Vázquez-López, R.; Solano-Gálvez, S.; León-Chávez, B.A.; Thompson-Bonilla, M.R.; Guerrero-González, T.; Gómez-Conde, E.; Martínez-Fong, D.; González-Barrios, J.A. Characterization of Gene Families Encoding Beta-Lactamases of Gram-Negative Rods Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Vegetables in Mexico City. High-Throughput2018, 7, 36.
Vázquez-López, R.; Solano-Gálvez, S.; León-Chávez, B.A.; Thompson-Bonilla, M.R.; Guerrero-González, T.; Gómez-Conde, E.; Martínez-Fong, D.; González-Barrios, J.A. Characterization of Gene Families Encoding Beta-Lactamases of Gram-Negative Rods Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Vegetables in Mexico City. High-Throughput 2018, 7, 36.
Beta-lactam resistant bacteria, commonly resident in tertiary hospitals, have emerged as a worldwide health problem because of ready-to-eat vegetable intake. We aimed to characterize the genes providing resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from five commercial salad brands for human consumption in Mexico City. 25 samples were collected, grow in blood agar plates, the bacteria were biochemistry identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done, the carried family genes were identified by endpoint PCR and the specific genes were confirmed with WGS by NGS. 12 positive cultures were identified and their microbiological distribution was as follows, 8.3% forEnterobacter aerogene (n=1), 8.3% for Serratia fonricola (n=1), 16.7% for Serratia marcesens (n=2), 16.7% for Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2), and 50% (n=6) for Enterobacter cloacae. The endpoint PCR results showed 11 colonies positive for blaBIL (91.7%), 11 for blaSHV (91.7%), 11 for blaCTX (97.7%), 12 for blaDHA (100%),4 for blaVIM (33.3%), 2 for blaOXA (16.7%), 2 for blaIMP (16.7%), 1 for blaKPC (8.3%) and 1 for blaTEM (8.3%) gene, all samples were negative blaROB, blaCMY, blaP, blaCFX and blaLAP gene. The sequencing analysis revels a specific genotypes for Enterobacter cloacae (blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1, blaKPC-2); Serratia marcescens (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M-3, blaDHA-1, blaVIM-2); Klebsiella pneumoniae (blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1); Serratia fonticola (blaSHV-12, blaVIM-1, blaDHA-1) and Enterobacter aerogene (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M-1, blaDHA-1, blaVIM-2, blaOXA-9). Our results indicate that beta-lactam resistant bacteria have acquired integrons with a different number of genes that providing panresistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, oxacillins, cefalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and imipenems.
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