatients also performed significantly better than Inpatients in external rotation (p<0.05) and internal rotation (p=0.05) at six-weeks post-surgery. Both groups showed significant improvement compared to pre-operative baselines in all patient-determined secondary outcomes except level of activity at work and sport. Inpatients, however, less severe pain at rest at six weeks (p=0.03), sig-nificantly less frequent pain at night (p=0.03) and extreme pain (p=0.04) at 24 weeks; and less se-vere pain at night at 24 weeks (p<0.01). By minimum two years postoperation, inpatients were more comfortable repeating their treatment setting for future arthroplasty (16/18) compared to outpatients (7/22) (p = 0.0002). Conclusions: At a minimum of two years follow up, there were no significant differences in rates of complications, hospitalisations, or revision surgeries between pa-tients that underwent shoulder arthroplasty as an inpatient versus as an outpatient. Outpatients demonstrated superior functional outcomes but reported more pain at six months post-surgery. Patients in both groups expressed a preference for inpatient shoulder arthroplasty in future. What is Known About This Subject: Shoulder arthroplasty is a complex procedure, and has tradition-ally been performed on an inpatient basis, with patients admitted for six to seven days post-surgery. One of the primary reasons for this is the high level of postoperative pain, usually treated with hospital-based opioid therapy. Two studies demonstrated outpatient TSA to have a similar rate of complications as inpatient TSA, however these studies only examined patients within a shorter term 90 day postoperative period, and did not evaluate functional outcomes between the two groups or in the longer term. What This Study Adds to Existing Knowledge: This study provides evidence supporting the longer-term results of shoulder arthroplasty done as a day case in carefully selected patients, which are comparable to outcomes in patients that are admitted to hospital post-surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0794.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: shoulder pain; physiotherapy programme; fascial manipulation; MCID (minimal clinical important difference)
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:18:08 CEST)
Shoulder pain is a serious clinical disease frequently related to absence from work. It’s characterized by pain and stiffness probably connected to the presence of an inflammatory substrate involving gleno-humeral capsule and collagen tissues. A physioterapy programme has shown to be effective for the conservative treatment of this disorder. Our aim is to assess if a manual treatment directed to fascial tissues could get better improvement regarding pain, strength, mobility and function. 94 healthcare workers with recurrent shoulder pain were recruited and then randomized in two groups: the control group (CG) underwent a physiotherapy programme; the study group (SG) underwent to 3 sessions of physiotherapy and to 2 session of Fascial Manipulation (FM) technique. At the end of the treatment phase, both groups improved every outcome. Despite few statistical differences between groups, at the follow up visit a greater percentage of subjects in SG overcame the minimal clinical important difference (MCID) in every outcome. We conclude that FM is effective for treatment of shoulder pain and further studies should better assess how to manage this treatment to get better results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0654.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: neuromuscular diseases; scoliosis; posterior spinal fusion surgery; Cobb angle
Online: 9 May 2023 (12:35:41 CEST)
Patients with neuromuscular diseases usually have progressive neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS), requiring invasive surgery. Some patients present with severe scoliosis at the time of consultation and are difficult to treat. Posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery combined with anterior release and pre or intraoperative traction would be effective for severe spinal deformity, but invasive. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of PSF only surgery for patients with severe NMS with Cobb angle >100 °. Thirty NMS patients (13 boys and 17 girls; mean age 13.8 years) who underwent PSF only surgery for scoliosis with Cobb angle >100 ° were included. We reviewed the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV), duration of surgery, blood loss, perioperative complications, preoperative clinical findings, and radiographic findings including Cobb angle and pelvic obliquity (PO) in the sitting position pre and postoperatively. The correction rate and correction loss of the Cobb angle and PO were also calculated. The mean duration of surgery was 338 min, intraoperative blood loss was 1,440 mL, preoperative %VC was 34.1%, FEV1.0 (%) was 91.5%, and EF was 66.1%. There were eight cases of perioperative complications. The Cobb angle and PO correction rates were 48.5% and 42.0%, respectively. We divided the patients into two groups: the L5 group, in which the LIV was L5, and the pelvis group, in which the LIV was the pelvis. The duration of surgery and PO correction rate in the pelvis group was significantly higher than that of the L5 group. Patients with severe NMS demonstrated severe preoperative restrictive ventilatory impairments. PSF only surgery for severe NMS showed satisfactory outcomes, although highly invasive. Instrumentation and fusion to the pelvis for severe scoliosis in patients with NMS showed good PO correction and low correction loss of Cobb angle and PO, but a longer duration of surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: arthroscopy; sports medicine; anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; implant-associated infection; biofilm; septic arthritis.
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:26:50 CEST)
Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the formation of biofilm in bone patellar tendon bone grafts (BPTB grafts) and to compare it to the formation of biofilm formation in quadrupled hamstring anterior cruciate ligament grafts (4xHt graft). Methods: A descriptive in vitro study was conducted. One 4xHt graft and one BPTB graft were prepared. They were then contaminated with a strain of S. epidermidis. Later, a quantitative analysis was carried out by means of microcalorimetry and sonication with plating. Additionally, a qualitative analysis was carried out by means of electron microscopy. Results: No significant differences were found between the bacterial growth profiles of 4xHt graft and BPTB graft in microcalorimetry and colony counting. In the samples analyzed with electron microscopy, no specific biofilm growth pattern was identified upon comparing BPTB graft to 4xHt graft. Conclusions: There were no significant differences at either the quantitative or qualitative level when comparing bacterial growth in BPTB graft to that in 4xHt graft. Therefore, the presence of sutures in 4xHt graft cannot be established as a predisposing factor for increased biofilm growth in this in vitro study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: external fixation; acupuncture; pain; orthopedic; Chinese medicine
Online: 2 May 2023 (10:49:26 CEST)
Introduction: The application of external fixation devices consists of wires insertion through the skin and soft tissue to the bone. We examined the possible analgesic effect of stimulating an acupoint by the fixation wires which mimics the acupunctures treatment. Material and methods: retrospective work. Between 2015 to 2018 107 patients were treated with an external fixation for a tibial fracture. 33 patient files were found to be eligible for the review. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups: the study group included patients with a wire inserted through the ST36 (Zu San li) acupoint location, the control group had the wire inserted elsewhere. Patient's record was reviewed for 5 days following surgery. Data collected included analgesic consumption and pain level recorded on a visual analog scale (VAS). Results: 33 patients were included in the review. 20 patients in the study group and 13 served as the control group. In the study group VAS average was Mean (M)=1.4853 ± 1.30 while in the control group M=2.3885± 1.77 with no statistical relevance (P>0.05). Only on day 4 the study group had less pain than the control: M=0.40 ± 0.843, versus M=2.57 ± 2.149 (Mann=Whitney Z= -2.413, P<0.05). No statistical difference was found between groups in relation to analgesic consumption. Conclusions: In patients suffering from a tibial fracture treated with an Ilizarov external fixation device, locating a wire in the anatomical location of acupoint ST 36 had no effect on analgesic consumption and a minimal effect on patients’ pain levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0019.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Acute Compartment Syndrome; MEMS; Scientific process; biomarker; pressure; sensor; diagnosis; medical device; bioengineering; medicine
Online: 1 May 2023 (05:24:58 CEST)
Background: Sensor usage in the classical scientific process has allowed new experimentation in medicine. We report on the design process of a MEMS sensor being used for muscle trauma evaluation in diagnosing acute compartment syndrome (ACS), a medical ailment costing society billions of dollars per year. Objectives: Modeling the disease with scientific process allows a more complete under-standing of the disease. The goal was to formulate a hypothesis that could be tested to aid in making the diagnosis of ACS accurately. Methods: Scientific process was observed throughout the disease modelling process. Background information was improved and clarified, new pre-clinical models were de-signed and verified, a hypothesis built on pressure measurement with MEMS sensors was carried out, and the testing of the model as verified against previous clinical data was accomplished. Results: Scientific process resulted in hypothesis generation around the relationship of intracompartmental pressure measurement and the disease process and therapy. This resulted in new understanding of ACS, accurate modelling, and sensor design resulting in a MEMS device that has an extremely high sensitivity and specificity (over 99%) in treating and diagnosing the disease. Conclusion: MEMS sensor technology defines the new gold standard of implanting a sensor in a muscle compartment that allows accurate diagnosis of ACS with continuous trends in pressure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Wrist; Carpal; Instability; Trauma; Musculoskeletal
Online: 27 April 2023 (11:12:02 CEST)
Understanding the subtle signs of carpal instability and other unique injury patterns in the wrist is a critical skill for radiologists. Proper patient management and outcomes are directly dependent on the accurate interpretation of wrist imaging studies. This review will provide a detailed overview of typical imaging features of carpal trauma and instability, management, and complications, using multimodality imaging and original medical illustrations. A detailed overview of the osseous, ligamentous, arterial anatomy of the wrist, arcs of Gilula, and zones of vulnerability will be provided. Carpal fractures, dislocations, special radiographic views, and imaging pearls will be discussed. Instability patterns and the myriad of associate abbreviations (CID, CIND, CIC, CIA, VISI, DISI, SLD, LTD, MCI, SLAC, SNAC) will be clarified. Expected outcomes, potential complications, and management will be reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: optical scanner; 3D imaging; foot volume; volumetric measurements; water volumeter
Online: 7 April 2023 (03:13:08 CEST)
Background. To prospectively evaluate the reliability of a portable optical scanner compared to the water displacement technique for volumetric measurements of the foot and ankle, and to compare the acquisition time associated with these two methods. Methods. Foot volume was measured in 29 healthy volunteers (58 feet, 24 female/5 male) by a 3D scanner (UPOD-S 3D Laser Full-Foot Scanner ®) and by water-displacement volumetry. Measurements were performed on both feet, up to a height of 10 cm above the ground. The acquisition time for each method was evaluated. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient, and a Student’s t-test were performed. Results: Mean foot volume was 869.7+/-165.1cm3 (3D scanner) versus 867.9+/-155.4cm3 (water-displacement volumetry) (p <10-5). Concordance of measurements was 0.93, indicative of a high correlation between the two techniques. Volumes were 47.8 cm3 lower when using the 3D scanner versus water volumetry. After statistically correcting this underestimation, the concordance was improved (0.98, residual bias = -0.03 +/- 35.1 cm3). Mean examination time was 4.2 +/-1.7 min (3D optical scanner) versus 11.1 +/-2.9 min (water volumeter) (p<10-4). Conclusion: Ankle/foot volumetric measurements performed using this portable 3D scanner are reliable and fast, and can be used in clinical practice and research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: high intensity interval training; knee osteoarthritis; exercise therapy; rehabilitation; exercise rehabilitation
Online: 30 March 2023 (12:26:11 CEST)
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. Exercise therapy has been identified as a first-line treatment option in patients suffering from knee OA. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an innovative exercise modality with potential in improving various disease-related outcomes. The purpose of this review is to explore the impact of HIIT on knee OA symptoms and physical functioning. A comprehensive search of scientific electronic databases was conducted to identify the articles on the effects of HIIT on knee OA. Thirteen studies were included in this review. Nine compared the effects of HIIT with those of low-intensity training, moderate-intensity continuous training, or a control group. Three evaluated the effects of HIIT alone. Eight reported a decrease in knee OA symptoms, and eight reported an increase in physical functioning. HIIT was shown to improve knee OA symptoms and physical functioning, but also aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life with minimal or no adverse events. However, compared to other exercise modalities, no clear superiority of HIIT was found. HIIT is a promising exercise strategy in patients with knee OA: anyway, the actual quality of evidence remains very low, and more high-quality studies are needed to confirm these promising outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: biomechanics; posture; hyperlordosis; hyperkyphosis; machine learning; artificial intelligence; explainable artificial intelligence; human-in-the-loop; confident learning; label errors
Online: 29 March 2023 (14:08:32 CEST)
Postural deficits such as hyperlordosis (hollow back) or hyperkyphosis (hunchback) are relevant health issues. Diagnoses depend on the experience of the examiner and are therefore often subjective and prone to errors. Machine learning (ML) methods in combination with explainable ar-tificial intelligence (XAI) tools have proven useful for providing an objective, data-based orien-tation. However, only a few works have considered posture parameters, leaving the potential of more human-friendly XAI interpretations still untouched. Therefore, the present work proposes an objective, data-driven ML system for medical decision support that enables especially human-friendly interpretations using counterfactual explanations (CFs). Posture data for 1151 subjects were recorded by means of stereophotogrammetry. An expert-based classification of the subjects regarding the presence of hyperlordosis or hyperkyphosis was initially performed. Using a Gaussian progress classifier, the models were trained and interpreted using CFs. Label errors were flagged and re-evaluated using confident learning. Very good classification performances for both hyperlordosis and hyperkyphosis were found, whereby the re-evaluation and correction of the test labels led to a significant improvement (MPRAUC = 0.97). A statistical evaluation showed that the CFs seemed to be plausible in general. In the context of personalized medicine, the present study’s approach could be of importance for reducing diagnostic errors and thereby improving the individual adaptation of therapeutic measures. Likewise, it could be a basis for the development of apps for preventive posture assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Anxiety; depression; discomfort; pain; physical inactivity; sedentariness; self-rated health status
Online: 27 March 2023 (05:15:05 CEST)
Objective: Physical inactivity is linked to chronic illnesses and disabilities among workers, especially those in high demanding jobs like teachers. Despite the global prominence of sedentary behaviour research, studies drawing the relationships between physical inactivity and multimorbidity among working teacher populations in low-and middle-countries remain untapped. This study assessed the sedentariness and health status of primary school teachers in Cape Coast Metropolis in Ghana. Method: This cross-sectional survey employed 1109 primary school teachers from the Cape Coast Metropolis in the Central Region of Ghana, using convenient sampling method. Results: Generally, the teachers were highly sedentary and reported poor health status. Other results showed no difference in sedentariness across gender, t (1107) = -0.32, p > .05. However, female teachers suffer more pain and discomfort, [t (1103.51) = - 3.07, p < .05, anxiety and depression, [t (1099.56) = - 2.85, p < .000,)], and poor health status [t (1107) = 2.14, p < .05, than their male counterparts. Also, pain and discomfort, anxiety and depression, health status and years of work significantly predicted sedentariness among the teachers, F (4, 1104) = 5.966, p=.00, R = .145, R2 = .029, adjusted R2 = .018. Conclusion: The findings suggest that individualized or personalized interventions are urgently needed to promote regular physical activity to improve the health status and reduce associated complications on the health and well-being, especially among the female primary school teachers. Given the health risks of sedentary lifestyle, behavioral interventions at the person-level (i.e., individualized- routine weekly physical activity programmes) and built environmental restructuring (e.g., creation of walkways to encourage regular walking) could be done to physical activity behavior among teachers within the Cape Coast Metropolis, and perhaps beyond.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: cavovarus foot; conservative treatment; V osteotomy; children
Online: 27 March 2023 (02:38:52 CEST)
The cavovarus deformity is characterized by a pathologic longitudinal arch elevation caused by a severe hindfoot varus and forefoot equinus deformity. This disorder includes multiple anomalies and therapies and affects 25% of the population. Cavus feet usually indicate neurologic illness, which affects sensory and motor nerves. Clinical and radiological evaluations are needed to establish each patient's optimum therapy. Failure to identify a neurologic illness may lead to inappropriate surgical treatment, recurrence, and reconstructive failure. In progressive anomalies, surgical procedures must be performed quickly in a phased protocol to prevent the malalignment from worsening. Soft tissue surgeries, osteotomies, and arthrodesis are surgical options for patients. To aid and lead practitioners in selecting the most appropriate therapy for their patients daily, we have included the most common therapeutic options currently available in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; Endurance athletes; mental health; sleep; cardiopulmonary exercise testing; cardiorespiratory fitness; exercise capacity; physical exercise; psychology
Online: 24 March 2023 (12:23:44 CET)
COVID-19 has harmful impact on health. It is especially important for endurance athletes (EAs). Sleep and psychology influence sport performance. Aims of this study were: (1) investigation of the consequences of mild COVID-19 on sleep and psychology and (2) assessment of the conse-quences of the infection on cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) results. 49 EAs (males= 43; 87.76%, females= 6; 12.24%, age= 39.9±7.8 years, height= 178.4±6.8 cm, weight= 76.3±10.4 kg; BMI= 24.0±2.6 kg·m−2) underwent maximal cycling or running CPET pre- and post- COVID-19 and completed a survey. Exercise performance was deteriorated after COVID-19 (maximal oxy-gen uptake; VO2max= 47.81±7.81 vs 44.97±7.00 ml·kg·min−1 respectively pre- and post- infection; p<0.001). Waking up at night affected heart rate (HR) at the respiratory compensation point (RCP) (p=0.028). Sleep time influenced pulmonary ventilation (p=0.013), breathing frequency (p=0.010), and blood lactate concentration (Lac) (p=0.013) at RCP. Maximal power/speed (p=0.046) and HR (p=0.070) linked with the quality of sleep. Stress management and relaxation techniques linked with VO2max (p=0.046), maximal power/speed (p=0.033), and maximal Lac (p=0.045). Cardiorespiratory fitness was deteriorated after mild COVID-19 and was correlated with sleep and mental health. Medical Professionals should encourage EAs to maintain proper mental health and sleep after COVID-19 infection to facilitate recovery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: calvarium; bone; traumatic brain injury; biomechanics; pathology; fracture
Online: 22 March 2023 (10:23:44 CET)
Mild impacts to the head, particularly when repetitive in nature, are increasingly recognized to have a range of significant negative implications for brain health. Much of the ongoing research in the field is focused on the neurological consequences of these injuries, and the relationship between head impacts and long-term neurodegenerative conditions such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimer’s disease. However, our understanding of the complex relationship between applied mechanical force at impact, brain pathophysiology, and neurological function, remains incomplete. Past research has shown that mild head impacts, even below the threshold that results in cranial fracture, induce changes in cranial bone structure and morphology. These structural and physiological changes likely have implications for the transmission of mechanical force into the underlying brain parenchyma. Here, we review this evidence in the context of the current understanding of bone mechanosensitivity and the consequences of traumatic brain injuries or concussions. We postulate that heterogeneity of the calvarium including differing bone thickness due to prior impacts, age, or individual variability, may be a modulator of outcomes following subsequent head impacts. We advocate for greater consideration of cranial responses to head injury in both experimental and computer modeling of impact biomechanics, and raise the hypothesis that calvarial bone thickness represents a novel biomarker of brain injury vulnerability after head trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Keywords: cavovarus foot; First sequence osteotomy; Japas osteotomy of the middle foot; children
Online: 17 March 2023 (07:27:46 CET)
Background: To compare the clinical efficacy of Japas osteotomy of the middle foot and first metatarsal sequence osteotomy in treating children with cavovarus foot deformity. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical effect of cavovarus foot surgery from January 2012 to January 2019. Thirty light and medium cavovarus foot cases underwent osteotomy based on soft tissue release. Among them, 16 cases of 22 feet underwent first metatarsal sequence osteotomy, and 14 cases of 21 feet underwent middle foot Japas osteotomy. Ankle-posterior foot (Wicart) scoring system was used to evaluate the good and good rates of the two surgical methods. X-ray films were taken before and after the last follow-up in a standing weight-bearing position, and Meary Angle, Hibb Angle, and Pitch Angle were measured to compare the clinical efficacy of the two surgical methods in correcting the light and medium-cavovarus foot deformity.Results: (1) All patients were followed up for an average of 30 months. There was no significant difference in Meary, Hibb, and Pitch Angle between first metatarsal osteotomy and middle foot Japas osteotomy before surgery, indicating that the severity of malformation was similar between the two groups. (2) The Meary, Hibb, and Pitch Angle of the last follow-up were compared between the two groups (P>0.05), which showed no statistical significance, indicating that the two surgical methods had similar effects on cavovarus deformity correction. (3) At the most recent follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the percentage of patients who achieved an excellent or good Wicart score; for the first metatarsal osteotomy group, the rate was 87%, and for the Japas osteotomy group was 90%; the Fisher test p>0.05 indicates that the postoperative excellent and good rates of the two treatments are comparable.II (4) Comparison of operation time and intraoperative blood loss between the two groups, P<0.05, showed statistically significant differences, indicating that the first metatarsal osteotomy had obvious advantages over Japas osteotomy operation time and intraoperative blood loss. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in postoperative efficacy between first metatarsal osteotomy and Japas osteotomy for light and medium-cavovarus with the apex of the deformity located at the medial cuneus or navicular cuneiform joint. However, the intraoperative blood loss and operative time of first metatarsal osteotomy are superior to Japas osteotomy of the middle foot, and the trauma to children is less. Therefore, the first metatarsal osteotomy can be considered a surgical procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Anterior Crucial ligament; Rehabilitation; differential learning; Visual-motor therapy
Online: 16 March 2023 (13:59:56 CET)
Variable during practice is widely accepted to be advantageous for motor learning and therefor a valuable strategy to effectively reduce high-risk landing mechanics and prevent primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Few attempts have examined the specific effects of variable train-ing in athletes who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Thereby it is still unclear to what extent the variations in different sensor areas lead to different effects. Accordingly, we compared the effects of versatile movement variations (DL) with variations of movements with emphasis on disrupting visual information (VMT) in athletes who had undergone ACL reconstruction. For-ty-five interceptive sports athletes after ACL reconstruction were randomly allocated to a DL group (n= 15), VT group (n= 15) or control group (n= 15). The primary outcome was functional performance (Triple Hop Test). The secondary outcomes included dynamic balance (Star Excur-sion Balance Test (SEBT)), biomechanics during single-leg drop-landing task hip flexion (HF), knee flexion (KF), ankle dorsiflexion (AD), knee valgus (KV), and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), and kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK)) assessed before and after the 8-weeks of interventions. Data were analyzed be means of 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA fol-lowed by post hoc comparison (Bonferroni) at the significance level of p≤0.05. Significant group × time interaction effects, main effect of time and main effect of group were found for triple hop test, all eight directions of SEBT, HF, KF, AD, KV, VGRF and TSK. There was no significant main ef-fect of group in HF and triple hop test. Also, significant differences in triple hop test, seven direc-tions of SEBT, HF, KF, KV, VGRF and TSK were found between control group with the DL and VMT groups. Between group differences in AD and medial direction of SEBT were not signifi-cant. Also, there was no significant differences between VMT and control groups in triple hop test and HF variables. Both motor learning (DL and VMT) programs improved outcomes in patients after ACL reconstruction. Findings suggest that DL and VMT training programs lead to compa-rable improvements in rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: kinesiology tape; maximum isometric voluntary contraction; joint position sense; force sense; proprioception
Online: 10 March 2023 (08:50:49 CET)
(1) Background: Within the scope of prevention studies, many researchers have indicated the need to enhance knee proprioception. Kinesiology tape is one product that claims to enhance proprioception, however, its use has not been well researched in the healthy population before. The aim of the study was to investigate if kinesiology tape application on the quadriceps muscle enhances proprioception. (2) Methods: Twelve healthy and physically active volunteers (M=7, F=5, mean age= 20.75 ± 2.14, mean BMI=22.25 ±2.34) participated in the study. With computerized, custom-built isokinetic dynamometer, we recorded perceived joint position angles (small and large angles). For force sense, we recorded maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and differences in torques (Nm) via force matching tasks both with vision and without vision on left leg. The absolute errors for joint position sense measurements and for force matching tasks and differences in MVIC both in untaped and taped conditions for left legs of all subjects were recorded. (3) Results: Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that no significant interaction existed among small and large angle groups in both the conditions nor any main condition effect was observed in both the groups. (p>0.05). Similarly, no differences were accounted in force matching tasks between the taped and un-taped with vision and without vision (p=0.52 and 0.38 respectively.) Statistically insignificant increments were observed in mean torque post application. (p=0.67) (4) Conclusions: Present study suggests that immediate kinesiology tape application on quadriceps muscle offers no benefits on proprioception in terms of joint position sense and force sense hence other preventive measures to strengthen the proprioceptive system should be relied upon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: laser therapy; musculoskeletal system; tissue penetration depth
Online: 9 March 2023 (11:03:09 CET)
The choice of parameters for laser beams used in the treatment of musculoskeletal diseases is of great importance. First, to reach high penetration depths into biological tissue and, secondly, to achieve the required effects on a molecular level. The penetration depth depends on the wavelength since there are multiple light-absorbing and scattering molecules in tissue with different absorption spectra. The present study is the first comparing the penetration depth of 1064 nm laser light with light of a smaller wavelength (905 nm) using high-fidelity laser measurement technology. Penetration depths in two types of tissue (porcine skin and bovine muscle) were investigated. The transmittance of 1064 nm light through both tissue types was consistently higher than of 905 nm light. The largest differences (up to 5.9%) were seen in the upper 10 mm of tissue, while the difference vanished with increasing tissue thickness. The higher penetration was most likely due to a combination of lower absorption in hemoglobin and less scattering at larger wavelengths, and not due to absorption in melanin. Overall, differences in penetration depth were comparably small and high peak power and short pulse lengths of laser light seem to be more important to efficiently treat deep musculoskeletal diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities; Gait; Exercise Program; Kinematics
Online: 8 March 2023 (10:42:20 CET)
This study examines the effects and durability of postural exercise on gait kinematics in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Thirty-four men with mild IDD were assigned to either the training group (n = 19) or the control group (n = 15). The TG performed the intervention over 8 weeks, 3 days/week, 1 h/day. The results indicated that the intervention program had a significant effect on some variables of gait. Also, in the TG between post-test and follow-up, there was no significant difference, which indicated that gait variables were maintained by the TG one month after the end of the program. This study provides evidence that postural exercises can be used as an effective intervention for improving gait in individuals with IDD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Maximal isometric adaptive force; Holding capacity; Muscle stability; Neuromuscular functioning; Neuromuscular control; Motor control; Muscle spindle; Muscle physiology; Regulatory physiology
Online: 6 March 2023 (09:50:47 CET)
Adaptation to external forces relies on a well-functioning proprioceptive system including muscle spindle afferents. Muscle length-tension control in reaction to external forces is most important regarding the Adaptive Force (AF). This study investigated the effect of different procedures, which are assumed to influence the function of muscle spindles, on the AF. 19 elbow flexors of 12 healthy participants were assessed by an objectified manual muscle test (MMT) with different procedures: regular MMT, MMT after pre-contraction (self-estimated 20% MVIC) in lengthened position with passive return to test position (CL) and MMT after CL with a second pre-contraction in test position (CL-CT). During regular MMTs, muscles maintained their length up to 99.7±1.0% of the maximal AF (AFmax). After CL, muscles started to lengthen at 53.0±22.5% of AFmax. For CL-CT, muscles were again able to maintain the isometric position up to 98.3±5.5% of AFmax. AFisomax differed highly significantly between CL vs. CL-CT and regular MMT. CL is assumed to generate a slack of muscle spindles which led to a substantial reduction of the holding capacity. This was immediately erased by a pre-contraction in test position. The results substantiate that muscle spindle sensitivity seems to play an important role for neuromuscular functioning and musculoskeletal stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: low back pain; osteoarthritis; knee; prevalence; workplace; exposure; musculoskeletal diseases; risk factors; prevention; construction industry
Online: 2 March 2023 (01:55:05 CET)
Abstract: Sand-cement bound screed floor layers are at risk for work-related low back pain, lumbosacral radicular syndrome and knee osteoarthritis given their working technique of level-ling screed with their trunk bended and mainly supported by their hands and knees. To reduce the exposure of the physical demands of bending of the trunk and kneeling, a manually moved screed levelling machine was developed for floor layers in the Netherlands. The aim of this pa-per is to estimate the potential health gain of the manually moved screed levelling machine on the risk of low back pain (LBP), lumbosacral radicular syndrome (LRS) and knee osteoarthritis (KOA) compared to the traditional working technique. The potential health gain was assessed using the epidemiological population estimates of the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) and the Potential Impact Fraction (PIF) combined with work-related risk estimates for these three disorders from systematic reviews. The percentage of workers exceeding these risk esti-mates was based on worksite observations among in total 28 floor layers. For LBP, 16/18 work-ers were at risk using the traditional working technique with PAF=38%, and for the manually moved screed levelling machine this was 6/10 with PIF=13%. For LRS, these data were 16/18 with PAF=55% and 14/18 with PIF=18% and for KOA, 8/10 with PAF=35% and 2/10 with PIF=26%. A manually moved screed levelling machine might have a significant impact on the prevention of LBP, LRS and KOA among floor layers in the Netherlands and a health impact assessment is a feasible approach to assess health gains in an efficient way.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sports medicine; transdisciplinary; clinical trials; sports science; thermography
Online: 23 February 2023 (04:08:46 CET)
This paper aims to list the current challenges in the study of Sports Medicine in Brazil based on a review of the literature and the author's experience as a member of a transdisciplinary team in this field, as well as to discuss methods for establishing an appropriate and organized course of health activities in this context. The authors identified four significant contemporary difficulties in the field of sports medicine in Brazil that, while minor, are complicated. There is a need to publish a greater number of national studies, generate integrated knowledge through transdisciplinary research, propose sports and movement as a tool for the prevention of degenerative conditions, and research and develop better therapeutic options through transdisciplinary research. It is expected that a transdisciplinary approach will reduce divergences between the real world and science, putting an end to dogmatism, prejudice, and theoretical thinking, increasing the scientificity of sports, bringing competitive advantages, improving training, performance, and athlete health management, and contributing to the advancement of sports medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0323.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: ACL reconstruction; basketball; NBA
Online: 23 February 2023 (03:02:21 CET)
Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common injury among athletes, including NBA players. Advances in surgical techniques, rehabilitation protocols, and complementary therapies have greatly improved the outcomes for athletes undergoing ACL reconstruction surgery. Arthroscopic surgery has become the standard approach for ACL reconstruction due to its minimally invasive nature, resulting in less pain, faster recovery, and better outcomes. Accelerated rehabilitation protocols have been shown to improve outcomes by getting athletes back to playing sooner and with better functional outcomes than traditional rehabilitation programs. Physiotherapy has also played an important role in helping athletes return to play by using targeted exercises to improve range of motion, strength, and stability. Complementary therapies, such as phytotherapy, have also shown promise in aiding the healing process. These advancements in ACL tear treatment have the potential to improve outcomes for NBA players who suffer from these injuries and further research can help continue to improve prevention and management of these injuries. Methods: The study is a retrospective cohort study that focuses on NBA players who suffered from ACL tears and underwent reconstructive surgery between 2012 and 2022. The study excluded players who had not played prior to experiencing an ACL injury, players with a concurrent significant knee injury involving other ligaments, any other major leg injury, or a history of ACL tear in the contralateral knee. The study gathered data on 25 players and recorded game statistics for each player before and after surgery to assess the impact of ACL tears on players' game performance. The recorded data was analyzed using SPSS Statistics.Results: The mean age at injury was 26.12 ± 4.3 years, and the majority of injuries occurred on the left side. players experienced significant decreases in minutes per game and points per game, with a reduction of 5.9 and 3.5, respectively, during the season following the injury. Moreover, players exhibited a statistically significant decline in rebounds per game and assists per game, with a decrease of 0.91 and 1.11, respectively. These findings suggest that ACL injuries can have a severe impact on a player's ability to contribute to their team's success. The study did not find a significant difference in shooting percentages for two-pointers, three-pointers, and free throws before and after ACL injury. This suggests that ACL injuries do not significantly affect a player's shooting abilities. Discussion: This study focused on the incidence and impact of ACL injuries among NBA players between 2012 and 2022. The study found that ACL injuries had a significant negative impact on a player's performance, including decreases in minutes, points, rebounds, and assists per game. The mean time to return to play after ACL surgery was consistent with previous studies. The study also highlighted the importance of effective prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation strategies, with neuromuscular training programs showing promise in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries. While ACL injuries did not significantly affect shooting percentages, further research is needed to fully understand their impact on shooting performance. Conclusion: The study sheds light on the frequency and effects of ACL injuries in NBA players and emphasizes the importance of implementing effective strategies for preventing, diagnosing, and treating such injuries in order to help players recover and return to their previous level of performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Distal radius fracture; fall; elderly; older adults
Online: 23 February 2023 (01:57:10 CET)
Introduction: Fractures in older individuals are often caused by falls, with approximately 90% of hip fractures resulting from falls. The risk of falling increases with age, and while a significant portion of individuals over 65 fall at least once per year, only a small percentage of these falls result in hip fractures. Factors that influence the likelihood of a fracture occurring include the intensity of the fall and the quality of the bone, with lower bone mineral content increasing the risk of fracture. Older women, particularly those in their 70s, are significantly more prone to hip fractures and any type of fracture. Efforts to reduce the likelihood of falls or mitigate the associated trauma are more complex than treating osteoporosis, due in part to a lack of understanding of the causes and contributing factors of falls in older age.Methods: This study analyzed data from patients admitted to Carmel medical center with upper or lower limb fractures between 2017 and 2019 to determine the side of wrist fractures and compare it to patient age in order to examine whether there was a difference in the distribution of sides in distal radius fractures based on age and test the hypothesis that falls are more likely to occur on the left side due to the assumption that dominant hand gross motor skills are better preserved. The study received approval from the Institutional Helsinki Committee and used statistical analysis with a significance level of 0.05. Potential sources of bias include limited availability of reliable data for many patients and the risk of errors in fracture registration or diagnosis, although the small sample size is expected to minimize these biases.Results: In this analysis of patient data from 2019 to 2017, a binomial test found that the probability of breaking the left wrist is significantly greater than the probability of breaking the right wrist (p < 0.05), while a t-test found no difference in the distribution of fractures between the right and left wrists of the distal radius based on age (p = 0.2774). Discussion: The findings of the study are consistent with previous research, and indicate that there is no change in side preference for fractures with age. Conclusion: The probability of breaking the left wrist is approximately 1.5 times greater than the probability of breaking the right wrist.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: isometric exercise; knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation; strain gauge device; physiotherapeutic practice; exercise quantification
Online: 20 February 2023 (06:18:18 CET)
Isometric exercises for physiotherapeutic rehabilitation are often prescribed, with little quantification of the load being prescribed. This article aimed to provide a framework and practical examples of how the physiotherapist may take a more quantitative evidence-based approach to isometric assessment, monitoring, and exercise prescription of knee osteoarthritis, by integrating a strain gauge into their practice. Strength measures to monitor were discussed. A series of fourteen studies were reviewed, with the intent of identifying isometric exercises that had been utilized in the rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis. Of the fourteen studies, the three most identified isometric exercises were seated knee extension, knee flexion, and the supine straight leg raise. The integration of strain gauge technology with these exercises provided the focus of the remainder of the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: questionnaire development; osteoporosis; osteoporosis education; attitude; behaviors
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:37:04 CET)
This research develops the Osteoporosis Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Questionnaire (OKABQ) with the intent to evaluate levels of osteoporosis knowledge, attitude and behavior change. The aims of the study were to develop and validate the OKABQ; and to establish a mediation model of the research. A quantitative, descriptive, and instrumental study was conducted in two phases: Phase I—development of the scale through Delphi Method by osteoporosis experts; Phase II—evaluation of the validity and reliability of the scale and construction of a mediation model using SmartPLS. In Phase I, the content validity index (CVI) of the questionnaire was higher than 0.96 and the inter-rater reliability (IRR) kappa was 1.00. In Phase II, exploratory factor analysis showed that two predominating factors of attitude as a mediation were addressed by the 26-item OKABQ. The indirect effect results from the estimated model indicates that attitude mediates the relationship between knowledge and behaviors (β = 0.114, t = 2.627, p < 0.001), which is positive and statistically significant. We concluded that the OKABQ is a valid measure of osteoporosis knowledge, attitude and behaviors for women with osteoporosis. These assessment results could assist healthcare providers in mitigating insufficiency on health education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: accelementer; muscle thickness; growth; development
Online: 7 February 2023 (04:00:41 CET)
Purpose: Physical activity (PA) is likely the most important modifiable element for the growth of skeletal muscle. However, a detailed investigation of PA’s impact on preschoolers’ of skeletal muscle development is lacking. This study aimed to determine whether PA level is related to skeletal muscle thickness among preschool children. Methods: 275 healthy preschoolers between the ages 4–6 were instructed to wear an accelerometer for 4 consecutive days. The daily steps and minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and total PA (TPA) were examined. Muscle thickness (MT) was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. The MT was measured at the anterior (AT) and posterior thigh (PT) and the anterior (AL) and posterior lower leg (PL). Results: Boys were more physically active and engaged in significantly more TPA and MVPA on weekdays compared with girls. Compared with that on the weekends, more physical activity, and significantly greater number of daily steps and higher TPA and MVPA were recorded for both boys and girls on the weekdays. Multivariable regression analyses, after adjusting for daylight duration, indicated that a daily increase in the TPA and MVPA would lead to higher muscle size in AT (β=1.11 and β=1.37, p<0.05), and PL (β=1.18 and β=0.94, p<0.05) among preschool children. Conclusions: The time spent involved in most of the different categories of MVPA was significantly higher for boys than for girls on the weekdays and weekends. MVPA was positively correlated with greater skeletal muscle development in the lower body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0348.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: trauma; geriatric; osteoporosis; humerus; radius; tibia; bone substitute; low impact; falls
Online: 19 January 2023 (08:52:56 CET)
When bone substitutes materials are used, the increased risk of infection due to the none-autogenic graft is often discussed. The treatment of large bone defects in geriatric patients, often with osteoporotic bone, often presents major challenges to surgery. Bone substitutes materials are available indefinitely without the risk of additional surgery in each patient. Can bone substitutes materials be used without hesitation in the geriatric patient?Eighty-three patients suffered traumatic fractures of the distal radius, proximal humerus, and proximal tibia. The defect zones were filled with bone substitute material based on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) or calcium phosphate (CP). For comparison, a reference group without the void filling with a bone graft substitute (void defects, ED) was studied. All patients over the age of 64 years were retrospectively evaluated for complications and radiological outcomes. Results: 106 patients sustained traumatic fractures of the distal radius (68.9%), proximal humerus (5.7%), and proximal tibia (22.6%). No differences in infections were found when comparing the groups (p=1.0). retrospectively evaluated. The KEM group had a nonsignificantly lower rate of pseudarthrosis (p=0.09). A relative risk (RR) reduction of complications of 32.64% was observed when bone grafting material was used. The NNT for the prevention of complications was 5.99. When bone healing was assessed by radiological images, some follow-up studies showed significant differences in fracture bridging (p<0.001).Conclusions: In contrast to previous studies, bone substitutes materials can support the healing process in geriatric patients without relevant disadvantages. With an NNT of 6 regarding complications, many patients could benefit from bone graft augmentation. No increased infection rate was observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Sleepiness; Lockdown; Female athletes; Epworth Scale; Soccer
Online: 18 January 2023 (08:40:31 CET)
BACKGROUND. The aims of this study was to compare differences in daytime sleepiness between genders and qualification levels in a cohort university Chinese soccer player under 0 Covid policy restrictions in the urban area of Shanghai. METHODS. 491 questionnaires of Epworth Sleepiness Scales (ESS) were compiled online by males and females Soccer Students (SS), Semi-professional players (SP) and professional players (PP) during the ongoing measures of Shanghai lockdown. ANOVA was performed for players levels and gender. RESULTS. Significant differences were found between the 3 levels and between males and females. PP showed a very low score in the ESS (5,97) well below the threshold of 8, while SS and SP showed an ESS score above the threshold. Female showed higher scores than males. CONCLUSIONS. This study present the first data on sleepiness in Chinese soccer players of different level of qualification in a lockdown condition. Professional players has been less affected by lockdown measures than SS and SP. We can hypothesize the reasons resides in the more ordered lifestyle of PP in comparison to SS and SP, which mitigated the effects of the lockdown. Measures to improve sleep in females’ soccer player should be adopted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: trauma; geriatric; osteoporosis; humerus; radius; tibia; bone substitute; low impact; falls
Online: 17 January 2023 (11:08:55 CET)
When bone substitutes materials are used, the increased risk of infection due to the none-autogenic graft is often discussed. The treatment of large bone defects in geriatric patients, often with osteoporotic bone, often presents major challenges to surgery. Bone substitutes materials are available indefinitely without the risk of additional surgery in each patient. Can bone substitutes materials be used without hesitation in the geriatric patient? Eighty-three patients suffered traumatic fractures of the distal radius, proximal humerus, and proximal tibia. The defect zones were filled with bone substitute material based on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) or calcium phosphate (CP). For comparison, a reference group without the void filling with a bone graft substitute (void defects, ED) was studied. All patients over the age of 64 years were retrospectively evaluated for complications and radiological outcomes. Results: 106 patients sustained traumatic fractures of the distal radius (68.9%), proximal humerus (5.7%), and proximal tibia (22.6%). No differences in infections were found when comparing the groups (p=1.0). retrospectively evaluated. The KEM group had a nonsignificantly lower rate of pseudarthrosis (p=0.09). A relative risk (RR) reduction of complications of 32.64% was observed when bone grafting material was used. The NNT for the prevention of complications was 5.99. When bone healing was assessed by radiological images, some follow-up studies showed significant differences in fracture bridging (p<0.001). Conclusions: In contrast to previous studies, bone substitutes materials can support the healing process in geriatric patients without relevant disadvantages. With an NNT of 6 regarding complications, many patients could benefit from bone graft augmentation. No increased infection rate was observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: older adults; cognitive impairment; tango-therapy; quality of life; well-being; physical performance; walking performances; abilities of daily living; dance movement therapy; arts with therapeutic intent
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:11:39 CET)
Cognitive impairment in older adults is associated with poor gait performance, physical decline, falls and poor quality of life. This paper analyzes the feasibility and efficacy of a tango-based in-tervention in older people with cognitive impairment living in nursing homes. A multicenter study, with pre and post-test, was carried out. Intervention attendance, well-being, physical abilities (Short Physical Performance Battery), walking performance, functional capacities (Katz Index), and quality of life (Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease) were assessed. Fifty-four participants (84.9 ± 6.7 years, Mini Mental State Examination 14.5 ± 7.4) completed the protocol. Intervention attendance was 92%, and the mean subjective well-being after each session was 4.5 ± 0.5 (on a five-point scale). Statistically significant improvement was found in the quality of life (p = 0.030). Non statistically significant changes were found in walking performance, physical abilities, or in functional capacities. The study shows feasibility and suggests evidence for the effects of Tango therapy on well-being and quality of life. Further studies are necessary to contrast these findings and to verify the role of Tango interventions as a holistic approach to prevent functional decline in older people with cognitive impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: laser beam characterization; laser therapy; medical devices; sports medicine
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:51:11 CET)
Laser therapy devices (LTDs) operating with near-infrared laser light are increasingly being used in sports medicine. For several reasons the users cannot evaluate whether or not such devices emit laser beams according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer and the settings of the device. In this study the laser beams from two different LTDs that can be used in sports medicine were thoroughly characterized by measuring the emitted power, pulse shapes and lengths, and spatial intensity distributions using professional, high-fidelity laser measurement technology. This was repeated for three units of each LDT independently to distinguish problems of individual units from potential intrinsic instrument design errors. The laser beams from the units of one LTD agreed with the settings at the device, with the measured average power for these units being within 3.3% of the set power. In contrast, the laser beams from the units of the other LTD showed large deviations between the settings and the actual emitted light. This device came with three laser diodes that could be used independently and simultaneously. The average power differed greatly between the units as well as between the laser diodes within each unit. Some laser diodes emitted essentially no light, which could lead to a lack of treatment of patients. Other laser diodes emitted much more power than set at the device (up to 230%) that could result in skin irritations or burnings of patients. These findings indicate a need for better standardization and consistency of therapeutic laser light sources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0448.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: moderate exercise; vigorous exercise; upper respiratory infection; immunity
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:31:03 CET)
The practice of physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological strategy for preventing and treating chronic diseases. A large body of evidence has contributed to establishing a positive correlation between a physically active lifestyle and health benefits, including enhanced vaccination responses, lower numbers of senescent T-cells, increased T-cell proliferative capacity, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved neutrophil and macrophage function. While females are generally thought to exert more robust immune responses than males in response to a variety of challenges, and both male and female sex hormones have been suggested as mediators of immune function, research on this topic has not always been designed with a sex-specific lens. The goal of this review is to summarize the available experimental and clinical evidence linking exercise and immune function in male and female subjects, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex-specific mechanisms. Overall, the available evidence indicates that moderate exercise and physical activity improves immune function in both sexes, whereas prolonged and high-intensity exercise temporarily impairs immune responses at a higher degree in females. A role of male and female sex hormones in these sex-specific effects is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: rowing; feedback training; movement analysis; surface EMG
Online: 9 January 2023 (13:19:12 CET)
The rowing technique is a key factor in the overall rowing performance. Nowadays the athletes’ performance is so advanced that even small differences in technique can have an impact on sport competitions. To further improve the athletes’ performance, individualized rowing is necessary. This can be achieved by intelligent measurement technology that provides direct feedback. To address this issue, we developed a novel wireless rowing measurement system (WiRMS) that acquires rowing movement and measures muscle activity using electromyography (EMG). Our measurement system is able to measure several parameters simultaneously: the rowing forces, the pressure distribution on the scull, the oar angles, the seat displacement and the boat acceleration. WiRMS was evaluated in a proof-of-concept study with seven experienced athletes performing a training on water. Evaluation results showed that WiRMS is able to assess the rower’s performance by recording the rower’s movement and force applied to the scull. We found significant correlations (p<0.001) between stroke rate and drive-to-recovery ratio. By incorporating EMG data, a precise temporal assignment of the activated muscles and their contribution to the rowing motion was possible. Furthermore, we were able to show that the rower applies the force to the scull mainly with the index and middle fingers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: tibialis anterior tendon; attachment site area; three-dimensional; medial cuneiform bone; first metatarsal bone
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:36:49 CET)
The purpose of this study was to clarify the attachment types of the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) in Japanese fixed cadavers and to determine the attachment site area in three dimensions. We examined 100 feet from 50 Japanese cadavers. The TAT was classified according to differences in the number of fiber bundles as: Type I, with one fiber bundle; Type II, with two fiber bundles; and Type III, with three fiber bundles. The attachment site area of the TAT was measured using a three-dimensional scanner. Cases were Type II in 95% and Type III in 5%, with no cases of Type I identified. In Type II, mean attachment site areas were 85.2 ± 18.2 mm2 for the medial cuneiform bone (MCB) and 72.4 ± 19.0 mm2 for the first metatarsal bone (1MB), showing a significantly larger area for MCB than for 1MB. These findings suggest the possibility of ethnic differences in TAT attachment types and suggest that TAT attachments in Japanese individuals are highly likely to be Type II, with rare cases of Type III. Accurate measurement of attachment site areas is possible with appropriate three-dimensional measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: fitness assessment; sport-specific; athlete classification; high-intensity functional training; sex differences
Online: 22 December 2022 (06:34:53 CET)
To create normative scores for all CrossFit® Open (CFO) workouts and compare male and female performances, official scores were collected from the official competition leaderboard for all competitors of the 2011-2022 CFO competitions. Percentiles were calculated in athletes (18 – 54 years) who completed all workouts within a single year ‘as prescribed’ and met minimum scoring thresholds. Independent t-tests revealed significant (p < 0.05) sex differences for 56 of 60 workouts. In workouts scored by repetitions completed, men completed more repetitions in 18 workouts by small-to-large differences (d = 0.22-0.81), whereas women completed more repetitions in 6 workouts by small-to-medium differences (d = 0.36-0.77). When workouts were scored by time-to-completion, men were faster in 10 workouts by small-to-large differences (d = 0.23-1.12), while women were faster in three workouts by small differences (d = 0.46). In three workouts scored by load lifted, men lifted more weight by large differences (d = 2.00-2.98). All other differences were either trivial or not significant. Despite adjusted programming for men and women, the persistence of performances differences across all CFO workouts suggest resultant challenges are not the same. These normative values may be useful to training and research in male and female CrossFit® athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: hypothermia; sportstr; brain injury; rehabilitation; hyperthermia
Online: 9 December 2022 (14:50:39 CET)
Sports traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for up to 20% of all sports injuries, and the number of cases is growing year by year due to an increase in the number of people involved in sports, the growing popularity of extreme and contact sports, as well as a high level of motivation to achieve record results. Mild TBI dominates, which can provoke the development of a very wide range of complications and negative consequences. In the programs for the prevention of complications and the rehabilitation of athletes after TBI, TBI features are not sufficiently considered, which significantly differ from household, road or criminal injuries. There are no instrumental methods for diagnosing the severity of the injury. Sports TBI is characterized by repeated frequent TBI, elevated body and brain temperature, peripheral redistribution of blood flow and hypocapnia, which significantly affect cerebral blood flow. Brain injury is an independent cause of the development of cerebral hyperthermia, which significantly worsens the consequences of TBI. To diagnose sports TBI, the method of microwave radiometry of the brain (MWR) can be used. For the prevention of complications, the technology of craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH), which allows for to reduce of physical general and cerebral hyperthermia, and increases the resistance of cerebral cortex neurons to hypoxia and trauma could be used However, these approaches in sports medicine are used sporadically, which, is due to the lack of awareness of coaches and doctors of sports teams. The purpose of the review is to present MWR and CCH in sports TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: patella mobility; displacement; instability; patella; patellofemoral joint; instrumented measurement; anterior knee pain; knee anatomy; measurement reliability
Online: 9 December 2022 (13:14:04 CET)
(1) Background: The mediolateral patella displacement is of interest for diagnostics and clinically relevant research questions. Apart from manual testing, no standardized method is currently available. Proper quantification of patella mobility is necessary to understand pathologies at the patellofemoral joint better; (2) Methods: Patella mobility was assessed in 25 healthy individuals using a Patellostabilometer, a new prototype instrument for quantification of the mediolateral patella displacement. The participants underwent measurements of the mediolateral displacement three times using the Patellostabilometer. A maximal force of 10N was applied for patella movement. Additionally, leg length, circumference of the knee, upper- and lower leg was measured. (3) Results: Lateral patella displacement of 18.27±3.76 mm (range 15.85-20.64mm, interquartile range (IQR) of 4.79) was measured. The medial patella displacement showed 24.47±6.59mm (range 19.29-29.76mm, IQR of 10.47). The test-retest measurement error was 2.32±1.76mm (IQR of 2.38mm), with five outliers. There was greater test-retest variability between the measurements of the medial displacement comparing to the lateral one (4) Conclusions: The test-retest variability reached 7% of the patella displacement. Other parameters provided no significant correlations. Based on the natural patellofemoral mobility a precise and clinically relevant quantification of patella mobility is allowed.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: muscle-skeletal traumas (MST); injury; fracture stabilization; local flaps; skin-grafting
Online: 9 December 2022 (07:13:55 CET)
The combined muscle-skeletal traumas (MST) are very frequent over the last few years. The emergency care try to save the life of the patient and to receive resuscitation treatment. The role of Trauma surgeon is to choose the right moment for surgery. Aim: To present the management of patient with combined height injury, fracture stabilization, partial foot amputation, local flaps, skin grafting and HIFU – thermotherapy as scar treatment. Materials and methods: 40 years old mail patient, injured after a fall from 8 meters in an elevator shaft. After resuscitation treatment to control the shock the Imaging results are: burst fracture of L3 with spinal canal stenosis, fracture of the sacral bone Denis I, fracture of the right humerus in the proximal third, Monteggia fracture of the left arm, fracture of the proximal third of the right tibia as well as comminuted fractures of both calves and of both heel bones. Results: After a few operations his final result was well healed bone fractures and a good quality soft tissue coverage allowing the patient a satisfactory quality of life. Conclusions: Combined traumas of the muscle- skeletal system are severe, serious and difficult to manage. The good outcome in their treatment requires a team approach between the different medical specialists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: flat feet, Clark angle, performances, basketball, trend, correlation.
Online: 6 December 2022 (10:15:25 CET)
Basketball is a highly anaerobic game, that consists of high-intensity efforts followed by lower-intensity efforts. Postural deformities can be a limiting factor in achieving maximal performances in basketball. Flat feet are one of the most common deformities and they can lead to poorer performances, discomfort and pain. In this research we made an attempt to link the degree of feet flatness with sports performances among Icelandic adolescent basketball players. A sample of 100 basketball players was tested on a podoscope to establish the degree of feet flatness and all participants performed countermovement jump, 20m sprint and pushups in 30 seconds. No significant correlation was observed between feet status and sports performances. No differences were found between groups with and without flat feet, which indicates that feet flatness was not a limiting factor in achieving better results. However, we state that only strong and healthy feet might lead to excellent performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Running; Joint force; Barefoot; Osteoarthritis; Injury
Online: 28 November 2022 (10:53:28 CET)
Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the magnitude of forces in the joints of the lower limb whilst running barefoot and compare them to the forces generated whilst wearing running shoes with a thick midsole.MethodsTwenty-three volunteers who utilised running as their main sport or a training aid ran as training aid were included in this study. Each volunteer would run down a fourteen-meter-long corridor both barefoot and with running shoes. Forces for joints of the lower limb were collected using a Vicon motion analysis system and force plates. The joint forces for the ankles, knees and hips were taken as the largest joint force experienced during the stance phase and then averaged over five running trials.ResultsThere was significant reduction in the joint forces for the ankles, knees, and hips when barefoot running compared to the shod condition.ConclusionBarefoot running could be utilised to prevent both acute and degenerative injuries of the lower limb.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Ultrasound; Physiotherapy; Rehabilitation; Dry Needling
Online: 23 November 2022 (12:34:09 CET)
Ultrasound is a well-known tool to produce thermal and non-thermal effects on cells and tissues. These effects require a correct application of ultrasound in terms of localization and acoustic energy delivered. This article describes a new device that combines ultrasound and Dry Needling treatments. The ultrasound transducer can rotate in 3D space mechanically to align itself in the direction of the needle. The transducer electronically focuses the acoustic pressure automatically on the needle tip and its surroundings. A computer, using graphical interface software, controls the angulation of the array and the focus position.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Adaptive Force; maximal isometric Adaptive Force; holding capacity; muscle function; Long COVID; post COVID syndrome; muscle weakness; fatigue; neuromuscular control; biomechanical parameter
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:04:41 CET)
Neuromuscular symptoms in long COVID patients are common. Since adequate diagnostics are still missing, investigating muscle function might be beneficial. The holding capacity (maximal isometric Adaptive Force; AFisomax) was previously suggested to be especially vulnerable for impairments. This longitudinal, non-clinical study aimed to investigate the AF in long COVID patients in recovery process. AF parameters of elbow/hip flexors were assessed in 17 patients at three timepoints (pre: long COVID state, post: immediately after first treatment, end: recovery) by an objectified manual muscle test. The tester applied an increasing force on the limb of the patient, who had to resist isometrically for as long as possible. The intensity of 13 common symptoms were queried. At pre, patients started to lengthen their muscles at ~50% of the maximal AF (AFmax), which was then reached during eccentric motion, indicating unstable adaptation. At post and end, AFisomax increased significantly to ~99% and 100% of AFmax, respectively, reflecting stable adaptation. AFmax was statistically similar for all three timepoints. Symptoms intensity decreased significantly from pre to end. In conclusion, maximal holding capacity seems to be impaired in long COVID patients and increases with substantial health improvement. AFisomax might be a suitable sensitive functional parameter to assess long COVID patients and to support therapy process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Bayesian; cardiovascular disease; CVD; cross-sectional; logistic regression
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:55:06 CET)
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been one of the leading causes of death and disability-adjusted life years lost worldwide. Blood pressure, lipid, and cholesterol are good predictors of CVD risk and correspond upon age and physical fitness. However, few studies have explored the variation trend of CVD risk factors across different populations upon age and their muscle strength. Objective: to analysis the variation tendency of CVD risk factors in blood according to age and relative grip strength among different populations. Method: 25363 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study and 24709 were included in the analysis. A logistic regression and a Bayesian probabilistic analysis based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Modeling is conducted to build probability prediction models of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypercholesterolemia according to age, relative grip strength, body weight conditions, and physical activity levels. Results: 1) age might be the main influence factor of hypertension, which is regarded as one of the primary CVD risk factors. However, although keeping a high level of physical activity might have positive effect on preventing hypertension because that individuals with normal body weight and higher physical activity shows a lower probability of being diagnosed with hypertension, it might could not prevent individuals from getting hypertension with age. 2) After 60, individuals of normal body weight seem more likely to have hyperlipidemia than those are overweight or obese. 3) Larger relative grip strength might not be able to offset the negative effects of obesity, overweight and physical inactivity on hyperlipidemia. 4) The probability of getting hypercholesterolemia varies less with age and relative grip strength. Conclusion: Body weight management and keeping high levels of physical activity are recommended at any age. It might benefit to increase some bodyweight after 60 years old.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: laser therapy; musculoskeletal system; tissue penetration depth; laser beam characterization
Online: 9 November 2022 (10:24:26 CET)
There is increasing interest in the application of near-infrared (NIR) laser light for the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. The present study thoroughly examined the physical characteristics of laser beams from two different laser therapy devices that are commercially available for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Then, these laser beams were used to measure the penetration depth in various biological tissues from different animal species. The key result of the present study was the finding that for all investigated tissues, most of the initial light energy was lost in the first one to two millimeters, more than 90% of the light energy was absorbed within the first ten millimeters, and there was hardly any light energy left after 15 – 20 mm of tissue. Furthermore, the investigated laser therapy devices fundamentally differed in several laser beam parameters that can have an influence on how light is transmitted through tissue. Overall, the present study showed that a laser therapy device that is supposed to reach deep layers of tissue for treatments of musculoskeletal disorders should operate with a wavelength between 800 nm and 905 nm, a top-hat beam profile, and it should emit very short pulses with a large peak power.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: stroke; occupational therapy; activities of daily living; goal setting; transcranial magnetic stimulation: upper extremity; motor paralysis
Online: 1 November 2022 (04:46:18 CET)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with intensive occupational therapy improves upper limb motor paralysis and activities of daily living after stroke; however, amount of improvement according to paralysis severity remains unverified. Target activities for daily living using patients’ upper limb functions can be established by predicting the amount of change after treatment for each severity level of upper limb motor paralysis and further aid practice planning. This study estimated post-treatment score changes for each severity level of motor paralysis (no, poor, limited, notable, and full) stratified according to Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) scores before combined rTMS and intensive occupational therapy. Severity of motor paralysis was the fixed factor for analysis of covariance, delta (post-pre) of the scores was the dependent variable. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to compare changes in ARAT subscores in patients, divided according to paralysis severity before treatment. A multicenter retrospective cohort dataset analyzed 907 patients with stroke hemiplegia. Largest treatment-related changes in scores were observed in the Limited recovery group for upper limb motor paralysis and Full recovery group for quality-of-life activities using paralyzed upper limb. These results will help predict treatment effects and determine exercises and goal movements for occupational therapy after rTMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization; bioimpedance analysis; thoracolumbar fascia; water content
Online: 25 October 2022 (03:47:47 CEST)
Background: Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) is thought to alter fluid dynamics in human soft tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of IASTM on the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) on the water content of the lumbar myofascial tissue. Methods: 21 healthy volunteers were treated with IASTM. Before and after the procedure and 5 and 10 minutes later, lumbar bioimpedance was measured by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and TLF stiffness by indentometry. Tissue temperature was recorded at the measurement time points using an infrared thermometer. Results: Bioimpedance increased significantly from 58.3 to 60.4 Ω (p < 0.001) at 10-minute follow-up after the treatment. Temperature increased significantly from 36.3 to 36.6° Celsius from 5 to 10 minutes after treatment (p = 0.029), while lumbar myofascial stiffness did not change significantly (p = 0.84). Conclusions: After the IASTM intervention, there was a significant increase in bioimpedance, likely due to a decrease in water content in myofascial lumbar tissue. Further studies in a randomized control trial design are needed to extrapolate the results in healthy subjects to a symptomatic population as well and to confirm the reliability of BIA in myofascial tissue.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: microbiome; skin microbiome; sports recovery; sports performance; cosmetics
Online: 10 October 2022 (11:13:00 CEST)
This short communication reports on the initial results of a much larger, ongoing project, the aim of which is to investigate the question: could the skin microbiome, just like the gut microbiome, play a role in sports recovery and performance – and if so, could this role be as significant a one as that played by the gut microbiome? 17 high performance college athletes addressed their skin microbiome by minimizing contact with synthetic chemicals and by using topical skin supplements, shown previously to significantly increase skin microbiome biodiversity, for two weeks after training. 76% said their skin softness improved, 35% said their muscle stiffness and recovery after sport improved, 12% said their sleep quality improved, and 100% said they would be likely to use skin supplements again. Future work will use hundreds of athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: rehabilitation; shoulder; electromyography feedback; visual biofeedback; assistive robot; musculoskeletal disorder
Online: 30 September 2022 (15:04:05 CEST)
While shoulder injuries represent the musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) most encountered in physical therapy, there is no consensus on their management. As attempts to provide standardized and personalized treatment, a robot-ic-assisted device combined with EMG biofeedback specifically dedicated to shoulder MSDs has been developed. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an 8-week rehabilitation program (≈3 sessions a week) using a ro-botic-assisted device combined with EMG biofeedback (RA-EMG group) in comparison with a conventional program (CONV group) in patients presenting with shoulder MSDs. This study is a retrospective cohort study including data from 2010 to 2013 on patients initially involved in a physical rehabilitation program in a private clinic of Chicoutimi (Canada) for shoulder MSDs. Shoul-der flexion strength and range of motion were collected before and after the rehabilitation program. Forty-four patients participated in a conventional pro-gram using dumbbell (CONV group) while 72 of them completed a program on robot-assisted device with EMG and visual biofeedback (RA-EMG group), whereby both programs consisted in 2 sets of 20 repetitions at 60% of maximal capacity. Results showed that the RA-EMG had significantly greater benefits than the Conv group for shoulder flexion strength (+103.1% vs 67%, p = 0.016) and range of motion (+14.4% vs 6.1%, p = 0.046). The current retrospective co-hort study showed that a specific and tailored rehabilitation program with constant effort by automatic adjustment of the level of resistance was able to potentiate strength and range of motion shoulder flexion after an 8-week reha-bilitation period in comparison with a conventional approach in patients with shoulder MSDs. This study provides new insight on shoulder MSD rehabilita-tion and future research should be pursued to determine the added potential of this approach for abduction and external rotation with a randomized controlled design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: advanced glycation end products; skin autofluorescence; pentosidine; d-ROMs; BAP; BAP/d-ROMs ratio; athlete; runner
Online: 30 September 2022 (07:30:22 CEST)
Chronic oxidative stress in long-distance runners adversely affects conditioning. Therefore, it is important to objectively assess and monitor oxidative stress but measuring oxidative stress can be invasive or require skill to measure. Therefore, this study aimed to verify whether skin autofluorescence (SAF), a noninvasive, rapid, and easily calculable metric for calculating advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is useful as an oxidative stress biomarker. The subjects were 50 young Japanese male long-distance runners (aged 20.2 ± 1.2 years); 35 average male university students (aged 19.8 ± 1.1 years) served as controls. The interactions and relationships between SAF and plasma pentosidine and oxidative stress markers (reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds [d-ROMs], biological antioxidant potential [BAP], and the BAP/d-ROMs ratio) in runners were examined, and SAF in the runners and controls was compared. The results suggest that plasma pentosidine in runners is associated with oxidative stress markers and that plasma pentosidine can assess oxidative stress. However, SAF was not validated as an oxidative stress marker because it was not associated with oxidative stress marker. In future, clarifying the factors affecting SAF may clarify the relationship between SAF, plasma pentosidine, and oxidative stress markers.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Locomotion; Motor Control; Muscle Synergies; Physiology; Running
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:30:24 CEST)
Instep weights cause mechanical changes, modifying muscle activity and changing ground plantar support. 30 semi-professional sprinters, randomized in 3 groups [no-weight, Ascending (50, 100, 150 and 200g), Descending (200, 150, 100 and 50g)] run 6 consecutive 50-meter series at maximum speed (first and sixth without weights); partial, total times and speed were analyzed. Instep weights were safe and well tolerated. 6th series speed decreased except in men’s ascending group, who achieved a lower time in sixth compared to first series. Weights presented in ascending order in men during warm-up could improve running time. Instep weights neuromuscular effects could compensate men’s tiredness in last series; weights could be included in training methodologies. Men training weights presented in ascending order may provide better results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: EMG; ultrasound imaging; low back pain; thoracolumbar fascia; erector spinae muscle; muscle spindle
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:38:48 CEST)
Background: The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) is thought to play a role in the development of LBP, but it is not yet clear which factor of TLF changes is a cause and which is an effect. Therefore, some studies used the cross-correlation function (CCR) to reveal time-dependent relationships between biomechanical and neuromotor factors. Methods: Ten patients with acute low back pain (aLBP) were matched to healthy controls. Simultaneous recording of surface electromyography (sEMG) of the erector spinae muscle (ES) and dynamic ultrasound (US) images of TLF deformation were performed during trunk extension. CCR functions and Granger causality were used to describe the relationship between the two measures. Results: CCR time lags were significant higher in the aLBP group (p = 0.04). Granger causality (GC) showed a direct effect of TLF deformation on ES activation only in the aLBP group (p < 0.03). Conclusions: The results suggest that in aLBP, ES activity is significantly affected by TLF, whereas this relation-ship is completely random in healthy subjects studied with CCR and GC comparisons of dynamic US imaging and sEMG data signals. Fascia-related disturbances in neuromotor control, particularly due to altered muscle spindle functions, are suspected as a possible mechanism behind this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Intervertebral disc; inflammation; degeneration; renin-angiotensin system; therapy; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
Online: 13 September 2022 (04:29:50 CEST)
Low back pain is a clinically highly relevant musculoskeletal burden and is associated with inflammatory as well as degenerative processes of the intervertebral disc. However, the pathophysiology and cellular pathways contributing to this devastating condition are still poorly understood. Based on previous evidence, we hypothesize that tissue renin-angiotensin system (tRAS) components, including the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), are present in human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and associated with inflammatory and degenerative processes. Experiments were performed with NP cells from 4 human donors. The existence of angiotensin II, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), AGTR2, MAS-receptor (MasR), and ACE2 in human NP cells was validated with immunofluorescent staining and gene expression analysis. Hereafter the cell viability was assessed after adding agonists and antagonists of the target receptors as well as angiotensin II in different concentrations for up to 48 hours of exposure. A TNF-α-induced inflammatory in vitro model was employed to assess the impact of angiotensin II addition and the stimulation or inhibition of the tRAS receptors on inflammation, tissue remodeling, expression of tRAS markers, and the release of nitric oxide (NO) into the medium. Further, protein levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and intracellular as well as secreted angiotensin II were assessed after exposing the cells to the substances, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were evaluated utilizing Western Blot. The existence of tRAS receptors and angiotensin II were validated in human NP cells. Cell viability analysis revealed no cytotoxic effects of angiotensin II. The AGTR1 inhibitor Candesartan and the MAS receptors AVE0991 showed cytotoxic effects at high concentrations (100 µM). The addition of angiotensin II only showed a mild impact on gene expression markers. However, there was a significant increase in NO secreted by the cells. The gene expression ratios of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6/IL--10, IL-8/IL-10, and TNF-α /IL-10 were positively correlated with the AGTR1/AGTR2 and AGTR1/MAS1 ratios, respectively. The stimulation of the AGTR2 MAS-receptor and the inhibition of the AGTR1 receptor revealed beneficial effects on the gene expression of inflammatory and tissue remodeling markers. This finding was also present at the protein level. We did not find alterations in iNOS protein concentrations after adding the drugs. The current data showed that tRAS components are expressed in human NP cells and are associated with inflammatory and degenerative processes. Further characterization of the associated pathways is warranted. The findings indicate that tRAS modulation might be a novel therapeutic approach to intervertebral disc disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: active range of motion; Structural Integration; Rolfing; fascia
Online: 5 September 2022 (03:32:00 CEST)
Background: Recent work has investigated significant force transmission between the compo-nents of myofascial chains. Misalignments in the body due to fascial thickening and shortening can therefore lead to complex compensatory patterns. For the treatment of such nonlinear cause-effect pathology, a comprehensive neuro-musculoskeletal therapy such as the Rolf Meth-od of Structural Integration (SI) could be targeted. Methods: A total of 727 subjects were retro-spectively screened from the medical records of an SI practice over a 23-year period. 383 subjects who had completed 10 basic SI sessions met eligibility criteria and were assessed for active range of motion (AROM) of the shoulder and hip before and after SI treatment. Results: Shoulder flex-ion, external and internal rotation, and hip flexion improved significantly (all p < 0.0001) after 10 SI sessions. Left shoulder flexion and external rotation of both shoulders increased more in men than in women (p < 0.0001), but were not affected by age. Conclusions: SI intervention produces multiple changes in the components of myofascial chains that could help maintain upright pos-ture in humans and reduce inadequate compensatory patterns. SI affects differently the outcome of some AROM parameters in women and men.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Bone fracture fixation; Osteosynthesis; Preoperative planning; Computer-assisted; Virtual surgery
Online: 2 September 2022 (15:30:04 CEST)
Background Bone fracture fixation surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the orthopedic field. However, fracture healing complications occur frequently, and the choice of the most optimal surgical approach often remains challenging. In the last years, computational tools have been developed with the aim to assist preoperative planning procedures of bone fracture fixation surgery. Objectives The aims of this review are (1) to provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in computer-assisted preoperative planning of bone fracture fixation surgery, (2) to assess the clinical feasibility of the existing virtual planning approaches, and (3) to assess their clinical efficacy in terms of clinical outcomes as compared to conventional planning methods. Methods A literature search was performed in the MEDLINE-PubMed, Ovid-EMBASE, Ovid-EMCARE, Web of Science, and Cochrane libraries to identify articles reporting on the clinical use of computer-assisted preoperative planning of bone fracture fixation. Results 79 articles were included to provide an overview of the state-of-the art in virtual planning. While patient-specific geometrical model construction, virtual bone fracture reduction, and virtual fixation planning are routinely applied in virtual planning, biomechanical analysis is rarely included in the planning framework. 21 of the included studies were used to assess the feasibility and efficacy of computer-assisted planning methods. The reported total mean planning duration ranged from 22 to 258 minutes in different studies. Computer-assisted planning resulted in reduced operation time (Standardized Mean Difference (SMD): -2.19; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -2.87, -1.50), less blood loss (SMD: -1.99; 95% CI: -2.75, -1.24), decreased frequency of fluoroscopy (SMD: -2.18; 95% CI: -2.74, -1.61), shortened fracture healing times (SMD:-0.51; 95% CI: -0.97, -0.05) and less postoperative complications (Risk Ratio (RR): 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.90). No significant differences were found in hospitalization duration. Some studies reported improvements in reduction quality and functional outcomes but these results were not pooled for meta-analysis, since the reported outcome measures were too heterogeneous. Conclusions Current computer-assisted planning approaches are feasible to be used in clinical practice and have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Including biomechanical analysis into the framework has the potential to further improve clinical outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Physical Activity; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 1 September 2022 (16:13:25 CEST)
Worldwide, depressive disorder is one of the leading determinants of disability-adjusted life years. Although the benefits associated with physical activity (PA), there is a lack of information related to depression, especially in countries like Czechia, where modern approaches to mental health care only recently emerged. The PA levels were associated with aspects of depression such as clinician-diagnosed history; different severities; continuous depression scores; and specific symptoms that characterize the depression. The multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models were carried out on 2123 participants (45.3% men, median 48 years). Compared to subjects with insufficient PA, the moderate and high PA levels were inversely associated with clinician-diagnosed depression history (respectively, prevalence rate [PR]= 0.84; 95% CI 0.66-0.82 and PR=0.50; 95% CI 0.36-0.67); and with continuous depression scores (PR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.97; and PR=0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.90).; but only high PA showed association with depression categories (PR=0.75; 95%CI 0.60-0.95). Depressed mood and worthlessness were the symptoms associated with moderate and high PA. Tiredness, change in appetite, and problems with concentration only with high PA. Although only high PA was sufficient for people intending changes among depression categories, the moderate PA may be enough for slight changes in depressive symptoms, and a good strategy when starting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); atheltic performance; Dewan Sport Inventory; Sports resilience
Online: 31 August 2022 (14:33:54 CEST)
The mental and emotional health of an athlete is crucial for their performance and well-being. Sports-related stress can significantly impair that mental health. Yoga of Immortals (YOI) is a unique combination of specific yogic postures, breathing exercises, sound therapy & meditation, which has demonstrated benefit in improving measures of mental health. This study used the Sports Mind Inventory (SMI) to examine whether YOI can improve the resilience of athletes to sports-related stress. Participants were a diverse set of athletes based in Mauritius who routinely engage in a wide range of athletic activities. Participants were randomly assigned to receive four weeks of YOI or no intervention. Both groups completed the SMI questionarie at baseline and again after four weeks. The YOI intervention significantly increased the total mean SMI scores by 14%, indicating improved sports resilience and psychological health. No improvement was observed in the control group. This study demonstrates that YOI is a promising intervention in improving sports related stress.