Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human metapneumovirus; whole genome sequencing; genomic epidemiology
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:08:44 CET)
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of upper and lower respiratory tract disease in individuals of all ages. It is estimated that most individuals will be infected by HMPV by the age of 5 years old. Despite this burden of disease, there remains caveats in our knowledge of virus global genetic diversity due to a lack of HMPV sequencing, particularly at whole genome scale. The purpose of this study was to create a simple and robust approach for HMPV whole genome sequencing to be used for genomic epidemiological studies. To design our assay, all available HMPV full length genome sequences were downloaded from the NCBI GenBank database and used to design four primer sets to amplify long, overlapping amplicons spanning the viral genome and, importantly, specific to all known HMPV subtypes. These amplicons were then pooled and sequenced on an Illumina iSeq; however the approach is suitable to other common NGS platforms. We demonstrate the utility of this method using a representative subset of clinical samples and examine these sequences using a phylogenetic approach. Here we present an amplicon-based method for the whole genome sequencing of HMPV from clinical extracts that can be used to better inform genomic studies of HMPV epidemiology and evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lactobacillus helveticus; probiotics; whole genome sequencing; PacBio; probiotic genes; bacteriocins; gene expression
Online: 26 December 2019 (10:56:44 CET)
Whole-genome DNA sequencing of Lactobacillus D75 and D76 strains (Vitaflor, Russia) was performed using the PacBio RS II platform, followed by de novo assembly with SMRT Portal 2.3.0. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) test showed that both strains belong to the Lactobacillus helveticus, but not the L. acidophilus as previously assumed. 31 exopolysaccharide (EPS) production genes (nine of which form a single genetic cluster), 13 adhesion genes, 38 milk protein and 11 milk sugar utilization genes, 13 genes for and against specific antagonistic activity, aight antibiotic resistance genes, and also three CRISPR blocks and eight Cas I-B system genes were identified in the genomes of the both strains. The expression of some genes was confirmed. In fact, the presence of identified genes suggests that L. helveticus D75 and D76 are able to form biofilms on the outer mucin layer, inhibit the growth of pathogens and pathobionts, utilize milk substrates with the formation of digestible milk sugars and bioactive peptides, resist bacteriophages and show some genome-determined resistance to antibiotics, stimulate the host’s immune system. Pathogenicity genes have not been identified. The study results confirm the safety and high probiotic potential of the strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0480.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: avian influenza; highly pathogenic avian influenza; next generation sequencing; whole genome sequencing; nanopore technology; methods comparison; clinical validation
Online: 26 January 2023 (15:19:53 CET)
As exemplified by the global response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, whole genome sequencing played an important role in monitoring the evolution of novel viral variants and provided guidance on potential antiviral treatments. The recent rapid and extensive introduction and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Europe, North America and elsewhere raises the need for similarly rapid sequencing to aid in appropriate response and mitigation activities. To facilitate this objective, we investigated a next generation sequencing platform that uses a portable nanopore sequencing device to generate and present data in real time. This platform offers the potential to extend in-house sequencing capacities to laboratories that may otherwise lack resources to adopt sequencing technologies requiring large benchtop instruments. We evaluated this platform for routine use in a diagnostic laboratory. In this study we evaluated different primer sets for the whole genome amplification of influenza A virus and evaluated five different library preparation approaches for sequencing on the nanopore platform using the MinION flow-cell. A limited amplification procedure and a rapid procedure were found to be best among the approaches taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: genome assembly; monoxenous trypanosomatids; insect trypanosomatids; trypanosomatidae; whole genome
Online: 24 October 2019 (05:20:52 CEST)
We presented here the first draft genome sequence of the trypanosomatid Herpetomonas muscarum ingenoplastis. This parasite was isolated repeatedly in the black blowfly, Phormia regina. This is the first draft genome of a flagellate from the phylogenetically distinct clade of Trypanosomatidae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; germline mutations; whole genome sequencing; predisposition markers; pathway analysis
Online: 13 October 2019 (17:07:34 CEST)
Evidence of familial inheritance in non-medullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) has accumulated over the last few decades. However, known variants account for a very small percentage of the genetic burden. Here, we focused on the identification of common pathways and networks enriched in NMTC families to better understand its pathogenesis with the final aim of identifying one novel high/moderate-penetrance germline predisposition variant segregating with the disease in each studied family. We performed whole genome sequencing on 23 affected and 3 unaffected family members from five NMTC-prone families and prioritized the identified variants using our Familial Cancer Variant Prioritization Pipeline (FCVPPv2). In total, 31 coding variants and 39 variants located in upstream, downstream, 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions passed FCVPPv2 filtering. Altogether, 210 genes affected by variants that passed the first three steps of the FCVPPv2 were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. These genes were enriched in tumorigenic signaling pathways mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein coupled receptors, implicating a central role of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling in familial NMTC. Our approach can facilitate the identification and functional validation of causal variants in each family as well as the screening and genetic counseling of other individuals at risk of developing NMTC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; healthcare workers; whole genome sequencing; low-or middle-income countries
Online: 29 June 2023 (12:46:22 CEST)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitutes a serious public health concern with a considerable impact on patients' health and substantial healthcare costs. In this study, patients, and healthcare workers (HCWs)from six public hospitals in Benin were screened for MRSA. Strains were identified as MRSA using conventional microbiological methods in Benin and confirmed using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry in Belgium. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used on confirmed MRSA isolates to characterize their genomic content and study their relatedness. In total,304 and 61 samples were collected from patients and HCWs, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in all isolates. The isolates were assigned to five sequence types (STs), with ST8 (55.6%, n=15), ST152 (18.52%, n=5), and ST121 (18.52%, n=5) being the most common. All isolates carried multiple virulence genes, including genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin (48.15%, n=13) and the test gene (29.63%, n=8) associated with toxic shock syndrome. The presence of strains carrying numerous genomic features associated with antibiotic resistance and virulence in HCWs is a major public health concern. This study highlights the need to implement a multimodal strategy for reducing the risk of cross-transmission of MRSA in hospitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: multiple myeloma; next generation sequencing; whole genome sequencing; whole exome se-quencing; myTYPE panel; minimal residual disease.
Online: 17 July 2023 (15:06:14 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable, diverse cancer in which abnormal plasma cells produce and release monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig), also known as monoclonal protein or M protein. MM is always preceded by monoclonal gammaglobulinemia of unknown significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). Diagnosis of MM is made from a bone marrow sample, which involves analysis of the appearance of plasma cells. Quantification of CD138+ plasma cells in core biopsies is performed using techniques such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional cytogenetics. Urinalysis includes total protein by immunofixation and 24-hour urine by serum protein electrophoresis. FISH probes should detect the presence of at least del 13, del 17p, t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16), and 1q21 amplifications. Indeed, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become an increasingly important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of MM. It can be used to identify genetic mutations, copy number changes, and clonal structures to help determine disease prognosis and treatment strategies. NGS can identify subclonal populations of cancer cells that are resistant to therapy and may lead to disease relapse, and can be used to identify potential targets for personalized therapy. For example, NGS can identify mutations in genes involved in drug resistance, enabling the selection of drugs that may be more effective in treating a patient's cancer. This systematic review analyzes 182 papers to determine the position and role of NGS in the diagnosis of MM. We first analyze the platforms and sample types used in the selected studies, and then start discussing the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, whole genome sequences (WGS), antimicrobial resistance (AMR), multidrug resistance (MDR), colistin resistance
Online: 23 October 2023 (13:26:48 CEST)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) among gram-negative bacteria is a global public health threat because it has exhausted all standard therapeutic options. This has necessitated clinicians to reconsider colistin, an “old sort” antibiotic which was deemed toxic for clinical use. Unfortunately, swift resistance towards colistin by K. pneumoniae has been reported in different parts of the world. The study aimed at investigating the genetic determinants of colistin resistance in K. pneumoniae isolated from patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital in Kampala, Uganda. 31 archived multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from rectal swabs of patients admitted to the Mulago Hospital ICU were retrieved. From this collection, we selected 7 colistin resistant K. pneumoniae isolates for whole genome sequencing and molecular profile analysis. In silico sequence data analyses were performed using established web-based bioinformatics tools. The sequence analysis of the genes involved in colistin resistance revealed several non-synonymous mutations in nucleotide sequences of pmrA, pmrB, phoP, phoQ and mgrB genes. Insertion transposase genes for the insertion sequences IS1 and IS5 which are highly implicated in colistin resistance via modification or inactivation of mgrB gene were identified in all isolates and were located in the chromosomal DNA at different genomic positions. No plasmid-borne mcr genes were detected. More so, the strains harbored numerous multidrug resistant genes. This study underscores the need of genomic surveillance of K. pneumoniae strains to limit further spread of colistin resistance genes to avert the potential risk of pandrug resistance. And high throughput sequencing is imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0808.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Canine lymphoma; Whole-exome sequencing; B-cell; PARR
Online: 12 July 2023 (09:38:44 CEST)
Canine lymphoma (CL) is one of the most common malignant tumors in dogs. The cause of CL remains unclear. Genetic mutations that have been suggested as possible causes of CL are not fully understood. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a time- and cost-effective method for detecting genetic variants targeting only protein-coding regions (exons) that are part of the entire genome region. A total of eight patients with B-cell lymphomas were recruited, and WES analysis was performed on whole blood and lymph node aspirate samples from each patient. A total of 17 somatic variants (GOLIM4, ITM2B, STN1, UNC79, PLEKHG4, BRF1, ENSCAFG00845007156, SEMA6B, DSC1, TNFAIP1, MYLK3, WAPL, ADORA2B, LOXHD1, GP6, AZIN1, and NCSTN) with moderate to high impact were identified by WES analysis. Through a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of 17 genes with somatic mutations, a total of 16 pathways were identified. Overall, the somatic mutations identified in this study suggest novel candidate mutations for CL, and further studies are needed to confirm the role of these mutations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SLC15A4; germline variant; familial colorectal cancer; whole exome sequencing
Online: 9 March 2021 (10:24:33 CET)
About 15% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients have first-degree relatives affected by the same malignancy. However, for most families the cause of familial aggregation of CRC is unknown. In order to identify novel high-to-moderate penetrant germline variants underlying CRC susceptibility, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on four CRC cases and two unaffected family members of a Polish family without any mutation in known CRC predisposition genes. After WES, we used our in-house developed Familial Cancer Variant Prioritization Pipeline and identified two novel variants in the solute carrier family 15 member 4 (SLC15A4) gene. The heterozygous missense variant, p. Y444C, was predicted to affect the phylogenetically conserved PTR2/POT domain and to have a deleterious effect on the function of the encoded peptide/histidine transporter. The other variant was located in the upstream region of the same gene (GRCh37.p13, 12_129308531_C_T; 43bp upstream of transcription start site, ENST00000266771.5) and it was annotated to affect the promoter region of SLC15A4 as well as binding sites of 17 different transcription factors. Our findings of two distinct variants in the same gene may indicate a synergistic up-regulation of SLC15A4 as the underlying genetic cause and implicate this gene for the first time in genetic inheritance of familial CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0421.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Whole genome pooled-seq; Pakistani Teddy goat; Genomic selection signatures
Online: 17 December 2020 (09:13:29 CET)
Whole genome pooled sequence data of 12 Pakistani Teddy goats is analyzed for positive selection signatures as their breed defining characteristics. Selection imprints left in the Teddy genome are unveiled by genomic differentiation after the successful paired-end alignment of 635,357,043 reads with (ARS1) reference genome assembly. Pooled-heterozygosity ( ) and Tajima’s D (TD) are applied for validation and getting better hits of selection signals, while pairwise FST statistics is conducted on Teddy vs. Bezoar (wild goat ancestor) for genomic differentiation. Annotation of regions under positive selection reveals 59 genes underlying production and adaptive traits. score ≥ 5 detected six windows having highest scores on Chr. 29, 9, 25, 15 and 14 that harbor HRASLS5, LACE1 and AXIN1 genes which are candidate for embryonic development, lactation and body height. Secondly, TD value of ≤ -2.2 showed 4 windows with very strong hits on Chr.5 & 9 harbor STIM1 and ADM genes related to body mass and weight. Lastly, FST analysis generated three strong signals with threshold ≤ 0.42 on Chr.12 & 5 harbor ITGB1 gene associated with milk production & lactation traits. Other significant selection signatures encompass genes associated with wool production, prolificacy, immunity and coat colors. In brief, this study identified the genes under selection in this Pakistani goat breed that will be helpful to refining future breeding policies and converging required productive traits within and across other goat breeds and to explore full genetic potential of this valued livestock species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: APCDD1; HDAC5; germline variants; familial colorectal cancer; whole exome sequencing; promoter activity
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:04:24 CET)
Germline mutations in predisposition genes account for only 20% of all familial colorectal cancer (CRC) and the remaining genetic burden may be due to rare high-to-moderate-penetrance germline variants that are not explored. With the aim of identifying such potential cancer predisposing variants, we performed whole exome sequencing on three CRC cases and three unaffected members of a Polish family and identified two novel heterozygous variants; a coding variant in APC down-regulated 1 gene (APCDD1, p.R299H) and a non-coding variant in the 5’ untranslated region (UTR) of histone deacetylase 5 gene (HDAC5). Sanger sequencing confirmed the variants segregating with the disease and Taqman assays revealed 8 additional APCDD1 variants in a cohort of 1705 familial CRC patients and no further HDAC5 variants. Proliferation assays indicated an insignificant proliferative impact for the APCDD1 variant. Luciferase reporter assays using the HDAC5 variant resulted in an enhanced promoter activity. Targeting of transcription factor binding sites of SNAI-2 and TCF4 interrupted by HDAC5 variant showed a significant impact of TCF4 on promoter activity of mutated HDAC5. Our findings contribute not only to the identification of unrecognized genetic causes of familial CRC but also underline the importance of 5´UTR variants affecting transcriptional regulation and the pathogenesis of complex disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Whole genome sequence; Plesiomonas genus; Plesiomoniasis; Aquaculture
Online: 9 March 2023 (09:56:40 CET)
Plesiomonas shigelloides is the only species in the genus and has zoonotic importance due to its serious implications resulting from the consumption of contaminated seafood. This is the first report on the genomic features of the whole-genome sequence (WGS) of P. shigelloides strain V-78 recovered from diseased rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The genome of P. shigelloides V-78 consists of 4,478,098 base pairs (bp), which encode 3730 proteins and has a G+C content of 51.1%. The bioinformatics analysis of WGS of V-78 confirmed the presence of 121 tRNA genes and 42 rRNA genes (15 genes for 5S rRNA, 13 genes for 16S rRNA and 14 genes for 23S rRNA). Comprehensive genome analyses revealed that the strain encodes for secondary metabolites, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence genes. The strain V-78 has 31 known antibiotic resistance models, which encode many antimicrobial resistances. Also, strain V-78 has 42 different virulence genes such as adhesion, secretion system, and motility. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization value against P. shigelloides NCTC 10360 was 74.2%, while the average nucleotide identity value was 97.1%. Based on the scrutinized analysis of genomic data, strain V-78 should be considered a novel subspecies of P. shigelloides, for which Plesiomonas shigelloides subsp. oncorhynchi is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0718.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: early-onset breast cancer; hereditary cancer; whole-exome sequencing; young women
Online: 31 August 2020 (09:46:26 CEST)
Young women with breast cancer represent 15% of cancer cases in Latin America. Genomic studies have found that early-onset breast-cancer cases exhibit a higher genetic susceptibility and a specific genomic signature as compared to their older counterparts. The aim of this study was to describe clinically relevant germline mutations in a cohort of young women with breast cancer. To achieve this, we analyzed hereditary-cancer genes from whole-exome sequencing data in 108 unrelated women with an extreme phenotype of breast cancer (≤40 years of age), diagnosed and treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico; 11% of the patients carried a pathogenic variant. BRCA2 comprised 46% of the mutations, followed by BRCA1 with 23%; PALB2 with 15%; and TP53 and RAD51C with 8 % each. This article describes a novel pathogenic mutation in RAD51C c.519dupT. The median age at diagnosis was 35 years overall; however, it was six years younger in patients with mutations. Age at diagnosis (OR=0.82, CI 95% 0.71-0.94; P= 0.008) and first-degree family history of cancer (OR=8.26, CI95% 1.35-50; P= 0.022) were the only epidemiological variables associated with mutational status. We found no differences in disease-free survival (p=0.403) or overall survival (p=0.735) among mutational status subgroups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0085.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cancer near-triploidy; male tumours; karyotype meta-analysis; XXY; whole genome rearrangements; digyny
Online: 14 July 2019 (09:25:18 CEST)
Triploidy in cancer is associated with poor prognosis but its origins remain unclear. Here, we attempted to differentiate between random chromosomal and whole-genome origins of cancer triploidy. In silico meta-analysis was performed on 15 male malignant and 5 benign tumour cohorts (2928 karyotypes) extracted from the Mitelman Database, comparing their ploidy and combinations of sex chromosomes. A distinct near-triploid fraction was observed in all malignant tumour types, being especially high in seminoma. For all tumour types, X-chromosome doubling, predominantly observed as XXY, correlated strongly with the near-triploid state (r≈0.9, p<0.001), negatively correlated with near-diploidy, and did not correlate with near-tetraploidy. A smaller near-triploid component with a doubled X-chromosome was also present in 3 of 5 benign tumour types, especially notable in colon adenoma. Principal Component Analysis revealed a non-random correlation structure shaping the X-chromosome disomy distribution across all tumour types. We suggest that doubling of the maternal genome followed by pedogamic fusion with a paternal genome (a possible mimic of the fertilization aberration, 69, XXY digyny) associated with meiotic reprogramming may be responsible for the observed rearrangements of genome complements leading to cancer triploidy. The relatively frequent loss of the Y-chromosome results secondary from chromosome instability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0559.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: porcine astroviruses; linear antigenic epitopes; recombination; glycosylation; whole genome sequences; East Africa
Online: 24 September 2020 (03:26:44 CEST)
Astroviruses (AstVs) are occurs globally and are common causes of gastroenteritis in human and animals. The genetic diversity and epidemiology of AstVs in Africa is not well known, hence, we aimed to genetically characterize astroviruses in asymptomatic smallholder piglets in East Africa. Twenty-four samples randomly selected from 446 piglets (<6 months old), initially collected for rotavirus study, was sequenced for metagenomic analysis. Thirteen (13/24) samples had contigs with high identity to genus Mamastrovirus. Analysis of 7 strains with complete (or near complete) genome revealed variable nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities with known PoAstV strains. The U083 and K321 strains had nucleotide sequence similarities ranging from 66.4 to 75.4 % to the known PoAstV2 strains, nucleotide sequence similarity of U460 strain with known PoAstV3 ranged 57.0 to 65.1 % to the, while K062, K366, K451, and K456 strains showed nucleotide sequence similarities of 63.5 to 80 % to the known PoAstV4 strains. The low sequence identities (<90 %) indicate that novel genotypes of PoAstVs are circulating in the study area. Multiple recombination events were detected in our PoAstV4 strains, indicating that the genetic diversity observed in these strains may be due to recombination. Importantly, we identified potential candidate epitopes with conserved peptides in our PoAstV strains that could aid in the design of immune diagnosis tools and subunit vaccines. Our data provide new intuitions into the genetic structure of porcine astroviruses in East African.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0404.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Chicken infectious anemia virus; isolation and identification; pathogenicity; whole genome; bioinformatics analysis
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:05:07 CEST)
Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) poses a significant threat to the chicken industry in China. De-spite its non-specific symptoms, the disease is often overlooked. This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the etiology and pathology of CIA in Guangxi Province, China. Three strains of the chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) were isolated from liver samples of diseased 20-week-old chickens. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and experiments on specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks revealed that the GX21121 strain exhibited high virulence. Histopathological examination of the deceased chicks showed liver cell necrosis, fibrous-serous exudation, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage in liver tissues, as well as congestion in lung and renal tissues. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed that the three strains had a close genetic relationship to the Heilongjiang wild-type (GenBank KY486144). The genetic evolu-tion of their VP1 genes indicated that all three CIAV isolates belonged to genotype IIIc. In sum-mary, this study demonstrated the genomic diversity of three CIAV strains in adult layer hens. The isolation and characterization of the GX21121 strain as a highly virulent isolate provide val-uable information for further investigations into the etiology, molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution of CIAV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0748.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; monoclonal antibodies; resistance; nanopore; Sweden; whole-genome sequencing; receptor binding domain
Online: 12 September 2023 (11:14:08 CEST)
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an important treatment option for COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, especially in immunosuppressed patients. However, this treatment option can become ineffective due to mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, mainly in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. In the present study 7950 SARS-CoV-2 positive samples from the Uppsala and Örebro regions of central Sweden collected between March 2022 and May 2023 were whole-genome sequenced using next-generation sequencing, mainly with the Nanopore sequencing method. Pango lineages were determined and all single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations that occurred in these samples were identified. The dominant sublineages changed over time and mutations conferring resistance to currently available mAbs became common. Notable ones are R346T and K444T mutations in the RBD that confer significant resistance against tixagevimab and cilgavimab mAbs. Further, mutations conferring a high-fold resistance to bebtelovimab, such as the K444T and V445P mutations, were also observed in the samples. This study highlights that resistance mutations have over time rendered currently available mAbs ineffective against SARS-CoV-2 in most patients. Therefore, there is a need for continued surveillance of resistance mutations and the development of new mAbs that target more conserved regions of the RBD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0961.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19 patient; whole Genome sequence; Of SARS-COV-2; phylogenetic analysis and Transmission supported
Online: 26 April 2023 (05:15:36 CEST)
Abstract The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in people in the city of Wuhan at the end of December 2019, and it has since spread to all continents. Global interest has been focused on discovering a treatment and developing a successful coronavirus vaccine as a result of the emergence of this new coronavirus. In this research, we sequenced the whole genome of the SARS-COV-2 virus that were isolated from 40 patients in Duhok, Iraq. 95 different mutations were identified in our isolation when such the whole genome sequence of the SARS-COV-2 isolated from the city of Wuhan, China (Accession number: NC 045512.2) was matched to the virus's sequence using Sequencing technology (Illumina , USA ) and Assembly method (iVar 1.3.1). Sequence analysis revealed that 38 mutations were found at spike glycoprotein (S), 30 of which were found in the ORF1b , 11 mutations were found in ORF1b ,7,3,2,1 mutations were found in ( N,M,ORF6 ,ORF9 /E ) genes which had been linked to structural changes at various places. The conclusion that the cases in Iraq were of different origins of infections and had a close relationship with the isolates from different country and state were further confirmed by phylogenetic analysis and transmission. The whole genome sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 , which were identified from the Iraqi Kurdistan region, and reported as a first study in Kurdistan region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Clostridium difficile; ST201; binary toxin-positive; whole genome sequencing; comparative genomic analysis
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:15:11 CEST)
A novel binary toxin-positive non-027, non-078 Clostridium difficile strain designated LC693 whose sequence type was ST201 was isolated from the fecal sample of a patient with severe diarrhea in China. To understand the pathogenesis basis of C. difficile ST201, this recently recovered isolate LC693 was then chosen for whole genome sequencing. The project finally generated an estimated genome size of approximately 4.07 Mbp. The genome sequence was then analyzed together with the other two ST201 strains VL-0104 and VL-0391 and compared to the epidemic 027/ST1 and 078/ST11 strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ST201 strains belonged to clade 3. Genome size of the three ST201 strains ranged from 4.07 Mb~4.16 Mb, with an average GC content between 28.5%~28.9%. The ST201 genomes contained more than 40 antibiotic resistance genes and 15 of them were predicted to be associated with vancomycin-resistance, suggesting that they may have a strong antibiotic resistance. The ST201 strains contained a typical clade 3 specific PaLoc with a Tn6218 element inserted, and those genes harbored on their PaLoc that participated in the toxin expression and regulation were highly homologues to the epidemic 027 and 078 strains, with the exception of tcdC. A truncated TcdC was found in the ST201 strains, which is suggestive to have a contribution to the toxin production of the ST201 strains. In addition, the ST201 strains contained intact binary toxin coding and regulation genes, which is also proposed to contribute to the virulence. Genome comparison of the ST201 strains with the epidemic 027 and 078 strain identified 641 genes specific for the C. difficile ST201, and a number of them were predicted as fitness and virulence associated genes. The identification of those genes also contributes to the pathogenesis of the ST201 strain. To our knowledge, this is the first study that the genome sequence of C. difficile ST201 was discussed in detail, and the present study would have a contribution to understanding the pathogenesis basis of C. difficile ST201.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1812.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: autoimmune adrenal insufficiency; autoimmune polyglandular syndromes; autoantibodies; microarray; whole-exome sequencing; Trio-exome sequencing; high-resolution HLA typing
Online: 29 November 2023 (02:22:25 CET)
Trio-based exome sequencing and high-resolution HLA typing were employed to analyze three patients with autoimmune adrenal insufficiency (AAI), including those with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 2, as well as their parents. Benign or likely benign variants of the AIRE gene were identified in all participants of the study. These variants, coupled with clinical data and the results of antibody studies to type I interferons, helped to exclude APS-1. Patients with APS-2, in contrast to patient with AAI, inherited distinct variants of unknown significance in the CLEC16A gene, which is associated with autoimmune diseases including AAI. Various risk alleles in other genes associated with autoimmunity were identified in all patients. HLA typing of second class loci revealed alleles related to APS types 2, 3, and 4. Nevertheless, the frequencies of the haplotypes identified are substantial in the healthy Russian population, precluding from regarding these alleles as genetic determinants linked to APS development. Immunological examination can detect antibody carriers and predict the risk of autoimmune disease development. In the future, to identify genetic predictors of autoimmune endocrinopathies, it is recommended to analyze the whole genome of patients and their relatives, examining clinically relevant variants in non-coding regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0658.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Mungbean, Vigna, Whole genome sequence, SSR markers, Principal co-ordinate analysis, Genetic diversity
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:23:00 CEST)
The genus Vigna is penta-tropical having more than 200 species with many desirable economically important traits. The aim of study was to validate the in-silico polymorphism of whole genome sequence developed mungbean specific SSR markers and their transferability among the different Vigna species. The present study utilized a set of 200 SSR markers developed from whole genome sequence of mungbean and validated using a diversity panel of 25 accessions which belongs to 13 Vigna species. Out of 200 SSR markers, 130 markers (65%) were polymorphic across the various Vigna species and the number of alleles amplified varied between 7 to24. The SSR markers showed more than 90 percent transferability across the different Vigna species accessions. Based on allelic data, the 25 Vigna accessions grouped into three clusters based upon the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) phylogenetic tree. The principal co-ordinates analysis (PCA) biplot graph and UPGMA based neighbor joining clustering diagram showed similar pattern of Vigna accessions distribution. The population structure assessment has grouped the cultivated and wild species accessions into two sub-population. The estimated marker parameters such as polymorphic information content (0.09 – 0.84), marker index (0.091 – 3.342) and effective multiplex ratio (1.0 – 4.0) suggested their adequacy in several genetic studies such as parental selection, hybrid testing, genetic mapping and marker aided breeding programmes for genetic enhancement of species belonging to the Vigna genus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0989.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Whole genome duplication; tetraploidy; polyploidy; aneuploidy; Caenorhabditis; WGD model (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
Online: 26 April 2023 (12:43:20 CEST)
Whole genome duplication (WGD) or polyploidization can occur at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. At the cellular level, tetraploidization has been proposed as a driver of aneuploidy and genome instability, and correlates strongly with cancer progression, metastasis, and development of drugs resistance[1–6]. WGD is also a key developmental strategy for regulating cell size, metabolism, and cellular function[1,7–10]. In specific tissues, WGD is involved in normal development (e.g. organogenesis), tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and regeneration[10–17]. At the organismal level, WGD propels evolutionary processes such as adaptation, speciation, and crop domestication. An essential strategy to further our understanding of the mechanisms promoting WGD and its effects is to compare isogenic strains that differ only in their ploidy. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is emerging as an animal model for these comparisons, in part because relatively stable and fertile tetraploid strains can be produced rapidly from nearly any diploid strain. Here we review the use of Caenorhabditis polyploids as tools to understand important developmental processes (e.g. sex determination, dosage compensation, and allometric relationships)[21–27] and cellular processes (e.g. cell cycle regulation, chromosome dynamics during meiosis)[28–32]. We also discuss how the unique characteristics of the C. elegans WGD model will enable significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of polyploidization and its role in development and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Paper based sensor; whole virus; Zika; Aptamer
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:30:18 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 0.8x1e6 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer or simulant Urine) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0291.v1
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:24:39 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 1.2x106 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: whole exome sequencing; melanoma; circulating tumor dna
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:35:02 CEST)
The use of circulating cell-free (cf) DNA to monitor cancer progression and response to therapy has significant potential but there is only limited data on whether this technique can detect the presence of low frequency subclones that may ultimately confer therapy resistance. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether whole-exome sequencing of cfDNA can accurately profile the mutation landscape of metastatic melanoma. We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify variants in matched tumor-derived genomic (g) DNA and plasma-derived cfDNA isolated from a cohort of 10 metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients. WES parameters such as sequencing coverage and total sequencing reads were comparable between gDNA and cfDNA. There was significant concordance between gDNA and cfDNA based on the total number of variants identified and the degree of overlap in variants which was independent of the site of tumor biopsy. The mutant allele frequency of common single nucleotide variants was lower in cfDNA reflecting lower read depth and dilution of circulating tumor DNA in the circulation by other cfDNA species. In addition to known melanoma driver mutations, several other melanoma-associated mutations were found to be concordant between matched gDNA and cfDNA. This study highlights that WES of cfDNA can capture clinically-relevant mutations present in melanoma metastases, but does not appear to provide any additional unique information on tumor heterogeneity. Targeted deep sequencing may be required to detect low frequency genomic aberrations known for predicting therapy resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Human metapneumovirus; non-pharmaceutical interventions; whole-genome sequencing
Online: 1 August 2023 (05:24:24 CEST)
The non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented to prevent the spread of COVID-19 have affected the epidemiology of other respiratory viruses. In South Korea, Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) typically occurs from winter to the following spring; however, it was not detected for two years during the COVID-19 pandemic and re-emerged in the fall of 2022, which is a non-epidemic season. To examine the molecular genetic characteristics of HMPV before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed 427 HMPV-positive samples collected in the Gwangju area from 2018 to 2022. Among these, 24 samples were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. The results showed a shift in the predominant genotype from A2b2 before the COVID-19 pandemic to A2b1 in 2022. Furthermore, a significant increase in HMPV cases was observed in the 6–10-year age group. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing have reduced the possibility of HMPV exposure and herd immunity due to non-transmission, resulting in the introduction of new HMPV genotypes in different seasons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cryptococcus; Whole-Genome Sequencing; VGVI; phylogenomics; Molecular Type
Online: 20 July 2022 (03:16:00 CEST)
Whole-genome sequencing has advanced our understanding of the population structure of the pathogenic species complex Cryptococcus gattii, which has allowed for the phylogenomic specification of previously described major molecular type groupings and novel lineages. Recently, isolates collected in Mexico in the 1960s were determined to be genetically distant from other known molecular types and were classified as VGVI. We sequenced four clinical isolates and one veterinary isolate collected in the southwestern U.S. and Argentina during 2012-2021. Phylogenomic analysis groups these genomes with those of the Mexican VGVI isolates, expanding VGVI into a clade and establishing this molecular type as a clinically important population. These findings also potentially expand the known Cryptococcus ecological range with a previously unrecognized endemic area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; genome engineering; whole-genome sequencing; PAM identification
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:59:19 CET)
Research on Cas9 nucleases from different organisms holds great promise for advancing genome engineering and gene therapy tools as it could provide novel structural insights into CRISPR editing mechanisms, expanding its application area in biology and medicine. The current study focuses on generating a construct to express a compact Cas9 nuclease (AnoCas9) from the thermophilic microorganism Anoxybacillus flavithermus. Next, distinctive AnoCas9 properties are investigated. AnoCas9 gene is expressed in E.coli producing a polypeptide fused with the maltose-binding protein (MBP-AnoCas9). His-Tag in its structure enables purification using metal-chelate chromatography followed by the cleavage of the polypeptide by TEV protease. Bioinformatical analysis of the CRISPR array found in the genome of an Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain helps predict a functional PAM sequence for AnoCas9, which is supported by in vitro experiments. The purified protein demonstrates nuclease activity in the presence of crRNA:tracrRNA duplex in the 37-60 °С range, with maximum activity observed at 45-55 °С. The analysis of FAM-labeled dsDNA substrate cleavage has allowed us to determine the functional AnoCas9 PAM motif as 5’-NNNNCDAA-3’. Thus, AnoCas9 adds to the repertoire of thermophilic Cas9 effectors and its properties suggest application in areas requiring the presence of thermostable CRISPR/Cas systems.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0988.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Whole-Body Cryostimulation; Inside Temperature Fields; Thermal Stratification; CFD
Online: 14 June 2023 (05:08:42 CEST)
(1) Background: This article presents a study that aims to provide a precise understanding of the temperature distribution within a Whole-Body Cryostimulation (WBC) chamber, whether it is empty or occupied by one or several individuals.; (2) Methods: The study employs a mixed numerical and experimental approach, utilizing simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and an experimental analysis that employs thermocouples to determine the 3D thermal field in actual conditions.; (3) Results: The results reveal a non-negligible temperature difference between the setpoint and actual temperature in the middle of the cryochamber. Furthermore, it is shown that the presence of individuals inside the chamber results in both an average temperature rise and a more heterogeneous thermal behavior, which appear to be associated with the number of individuals present.; (4) Conclusions: The findings of this study emphasize the need for further research to establish temperature guidelines and standardize measurement methods for effective WBC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: infectious bronchitis; viral evolution; whole genome sequencing; DMV; QX.
Online: 2 August 2022 (09:27:23 CEST)
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly variable RNA virus that affects chickens worldwide. Due to its inherited tendency to suffer point mutations and recombination events during viral replication, emergent IBV strains have been linked to nephropathogenic and reproductive disease that are more severe than the typical respiratory disease, leading, in some cases, to mortality, severe production losses, and/or unsuccessful vaccination. QX and DMV/1639 strains are examples of the above-mentioned IBV evolutionary pathway and clinical outcome. In this study, our purpose was to systematically compare whole genomes of QX and DMV strains looking at each IBV gene individually. Phylogenetic analyses and amino acid site searches were performed in datasets obtained from GenBank accounting for all IBV genes and using our own relevant sequences as a basis. The QX dataset studied is more genetically diverse than the DMV dataset, partially due to the greater epidemiological diversity within the five QX strains used as a basis compared to the four DMV strains from our study. Historically, QX strains have emerged and spread earlier than DMV strains in Europe and Asia. Consequently, there are more QX sequences deposited in GenBank than DMV strains, assisting in the identification of a larger pool of QX strains. It is likely that a similar evolutionary pattern will be observed among DMV strains as they develop and spread in North America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: whole genome sequencing; cancer predisposition; mucin; reactive oxygen species
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:44:20 CET)
Familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is only partially explained by known germline predisposing genes. We performed whole genome sequencing in 15 Polish families of many affected individuals, without mutations in known CRC predisposing genes. We focused on loss-of-function variants and functionally characterized them. We identified a frameshift variant in the CYBA gene (c.246delC) in one family and a splice site variant in the TRPM4 gene (c.25-1 G>T) in another family. While both variants were absent or extremely rare in gene variant databases, we identified four additional Polish familial CRC cases and two healthy elderly individuals with the CYBA variant (odds ratio 2.46, 95% confidence interval 0.48-12.69). Both variants led to a premature stop codon and to a truncated protein. Functional characterization of the variants showed that knockdown of CYBA or TRPM4 depressed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LS174T and HT-29 cell lines. Knockdown of TRPM4 resulted in decreased MUC2 protein production. CYBA encodes a component in the NADPH oxidase system which generates ROS and controls, e.g., bacterial colonization in the gut. Germline CYBA variants are associated with early onset inflammatory bowel disease, supported with experimental evidence on loss of intestinal mucus barrier function due to ROS deficiency. TRPM4 encodes a calcium-activated ion channel, which in a human colonic cancer cell line controls calcium-mediated secretion of MUC2, a major component of intestinal mucus barrier. We suggest that the gene defects in CYBA and TRPM4 mechanistically involve intestinal barrier integrity through ROS and mucus biology, which converges in chronic bowel inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0289.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: sphingolipidome; ceramides; high resolution mass spectrometry; whole blood; plasma
Online: 10 March 2021 (16:06:08 CET)
Plasma and serum are the most widely used blood-derived biofluids for metabolomics and lipidomics assays, but the isolation of these products from blood may introduce additional bias as indicated by the fact that many analytes that are present at high concentrations in blood cells cannot be measured and evaluated in those samples. Of particular concern, variable hemolysis during the pre-processing of blood products could compromise accurate and reproducible quantification. Compared with plasma or serum, whole blood may be a better alternative due to simplicity of processing. In this study, we provide a comprehensive method for quantification of the whole blood sphingolipidome and the concentrations were compared with those from plasma. Combining a single-phase extraction method with liquid-chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (R=120, 000), assisted by alkaline hydrolysis, we were able to identify and simultaneously quantify more than 150 sphingolipids. Furthermore, most of sphingolipids remained stable after a freeze/thaw cycle. Whole blood contained a higher concentration of most sphingolipids than corresponding plasma. Moreover, individual variations in the levels of sphingolipids were lower for whole blood than plasma. These findings demonstrate that whole blood could be a better alternative to plasma, and potentially guide the evaluation of sphinglipidome for biomarker discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Familial colorectal cancer; SRC; germline variant; whole genome sequencing
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:52:06 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) shows one of the largest proportions of familial cases among different malignancies, but only 5-10% of all CRC cases are linked to mutations in established predisposition genes. Thus, familial CRC constitutes a promising target for the identification of novel, high- to moderate-penetrance germline variants underlying cancer susceptibility by next generation sequencing. In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing on 3 members of a family with CRC aggregation. Subsequent integrative in silico analysis using our in-house developed variant prioritization pipeline resulted in the identification of a novel germline missense variant in SRC gene (V177M), a proto-oncogene highly upregulated in CRC. Functional validation experiments in HT-29 cells showed that introduction of SRCV177M resulted in increased cell proliferation and enhanced protein expression of phospho-SRC (Y419), a potential marker for SRC activity. Upregulation of paxillin, β-Catenin and STAT3 mRNA levels, increased levels of phospho-ERK, CREB and CCND1 proteins and downregulation of the tumor suppressor p53 further proposed the activation of several pathways due to the SRCV177M variant. The findings of our pedigree-based study contribute to the exploration of the genetic background of familial CRC and bring insights into the molecular basis of upregulated SRC activity and downstream pathways in colorectal carcinogenesis.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; pneumonia; low-dose whole-lung irradiation; SpO2
Online: 10 September 2020 (08:36:57 CEST)
Purpose: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the current global concern. Radiotherapy (RT), commonly employed in cancer management, has been considered one of the potential treatments for COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we present the final report of the pilot trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of low-dose whole-lung irradiation (LD-WLI) in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods and Materials: We enrolled patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia who were older than 60 years. Participants were treated with LD-WLI in a single fraction of 0.5 or 1.0Gy along with the national protocol of COVID-19. The primary endpoints were improvement of SpO2, the number of hospital/ICU stay days, and the number of intubations after RT and the secondary endpoints were alterations of the c-reactive peptide, interleukin-6, ferritin, procalcitonin, and D-dimer. The response rate (RR) was defined as a rise in SpO2 upon RT with rising or constant trend in the next two days, and clinical recovery (CR) included patients who were discharged from the hospital or acquired SpO2 ≥93% on room air. Results: Between 21 May 2020 and 2 July 2020, ten patients were enrolled. The median age was 75 years, 80% were male, and 80% had comorbidities. The first five patients received a single 0.5Gy-WLI, and others received 1.0Gy. Patients were followed for 2-14 days (median 5.5 days). Following one day, nine patients experienced an improvement in SpO2. Five patients were discharged (median 6th day, range 2nd-14th day), and four patients died (median 7th day, range 3rd-10th day). Overall, the RR and CR were 60.0% and 55.5%, respectively. The RR and CR rates of 0.5- and 1.0Gy group were 80% vs 40% and 75% vs 40%, respectively. No acute radiation-induced toxicity was recorded. Conclusions: LD-WLI with a single 0.5Gy fraction seems to be a more appropriate dose to warrant further evaluation in a large-scale, randomized trial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1565.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: goji berry; breeding; plant resistance; Whole Genome Sequencing; BODYGUARD genes.
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:17:31 CET)
Goji berries, long valued in Chinese medicine and cuisine for their wide range of medicinal benefits, are considered a 'superfruit' and functional food. Out of the nearly 100 Lycium species known for their genetic diversity, L. barbarum and L. chinense currently dominate the market. Due to increasing market demand and concerns about food safety and sustainability, Europe and the Americas are expanding the local goji berry production, using as starting material plants originated from China. European breeding programs are focusing on Lycium to develop varieties adapted to local conditions, especially in response to climate change. By 2023, Romania registered seven goji berry varieties, both from L. barbarum and L. chinense species, without incorporating local germplasm. Advanced genomic studies, including NGS sequencing of five cultivated and three wild goji berry plant genomes, have been conducted to analyse their genetic variation, with a particular focus on the BODYGUARD 3 and 4 genes. This research uncovered significant differences between cultivated and wild genotypes, both in the entire genome and specifically in the BODYGUARD genes, providing crucial insights for goji berry breeders to support the development of goji berry cultivation in Romania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; whole-genome sequencing; variants; lineages
Online: 19 October 2023 (11:25:35 CEST)
Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, it has spread rapidly, and many coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases have occurred in Gwangju, South Korea. Viral mutations following the COVID-19 epidemic have increased interest in the characteristics of epidemics in this region, and pathogen genetic analysis is required for infection control and prevention. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome analysis was performed on samples from patients with COVID-19 in Gwangju from 2020 to 2022 to identify the trends in COVID-19 prevalence and to analyze the phylogenetic tree of dominant variants. B.41 and B.1.497 prevailed in 2020, the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak; then, B.1.619.1 mainly occurred until June 2021. B.1.617.2, classified as sublineage AY.69 and AY.122, occurred continuously from July to December 2021. Since strict measures to strengthen national quarantine management had been implemented in South Korea until this time, mutations phylogenetic analysis was also able to infer the epidemiological relationship between infection transmission routes. Since the first identification of the Omicron variant in late December 2021, the spread of infection has been very rapid, and weekly whole-genome analysis of specimens has enabled us to monitor new Omicron sublineage occurring in Gwangju. Our study suggests that conducting reginal surveillance in addition to nation-level genomic surveillance will enable more rapid and detailed variant surveillance, which will be helpful in the overall prevention and management of infectious diseases.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1537.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: congenital anomalies; newborns; whole genome sequencing analysis; protocol; phenotype; registry
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:59:13 CEST)
Standardized protocols were specifically designed and developed for clinical information collection and obtaining trio genomic information from infants affected with congenital anomalies (CA) and their parents, as well as securing human biological resources. Two large areas of these protocols include clinical and genomic information collection on CA which were difficult to diagnose using pre-existing screening methods. The following are three essential items for the clinical information collection protocol: establishment of a consent system for collecting and utilizing research resources, establishment of criteria for target patient selection, and collection of clinical and epidemiological information. A total of 138 cases consisting of 45 families of infants with CA and their parent trios have provided human-derived resources and genomic information. Whole genome sequencing data have been generated for all participants, and standardized protocols for resource collection and manufacturing have been developed. Phenotype information according to the Human Phenotype Ontology term and major test findings were recorded. It is important to keep updating and recording clinical symptoms and genetic diagnosis that are newly added or changed over time. The unique significance of this study is to develop a protocol that enables long-term tracking by adding growth and development tests that reflect important characteristics of newborns. By using these clinical and genetic information collection protocols for CA, it will be possible to establish an essential platform for early genetic diagnosis and diagnostic research, and further present new genetic diagnostic guidelines in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1758.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: canine rabies virus; whole genome sequencing; nanopore technology; biosurveillance; Philippines
Online: 26 June 2023 (07:18:18 CEST)
Rabies, caused by the rabies virus (RABV), remains a significant public health issue in the Philippines despite efforts to control it. To eliminate rabies by 2030, effective surveillance strategies are crucial. In this study, we examined RABV evolution and phylodynamics in the Davao Region using genome sequences from Davao City and nearby provinces. We adapted the RABV ARTIC Protocol for Oxford Nanopore High-Throughput Sequencing to optimize workflow efficiency under limited resources. Comparing new virus samples collected from June 2019 to June 2021 (n=38) with baseline samples from June 2018 to May 2019 (n=49), new sub-clades were observed in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting divergence from older variants that were previously undetected. Most of the new viruses belonged to the Asian SEA4_A1.1.1 lineage, but new (SEA4_B1 and SEA4_B1.1) and emerging (SEA4_B1.1_E1) lineages that have never been reported in the Philippines were also identified. The baseline study reported phylogeographic clustering of RABV isolates from the same areas. However, this pattern was disrupted in the current biosurveillance, with variants detected in areas outside the original cluster. Furthermore, our findings revealed significant transmission routes between Davao City and neighboring provinces, contrasting with the predominantly intra-city transmission observed in the baseline study. These results underscore the need for ongoing and timely genomic surveillance to monitor genetic diversity changes and the emergence of novel strains, as well as to track alterations in transmission pathways. Implementing cost-effective next generation sequencing workflows will facilitate the integration of genomic surveillance into rabies control programs, particularly in resource-limited settings. Collaborations between different sectors can empower local laboratories and experts in genomic technologies and analysis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0560.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Polymyalgia Rheumatica; Whole-Body Cryostimulation; Chronic Pain; Disease Activity; Rehabilitation
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:17:24 CEST)
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease among people over the age of 50 and occurs with symptoms such as musculoskeletal pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulders and hips. To date, corticosteroids represent the cornerstone of PMR treatment, although it is well known that their prolonged use is associated with several adverse effects, making it crucial to find therapeutic alternatives to their use. The purpose of this case report was to describe the effectiveness of 10 whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) sessions on a 74-year-old woman suffering from PMR. An improvement in disease impact, fatigue, pain, quality of sleep and total physical activity was observed after WBC. Moreover, the patient reduced her daily drug intake by 67% following WBC treatments. Given the increasing prevalence of PMR and considering the side effects that drug treatments can lead to, WBC could represent a valuable adjuvant and well-tolerated alternative for the treatment of PMR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0350.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: whole genome sequencing; β-lactamases; MLST; plasmid replicons; Klebsiella pneumoniae
Online: 19 January 2023 (09:06:46 CET)
Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) has gained prominence in the last two decades due to its global spread as a multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogen. Further, Carbapenem-Resistant Kp are emerging at an alarming rate. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate the prevalence of β-lactamases, especially carbapenemases in Kp isolates from India, (2) determine the most prevalent sequence type (ST) & plasmids, and their association with β-lactamases. Clinical samples of K. pneumoniae (n=65) were collected from various pathology lab, drug susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were detected. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was done for (n=22) resistant isolates and WGS analysis was performed using various bioinformatics tools. Additional Indian MDR Kp genomes (n=187) were retrieved using Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) database. Detection of β-lactamase genes, location, plasmid replicons, and ST type of genomes were carried out using CARD, mlplasmids, PlasmidFinder, and PubMLST respectively. All data were analyzed and summarized using iTOL tool. ST231 was highest, followed by ST147, ST2096 & ST14 among Indian isolates. blaAmpH was detected as the most prevalent gene followed by blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-1. Among carbapenemase genes, blaOXA-232 was prevalent and associated with ST231, ST2096 and ST14, which was followed by blaNDM-5 which was observed to prevalent in ST147, ST395 &ST437. ST231 genomes were most commonly found to carry Col440I and ColKP3 plasmids. ST16 carried mainly ColKP3, and Col (BS512) was abundantly present in ST147 genomes. One Kp isolate with novel MLST profile was identified, which carried blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1 and blaTEM-1. ST16 &ST14 from this study, which is mostly dual producer of carbapenem and ESBL genes, could be emerging high-risk clones in India.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0478.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: epilepsy; computational model; seizures; single neurons level; networks; whole brain
Online: 16 June 2021 (12:14:49 CEST)
Dynamical system tools offer a complementary approach to detailed biophysical seizure modeling, with a high potential for clinical applications. This review describes the theoretical framework that provides a basis for theorizing certain properties of seizures and for their classification according to their dynamical properties at onset and offset. We describe various modeling approaches spanning different scales, from single neurons to large-scale networks. This narrative review provides an accessible overview of this field, including non-exhaustive examples of key recent works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0604.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: West Nile Virus; outbreak; meningoencephalitis; epidemiology; phylogeny; whole genome sequencing
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:46:38 CET)
During the last decades West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreaks have continuously occurred in the Mediterranean area. In August 2020 a new WNV outbreak affected 71 people with meningoencephalitis in Andalusia and 6 more cases in Extremadura (south-west of Spain), causing a total of eight deaths. The whole genomes of four viral isolates were obtained and phylogenetically analyzed in the context of recent outbreaks. The Andalusian viral samples belonged to the lineage 1 and were relatively similar to previous outbreaks occurred in the Mediterranean region. Here we present a detailed analysis of the outbreak, including an extensive phylogenetic study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Wuhua yellow chicken; whole genome resequencing; heritable variation; selection signal
Online: 7 June 2020 (14:42:23 CEST)
Chickens have extensive phenotypic variation. The Wuhua yellow chicken (WHYC) is an important traditional yellow-feathered chicken in China, characterized by white tail feathers, white flight feathers, and strong disease resistance. However, the genomic basis of traits associated with WHYC is still poorly understood. In this study, whole genome resequencing was performed with an average coverage of 20.77-fold to investigate heritable variation and identify selection signals in WHYC. Reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (Galgal5) with a coverage of 85.95%. After quality control, 11,953,471 SNPs and 1,069,574 InDels were obtained. In addition, 41,408 structural variants and 33,278 copy number variants were found. A comparative genomic analysis of WHYC and other yellow-feathered chicken showed that selected regions were enriched in genes involved in transport and catabolism, immune system, infectious diseases, signal transduction, and signaling molecules and interaction. Several genes associated with disease resistance were identified, including IFNA, IFNB, CD86, IL18, IL11RA, VEGFC, and ATG10. Furthermore, PMEL and TYRP1 may contribute to the coloring of white feathers in WHYC. These findings improve our understanding of the genetic characteristics of WHYC and may contribute to future breed improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0378.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: enterobacteriaceae; antibiotics; beta-lactamases; beta-lactam resistome; whole genome sequencing
Online: 19 September 2018 (09:47:42 CEST)
Beta-lactam resistant bacteria, commonly resident in tertiary hospitals, have emerged as a worldwide health problem because of ready-to-eat vegetable intake. We aimed to characterize the genes providing resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from five commercial salad brands for human consumption in Mexico City. 25 samples were collected, grow in blood agar plates, the bacteria were biochemistry identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done, the carried family genes were identified by endpoint PCR and the specific genes were confirmed with WGS by NGS. 12 positive cultures were identified and their microbiological distribution was as follows, 8.3% for Enterobacter aerogene (n=1), 8.3% for Serratia fonricola (n=1), 16.7% for Serratia marcesens (n=2), 16.7% for Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2), and 50% (n=6) for Enterobacter cloacae. The endpoint PCR results showed 11 colonies positive for blaBIL (91.7%), 11 for blaSHV (91.7%), 11 for blaCTX (97.7%), 12 for blaDHA (100%),4 for blaVIM (33.3%), 2 for blaOXA (16.7%), 2 for blaIMP (16.7%), 1 for blaKPC (8.3%) and 1 for blaTEM (8.3%) gene, all samples were negative blaROB, blaCMY, blaP, blaCFX and blaLAP gene. The sequencing analysis revels a specific genotypes for Enterobacter cloacae (blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1, blaKPC-2); Serratia marcescens (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M-3, blaDHA-1, blaVIM-2); Klebsiella pneumoniae (blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1); Serratia fonticola (blaSHV-12, blaVIM-1, blaDHA-1) and Enterobacter aerogene (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M-1, blaDHA-1, blaVIM-2, blaOXA-9). Our results indicate that beta-lactam resistant bacteria have acquired integrons with a different number of genes that providing panresistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, oxacillins, cefalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and imipenems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: residential house; deconstruction; resource harvesting; whole house reuse; circular economy
Online: 3 September 2018 (13:49:34 CEST)
This study analyses the case study of a deconstruction project called the ‘Whole House Reuse’ (WHR) which aimed, firstly, to harvest materials from a residential house, secondly, to produce new products using the recovered materials, and thirdly, to organize exhibition for the local public to promote awareness on resource conservation and sustainable deconstruction practices. The study applies characterization of recovered materials through deconstruction. In addition to the material recovery, the study assesses the embodied energy saving and greenhouse gas emission abatement of the deconstruction project. Around twelve tonnes of various construction materials were harvested through a systematic deconstruction approach, most which would otherwise be disposed to landfill in the traditional demolition approach. The study estimates that the recovered materials could potentially save around 502,158MJ of embodied energy and prevent carbon emission of around 27,029kg (CO2e). Deconstruction could eventually contribute to New Zealand’s national emission reduction targets. In addition, the project successfully engages local communities and designers to produce 400 new products using the recovered materials and exhibited to the local people. The study concludes that there is a huge prospect in regard to resource recovery, emission reduction, employment and small business opportunities using deconstruction of the old house. The socio-cultural importance of the WHR project is definitely immense; however, the greater benefits of such projects are often ignored and remain unreported to wider audiences as most of the external and environmental costs have not been considered in the traditional linear economy. It is acknowledged that under a favourable market condition and with appropriate support from local communities and authorities, deconstruction could contribute significantly to resource conservation and environmental protection despite its requirement of labour intensive efforts.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0937.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic pain; conversion disorder; functional neurological disorders; rehabilitation; whole-body cryostimulation
Online: 16 October 2023 (09:04:38 CEST)
Functional neurological disorders (FND) are relatively frequent disabling conditions. Given their complexity, multidisciplinary rehabilitation is envisaged. Whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) represents a promising adjuvant treatment, mainly because of its anti-inflammatory and exercise-mimicking effects. Here, we propose a novel use of WBC in a wheelchair-ridden 61-year-old woman diagnosed with FND and other comorbidities, who, after several therapeutic and rehabilitation failures, underwent a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program including WBC. The 4-week program included physiotherapy, nutritional intervention, psychological support, and WBC. Questionnaires to assess disease impact, pain level, perceived fatigue and sleep quality were administered. At discharge, improvements in body composition, haematological biomarkers, physical performance, and questionnaire scores were observed. The patient was able to walk with a walker for medium distances, even outdoors. We observed unprecedented improvements, particularly in functional parameters and questionnaire scores. Although we cannot ascertain to which extent WBC per se contributed to the improvements measured, subjective reporting and our clinical observation were that WBC, the only intervention not previously experienced by the patient, acted as a booster for the rehabilitation interventions. Further research will be necessary to rule out any possible placebo effect and to assess the effects of WBC on FND.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: thyroid cancer; whole-genome sequencing; non-medullary thyroid cancer; germline; genetics
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:46:26 CEST)
The genome sequencing technologies reveal the molecular mechanisms of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Unlike somatic mutation analysis from thyroidectomy samples, germline mutations showing genetic susceptibility to DTC are less understood. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of germline mutations predisposing to DTC in a cohort of Polish individuals based on their whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. We analyzed sequencing data from 1076 unrelated individuals, released openly for academic and clinical research as The Thousand Polish Genomes database (https://1000polishgenomes.com). The list of genes chosen for further analysis was based on the review of previous studies. The cohort contained 104 variants located within the coding and noncoding DNA sequences of 90 genes selected by ClinVar classification as pathogenic and potentially pathogenic. The frequency of variants in the Polish cohort (our study) was compared to the frequency estimated for the non-Finnish European population, obtained from the gnomAD database (gnomad.broadinstitute.org). Statistically significant variants included 23 genes. Even though the Polish population is genetically similar to other European populations, there are significant differences in variant frequencies contributing to the disease development and progression, such as RET, CHECK2, BRCA1, SLC26A4 or TERT. Further studies are needed to identify genomic variants associated directly with DTC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0956.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: therapeutic vaccines; mRNA vaccines; antigenic delivery; whole yeast vaccine; delivery vehicle
Online: 26 April 2023 (04:31:14 CEST)
In the last decades, technological advances related to RNA manipulation enabled and expanded its application in vaccine development. This approach comprises synthetic single-stranded mRNA molecules that direct the translation of the antigen responsible for activating the desired immune response. The success of RNA vaccines depends on the delivery vehicle employed. Among the systems, yeasts emerge as a new approach to a natural delivery platform. The presence of β-glucans and mannans in its wall is responsible for the adjuvant action of this system. Yeasts are already employed to deliver protein antigens, with success and efficacy demonstrated through pre-clinical and clinical trials. Yeast β-glucan capsules, microparticles, and nanoparticles are capable of modulating host immune responses and have a high capacity to carry RNA and small molecules, with bioavailability upon oral immunization and with targeting to receptors present in anti-gen-presenting cells (APCs). Besides, yeasts are interesting vehicles for the protection and specific delivery of therapeutic vaccines based on shRNA or dsRNA. In this review, we present an overview of the attributes of yeast or its derivatives for the delivery of RNA-based vaccines, discussing their current challenges and prospects for using this promising strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0184.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Spectral; Geochemistry; Random Forest; Regression; Whole Rock; MIR; SWIR; VNIR; NMF
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:35:45 CET)
The efficacy of predicting geochemical parameters with a 2-chain workflow using spectral data as the initial input is evaluated. Spectral measurements spanning the approximate 400-25000nm spectral range are used to train a workflow consisting of a non-negative matrix function (NMF) step, for data reduction, and a random forest regression (RFR) to predict 8 geochemical parameters. Approximately 175000 spectra with their corresponding chemical analysis were available for training, testing and validation purposes. The samples and their spectral and chemical parameters represent 9399 drillcore. Of those, approximately 20000 spectra and their accompanying analysis were used for training and 5000 for model validation. The remaining pairwise data (150000 samples) were used for testing of the method. The data are distributed over 2 large spatial extents (980 km2 and 3025 km2 respectively) and allowed the proposed method to be tested against samples that are spatially distant from the initial training points. Global R2 scores and wt.% RMSE on the 150000 validation samples are Fe(0.95/3.01), SiO2(0.96/3.77), Al2O3(0.92/1.27), TiO(0.68/0.13), CaO(0.89/0.41), MgO(0.87/0.35), K2O(0.65/0.21) and LOI(0.90/1.14), given as Parameter(R2/RMSE), and demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of predicting the 8 parameters and is stable enough, in the environment tested, to extend beyond the training sets initial spatial location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Angiosarcoma; biomarkers; tumor microenvironment; immunotherapy, next generation sequencing, whole transcriptome sequencing.
Online: 2 July 2021 (15:43:54 CEST)
We performed a comprehensive analysis of angiosarcoma (AS) genomic biomarkers and their associations with the site of origin. We aimed to describe the genomic landscape of AS in a cohort of 143 cases of AS profiled by Caris Life Sciences. Data of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) with a 592 gene panel was available for the entire cohort. Fifty-three cases had data of Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) which we used to study the microenvironment phenotype. Immuno-therapy (IO) response biomarkers: Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB), Microsatellite Instability (MSI) and PD-L1 status were included. IO-response markers were present in 36.4% of the cohort and in 65% of head and neck AS (H/N-AS) (p<0.0001). H/N-AS cases had predominantly muta-tions in TP53 (50.0%, p=0.0004), POT1 (40.5%, p<0.0001) and ARID1A (33.3%, p=0.5875). In breast AS, leading alterations were MYC amplification (63.3%, p<0.0001), HRAS (16.1%, p=0.0377), and PI3KCA (16.1%, p=0.2352). A microenvironment with a high immune signature, associated with better response to IO, was present in 13% of the cases. This signature was evenly distributed among different primary sites. We found that the molecular biology for AS varies significantly according to the primary site. Our findings can facilitate the design and optimiza-tion of therapeutic strategies for AS to overcome resistance to IO and targeted therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: whole blood viscosity; reference interval; shear rate; scanning capillary tube viscometer; cat
Online: 3 November 2023 (03:31:23 CET)
Whole blood viscosity, a hemorheological factor, is currently used for diagnosis, as it is correlated with various vascular diseases that are difficult to diagnose early with a general blood test. It was determined that it was necessary to set reference intervals for further studies and utilization of whole blood viscosity in cats, a representative companion animal, and this study was conducted. 50 healthy cats were recruited for the study and whole blood viscosity, complete blood count, and serum chemistry tests were performed. The reference intervals of whole blood viscosity were 15.169 to 43.684 cP at a shear rate of 1 s-1 reflecting diastole, and 3.524 to 5.544 cP at a shear rate of 300 s-1 reflecting systole. Red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and neutrophils in the complete blood count, and total protein, albumin, globulin, and cholesterol in the serum chemistry were significantly correlated with whole blood viscosity. The results of this study set reference intervals of whole blood viscosity for healthy cats in a wide shear rate range that has not yet been fully established and investigated its correlation with other blood indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1537.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: multidisciplinary rehabilitation; obesity; personalized rehabilitation; post-COVID19 condition; rehabilitation; whole-body cryostimulation
Online: 24 October 2023 (11:14:34 CEST)
Background: Post-Covid condition can reduce activity and quality of life, resulting in a significant socioeconomic and health burden. Understanding its impact on patients' health is important for the development of personalized rehabilitation interventions. An independent association between obesity and post-covid condition was found because of complications and comorbidities. Methods: Sixteen patients with obesity and post-COVID symptoms (i.e., dyspnea, pain, poor sleep quality, muscle fatigue) admitted to the Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Piancavallo (VB), Italy, were recruited for a four-week rehabilitation program including conventional exercise therapy, nutritional intervention, psychological support and whole-body cryostimulation (WBC). Results: All participants attended all sessions of the program. Anthropometric data showed statistically significant changes in weight, waist circumference and body mass index. Biochemical analyses showed significant reductions in lipid and inflammatory profiles. There was a significant improvement in physical performance, reduction in pain and improvement in psychological well-being. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation protocol including WBC designed for patients with obesity and post-covid condition is safe and feasible. The overall improvements demonstrate that multidisciplinary rehabilitation was effective on post COVID patients and suggest that the use of WBC is safe and could play a role as a booster in rehabilitation programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0558.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Ornamental kale, F1DH population, Whole-genome resequencing, High-density genetic linkage map
Online: 11 October 2023 (07:55:29 CEST)
Ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is an attractive ornamental plant with a range of leaf colors and shapes. Breeding new varieties of ornamental kale has proven challenging due to its lengthy breeding cycle and the limited availability of genetic markers. Microspore culture is an effective approach to generate new materials and genetic maps are a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci analysis, MAS, fine gene mapping, and genome sequence assembly. In this study, a F1DH ornamental kale population comprising 300 DH lines was constructed using microspore culture. A high-density genetic map was developed by conducting whole-genome sequencing on 150 individuals from the F1DH population. The genetic map contained 1,696 bin-markers with 982,642 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a total distance of 775.81 cM on all nine chromosomes with an average distance between markers of 0.46 cM. The ornamental kale genetic map contained substantially more SNP markers compared with published genetic maps for other B. oleracea crops. The F1DH progenies provide an excellent resource for germplasm innovation and breeding new varieties of ornamental kale. The high-density genetic map provides crucial insights for gene mapping and unraveling the molecular mechanisms behind important agronomic traits in ornamental kale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0601.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; pneumonia; ribavirin aerosol; treatment; outcome; viral load; whole genome sequencing
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:16:20 CEST)
The emergence of new SARSCoV-2 variants can affect vaccine efficacy, laboratory diagnosis and therapies already available, triggering interest in the search for antiviral agents for SARSCoV-2 infections. Ribavirin (RBV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral with demonstrated in vitro activity against multiple viruses, including SARSCoV-2. Methods. This retrospective study evaluated the dynamic and viral clearance of SARSCoV-2 in hospitalized adult participants (PTs) with COVID-19 pneumonia who received RBV aerosol within a compassionate use study. Was also assessed the impact of RBV on the clinical outcome and the mutational profile of SARSCoV-2. Results. The median RNA values measured in nine PTs included in the study de-creased from baseline to discharge (at BL, threshold cycle (Ct)=22.4, IQR 19.84-5.07; at discharge, Ct=27.92, IQR 26.43-36.11). Seven/9 PTs experienced a clinical improvement, while two PTs deceased during hos-pitalization. In PTs with a favorable outcome the virus clearance rate at discharge was 28.6%. The cumulative clearance rate was 71.4% within day 14th from discharge. A mutational pattern after RBV was detected in 3/5 PTs in whom was available whole genome sequencing. Conclusions. RBV may limit SARSCOV-2 replication resulting in a favorable clinical outcome. Ribavirin may also contribute to the mutational spectrum of SARSCoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; ultraviolet; mutation signatures; malignant melanoma, whole exome sequencing
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:36:55 CEST)
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a strong environmental carcinogen responsible for the pathogenesis of most skin cancers, such as malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma (keratinocyte) skin cancers. The carcinogenic role of UV was firmly established based on epidemiological evidence and molecular findings of the characteristic mutation signatures which occur during excision repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6,4-photoproducts. The role of UV in the pathogenesis of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, remains controversial. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing of 61 samples of MF cells microdissected from the cutaneous lesions, and compared their mutational signatures to 340 MM. The vast majority of MM mutations had a typical UV mutational signature (SBS 7, SBS 38, DSB 1) underscoring the key role of ultraviolet as a mutagen. In contrast, the SBS 7 signature in MF comprised <5% of all mutations. SBS 7 was higher in the intraepidermal MF cells (when compared to the dermal cells) and in the cells from tumors as compared to early-stage plaques. In conclusion, our data do not support the pathogenic role of UV in the pathogenesis of MF and suggest that the UV mutations are the result of the cumulative, environmental ultraviolet exposure of cutaneous lesions, rather than an early mutagenic event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0228.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria meningitidis; whole genome sequencing; chromosomal rearrange-ments; mobile elements
Online: 14 November 2022 (02:11:22 CET)
Chromosomal rearrangements in N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis were studied with the determination of mobile elements and their role in rearrangements. The results of whole-genome sequencing and de novo genome assembly for 50 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected in Russia were compared with 96 genomes of N. gonorrhoeae and 138 genomes of N. meningitidis from the databases. Rearrangement events with the determination of the coordinates of syntenic blocks were analyzed using the SibeliaZ software, the minimum number of events that allow one genome to pass into another was calculated using the DCJ-indel model using the UniMoG program. Population-level analysis revealed a stronger correlation between changes in the gene order and phylogenetic proximity for N. meningitidis in contrast to N. gonorrhoeae. Mobile elements were identified, including Correa elements, Spencer-Smith elements (in N. gonorrhoeae), Neisserial intergenic mosaic elements, IS elements of IS5, IS30, IS110, IS1595 groups, Nf1-Nf3 prophages, NgoФ1-NgoФ9 prophages, Mu-like prophages Pnm1, Pnm2, MuMenB (in N. meningitidis). More than 44% of the observed rearrangements most likely occurred with the participation of mobile elements, including prophages. No differences were found between the Russian and global N. gonorrhoeae population both in terms of rearrangement events and in the number of transposable elements in genomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Tdap; flow cytometry; acellular pertussis vaccine; whole cell pertussis vaccine; plasma cells
Online: 18 November 2021 (14:18:35 CET)
Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Over the past years, the incidence and mortality of pertussis increased significantly. A possible cause is the switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines, although other factors may also contribute. To develop future vaccines and improve current vaccination strategies, it is critical to understand factors influencing the generation of immunological memory. We applied high-dimensional flow cytometry to investigate changes in B cells in individuals of different ages and distinct priming backgrounds upon administration of an acellular pertussis booster vaccine. These findings were correlated to vaccine-specific plasma cells and serum Ig levels. Expansion and maturation of plasma cells 7 days post-vaccination was the most prominent cellular change in all age groups, and was most pronounced for more mature IgG1+ plasma cells. Cellular responses were stronger in individuals primed with whole cell vaccine than in individuals primed with acellular vaccine. Moreover, IgG1+ plasma cell expansion weakly correlated with Prn- and PT- specific serum IgG levels. Our study points at plasma cells as a potential early cellular marker of an immune response and contributes to understanding differences in immune responses between age groups and priming backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Komagataeibacter rhaeticus; Bacterial cellulose; Crude glycerol; Minimal medium; Whole-genome analysis; Acetate
Online: 16 August 2021 (08:32:19 CEST)
Komagataeibacter spp. have been used for the bioconversion of industrial wastes and lignocellulosic hydrolysates to bacterial cellulose (BC). Recently studies have demonstrated the capacity of Komagataeibacter spp. in the biotransformation of inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, aromatic lignin-derived monomers (LDMs) and acetate. In general, detoxification and BC synthesis from lignocellulosic inhibitors requires a carbon flow from acetyl-coA towards tricarboxylic acid and gluconeogenesis, respectively. However, the related molecular aspects have not yet been identified in Komagataeibacter spp. In this study, we isolated a cellulose producing bacteria capable of synthesizing BC in a minimal medium containing crude glycerol, a by-product from biodiesel production process. The isolate, affiliated to Komagataeibacter genus, synthesized cellulose in minimal medium containing glucose (3.3±0.3 g/L), pure glycerol (2.2±0.1 g/L) and crude glycerol (2.1±0.1 g/L). Genome assembly and annotation identified four copies of bacterial cellulose synthase operon and genes for redirecting the carbon from central metabolic pathway to gluconeogenesis. According to the genome annotations, a BC production route from acetyl-CoA, a central metabolic intermediate, was hypothesized and was validated using acetate. We identified that when K. rhaeticus ENS9b was grown in minimal medium supplemented with acetate, BC production was not observed. However, in presence of readily utilizable substrate, such as spent yeast hydrolysate, acetate supplementation improved BC synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: IBV; infectious bronchitis; variants; whole-genome sequencing, enteric tropism; runting-stunting syndrome
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:25:48 CEST)
Abstract: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces respiratory and urogenital disease in chickens. Although IBV replicates in the gastrointestinal tract, enteric lesions are uncommon. We have reported a case of runting-stunting syndrome in commercial broilers from which an IBV variant was isolated from the intestines. The isolate, CalEnt, demonstrated an enteric tissue tropism in chicken embryos and SPF chickens experimentally. Here, we determined the full genome of CalEnt and compared it to other IBV strains, in addition to comparing the pathobiology of CalEnt and M41 in commercial broilers. Despite the high whole-genome identity to other IBV strains, CalEnt is rather unique in nucleotide composition. The S gene phylogenetic analyses showed great similarity between CalEnt and Cal 99. Clinically, vent staining was slightly more frequent in CalEnt-infected birds than those challenged with M41. Furthermore, IBV IHC detection was more evident and the viral shedding in feces was overall higher with the CalEnt challenge compared with M41. Despite underlying intestinal lesions caused by coccidiosis and salmonellosis vaccination, microscopic lesions in CalEnt-infected chickens were more severe than in M41-infected chickens or controls, supporting the enteric tropism of CalEnt. Further studies in SPF chickens are needed to determine the pathogenesis of the virus, its molecular mechanisms for the enteric tropism, and its influence in intestinal health.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0502.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: KARS gene; aminoacylation; leucodistrophy; epilepsy; hearing loss developmental delay; whole exome sequencing
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:10:45 CEST)
The KARS gene encodes the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) which activates and joins the lysin with its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA), through the ATP-dependent aminoacylation of the amino acid. The KARS gene mutations have been linked to diverse neurologic phenotypes such as: neurosensorial hearing loss, leukodistrophy, microcephaly, developmental delay or regression, peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, hyperlactatemia, among others. This article presents the case of a Colombian pediatric patient with two pathological missense variants in a compound heterozygous state in the KARS gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: phylodynamic analyses; SARS-CoV2 circulation in Italy; molecular tracing; Whole Genome Sequencing
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:00:19 CEST)
The aim of this study is the characterization and genomic tracing by phylogenetic analyses of 59 new SARS-CoV-2 Italian isolates obtained from patients attending clinical centres in North and Central Italy until the end of April 2020. All but one of the newly characterized genomes belonged to the lineage B.1, the most frequently identified in European countries, including Italy. Only a single sequence was found to belong to lineage B. A mean of 6 nucleotide substitutions per viral genome was observed, without significant differences between synonymous and non-synonymous mutations, indicating genetic drift as a major source for virus evolution. tMRCA estimation confirmed the probable origin of the epidemic between the end of January and the beginning of February with a rapid increase in the number of infections between the end of February and mid-March. Since early February, an effective reproduction number (Re) greater than 1 was estimated, which then increased reaching the peak of 2.3 in early March, confirming the circulation of the virus before the first COVID-19 cases were documented. Continuous use of state-of-the-art methods for molecular surveillance is warranted to trace virus circulation and evolution and inform effective prevention and containment of future SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: inactivated vaccine; vaccine matching; composition; deep sequencing; degraded RNA; FMDV; whole genome
Online: 28 November 2019 (04:03:46 CET)
Appropriate vaccine selection is crucial in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Vaccination can prevent clinical disease and reduces viral shedding, but there is a lack of cross-protection between the seven serotypes and their sublineages, making the selection of an adequately protective vaccine difficult. Since the exact composition of their vaccines is not consistently disclosed by all manufacturers, incompatibility of the strains used for vaccination with regionally circulating strains can cause vaccination campaigns to fail. Here, we present a deep sequencing approach for polyvalent inactivated FMD vaccines that can identify all component strains by their genome sequences. The genomes of all strains of a commercial pentavalent FMD vaccine were de-novo assembled and the vaccine composition determined semi-quantitatively. The genome assembly required high stringency parameters to prevent misassemblies caused by conserved regions of the genome shared by related strains. In contrast, reference-guided assembly is only recommended in cases where the number of strains is previously known and appropriate reference sequences are available. The presented approach can be applied not only to any inactivated whole-virus FMD vaccine, but also to vaccine quality testing in general and allows for better decision-making for vaccines with unknown composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: orange peel essential oil; green extraction; liquid whole eggs; biopreservation; shelf-life
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:22:37 CET)
A possible way to valorize citrus peels, which are byproducts of the juice extraction industry, is to use them as natural biopreservatives. In this paper we present early results from a compared Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) with Hydro-Distillation (HD) and Cold Pressing (CP) of essential oils (EOs) using fresh orange peel (Citrus sinensis L. var. Valencia late), a by-product in the production of orange juice in Algeria. The EOs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All extracted C. sinensis EOs were chemotype limonene (94.64 to 95.48%). SFME is performed without added any solvent or water. SFME increases EO yield and eliminate wastewater treatment, resulting in a great progress in terms of time and cost efficiency. In its second part, the present study was conducted to evaluate “in vitro”, the antioxidant activities of Solvent Free Microwave (SFM) extracted orange EO by using the DPPH• (2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrilhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay. The ability of orange EO to scavenge the free radical DPPH• was high, exceeding 80%. The result of the DPPH assay gives an IC50 range value of 89.25 μg/mL (0.09 mg/mL) for the studied sample. Accordingly to the scientific literature, C. sinensis EO tested in the present study presented strong antioxidant activity, when looking to its values of AAI = 1.12 μg/mL. The feasibility of biopreservation used EOs as an alternative to synthetic techniques for liquid whole egg (LWE) stored under commercial retail conditions was investigated. The orange EO extracted by SFM was screened for its antibacterial and antioxidant activities in LWE at concentrations of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%. The TBA-RS results showed that the EO treatments significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the lipid oxidation in LWE. The long term oxidative, microbial and organoleptical stability of the LWE during display was positively influenced by orange EO treatments. Therefore, the results obtained here confirm that EO treatment as a promising technology to extend the commercial shelf-life of liquid egg products during retail/display.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: whole-body cryostimulation; phantom limb pain; phantom limb syndrome; neuropathic pain; central sensitization
Online: 3 November 2023 (04:12:43 CET)
Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) is a challenging condition affecting a significant proportion of amputees. In this article we describe the case of a 54-year-old Paralympic athlete with Phantom Limb Syndrome following right leg amputation and widespread sports-related enthesitic pain, who underwent a Whole Body Cryostimulation (WBC) cycle, an emerging treatment known for its rapid pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects. Assessments were conducted before and after a 10-session WBC cycle, including pain and quality of life assessment, and use of medications. A substantial reduction in enthesitic pain, PLP intensity, paresthesia, tingling related to atmospheric events and an improved function and quality of life were reported after the WBC cycle and lasted for two weeks. One month after WBC, the enthesitic pain following sports activity and PLP gradually returned but with lesser intensity. Similarly, the stump's sensitivity to atmospheric changes returned but with lower frequency. Pain at night remained lower than before WBC with significantly improved quality of sleep. This case study suggests that WBC could be a valuable adjuvant treatment for alleviating PLP. Controlled studies are warranted to validate the findings of this case-report and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the positive effects of WBC in this condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium; hospital epidemic; whole genome analysis; infection prevention and control
Online: 15 September 2023 (11:41:52 CEST)
Vancomisin resistant enterococcus(VRE), is a resistant microorganism which colonizates and causes infections in hospitalized patients. It was aimed to show the spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (fVREfm) step-by-step in all intensive care units, which started with the growth of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) on 02.12.2021 in the blood culture of a patient hospitalized in the anesthesia intensive care unit of our hospital and was found to have reached epidemic size in the surveys. Rectal swab samples were taken from all patients hospitalized in intensive care units, VRE colonization was determined and the VanA and VanB resistance genes associated with vancomycin resistance of VREfm isolates were determined by PCR method, and clonal association analysis was performed by Arbitrarily Primed-PCR (AP-PCR) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis. In our study, VRE was detected in 61 of 2601 rectal swab samples. 54 (85.52%) of the VRE isolates were Enterococcus faecium, 3 (4.91%) was Enterococcus faecalis, 3 (4.91%) was Enterococcus gallinorum, 1 (1.63%) was Enterococcus casseliflavus. It was determined that all of the 54 VREfm isolates, which were the most detected among all VRE isolates, carried the vanA gene. In the clonal association analysis of the isolates by AP-PCR and PFGE methods, it was found that they had 12 different genotypes, 48 of them were included in any cluster, the clustering rate was 88.8%, and the largest cluster was genotype 1 cluster with 36 isolates. Of the 54 patients with VREfm isolated recently, 18.51 percent of the clinical samples were isolated before the survey, and 9.24% were isolated after the survey. It was determined that 100% of VREfm isolates were resistant to ampicillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, high-level gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, teicoplanin, 7.4% to tigecycline and 1.85% to linezolid. In our study, in the clonal association analysis performed by isolating VREfm in rectal swab samples, it was found that 88.8% of the samples were indistinguishably similar and the increase in the number of VREfm infections after the index case in our hospital was associated with the epidemic. VREfm infections cause long term hospitalization, costs and also deaths, which shows the seriousness of the event, and the importance of the combination of epidemiological and molecular analysis in epidemic research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1369.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; stage III; molecular profiling; IDEA study; whole exome sequencing; bioinfor-matics
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:51:10 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to investigate the molecular profiles of stage III CRC patients from the international IDEA study. It also sought to correlate these profiles with Toll-like and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, clinicopathological and epidemiological characteristics, and patient outcomes. Methods: Whole Exome Sequencing and PCR-RFLP on surgical specimens and blood samples, respectively, were performed to identify molecular profiling and the presence of Toll-like and vitamin D polymorphisms. Bioinformatic analysis revealed mutational status. Results: Among the enrolled patients, 63.7% were male, 66.7% had left-sided tumors, and 55.7% received CAPOX as adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole exome sequencing identified 59 mutated genes in 11 different signaling pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) CRC panel. On average, patients had 8 mutated genes (range, 2-21 genes). Mutations in ARAF and MAPK10 emerged as independent prognostic factors for reduced DFS (p=0.027 and p<0.001, respectively), while RAC3 and RHOA genes emerged as independent prognostic factors for reduced OS (p=0.029 and p=0.006, respectively). Right-sided tumors were also identified as independent prognostic factors for reduced DFS (p=0.019) and OS (p=0.043). Additionally, patients with tumors in the transverse colon had mutations in genes related to apoptosis, PIK3-Akt, Wnt, and MAPK signaling pathways. Conclusions: Molecular characterization of tumor cells can enhance our understanding of the disease course. Mutations may serve as promising prognostic biomarkers, offering improved treatment options. Confirming these findings with require larger patient cohorts and international collaborations to establish correlations between molecular profiling, clinicopathological and epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0249.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: urothelial carcinoma; urine; liquid-based cytology; deep learning; cancer screening; whole slide image
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:31:16 CET)
Urinary cytology is a useful, essential diagnostic method in routine urological clinical practice. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) for urothelial carcinoma screening is commonly used in the routine clinical cytodiagnosis because of its high cell collection rate. Since conventional screening processes by cytoscreeners and cytopathologists using microscopes is limited in terms of human resources, it is important to integrate new deep learning methods that can automatically and rapidly diagnose a large amount of specimens without delay. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of deep learning models for the classification of urine LBC whole-slide images (WSIs) into neoplastic and non-neoplastic (negative). We trained deep learning models using 786 WSIs by transfer learning, fully supervised, and weakly supervised learning approaches. We evaluated the trained models on two test sets (equal and clinical balance) with a combined total of 750 WSIs, achieving ROC-AUCs for WSI diagnosis in the range of 0.984-0.990 by the best model, demonstrating the promising potential use of our model for aiding urine cytodiagnostic processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0304.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: amino acid permease; L-aspartic acid; Bacillus licheniformis; whole-cell biocatalyst; fermentation engineering
Online: 17 November 2021 (11:58:31 CET)
Amino acid efflux and influx transport systems play vital roles in industrial microorganisms’ cell growth and metabolism. However, although biochemically characterized, most amino acid transporters remain unknown at the molecular level in Bacillus licheniformis. This study focuses on the molecular and functional characterizations of three transporters, YdgF, YvbW, and YveA, mainly when catalyzing the cross-membrane flux of L-Aspartate. When growing in the minimal medium with L-Asp as the only carbon and nitrogen source, the growth of strains lacking proteins YdgF, YvbW, and YveA was significantly inhibited compared with wild-type strains, while supplementing the expression of the corresponding proteins in the single-gene knockout strains can alleviate the inhibition to some extent. Upon overexpression, the recombinant proteins mediate the accumulation of L-aspartate to varying degrees. Compared with wild-type strains, the single knockout strains of the three protein genes exhibited reduced absorption of L-aspartate. In addition, this paper focuses on the effects of these three proteins on the absorption of β-alanine, L-glutamate, D-serine, D-alanine, and glycine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0547.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: obesity; irisin; whole-body vibration; exercise; weight loss; rehabilitation; weight management; muscle strength
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:27:26 CET)
The use of whole-body vibration (WBV) for therapeutic purposes is far from being standardized and only very recently an empirical foundation for reporting guidelines for human WBV studies has been published. Controversies about safety and therapeutic dosage stll exist. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic and mechanical effects of low-intensity WBV in according to the ISO 2631 norm on subjects with obesity. 41 obese subjects (BMI≥ 35 kg/mˆ2) were recruited to participate in a 3-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program including fitness training and WBV training. During WBV the posture was monitored with an optoelectronic system with 6 infrared cameras (Vicon, Vicon Motion System, Oxford, UK). The primary endpoints were: variation in body composition, factors of the metabolic syndrome, functional activity (sit-to-stand and 6-min walking test), muscle strength, and quality of life. Secondary endpoints were: modification of irisin, testosterone, growth hormone, IGF1 levels. We observed significant changes in salivary irisin levels, Group 2 (p<0.01) as compared to the control group, while muscle strength, function, and other metabolic and hormonal factors did not change after a 3-week low-intensity WBV training respect control group. Future studies are needed to deeper investigate the potential metabolic effect of low-intensity WBV in managing weight.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS); stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT); brain metastasis; immunotherapy; whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT)
Online: 24 July 2018 (11:47:15 CEST)
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become increasingly important in the management of brain metastases due to improving systemic disease control and rising incidence. Initial trials demonstrated SRS with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) improved local control rates versus WBRT alone. Concerns with WBRT associated neurocognitive toxicity have contributed to greater use of SRS alone, including for patients with multiple metastases and following surgical resection. Molecular information, targeted agents and immunotherapy have also altered the landscape for the management of brain metastases. This review summarises current and emerging data on the role of SRS in the management of brain metastases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1796.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: telecytology; ROSE, telepathology; EBUS; lung cytology; endoscopic diagnostics; whole-slide imaging; diagnostic accuracy; cytopathology
Online: 18 October 2023 (04:23:27 CEST)
Background: This prospective study assesses the use of Rapid Remote Online Cytological Evaluation analysis for diagnosing endoscopical achieved biopsies. It focuses on its effectiveness in identifying benign and malignant conditions using digital image processing. Methods: The study was conducted between April 2021 and September 2022 and involved a total of 314 Rapid Remote Online Cytological Evaluations (17 brush, 143 fine needle aspirations and 154 imprint cytologies) analyses performed on 239 patients at the LungenClinic Grosshansdorf. During on-site evaluation via telecytology, the time requirement was determined and the findings were compared with the cyto-/histological and final diagnoses. Results: By means of Rapid Remote Online Evaluation, 86 cytological benign and 190 malignant and 38 findings of unclear diagnosis were recorded (Ø assessment time 100 sec., range 11 - 370sec.). In 27 of the 38 cases with unclear diagnosis, the final findings were malignant tumours and only 6 were benign changes. The diagnosis of another five of these 38 cases remained unclear. Excluding these 38 findings, the Rapid Remote online cytology achieved a sensitivity of 78.6% with a specificity of 99.5% and a correct classification rate of 93.1% with regard to the final diagnosis of all cases. As expected, an increase in the sensitivity rate for the cytological detection of malignant tumours (76.1% vs. 92.5%) was found especially in fine-needle aspirations. Conclusions: Rapid remote online analysis allows fast quantitative and qualitative evaluation of clinically obtained cytological specimens. With a correct classification rate of more than 93%, sampling deficiencies can be corrected promptly and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches can be derived.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Whole body cryotherapy (WBC); skin temperature; extreme cold; human body
Online: 17 May 2023 (12:39:36 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the impact of body heat loss on the thermal and aerodynamic conditions in a whole-body cryotherapy chamber. The underlying hypothesis is that the heat generated by the human body alters the thermal and aerodynamic environment inside the cabin. A numerical study was conducted to test this hypothesis to analyze the thermodynamic exchanges between the human body and the cabin during a 3-minute whole-body cryotherapy session. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was used to study the unsteady heat transfer between the human body and the interior of the cryotherapy cabin. A thermal boundary condition, based on a mathematical model developed from experimental data, was applied to simulate skin cooling kinetics over time. The post-processing of the 3D results, including temperature, velocity fields, and thermal flux maps at the body surface, provided insight into the thermo-convective mechanisms involved in a whole-body cryotherapy session. The study found that body heat loss significantly affects the temperature fields inside the cabin, leading to global modifications of the aeraulic and thermal conditions. These findings suggest that cryotherapy protocols may need to be adjusted or the cabin set temperature optimized to enhance the therapeutic benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Whole Genome Sequencing; Genomic epidemiology; West Africa, Burkina Faso
Online: 2 November 2022 (11:14:27 CET)
Background: After its initial detection in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly, causing successive epidemic waves worldwide. This study aims to provide a genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Burkina Faso. Methods: Three hundred and seventy-seven SARS-CoV-2 genomes obtained from PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples (PCR cycle threshold score <35) collected between May 5, 2020, and January 31, 2022 were analysed. Genomic sequences were assigned to phylogenetic clades using NextClade and to Pango lineages using pangolin. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed to determine the geographical sources and time of virus introduction in Burkina Faso. Results: The analyzed SARS-CoV-2 genomes could be assigned to 10 phylogenetic clades and 27 Pango lineages already described worldwide. Our analyses revealed the important role of cross-border human mobility in the successive SARS-CoV-2 introductions in Burkina Faso from neighboring countries. Conclusion: This study provides additional insights into the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in West Africa. It highlights the importance of land travel in the spread of the virus and the need to rapidly implement preventive policies. Regional cross-border collaborations and the adherence of the general population to government policies are key to prevent new epidemic waves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: creatinine; cystatin C; asphyxia; whole body hypothermia; acute kidney injury; renal clearance; kidney function.
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:27:42 CEST)
Many neonates undergoing whole body hypothermia (WBH) following moderate to severe perinatal asphyxia suffer from renal impairment. While recent data suggest a WBH-related reno-protection, the differences in serum creatinine (Scr) patterns to reference patterns were not yet reported. We therefore aimed to document Scr trends and patterns in asphyxiated neonates undergoing WBH, and compared these to centiles reference Scr dataset of non-asphyia neonates. Using a systematic review strategy, reports on Scr trends (mean ± SD, or median and range) were collected (day 1-7) in WBH cohorts, and compared to centiles of an earlier reported reference cohort of non-asphyxia cases. Based on 13 papers on asphyxia+WBH cases, a pattern on postnatal Scr trends in asphyxia+WBH cases was constructed. Compared to the reference cohort, mean or median Scr values at birth (>90th centile) and the first two days of WBH (>75th centile) remained clinical relevantly higher in asphyxia+WBH cases, with a subsequent decline to reach at best high or high normal creatinine values (all >50th centile, but mainly >75th centile) from day 4 onwards. Such patterns are valuable to anticipate average changes in renal clearance capacity relevant for pharmacotherapy, but do not yet cover the relevant inter-patient variability observed in WBH cases.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biocatalysis; whole cells; cascade reactions; redox enzymes; monooxygenases; Baeyer-Villiger alcohol dehydrogenases; ene-reductases.
Online: 21 April 2021 (10:54:40 CEST)
Baeyer-Villiger monoxygenases (BVMOs) are flavin-dependant oxidative enzymes capable to catalyse the insertion of an oxygen atom between a carbonylic Csp2 and the Csp3 at the alpha position, therefore transforming linear and cyclic ketones into esters and lactones. These enzymes are dependent on nicotinamides (NAD(P)H) for the flavin reduction and subsequent reaction with molecular oxygen to furnish peroxyflavin, the ultimate responsible for the substrate oxidation. BVMOs can be included in cascade reactions, coupled to other redox enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) or ene-reductases (EREDs), so that the direct conversion of alcohols or α,β-unsaturated carbonylic compounds to the corresponding esters can be achieved. This way, it is possible to develop smart synthetic strategies with a convenient cofactor recycling, both using whole cells (native or genetically engineered) as well as isolated enzymes, via multi-steps reaction through sequential or parallel methodologies. Some examples will be commented dealing with these biotransformations, highlighting the advantages of the coupling of enzymatic steps.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0534.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: long non coding RNA, whole exome sequencing, protein interaction, congenital pouch colon, microscale thermophoresis
Online: 30 August 2018 (15:30:35 CEST)
Congenital Pouch Colon (CPC) is a rare anorectal anomaly common to North Western India specifically Rajasthan. Despite efforts to understand the clinical genetic makeup of CPC, no attempt on identifying non-coding RNAs was done. We have earlier reported CPC's rare variants from whole exome sequencing across 18 affected samples in a total of 64 subjects. A Smith-Waterman algorithm was used to infer a couple of lncRNAs from WES samples of CPC with predictions from the Noncode database. Further screening and quantification using PCR, we ascertained interactions using Micro Scale Thermophoresis (MST). We report the role of lnc-EPB41-1-1 shown to be promiscuously interacting with KIF13A substantiating their role in regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0430.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Humanoid robot; whole-body imitation; social learning; motion mapping; teleoperation for tasks; similarity evaluation
Online: 24 August 2018 (09:59:54 CEST)
Due to the limitations on the capabilities of current robots regarding task learning and performance, imitation is an efficient social learning approach that endows a robot with the ability to transmit and reproduce human postures, actions, behaviors, etc., as a human does. Stable whole-body imitation and task-oriented teleoperation via imitation are challenging issues. In this paper, a novel comprehensive and unrestricted real-time whole-body imitation system for humanoid robots is designed and developed. To map human motions to a robot, an analytical method called geometrical analysis based on link vectors and virtual joints (GA-LVVJ) is proposed. In addition, a real-time locomotion method is employed to realize a natural mode of operation. To achieve safe mode switching, a filter strategy is proposed. Then, two quantitative vector-set-based methods of similarity evaluation focusing on the whole body and local links, called the Whole-Body-Focused (WBF) method and the Local-Link-Focused (LLF) method, respectively, are proposed and compared. Two experiments conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods and system are reported. Specifically, the first experiment validates the good stability and similarity features of our system, and the second experiment verifies the effectiveness with which complicated tasks can be executed. At last, an imitation learning mechanism in which the joint angles of demonstrators are mapped by GA-LVVJ is presented and developed to extend the proposed system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: next-generation sequencing; whole-genome sequencing; hospital-acquired pneumonia; antibiotic resistance; prediction; clinical metagenomics
Online: 30 September 2017 (04:49:23 CEST)
Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referred to as the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to clinical samples, is a promising tool for the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). Indeed, CMg allows identifying pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), thereby providing the information required for the optimization of the antibiotic regimen. Hence, provided that CMg would be faster than conventional culture, the probabilistic regimen used in HAP could be tailored faster, which should lead to an expected decrease of mortality and morbidity. While the inference of the antibiotic susceptibility testing from metagenomic or even genomic data is challenging, a limited number of antibiotics are used in the probabilistic regimen of HAP (namely beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and oxazolidinones). Accordingly in the perspective of applying CMg to the early diagnostic of HAP, we aimed at reviewing the performances of whole genomic sequencing (WGS) of the main HAP-causing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Staphylococcus aureus) for the prediction of susceptibility to the antibiotic families advocated in the probabilistic regimen of HAP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurofibromatosis type 1; congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia; whole-exome sequencing; targeted sequencing; BCOR
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:19:00 CEST)
Neurofibromatosis type1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF1gene. Although congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) has frequently been associated with NF1, the underlying molecular mechanism of CPT in these NF1 patients is yet ill-understood. The aim of the present study was to detect NF1 mutations from genomic DNA and to harbor variants associated with CPT in NF1 patients. Whole-exome sequencing was first carried out with samples from two patients with CPT in one NF1 family, and a novel mutation c.2324A>G (p.E775G) in NF1 gene was identified. Additionally, a missense variant c.455C>T (p.P152L) in BCOR gene completely co-segregated with the CPT phenotype within this family. Subsequently, NF1 and NF2 genes in four other unrelated patients with both NF1 and CPT were screened using targeted sequencing. Four mutations in NF1 gene, including two known mutations (c.2288T>C/p.L763P, c.574 C>T/p.R192*) and two novel mutations (c.768delT/p.F256Lfs*25, c.2229_2230delTG/ p.V744Qfs*23) were detected. Further study confirmed that CPT was present in NF1 families, and NF1 mutations were closely associated with these complex phenotypes. Moreover, the data from the current study indicated that male gender might be a susceptibility factor for CPT in NF1. Therefore, we speculated that BCOR variants might be related to CPT phenotype among male NF1 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0648.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae; whole genome sequencing; core genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis; molecular epidemiology
Online: 9 May 2023 (11:57:43 CEST)
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is a serious public health issue. Aim of the study was to identify the antimicrobial resistance and accessory genes, the clonal relatedness and the evolution dynamics of selected CRKP isolates recovered in an adult and a pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Greece. Methods: Twenty-four CRKP isolates recovered during 2018-2022 were included in the study. Next-generation sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent PGM Platform. The identification of the plasmid content, MLST and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as the comparison of multiple genome alignments and the identification of core genome single-nucleotide polymorphism sites, were performed applying various bioinformatics software. Results: The isolates belonged to eight sequence types 11, 15, 30, 35, 39, 307, 323, and 512. A variety of carbapenemases (KPC, VIM, NDM and OXA-48) and resistance genes were detected. CRKP strains shared visually common genomic regions with the reference strain (NTUH-K2044). ST15, ST323, ST39, and ST11 CRKP isolates presented on average 17, 6, 16 and 866 recombined SNPs, respectively. All isolates belonging to ST15, ST323 and ST39 were classified in distinct phylogenetic branches, while ST11 isolates were assigned to a two-subclade branch. For large CRKP sets, the phylogeny seems to change approximately every seven SNPs. Conclusion: The current study provides insight into the genetic characterization of CRKP isolates in the ICUs of a tertiary hospital. Our results indicate clonal dispersion of ST15, ST323, and ST39 and highly diverged ST11 isolates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0414.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural; Biocatalysis; 2,5-Di(hydroxymethyl)furan; Fusarium; Whole Cells; Biotransformation; Platform Chemical; Biomass; Bioreactor
Online: 21 January 2021 (10:14:47 CET)
2,5-Di(hydroxymethyl)furan (DHMF) is a high-value chemical block than can be synthesized from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a platform chemical that results from the dehydration of biomass-derived carbohydrates. In this work, the HMF biotransformation capability of different Fusarium species was evaluated and F. striatum was selected to produce DHMF. The effects of the inoculum size, glucose concentration and pH of the media over DHMF production were evalu-ated by a 23 factorial design. A substrate feeding approach was found suitable to overcome the toxicity effect of HMF towards the cells when added at high concentrations (>75 mM). The pro-cess was successfully scaled-up at bioreactor scale (1.3 L) with excellent DHMF production yields (95%) and selectivities (98%). DHMF was purified from the reaction media with high recovery and purity by organic solvent extraction with ethyl acetate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: melanoma; genetic whole cell therapeutic melanoma vaccine (AGI-101H); CD8+ T cells; melanoma antigens; ELISPOT
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:53:31 CET)
Healthy human subjects develop spontaneous CD8+ T cell responses to melanocyte antigens (MA) expressed by normal melanocytes, such as Tyrosinase, MAGE-A3, Melan/Mart-1, gp100, and NY-ESO-1. This natural autoimmunity directed against melanocytes might confer protection against the development of malignant melanoma (MM), where MA are present as overexpressed tumor-associated antigens. Consistent with this notion we report here that functional T cell reactivity to MA was found to be diminished in untreated MM patients: while 57.5% of healthy controls (n=40) exhibited high-frequency MA-specific T cell reactivity ex vivo, such was detected in only 12% of the untreated MM patients (n=24). Three lines of evidence suggest that the MA-reactive T cells present in healthy subjects undergo exhaustion once MM establishes itself. First, only the MA-specific T cell reactivity was affected in the MM patients; that to third party recall antigens was not. Second, in these patients, the residual MA-specific T cells, unlike third party antigen reactive T cells, were functionally impaired, showing a diminished per cell IFN-γ productivity. Third, successful immunotherapy with AGI-101H melanoma vaccine restored natural CD8+ T cell autoimmunity to MA in 85% of the vaccinated patients (n= 27). The role of natural T cell autoimmunity to tumor-associated MA is discussed based on discrete levels of T cell activation thresholds.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0253.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Genomic Epidemiology; GenomeTrakr; microbial pathogen surveillance, NCBI submission; whole genome sequencing; QA/QC; One Health
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:26:42 CEST)
The holistic approach of One Health, which sees human, animal, plant, and environmental health as a unit, rather than discrete parts, requires not only interdisciplinary cooperation, but standardized methods for communicating and archiving data, enabling participants to easily share what they have learned and allow others to build upon their findings.Ongoing work by NCBI and the GenomeTrakr project illustrates how open data platforms can help meet the needs of federal and state regulators, public health laboratories, departments of agriculture, and universities. Here we describe how microbial pathogen surveillance can be transformed by having an open access database along with Best Practices for contributors to follow. First, we describe the open pathogen surveillance framework, hosted on the NCBI platform. We cover the current community standards for WGS quality, provide an SOP for assessing your own sequence quality and recommend QC thresholds for all submitters to follow. We then provide an overview of NCBI data submission along with step by step details. And finally, we provide curation guidance and an SOP for keeping your public data current within the database. These Best Practices can be models for other open data projects, thereby advancing the One Health goals of Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Re-usable (FAIR) data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: whole-cell pertussis vaccines; combined vaccines; ELISA; potency testing by serology; Animal testing alternatives; 3Rs principle
Online: 6 November 2023 (10:36:32 CET)
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturing Network coordinated a multi-laboratory study funded by the US National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals to assess the performance of the Pertussis Serological Potency Test (PSPT) in the laboratories of seven whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wP) manufacturers and three National Control Laboratories based in Southeast Asian countries. To this end, common protocols for the immunization of mice and serological testing by ELISA were shared with all laboratories. Each laboratory used their own wP vaccines and the reference vaccine routinely used in the regulatory required mouse protection test (MPT) and assayed the products both in the MPT and PSPT. Whereas in all laboratories the PSPT showed decreased serum IgG levels after immunization with sub-potent compared to potent final batches, some issues were encountered during execution of the assay, which prevented drawing of definitive conclusions on assay performance. Nevertheless, the study provided the participants with the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the PSPT protocols and revealed the next steps to be addressed for implementation of the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes; food-born pathogen; invasive listeriosis; cgMLST; whole genome sequencing; prophages; virulence factors; COVID-19.
Online: 14 September 2023 (14:51:01 CEST)
Listerias of the phylogenetic lineage II (PLII) are common in the European environment, and are hypovirulent. Despite this, they caused more than a third of sporadic cases of listeriosis, and multi-country foodborne outbreaks. L. monocytogenes ST37 is one of them. During the COVID-19 pandemic ST37 appeared in the clinical cases and ranked second in occurrence among food isolates in the Moscow region. The aim of this study was to describe the genomic features of ST37 isolates from different sources. All clinical cases of ST37 were in the cohort of male patients (age, 48-81 years) with meningitis-septicemia manifestation, and COVID-19 or Influenza in the anamnesis. The core genomes of the fish isolates were closely related. The clinical and meat isolates revealed a large diversity. Prophages (2-4/genome) were the source of the unique genes. Two clinical isolates displayed the pseudolysogeny, and excided prophages were A006-like. Absence of the plasmids, the assortment of virulence factors and resistance determinants in chromosome corresponded to the hypovirulent characteristics. However, all clinical isolates caused severe disease with deaths in four cases. Thus, these studies allow us to speculate that a previous viral infection increases a human susceptibility to listeriosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0993.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy; Gene sequencing; Whole transcriptome profiles; Septic animal models; Cecal ligation and puncture; Lipopolysaccharide
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:36:05 CEST)
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, with septic cardiomyopathy being a common and severe complication. Despite its significant clinical impact, the molecular mechanisms underlying sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SICM) remain incompletely understood. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of whole transcriptome profiles in two widely used mouse models of septic cardiomyopathy, the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model. Our aim was to identify key genes and pathways involved in the development of septic cardiomyopathy and to evaluate the similarities and differences between the two models. Our findings suggested that 1) both methods can induce septic heart dysfunction within 24 hours; 2) distinct whole transcriptome expression profiles are revealed; 3) potentially different pathways are involved in causing heart failure in sepsis. The comprehensive comparison provides valuable insights into the molecular basis of septic cardiomyopathy and contributes to the ongoing search for effective treatment strategies, triggered by different factors for SICM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0451.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: academic lessons; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA; whole-school; physical activity; physically active learning; PAL
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:11:07 CET)
Background: A large majority of primary school pupils fail to achieve 30-minutes in-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The aim of this study was to investigate MVPA accumulation and subject frequency during academic lesson segments and the broader segmented school day. Methods: 122 children (42.6% boys; 9.9±0.3yrs) from six primary schools in North East England, wore uniaxial accelerometers for eight consecutive days. Subject frequency was assessed by teacher diaries. Multilevel models (children nested within schools) examined significant predictors of MVPA across each school-day segment (lesson one, break, lesson two, lunch, lesson three). Results: Pupils averaged 18.33±8.34 minutes of in-school MVPA and 90.2% failed to achieve the in-school 30-minute MVPA threshold. Across all school-day segments, MVPA accumulation was typically influenced at the individual level. Lesson one and two - dominated by Math and English - were less active than lesson three. Break and lunch were the most active segments. Conclusion: This study breaks new ground, revealing MVPA accumulation and subject frequency varies greatly during different academic lessons. Morning lessons were dominated by the inactive delivery of Math and English, whereas afternoon lessons involved a greater array of subject delivery that resulted in marginally higher levels of MVPA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Diagnosis delay; rare diseases; undiagnosed programs; standardized phenotype; phenotype ontologies; whole exome analysis; international data sharing
Online: 13 June 2018 (15:41:21 CEST)
One of the IRDiRC goals for 2017-2027 is to achieve definitive diagnosis for rare undiagnosed diseases within one year, as diagnosis delay remains one of the pending issues in the rare diseases field. The Spanish Undiagnosed Rare Diseases Program (SpainUDP) was created in response to this challenging scenario to cover patients’ needs and after seeing the success of the UDP in USA. SpainUDP offers a multidisciplinary approach to those patients who have long sought a diagnosis without any success. During a first phase of the protocol, undiagnosed cases are sent to SpainUDP by individual patients, patient organizations or hospitals. After a carefully analysis of phenotype, data from sequencing experiments (WES) is processed with a standard pipeline and a detailed standardized phenotypic information (mapped to HPO) is connected to genetic data. In addition, the participation of SpainUDP in international initiatives such as the European projects RD-Connect and Solve RD, the Undiagnosed Diseases Network International (UDNI), and the MatchMaker Exchange platform, allows the establishment of a global data sharing strategy across multiple projects submitting data to these international initiatives. From the official beginning of the program (at the end of 2015) until early 2018, 147 cases were accepted in SpainUDP. During this time, 37 cases (25 %) dropped out the program due to several reasons. The remaining 110 cases are distributed as follows: phenotypic and genotypic (WES) characterization was finished in 30 cases, of which 20 (67 %) were diagnosed; 21 cases are pending on variants validation by Sanger; in 25 cases, WES is ongoing and 34 cases are in a deep phenotypic characterization. As a conclusion, SpainUDP aims to achieve a diagnosis following two recommendations of the IRDiRC: the patients’ diagnosis in a period of time as short as possible and the promotion of data sharing (especially genomic) at the international level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0187.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: medical image classification; local binary patterns; characteristic curves; whole slide image pro-cessing; automated HER2 scoring
Online: 31 October 2017 (03:10:22 CET)
This paper presents novel feature descriptors and classification algorithms for automated scoring of HER2 in Whole Slide Images (WSI) of breast cancer histology slides. Since a large amount of processing is involved in analyzing WSI images, the primary design goal has been to keep the computational complexity to the minimum possible level and to use simple, yet robust feature descriptors that can provide accurate classification of the slides. We propose two types of feature descriptors that encode important information about staining patterns and the percentage of staining present in ImmunoHistoChemistry (IHC) stained slides. The first descriptor is called a characteristic curve which is a smooth non-increasing curve that represents the variation of percentage of staining with saturation levels. The second new descriptor introduced in this paper is an LBP feature curve which is also a non-increasing smooth curve that represents the local texture of the staining patterns. Both descriptors show excellent interclass variance and intraclass correlation, and are suitable for the design of automatic HER2 classification algorithms. This paper gives the detailed theoretical aspects of the feature descriptors and also provides experimental results and comparative analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: mobile genetic elements; Anti-microbial resistance; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Whole genome sequencing; integrons; plasmids; sequence types; phylogenetic analysis
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:28:45 CEST)
Conjugative transposons in Gram-negative bacteria have a significant role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance-conferring genes between bacteria. This study aims to genomically characterize plasmids and conjugative transposons carrying integrons in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Genetic composition of conjugative transposons and phenotypic assessment of 50 multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from Tertiary-care Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman was investigated. Horizontal transferability was investigated by filter- mating conjugation experiments. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to determine the sequence type (ST), acquired resistome and plasmidome of integron-carrying strains. Class 1 integron was detected in 96% of isolates and among integron-positive isolates, 18 stains contained variable regions. Horizontal transferability by conjugation confirmed the successful transfer of integrons between cells and WGS confirmed their presence in conjugative plasmids. Dihydrofolate reductase (dfrA14) was the most prevalent (34.8%) gene cassettes in class 1 integrons. MLST analysis detected predominantly ST-231 and ST-395. BlaOXA-232 and blaCTX-M-15 were the most frequently detected carbapenems and beta-lactamases in sequenced isolates. This study highlighted the high transmissibility of MDR-conferring conjugative plasmids in clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. Therefore, the wise use of antibiotics and the adherence to effective infection control measures are necessary to limit further dissemination of multidrug-resistant organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; digital pathology; whole slide imaging; artificial intelligence; deep learning; convolutional neural networks; computer-aided diagnosis
Online: 10 November 2022 (15:06:51 CET)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, and it is urgently necessary to diagnose it as early as possible. Usually, the diagnostic process begins with a radiological examination which, when a possible tumour is present, is followed by a biopsy to extract tissue samples from the patient's lungs. Therefore, the purpose of this study is the development of an artificial intelligence algorithm that will analyse the Whole Slide Image (WSI) generated by the digitisation of the glass slides obtained from the extracted samples and detect if there is a tumour. The developed learning algorithms as well as the tested neural networks (NNs) were trained on a dataset composed of previously annotated WSI tiles, classified as Tumour or Non-Tumour. From these, four developed convolutional neural networks stood out and were selected to be compared with each other and with the tested NNs. When the best result of each of the developed architectures was compared to the highest result of the tested NNs, it was possible to denote that version 4 of CancerDetecNN achieved an average accuracy of 89.749 \% and an average loss of 0.220. Furthermore, the results for the four selected versions are in agreement with the results reported in the literature, however, the limited size of the given dataset must be considered. Given the results obtained, the fourth version has the potential to optimise the lung cancer diagnosis process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: whole genome sequencing; antibiotic resistance; Salmonella Enteritidis; Salmonella Typhimurium; Salmonella Bovismorbificans; colistin resistance; mcr-1; mcr-9
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:46:05 CET)
Polymyxin resistance, determined by mcr genes located on plasmid DNA, currently pose a high epidemiological threat. Non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS) are one of the key pathogens causing diarrheal diseases. Here, we report the isolation and whole genome sequencing of multidrug colistin-resistant/susceptible isolates of non-typhoid Salmonella enterica serovars carries mcr genes. Non-typhoid strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were isolated during microbiological monitoring of the environment, food, and diarrheal disease patients between 2018 and 2020 in Russia (n=586). mcr-1 genes were detected using a previously developed qPCR assay and whole genome sequencing of mcr positive isolates was performed by both short-read (Illumina) and long-read (Oxford Nanopore) approaches. Three colistin-resistant isolates including two isolates of S. Enteritidis and one isolate of S. Bovismorbificans carried the mcr-1.1 gene located on IncX4 and IncI2 conjugative plasmids, respectively. The phenotypically colistin-susceptible isolate of S. Typhimurium carried a mcr-9 gene on plasmid IncHI2. In conclusion, we present the first three cases of mcr gene carrying NTS isolates detected in Russia with both outbreak and sporadic epidemiological background.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0587.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: beef production chain; Listeria innocua; whole-genome sequencing; sequence type; an-timicrobial resistance genes; virulence gene; South Africa
Online: 10 July 2023 (09:48:11 CEST)
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used for genomic characterization of 110 strains of Listeria innocua isolated from 23 cattle farms, 8 beef abattoirs, and 48 retail outlets in Gauteng province, South Africa. In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to identify the isolates' sequence types (STs). BLAST-based analyses were used to identify antimicrobial and virulence genes. The study also linked the detection of the genes to the origin (sources and types of samples) of the L. innocua isolates. The study detected 12 STs, 13 resistance genes, and 23 virulence genes. Of the 12 STs de-tected, ST637 (26.4%), ST448 (20%), 537 (13.6%), and 1085 (12.7%) were predominant, and the frequency varied significantly (P<0.05). All 110 isolates of L. innocua were car-riers of one or more antimicrobial resistance genes, with resistance genes lin (100%), fosX (100%), and tet(M) (30%) being the most frequently detected (P<0.05). Of the 23 virulence genes recognized, 13 (clpC, clpE, clpP, hbp1.svpA, hbp2, iap/cwhA, lap, lpeA, lplA1, lspA, oatA, pdgA, and prsA2) were found in all 110 isolates of L. innocua. Overall, diversity and significant differences were detected in the frequencies of STs, resistance, and virulence genes according to the origins (source and sample type) of the L. innocua isolates. This, being the first genomic characterization of L. innocua recovered from the three levels (farm, abattoir, and retail outlets) of the beef production system in South Africa, provides data on the organism's distribution and potential food safety implications..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: system structure; organised complexity; organisation; models of organisation; whole-part graphs; synexions; organised sets; organisation interaction; in-formation
Online: 3 November 2016 (10:41:01 CET)
Warren Weaver, writing about the function that science should have in mankind’s developing future, ideas and ideals, proposed to classify scientific problems into ‘problems of simplicity’, ‘problems of disorganised complexity’, and ‘problems of organised complexity’ — the huge complementary class to which all biological, human, and social problems belong. Problems of simplicity have few components and variables and have been extensively addressed in the last 400 years. Problems of disorganised complexity have a huge number of individually erratic components and variables, but possess collective regularities that can be analysed by resourcing to stochastic methods. Yet, problems of organised complexity do not yield easily to classical or statistical treatment since interrelations among phenomenon elements change during its evolution alongside commonly used state variables, affecting behaviour and outcome. Moreover, organisation, the focal point in this complementary class, is still an elusive concept despite the gigantic efforts undertaken since a century ago to tame it. This paper addresses the description, representation and study of phenomena in the ‘problems of organised complexity’ class. Grounded on relational mathematical constructs, a theoretical framework providing operational definitions and schemes for formally modelling organisations and interaction of organisations is introduced. This framework extends the general systems’ concept and provides a novel perspective for addressing organised complexity phenomena as a collection of interacting organisations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: adaptive response; complex environment; functional ecology; functional trait; Index for Adaptive Responses; phenotypic plasticity; plasticity index; whole organism response
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:36:38 CEST)
The focus of recent research shifts towards complex ‘whole organism’ responses (i.e., in multiple functional traits) in adaptation to or to defend against stressors under complex environmental conditions. This increasing complexity is challenging to analyse and demands sophisticated tools to drive meaningful conclusions from those data. Trait-based regression models, multivariate analyses, like principal component analyses, and plasticity indices can be used to tackle challenges with those complex investigations. But those methods have substantial limitations, like the need for high sample size, multi-dimensionality of results or the need for trait coordination in high-dimensional space, or the calculation on the population level, which might buffer or cover the de facto occurring individual effects. To improve and simplify studies on ‘whole organism’ responses, analyses, and their interpretation, we developed the Index for Adaptive Responses. This straightforward framework can unite all traits of an organism in one number. A newly developed transformation method, included in this framework, comprises a normalisation and standardisation to a baseline or control without changing the data or variance structure of the original data. We assessed the performance and accuracy of the framework with an application in an extensive predator-prey case study, with simulations and application examples using literature data. We show that the Index for Adaptive Responses respects adaptations as well as maladaptations and outperforms established approaches. The framework is robust against outliers and non-gaussian distribution. We further show that the qualitative prediction of the adaptiveness of included traits is highly accurate, even under challenging conditions, e.g., low replicate numbers. Functions and algorithms of the framework are provided with an R package but can easily be translated into other programming languages. The Index for Adaptive Responses will simplify future research on complex adaptive responses and improves our understanding of these responses’ ecological as well as evolutionary implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: vaccine side effects; inactivated COVID-19 vaccine; sinopharm vaccine; sinovac vaccine; whole attenuated vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination; vaccine hesitancy
Online: 2 September 2022 (05:12:45 CEST)
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy has led to a decrease in vaccine uptake; driven by misinformation, fear, and perceptions of vaccine safety. Whole inactivated vaccines have been used in one-fifth of the vaccine recipients in Africa, however there is limited real-world data on their safety. We evaluated the reported side effects and factors associated with reported side effects following vaccination with whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines - BBiBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and CoronaVac (Sinovac). A quantitative survey evaluating attitudes and side effects from vaccination was administered to 1016 adults presenting at vaccination centers. Two follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to determine side effects after the first and second vaccination dose. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated; 26.0% and 14.4% reported side effects after the first and second dose respectively. The most frequent local and systemic side effects were pain at the injection site and headaches respectively. Most symptoms were mild, and no participants re-quired hospitalization. Participants who perceived COVID-19 vaccines as safe or had a personal COVID-19 experience were significantly less likely to report side effects. Our findings provide data on the safety and tolerability of whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in an African population, providing the necessary data to create effective strategies to increase vaccination and support vaccination campaigns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary substitution; CVD; saturated fatty acids; protein; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; dairy fat; refined carbohydrates; whole grains
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:01:53 CEST)
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) cancer; molecular profiling; precision oncology; genomics; whole genome sequencing; next-generation sequencing; sarcoma; diagnostic biomarkers
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:09:28 CET)
Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of tumours that commonly carry poor prognosis with limited therapeutic options. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with sarcoma are a unique and under-studied patient population that have only achieved modest survival gains compared to other groups. We present our institutional experience of AYA with sarcoma who underwent comprehensive molecular profiling (CMP) using either large-panel targeted DNA sequencing or whole genome and transcriptome sequencing and evaluated the feasibility and clinical impact of this approach. Genomic variants detected were determined to be clinically relevant and actionable following the Molecular Tumour Board evaluation. Clinicians provided feedback regarding the utility of testing three months after reporting. Twenty-five patients who were recruited for CMP are included in this analysis. The median time from consent to final molecular report was 45 days (interquartile range 37-57). Potentially actionable variants were detected for 14 patients (56%) and new treatment recommendations were identified for 12 patients (48%). Pathogenic germline variants were identified in three patients (12%), and one patient had a change of diagnosis. Implementation for CMP for AYA with sarcoma is clinically valuable, feasible and should be increasingly integrated into routine clinical practice as technologies and turnaround times continue to improve.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1869.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; healthcare-associated infections; genomic epidemiology; whole genome sequencing; cgMLST; international clones of high risk; antibiotic resistance
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:59:38 CET)
The infections caused by various bacterial pathogens both in clinical and community settings represent a significant threat to public healthcare worldwide. The growing resistance to antimicrobial drugs acquired by bacterial species causing healthcare-associated infections has already become a life-threatening danger noticed by the World Health Organization. Several groups or lineages of bacterial isolates usually called ‘the clones of high risk’ often drive the spread of resistance within particular species. Thus, it is vitally important to reveal and track the spread of such clones and the mechanisms by which they acquire antibiotic resistance and enhance their survival skills. Currently, the analysis of whole genome sequences for bacterial isolates of interest is increasingly used for these purposes, including epidemiological surveillance and developing of spread prevention measures. However, the availability and uniformity of the data derived from the genomic sequences often represents a bottleneck for such investigations. In this dataset, we present the results of a comprehensive genomic epidemiology analysis of 17,546 genomes of a dangerous bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Important typing information including multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-based sequence types (STs), intrinsic blaOXA-51-like gene variants, capsular (KL) and oligosaccharide (OCL) types, CRISPR-Cas systems, and cgMLST profiles are presented, as well as the assignment of particular isolates to nine known international clones of high risk. The presence of antimicrobial resistance genes within the genomes is also reported. These data will be useful for researchers in the field of A. baumannii genomic epidemiology, resistance analysis and prevention measure development.