ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: COVID-19; CRP; vitamin D insufficiency; vitamin D spray
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:21:04 CEST)
Background: According to newly published studies, patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have significantly lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D levels than those without the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vitamin D insufficiency may be a predictor of poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D supplementation is related to improved clinical outcomes in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death, particularly in individuals with moderate-to-severe forms of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Materials and methods: This placebo-controlled five-day study was performed on 100 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with vitamin D insufficiency randomized into two groups. Vitamin D in the form of a sublingual sprayable microemulsion (LYL love your life® sunD3 LYLmicro™) was given three times daily after breakfast, lunch, and dinner (daily dose 12,000 IU) to 52 patients with blood vitamin D levels below 30 ng/ml. 48 patients in the control group received a placebo spray in the same daily regiment. Results: We observed a statistically significant increase by 8.6 ng/ml in median vitamin D level after five days of high-dose vitamin D3 spray therapy. 90.2% of subjects reached normal serum levels of vitamin D. There was a strong correlation between changes in vitamin D and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in individuals with moderately severe disease (p<0.05), while mild and severe cases showed no statistical significance comparing case and control groups. There were no statistically significant changes in ferritin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrated the possibility to rapidly increase circulating levels of vitamin D just in 5 days of high-dose intervention and found a statistically significant decrease of CRP levels in patients with moderately severe COVID-19. We were not able to detect statistically significant changes in ferritin and IL-6 levels during the 5-day vitamin D intervention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0727.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: vitamin D; muscle; parathyroid hormone; vitamin D-binding protein
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:11:15 CEST)
Vitamin D, unlike the micronutrients, vitamins A, E and K, is largely obtained, not from food, but by the action of solar UV light on its precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol, in skin. With the decline in UV light intensity in winter, most skin production of vitamin D occurs in summer. Because no defined storage organ or tissue has been found for vitamin D, it has been assumed that adequate vitamin D status in winter can only be maintained by oral supplementation. Skeletal muscle cells have now been shown to incorporate the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) from blood into the cell cytoplasm where it binds to cytoplasmic actin. This intracellular DBP provides an array of specific binding sites for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) which diffuses into the cell from the extracellular fluid. When intracellular DBP undergoes proteolytic breakdown, the bound 25(OH)D is then released and diffuses back into blood. This uptake and release of 25(OH)D by muscle, accounts for the very long half-life of this metabolite in the circulation. As 25(OH)D concentration in blood declines in winter, its cycling in and out of muscle cells appears to be upregulated. Parathyroid hormone is the most likely factor enhancing the repeated cycling of 25(OH)D between skeletal muscle and blood. This mechanism appears to have evolved to maintain adequate vitamin D status in winter.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0685.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: vitamin D; muscle; parathyroid hormone; vitamin D-binding protein
Online: 30 August 2020 (18:31:44 CEST)
Vitamin D, unlike the micronutrients, vitamins A, E and K, is largely obtained, not from food, but by the action of solar UV light on its precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol, in skin. With the decline in UV light intensity in winter, most skin production of vitamin D occurs in summer. Because no defined storage organ or tissue has been found for vitamin D, it has been assumed that adequate vitamin D status in winter can only be maintained by oral supplementation. Skeletal muscle cells have now been shown to incorporate the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) from blood into the cell cytoplasm where it binds to cytoplasmic actin. This intracellular DBP provides an array of specific binding sites for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) which diffuses into the cell from the extracellular fluid. When intracellular DBP undergoes proteolytic breakdown, the bound 25(OH)D is then released and diffuses back into blood. This uptake and release of 25(OH)D by muscle, accounts for the very long half-life of this metabolite in the circulation. As 25(OH)D concentration in blood declines in winter, its cycling in and out of muscle cells appears to be upregulated. Parathyroid hormone is the most likely factor enhancing the repeated cycling of 25(OH)D between skeletal muscle and blood. This mechanism appears to have evolved to maintain adequate vitamin D status in winter.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria
Online: 18 July 2018 (08:39:27 CEST)
Vitamin D (VD) is a pro-hormone essential for life in higher animals. It is present in few types of foods and is produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. The final step of VD activation occurs in the kidneys involving a second hydroxylation reaction to generate the biologically active metabolite 1,25(OH)2-VD. Extrarenal 1α-hydroxylation has also been described to have an important role in autocrine and paracrine signaling. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major public health-care issue with an estimated prevalence of more than a billion people worldwide. Among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), VDD prevalence has been reported to be as high as 80%. Classically VD plays a pivotal role in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the importance of VD in many vital nonskeletal biological processes such as endothelial function, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system modulation, redox balance and innate and adaptive immunity. In individuals with CKD, VDD has been associated with albuminuria, faster progression of kidney disease and increased all-cause mortality. Recent guidelines support VD supplementation in CKD based on extrapolation from cohorts conducted in the general population. In this review, we discuss new insights on the multifactorial pathophysiology of VDD in CKD as well as how it may negatively modulate different organs and systems. We also critically review the latest evidence and controversies of VD monitoring and supplementation in CKD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: bipolar disorder; vitamin D metabolism; functional vitamin D deficiency; 25(OH)D; 24,25(OH)2D; VMR
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:58:38 CEST)
Vitamin D status may impact acute affective symptomatology and the severity of symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Therefore, this cross-sectional study analyzed 25(OH)D, 24,25(OH)2D, and the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR) in BD and correlated the results with clinical affective symptomatology and functionality. The inactive precursor 25(OH)D and its principal catabolite 24,25(OH)2D were measured simultaneously with a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method in 170 BD outpatients and 138 healthy controls. VMR was calculated as follows: VMR=100*(24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D). The psychometric assessment enclosed: Beck Depression Inventory-II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and number of suicide attempts. We did not find a significant difference between patients and controls in the concentrations of 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D. Additionally, the VMR was comparable in both groups. The calculations for the clinical parameters showed a negative correlation between the Young Mania Rating Scale and 24,25(OH)2D (r = -.154, p = .040). Based on the small effect size and the predominantly euthymic sample, further exploitation in individuals with manic symptoms would be needed to confirm this association. In addition, long-term clinical markers, and an assessment in different phases of the disease may provide available additional insights.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: vitamin D; calcifediol; cailcitriol; graft-versus-host disease; vitamin D receptor (VDR)
Online: 3 March 2022 (10:02:45 CET)
The different cell subsets of the immune system express vitamin D receptor (VDR). Through VDR, vitamin D exerts different functions which influences on immune responses, as previously shown in different preclinical models. Based on this background, retrospective studies have explored the impact of vitamin D levels on the outcome of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, showing that vitamin D deficiency is related to an increased risk of complications, especially graft-versus-host disease. These results have been confirmed in a prospective cohorts trial, although further studies are required to confirm this data. In addition, the role of vitamin D on the treatment of hematologic malignancies has also been explored. Considering this dual effect both on the immune system as well as on tumor cells in patients with hematologic malignancies, vitamin D might be useful in this setting both to decrease graft-versus-host disease and relapse rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: nanoemulsion; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; bioefficacy; fortification; rat
Online: 13 November 2018 (09:46:27 CET)
1) Background: The aim was to evaluate the bioefficacy of vitamin D (VitD) encapsulated in nanoemulsions developed by sonication and pH-shifting of pea protein isolate in restoring VitD status in VitD-deficient rats. 2) Methods: Weaned (3-week old), male albino rats (n = 35) were initially divided into two groups: control sufficient group (VDS; n = 7) fed on a normal AIN-93G diet and a VitD-deficient group (n = 28) fed a VitD-deficient diet for six weeks. VitD-deficient rats were divided into four subgroups: two treatment groups (Nano+VitD and Oil+VitD) and two control groups (Nano-VitD and Oil-VitD), receiving seven rats in each sub-group. Nano+VitD and Oil+VitD groups received VitD dispersed in PPI-nanoemulsions and in canola oil, respectively, while the control groups received the respective delivery vehicles without VitD. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)VitD], parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), phosphorus levels (P), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. Femur bone was used to prepare histopathological sections. 3) Results: After one week of treatment, the VitD-deficient rats consuming Nano+VitD recovered from VitD deficiency (serum 25(OH)VitD 34.38 ± 7.00) compared to the sufficient control (36.84 ± 9.16; p > 0.05) and the deficient control consuming VitD+Oil (14.05 ± 3.08; p < 0.01). Enhancement in VitD status was followed with expected changes in serum PTH, Ca, P, and ALP levels, no difference in similar biomarkers against the sufficient control, and an improvement of the osteoid area and reduction of trabecular separation in bone. 4) Conclusions: Stabilization of VitD within PPI-based nanoemulsions enhances its absorption and restores its status and biomarkers of bone resorption in VitD-deficient rats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Vitamin D; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; endothelialithis; CYP27B1; vitamin D receptor; CYP24A1
Online: 7 December 2020 (19:43:48 CET)
Vitamin D is a nutrient with anti-inflammatory properties whose role is currently being evaluated in COVID-19. Although studies are conflicting, they seem to suggest a role for vitamin D in reducing disease susceptibility but not in improving clinical outcome. In order to understand why vitamin D does not seem to have much effect on decreasing disease severity, it is essential to appreciate pulmonary vitamin D metabolism. To reach the pulmonary compartment, vascular endothelial cells would need to take up vitamin D from the blood stream, but they lack vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the activating enzyme CYP27B1. Endothelialitis – an important disease manifestation of COVID-19 – is therefore not expected to be directly affected by vitamin D. Bronchial epithelial cells are usually among the first to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. They do express both VDR and CYP27B1, but circulating vitamin D may not reach bronchial epithelial cells without transportation from the blood stream through the blood vessel wall. Inhalation therapy with vitamin D has therefore been suggested as an alternative for oral administration to bypass endothelial cells and efficaciously target bronchial epithelium. In conclusion, based on the principles of pulmonary vitamin D metabolism, it is not expected that vitamin D administration has a significant effect on COVID-19 severity. Vitamin D is more likely to reduce SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, but reaching the airways with oral supplementation will be difficult and vitamin D inhalation therapy should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0544.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; meta-analysis; vitamin D; mortality; incidence
Online: 7 June 2023 (11:11:20 CEST)
It is a well-established fact that inadequate Vitamin D (Vit-D) levels have negative effects on the development and progression of malignant diseases, mainly cancer. The purpose of this paper was to elucidate the effects of Vit-D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) levels on cancer incidence and mortality, the current evidence in this field, and the biases of this evidence using the meta-meta-analysis method. Meta-analyses focusing on Vit-D intake, serum 25(OH)D levels, and cancer risk/mortality were identified. A structured computer literature search was performed in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science (WoS), and Scopus electronic databases using predetermined keyword combinations. Primary and secondary meta-meta-analyses were carried out, combining odds ratios (ORs), risk ratios (RRs), and hazard ratios (HRs) for outcomes reported in selected meta-analyses. A total of 35 eligible meta-analyses assessing the association between Vit-D and cancer incidence and/or mortality were included in this study. In the pooled analysis, higher Vit-D intake and serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.96, p < 0.001; OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72-0.89, p < 0.001, respectively) and cancer-related mortality (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.86-0.93, p < 0.001; RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.58-0.78, p < 0.001, respectively). When meta-analyses whose primary reports included only randomized controlled trials were pooled, there was no significant association between Vit-D intake and cancer risk (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.97-1.01, p = 0.320). In subgroup analysis, Vit-D consumption was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal and lung cancer incidence (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.96, p = 0.002; OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.83-0.94, p < 0.001, respectively). Taken together, both Vit-D intake and higher 25(OH)D levels may provide remarkable benefits in terms of cancer incidence and mortality, however, careful evaluation according to cancer types is critically important and recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: osteosarcoma; cancer; tumor; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D receptor; vdr; mitochondria; ROS; SOD; SOD1; SOD2; superoxide; superoxide dismutase
Online: 9 March 2020 (02:40:08 CET)
Superoxide, a form of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is catabolized by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and contributes to carcinogenesis via the oxidative damage it inflicts on cells. The aim of this research was to analyze the potential vitamin D-mediated regulation of the antioxidative “SOD1-to-SOD2 switch” within the human MG-63 osteosarcoma model. For this study; real-time PCR analysis was performed using MG-63 cells exposed to metabolically active 1,25(OH)2D3. Frist; a sustained statistically significant >2-fold suppression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) transcripts was observed after 10nM but not at 100nM of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment; suggesting a cytostatic effect. In order to assess regulators of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation; gene expression of COX2 and COX4l1 of the mitochondrial complex IV and antioxidative enzymes (SOD1; SOD2 and Catalase (CAT)) were monitored. For COX2 and COX4l1; no changes in gene expression were observed. However; a concomitant decrease in CAT and SOD1 mRNA; and increase in SOD2 mRNA after 24 hours of 10nM 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment were observed. A ~8-fold increase in SOD2 mRNA was apparent after 48 hours. The significant increase in SOD2 activity in the presence of vitamin D indicates an antioxidant potential and sensitization of vitamin D during osteosarcoma transformation and mitochondrial detoxification over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Knee Osteoarthritis; Vitamin D; gut microbiome
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:29:58 CET)
Background: A Few preclinical studies have shown that Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis and chronic inflammation. This pilot study was designed to look at the gut microbiome composition in KOA patients and normal individuals with or without vitamin D deficiency (VDD, serum vitamin D <30 ng/ml). Methods: This pilot study was conducted prospectively in 24 participants. The faecal samples of all the participants were taken for DNA extraction. The V3-V4 region of 16s rRNA was amplified and the library was prepared and sequenced on the Illumina Miseq platform. Results: The mean (±SD) age was 45.5 (±10.2) years with no defined co-morbidities. Of 447 total Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), a differential abundance of 16 nominally significant OTUs between the groups were observed. Linear discriminate analysis (LEfSe) revealed a significant difference in bacteria among the study groups. Pseudobutyrivibrio and Odoribacter were specific for VDD while Parabacteroides, Butyricimonas, and Gordonibacter were abundant in the KOA_VDD group and Peptococcus, Intestimonas, Delftia, and Oribacterium were abundant in the KOA group. About 80% of bacterial species were common among different groups and hence labeled as core bacterial species. However, the core microbiome of KOA and VDD groups were not seen in the KOA_VDD group, suggesting that these bacterial groups were affected by the interaction of the KOA and VDD factors. Conclusion: Parabacteroides, Butyricimonas, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Odoribacter, and Gordonibacter are the predominant bacteria in vitamin D deficient patients with or without KOA. Together these results indicate an association between the gut microbiome, vitamin D, and knee osteoarthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: phosphohistone H3; vitamin D; vitamin D receptor; progesterone; endometriosis; immunohistochemistry
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:14:21 CEST)
(1) Background: To investigate the effect of phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the risk assessment of endometriosis, in two cohorts of women with this pathology, those receiving hormonal treatment, and those without treatment; (2) Methods: In 60 cases of women with endometriosis, the paraffin-embedded endometriosis tissue samples, retrieved after surgery, were immunohistochemically (IHC) analyzed aiming to determine the expression status of PHH3 and VDR; (3) Results: The IHC positive index of PHH3 and VDR of these two groups were compared. PHH3 levels were positively correlated with vitamin D levels, both being increased in patients without treatment. Within the group without treatment, PHH3 and VDR expressions were positively associated; (4) Conclusions: IHC analysis of PHH3 and VDR can be used as an additional tool for risk stratification and prognostic assessment in patients with endometriosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: vitamin D; ACE2; diabetes; cardiovascular disease
Online: 20 April 2020 (01:37:43 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus which causes respiratory illness. Older adults and people who have previous chronic medical conditions are at higher risk for more serious complications from COVID-19.Hypovitaminosis D is attributed to the increased risk of lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as diabetes, Cardiovascular event and associated comorbidities, which are the main causes of severe clinical problem in COVID-19 patients. Considering the protective role of vitamin D through modulating the innate and adaptive immune system as well as inhibition of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), vitamin D supplementation might boost the immune system of COVID-19 patients and reduce severity of the disease in vitamin D deficient individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: vitamin D; stroke; meta-analysis
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:16:48 CEST)
A recent systematic review for 19 selected articles after searching through to 30 September 2017 showed vitamin D deficiency was associated with ischemic stroke (IS), not hemorrhagic stroke (HS). But a heterogeneity would be introduced with comparing the lowest and highest category of vitamin D. The aim of this article was to conduct an updated meta-analysis (UMA) with searching through to 31 March 2019. An interval collapsing method as information extraction was applied in order to decrease a heterogeneity among studies. Additional articles were selected from cited lists from 19 selected articles using citation discovery tools. Random effect model was applied if I-squared value was over 50%. A funnel plot and Egger’s test were used to detect a publication bias. After 5 new studies were added, the summary RRs [and their 95% confidence intervals] (I-squared value) were 1.52 [1.33–1.74] (0.0%) in IS, and 2.44 [1.34–4.46] (69.7%) in HS. This UMA supported the hypothesis that serum vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increased risk of HS as well as IS. Diverse public health programs against vitamin D deficiency status would be needed for higher risk group, especially elderly people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: adherence; healthcare providers; infant; Vitamin D; supplementation
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:25:55 CEST)
Background: To determine vitamin D supplementation frequency among infants, factors that influence adherence, and reasons for discontinuation of initiated vitamin D. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire administered to the mothers via a face-to-face interview on 560 infants aged from 1 to 24 months admitted to outpatient clinics from June to December 2017. Results: A total of 351 infants were administered vitamin D, and the rate of supplementation in the first year of life was 83%, while it was only 28% between 13 and 24 months. The rate of vitamin D supplementation was higher among infants who were exclusively formula-fed (p<.05). When the data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis, only visit family physicians seems to be a statistically significant independent variable in increasing supplementation (p<.05). Compared with family refusal, the rate of discontinuation of vitamin D by the healthcare providers was higher after the first year of life (p<.05). The rates of vitamin D discontinuation by healthcare providers, especially by nurses who considered the duration of supplementation adequate, were statistically significantly higher when compared with the fontanel closure and other reasons (p<0.05). Conclusions: The rate of vitamin D supplementation was higher among families who visited family physicians, which suggests the importance of well-baby visits. Since vitamin D supplementation was less common among exclusively breastfed infants, mothers should be educated. Healthcare professionals need further education about the importance of vitamin D supplementation and indications for discontinuation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: preeclampsia; neonatal outcome; vitamin D; 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D; diabetes; pregnancy complication; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D supplementation
Online: 6 October 2022 (12:16:11 CEST)
Vitamin D plays an essential role in embryogenesis and the course of intra- and postnatal periods and is crucially involved in the functioning of the mother-placenta-fetus system. Low quantity of Vitamin D during pregnancy can lead to the elevated risk for preeclampsia occurence. Despite the numerous studies on the association of Vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia development, the current research on this theme is contradictory. In this review we summarize and analyze study data on the effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on pregnancy, labor, fetal and neonatal outcomes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0472.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: vitamin D; oxidative stress; kidney disease, disparities
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:42:44 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable disease associated with high rates of premature morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (deficiency of 25(OH)D or 25D) is greater in racial/ethnic minorities and in patients with CKD than the general population. Low 25D is associated with bone and mineral disorders as well as immune, cardiometabolic and cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Thus, it has been suggested low 25D contributes to the poor outcomes in patients with CKD. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D rises progressively with advancing severity of kidney disease with over 30% of patients with CKD stage 3 and 70% patients with CKD stage 5 estimated to have low levels of 25D. This report describes several of the abnormal physiologic and counter-regulatory actions related to low 25D in CKD such as those in oxidative stress and inflammatory systems, and some of the preclinical and clinical evidence or lack of thereof of normalizing serum 25D levels to improve outcomes in patients with CKD, and especially for the high risk subset of racial/ethnic minorities who suffer from higher rates of advanced CKD and hypovitaminosis D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0049.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: vitamin-D deficiency; ALRI; Indian children
Online: 8 November 2016 (10:40:34 CET)
Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between poor vitamin D status and respiratory infections and diarrhea among young children. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and diarrhea are among the two most important causes of death in under-5 children. In this analysis, we examine the extent to which vitamin-D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) predicts these outcomes using data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of daily folic acid and/ or vitamin B12 supplementation for six months in 6 to 30 months old children conducted in Delhi, India. Of the 960 subjects who had vitamin-D concentrations measured, 331(34.5%) were vitamin-D deficient. We found, after controlling for relevant potential confounders (age, sex, breastfeeding status, wasting, stunting, underweight, anemia status at base line and season), the risk of ALRI was significantly higher among vitamin-D deficient (OR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.55) compared to vitamin-D-replete children in the six months follow-up period. Vitamin-D status was not significantly associated with episodes of diarrhea and clinical pneumonia. The extent of causal relationship of vitamin-D status and ALRI needs to be explored in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D receptor; vitamin D receptor; fibroblast growth factor receptor; signal transduction; differentiation
Online: 21 October 2021 (10:52:39 CEST)
(1) Background: Many malignancies are driven by mutations which affect the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1. Previously we have documented that signal transduction from FOP2–FGFR1 fusion protein in KG1 cells downregulated the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. In this paper we investigated if also other FGFRs were responsible for the regulation of the VDR expression. (2) Methods: We used human myeloid leukemia cells U937, and bone cancer cell line U2OS, and cell transfection methods in order to address the above questions. (3) Results: In myeloid leukemia cells overexpression of FGFR 1-4 caused shift to granulocytic differentiation, upregulated expression of VDR, and sensitized these cells to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D)-induced monocytic differentiation, while in bone cells, signal transduction activated by FGF1 was not responsible for regulation of VDR expression and activity. (4) Conclusions: Since the overexpression of FGFRs occurs in many neoplasms, it may be reasonable to use 1,25D analogs in these cancers, in which overexpression of FGFRs leads to VDR upregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: vitamin D; osteopenia; prematurity; metabolic bone disease; rickets
Online: 26 August 2021 (11:54:33 CEST)
Appropriate supplementation of vitamin D can affect infections, allergy, and mental and behavioral development. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of monitored vitamin D supplementation in a population of preterm infants. 109 preterm infants (24 0/7–32 6/7 weeks of gestation) were randomized to receive 500 IU vitamin D standard therapy (n=55; approximately 800-1000 IU from combined sources) or monitored therapy (n=54; with an option of dose modification). 25(OH)D concentrations were measured at birth, 4 weeks of age, and 35, 40, and 52±2 weeks of post-conceptional age (PCA). Vitamin D supplementation was discontinued in 23% of infants subjected to standard treatment due to increased potentially toxic 25(OH)D concentrations (>90 ng/mL) at 40 weeks of PCA. A significantly higher infants’ percentage in the monitored group had safe vitamin D levels (20–80 ng/mL) at 52 weeks of PCA (p=0.017). We observed increased vitamin D levels and abnormal ultrasound findings in five infants. Biochemical markers of vitamin D toxicity were observed in two patients at 52 weeks of PCA in the control group. Inadequate and excessive amounts of vitamin D can lead to serious health problems. Supplementation with 800–1000 IU of vitamin D prevents deficiency and should be monitored to avoid overdose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1531.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: vitamin D; hypovitaminosis; Cytochorme P 450 (CYP); SOD2
Online: 21 July 2023 (13:21:47 CEST)
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is a public health problem due to its implications for various diseases. Vitamin D has numerous functions, such as modulating the metabolism of some cellular tissues, and is expressed through the VDR gene that may influence gene expression modulation, which plays an important role in vitamin D metabolism. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BsmI of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on VDR, SOD2, and CYP24A1 gene expression in individuals with low serum vitamin D levels. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Individuals were invited to participate and, after signing the informed consent form, answered a structured questionnaire with identification data. Blood was collected for biochemical analysis, and vitamin D was measured by chemiluminescence; BsmI polymorphism was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays with TaqMan allelic discrimination, and gene expression was conducted by qRT-PCR using QuantiFast SYBR® Green PCR Master Mix. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 software, and differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: 98 individuals with vitamin D ≤20 ng/dL were evaluated, and the SNP BsmI of the VDR gene showed CYP24A1 overexpression and low SOD2 expression. Conclusion: SNP Bsm I of the VDR gene can modulate the expression of the genes evaluated without interfering with serum levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Non-melanoma skin cancer; Vitamin D; risk; Vitamin D receptor; review; VDR polymorphism
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:46:20 CET)
Background and Objectives: Previous studies revealed anti-angiogenic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of Vitamin D on cancer cells. Although this body of evidence supported the correlation of high Vitamin D levels with reduced incidence rates for various malignancies, contradictory results were reported regarding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Aim of this overview was to summarize the available evidence from the existing pool of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, focusing on Vitamin D serum status, dietary intake, and Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms in correlation to NMSC incidence. Materials and Methods: A literature search in electronic databases was conducted from inception to January 2023. Inclusion criteria were systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in peer-reviewed journals, evaluating Vitamin D serum levels, dietary and/or supplementary intake, or VDR gene polymorphisms, and reporting data on NMSC. Results: A total of 10 studies were included in the data analysis models. A positive association between Vitamin D serum levels and NMSC is highlighted. However, dietary/supplementation of Vitamin D doesn’t exhibit a likewise strong linkage to NMSC. Despite the contradictory findings, VDR polymorphisms may play a crucial role in the intricate NMSC pathogenesis. Conclusions: This umbrella review showed that high Vitamin D levels are associated with increased NMSC incidence, potentially due to its direct correlation with increased sun exposure. Further research on VDR polymorphisms is suggested to explore their true effect size on NMSC risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0276.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Vitamin D; VDR; inflammation; microbiome; metabolites; nuclear receptor; probiotics; tight junctions
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:55:13 CET)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal0 tract (GIT), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which differ in the location and lesion extensions. Both diseases are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, with a reduced population of butyrate-producing species, abnormal inflammatory response, and micronutrient deficiency (e. g. vitamin D hypovitaminosis). Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in immune cell differentiation, gut microbiota modulation, gene transcription, and barrier integrity. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD. VitD deficiency is correlated with disease activity and its administration targeting a concentration of 30 ng/mL may have the potential to reduce disease activity. Moreover, VDR regulates functions of T cells and Paneth cells and modulates release of antimicrobial peptides in gut microbiota-host interactions. Meanwhile, beneficial microbial metabolites, e.g. butyrate, upregulate the VDR signaling. In this review, we summarize the clinical progress and mechanism studies on VitD /VDR related to gut microbiota modulation in IBD. We also discuss epigenetics in IBD and the probiotic regulation of VDR. Furthermore, we discuss the existing challenges and future directions. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials exploring the appropriate dose and the influence of gender, age, ethnicity, genetics, microbiome, and metabolic disorders in IBD subtypes. To move forward, we need well-designed therapeutic studies to examine whether enhanced vitamin D will restore functions of VDR and microbiome in inhibiting chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: vitamin D; muscle strength; volleyball; athletes; shoulder
Online: 24 September 2019 (11:30:07 CEST)
This study aimed to examine the vitamin D status of professional volleyball athletes and to determine its correlation with shoulder muscle strength. We finally included 52 healthy male professional volleyball players (23.2 ± 4.5 years), who were categorized by vitamin D status (<20 ng/mL: deficiency, 20-30 ng/mL: insufficiency, and >30 ng/mL: sufficiency). We examined the strength of the internal rotator (IR) and external rotator (ER) muscles of the shoulder by using isokinetic dynamometer. Fourteen players (26.9%) had vitamin D deficiency, 24 players (46.2%) were vitamin D insufficient, and 14 players (26.9%) were vitamin D sufficient. There was no significant correlation between the vitamin D level and shoulder muscle strength at 60°/s (IR, r = 0.159, p = 0.26; ER, r = 0.245, p = 0.08), and at 180°/s (IR, r = - 0.093, p = 0.51; ER, r = - 0.037, p = 0.79). Moreover, the isokinetic shoulder strengths were not significantly different across the three groups in all settings. In conclusion, vitamin D insufficiency was common in elite volleyball players. Though not being associated with isokinetic muscle weakness, vitamin D should be regularly monitored and supplemented in young elite athletes, considering its importance on musculoskeletal health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1742.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: vitamin D; sports nutrition; personalized nutrition; microsampling; VAMS; HPLC-MS/MS
Online: 27 October 2023 (07:14:35 CEST)
Vitamin D is crucial for athletes' health and performance. Although the exact vitamin D requirements for athletes have not been established, maintaining 25(OH)D levels of at least 40 ng/ml is considered beneficial. This study aimed to determine whether an individual loading dose formula for vitamin D supplementation is suitable to meet a target value of 40 ng/ml and is more effective than standardized supplementation. In a 10-week supplementation study during the winter months in Germany, 90 athletes with insufficient vitamin D levels (25(OH)D<30ng/ml) were randomly assigned to receive either a universal dose of 2000 IU/day of vitamin D or a loading dose of 4000 IU/day, followed by a maintenance dose of 1000 IU/day. Total 25(OH)D concentration was measured from dried blood spots at three time points: at baseline, at the computed date of 40ng/ml, and after the 10-week period. Additionally, a vitamin D-specific questionnaire was issued. On the day when 25(OH)D blood concentrations of 40 ng/ml were calculated to prevail, the individualized group had a significantly higher 25(OH)D level than the standardized group (41.1+-10.9 ng/ml vs. 32.5+-6.4 ng/ml, p<0.001). This study demonstrated that the examined formula is suitable for athletes to achieve a 25(OH)D concentration of 40 ng/ml. This indicates that a personalized approach is more effective than a one-size-fits-all approach in restoring adequate vitamin D levels in athletes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Vitamin D receptor (VDR); Epigenetics; DNA methylation; VDR-related diseases
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:47:16 CET)
The Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) mediates the actions of vitamin D, which has important roles in bone homeostasis, growth/differentiation of cells, immune functions and reduction of inflammation. Emerging evidences suggest that epigenetic modifications of the VDR gene, particularly DNA methylation, may contribute to the onset and progression of many human disorders. This review aims to summarize the available information on the role of VDR methylation signatures in different pathological contexts, including autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, cancer and others. The reversible nature of DNA methylation could enable the development of therapeutic strategies, offering new avenues for the management of these worldwide diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: vitamin D; SARS-CoV-2; outcome; ferritin; d-dimers; fibrinogen
Online: 15 September 2023 (02:40:24 CEST)
Severe infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus is associated with various clinical findings, including hematological manifestations. Thrombotic events or a tendency to develop thrombotic events also characterize severe COVID-19 disease and may lead to death. Vitamin D is known to have immunomodulating properties and to enhance the body defense system against invading pathogens and to have immunostimulatory properties as far as the innate immune response is concerned. The aim was to measure 25(OH)D3 levels in patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19 infection, to explore the relationship between 25(OH)D3 and outcome and to investigate the relationship between 25(OH)D3 levels, CRP, ferritin, d-dimers and fibrinogen levels in this cohort. In a cohort of 88 patients hospitalized for severe infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus and a control group matched for age and sex the levels of 25(OH)D3 were measured. In the same cohort CRP, ferritin, d-dimer and fibrinogen levels were also analyzed. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were 17.36±8.80 ng/ml (mean±SD) as compared with 24.34±10.34 ng/ml, in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and the control group, respectively, p<0.001 (Student’s t test). The levels of 25(OH)D3 were found to be significantly related to outcome, i.e. survival as opposed to non-survival, as more patients with 25(OH)D3 deficiency (0-10 ng/ml) and insufficiency (10-20 ng/ml) had a fatal outcome as compared with those with vitamin D sufficiency, p<0.001, chi-square test, p<0.001, Fischer’s exact test. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were inversely related to CRP, ferritin, d-dimer and fibrinogen levels, p<0.001, linear regression analysis, beta coefficient of variation, -0.176, -0,160, -0.178, -0.158, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency observed in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was related to the disease outcome. Increased ferritin levels, and increased thrombotic markers, namely d-dimer and fibrinogen levels were observed in the patients and their concentration was also inversely related to vitamin D. We showed that vitamin D levels were low in hospitalized patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and also inversely related to CRP, ferritin, d-dimer and fibrinogen concentration. It is proposed that vitamin D levels may be an index of severity in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; diabetic retinopathy; meta-analysis.
Online: 11 April 2017 (06:16:22 CEST)
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most prominent pathological microvascular complications in diabetes. A series of studies reported that vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased prevalence of retinopathy in diabetic patients but the results were inconsistent. In this study we focused on evaluating the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and DR by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Methods: Systematic computerized searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant original articles till November 20, 2016. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the associated value of vitamin D deficiency to the risk of DR. 9 studies including 6332 participants were subjected to final analysis. Results: The results indicated that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of DR (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.32-1.87) with a little heterogeneity (I2 = 23%). In addition, the subgroup analysis demonstrated that there were obvious heterogeneities in T2DM (I2 = 47.8%). Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were relatively stable and reliable. Conclusion: our meta-analysis demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency could increase the risk of DR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Vitamin D, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Validity, Reliability
Online: 1 February 2017 (16:39:41 CET)
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in Iranian adults who may be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study was conducted on 527 subjects, aged ≥20 years from Public health care centers in Tehran, Iran. Based on results of literature review and in-depth interviews, the 38-item vitamin D-related KAP questionnaire with four subscale was developed: 1) general knowledge; 2) nutritional knowledge; 3) attitudes; 4) behaviors. Validity of the developed vitamin D-KAP questionnaire was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. Internal consistency was calculated to assess reliability of the current developed questionnaire. A total of 572 (54.1% female) adults, aged 30.2±7.9 years, participated in the study. All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by participants. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for four subscales. The EFA suggested a four-factor construct and the results of the CFA indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. No ceiling effects were observed except for general knowledge (1.2%). Floor effects detected were 0, 1.1, 2.4, and 8.7% for practice, attitude, general knowledge, and nutrition knowledge, respectively. General knowledge had the highest score (79.59±14.52) and nutrition knowledge, the lowest score (42.58±20.40) among the four sub-scales. Results confirm the initial validity and reliability of the vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire. Further investigations in different urban and rural population are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1606.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Vitamin D; Vitamin D receptor (VDR); Sirtuin; Sarcopenia; Muscle atrophy; Mitochondrial Biogenesis; Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS)
Online: 25 September 2023 (12:55:47 CEST)
Age-related declines in vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression have been implicated in the onset of sarcopenia. The increased expression of VDR in muscle is known to increase muscle mass, whereas VDR knockout in the muscle decreases muscle mass in rats. Similar to VDR, the age-related decline in protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) expression is linked to the development of sarcopenia and age-related muscle dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate whether the VDR agonist 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD3) exerts beneficial effects on muscles through interactions with sirtuins and, if so, the underlying molecular mechanisms. 1,25VD3 treatment increases the expression of VDR, SIRT1, and SIRT3 in C2C12 myotubes. Additionally, it stimulates the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. Furthermore, 1,25VD3 significantly enhanced the expression of key myogenic markers, including myosin heavy chain (MyHC) proteins (MyHC I and II), MyoD, and MyoG, and increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and AKT. Conversely, VDR knockdown in myoblasts induces myotube atrophy by downregulating SIRT1 and SIRT3 expression. Furthermore, 1,25VD3 ameliorated muscle atrophy and apoptosis induced by IFN-γ/TNF-α co-treatment to C2C12 myotube. Moreover, 1,25VD3 downregulated the increased expression of muscle atrophy-associated proteins, including FoxO3a, MAFbx, and MuRF1 in IFN-γ/TNF-α induced atrophy model. Importantly, IFN-γ/TNF-α significantly reduced the mtDNA copy number in C2C12 myotube, whereas the presence of 1,25VD3 effectively prevented this decrease. These results indirectly suggest that 1,25VD3 has the potential to develop as a therapeutic or preventive agent for age-mediated muscle atrophy by enhancing the VDR/SIRT1/SIRT3 axis and inhibiting the FoxO3-mediated atrophy pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0523.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass bariatric surgery; vitamin D; Vitamin D Receptor; FokI (rs2228570); TaqI (rs731236)
Online: 28 December 2022 (01:44:32 CET)
(1) Background: Obesity and its comorbidities can cause burdens and limitations. Bariatric surgery (BS) is indicated as a safe procedure to reduce body mass and improve present comorbidities. Yet, several complications were reported, like vitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency. We evaluated if 25(OH)D serum levels relate to clinical characteristics, symptoms, or habits in women after their BS and whether the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene's TaqI and FokI polymorphisms affected 25(OH)D levels and the total body bone mineral density (TBBMD). (2) Methods: This cohort cross-sectional comparative analytical prospective study consisted of 27 women, 61.6 ± 5.0 years, submitted to BS one year prior at a public reference hospital, DF-Brazil. All participants were asked to follow the physical and dietary activity recommendations and received vitamin D3 supplements. Their anthropometric, biochemical, and immunological measurements and blood samples were obtained. (3) Results: 73.3% of participants had low 25(OH)D levels, and their levels correlated positively with TBBMD and negatively with systolic pressure. VDR TaqI did not affect 25(OH)D levels, whereas VDR FokI's allele f presence correlated to a median rise in 25(OH)D levels. Neither polymorphism correlated to TBBMD. (4) Conclusions: 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with TBBMD, negatively with systolic blood pressure, and were higher in those with the VDR FokI allele f.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0465.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: vitamin D; calcium; bone mass; osteoporosis; dairy foods; fortified foods
Online: 22 May 2020 (05:18:43 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D and calcium are important dietary compounds that affect bone mass, even if other minerals (potassium, zinc, etc.) and other vitamins (A, C and K) are also involved. Vitamin D and other minerals, in fact, play an important role in calcium homeostasis and calcium absorption. Hip fractures incidence is higher in western countries, where calcium is frequently included in human diet, while the occurrence of these fractures is lower in developing countries, where diets are often poor in calcium. This situation is known as the “calcium paradox”, and may be partially explained considering phosphate toxicity, that can induce a disorder of mineral metabolism. It is important to maintain adequate dietary calcium-phosphate balance in order to perform a healthy life, reducing the risk of osteoporotic fracture in older people. Vitamin D can also act as a hormone; vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is derived from the UV-B radiation of ergosterol, the vitamin D precursor naturally found in plants, fungi, and invertebrates. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is originated by sunlight exposure from 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor of cholesterol that can also act as a provitamin D3. Dietary intake of vitamin D3 is very important when skin is exposed for short times to ultraviolet B light (UV-B) one of the three kinds of invisible light rays together with UV-A and UV-C. This can be considered the usual situation in northern latitudes and in winter season, or the typical condition for older people and/or for people with very white delicate skin. Actually, the recommended daily intake of dietary vitamin D is strictly correlated with age, ranging from 5 μg for infants, children, teen-agers and adults, including women during pregnancy and lactation, to 15 μg for people over 65 years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Asthma; Vitamin D; Airway Remodeling; inflammation; Smooth muscle cell.
Online: 27 April 2023 (10:37:35 CEST)
Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and its prevalence continues to increase. Vitamin D has been proposed as a potential environmental factor in asthma pathogenesis, due to its immunomodulatory effects. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on airway remodeling in asthma. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases and identified experimental studies and randomized controlled trials that investigated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on airway remodeling in asthma. The studies included in this review suggest that vitamin D inhibits airway smooth muscle cell contraction and remodeling, reduces inflammation, and regulates collagen synthesis in the airways, and modulates the action of bronchial fibroblasts. However, one study suggests that TGF-β1 can impair vitamin D-induced and constitutive airway epithelial host defense mechanisms. Overall, vitamin D appears to influence many of the pathways central to asthma progression, indicating a promising potential in asthma management and prevenation of asthma progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: AML; IDH; Vitamin D; VDR; ATRA; CEBPa; Differentiation
Online: 27 August 2021 (16:32:33 CEST)
Relapses and resistance to therapeutic agents are major barriers for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. This unfavorable circumstance emphasizes the need for new strategies targeting drug-resistant cells. As IDH mutation is present in the preleukemic stem cells and systematically conserved at relapse, targeting mutant IDH cells would be essential to achieve a long-term remission in the AML subgroup with IDH mutation. Here, using a panel of human AML cell lines and primary AML patient specimens harboring IDH mutation, we showed that the presence of IDH mutation through the production of an oncometabolite (R)-2-HG induces vitamin D receptor related transcriptional programs, priming these AML cells to differentiate with pharmacological doses of ATRA or/and VD. This activation occurs in a CEBP-dependent manner. Accordingly, our findings illuminate potent and cooperative effects of IDH mutation and vitamin D pathway to differentiate in AML, revealing a novel therapeutic approach easily transferable/immediately applicable in clinics for this subgroup of AML patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0696.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vitamin D; supplements; sport nutrition; swimming; adolescent athletes.
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:49:06 CEST)
The purpose of this research was two-fold: (a) to observe whether highly trained adolescent swimmers abide to vitamin D supplement recommendations; and (b) to monitor changes in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) that occur between the autumn and winter months. Twenty swimmers (age: 17 ± 2 years) from a UK high-performance swimming club volunteered to complete two blood spot cards to determine 25(OH)D concentration: the first in an autumn training phase (October) and the second during winter training (January). All swimmers were advised to consume vitamin D3 supplements across the assessment period; however, only 50% of swimmers adhered to this recommendation. Resultantly, a winter decline in 25(OH)D was observed in non-supplementing swimmers (79.6 ± 25.2 to 52.6 ± 15.1 nmol·L-1, p = 0.005), with swimmers either displaying an ‘insufficient’ (60%) or ‘deficient’ (40%) vitamin D status. In comparison, greater maintenance of 25(OH)D occurred in supplementing swimmers (92.0 ± 25.5 to 97.2 ± 38.3 nmol·L-1, p = 0.544), although variable outcomes occurred at the individual level (four increased, three maintained, three declined). These findings highlight possible risks of vitamin D insufficiency during the winter for swimmers in the UK, possibly requiring standardised supplement practices. Moreover, alternative educational strategies may be required for swimmers to transfer knowledge to practice in order to improve supplement adherence in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; weight-loss; body composition
Online: 12 April 2020 (16:44:13 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D was studied in regards to its possible impact on body mass reduction and metabolic changes in adults and children with obesity yet there were no studies assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation during a weight management programme in children and adolescence. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 26 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese children undergoing an integrated 12-months’ long weight loss programme on body mass reduction, body composition and bone mineral density. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Vitamin D deficient patients ( <30 ng/ml level of vitamin D) aged 6-14, participating in multidisciplinary weight management programme were randomly allocated to receiving vitamin D (1200 IU) or placebo for the first 26 weeks of the intervention. Results: Out of the 152 qualified patients, 109 (72%) completed a full cycle of four visits scheduled in the programme. There were no difference in the level of BMI change. Although the reduction was greater in the vitamin D vs. placebo group (-4.28 ± 8.43 vs. -2.53 ±6.10) the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.319). Similarly the reduction in fat mass – assessed both using bioimpedance and DEXa was achieved, yet the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study ads substantial results to support the thesis on no effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight reduction in children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing a weight management programme. Trial registration no: NCT 02828228; trial registration date: 8 June 2016 registered in: ClinicalTrials.gov.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neuro-degeneration; MS; demyelination; vascular disease; stroke; AD; vitamin D-OH 25; VDR; VDH; calcium
Online: 28 June 2018 (05:38:49 CEST)
It is widely known that vitamin D receptors have been found in neurons and glial cells and their highest expression is in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus and subcortical grey nuclei, and substantia nigra. The vitamin D helps the regulation of neurotrophin, neural differentiation and maturation, through the control operation of growing factors synthesis (ie NGF and GDNF), the trafficking of the septo-hyppocampal pathway, and the control of the synthesis process of different neuromodulators (such as Ach, DA, and GABA). Based on these assumptions, we have written this review in order to summarize the potential role of vitamin D in neurological pathologies. The work could be titanic, and might result very fuzzy and even incoherent, if we would not have conjectured to taper our first intentions and devoted our interests towards three mainstreams: demyelinating pathologies, vascular syndromes and neurodegeneration. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, a part from the disease modifying strategies, the role of different risk factors should be investigated in neurology, as far as their correction may lead to the improvement of the cerebral conditions. We have explored the relationships between the gene-environmental influence and long term vitamin D deficiency, as a risk factor for the development of different types of neurological disorders, along with the role and the rationale of therapeutic trials with vitamin D implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: hypovitaminosis D; cholecalciferol; calcifediol; vitamin D; older patient
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:31:26 CET)
The aim of this single-center, open-label, non-controlled randomized study was to evaluate which formulation of vitamin D between cholecalciferol and calcifediol is most effective in the treatment of hypovitaminosis D in older adults. Demographic characteristics, clinical history and comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded at admission. Eligible patients randomly received an equivalent vitamin D supplement either with cholecalciferol or calcifediol from hospital admission to three months after discharge. Among the 140 older patients included (mean age 83±6.6, 57.8% females), 69 received cholecalciferol and 71 calcifediol. The mean plasma values of 25OH-Vitamin D3 found at the enrollment were 16.8 ± 9.9 ng/mL in patients receiving cholecalciferol and 18.8 ± 13.3 ng/mL in those treated with calcifediol (p =0.31). At the 3-month follow up, the mean concentration of 25OH-Vitamin D3 was significantly higher in patients treated with calcifediol than in patients treated with cholecalciferol (respectively, 30.7 ± 8.4 vs 45.4 ± 9.8 ng/mL, p <0.001). Supplementation with cholecalciferol or calcifediol results in both cases effective in reaching optimal circulating values of 25OH-VitaminD3 in the older patients suffering from hypovitaminosis D. However, supplementation with calcifediol led to average circulating values of 25OH- VitaminD3 significantly higher (over 50%) than those obtained with cholecalciferol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0586.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; lung; inflammation; mice; vitamin D
Online: 31 January 2023 (12:04:19 CET)
COVID-19 is a pandemic triggered by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 whose peak occurred in the years 2020 and 2021. The main target of the virus is the lung and infection is associated to an accentuated inflammatory process involving mainly the innate arm of the immune system. Here, we described the induction of a pulmonary inflammatory process triggered by the intranasal (IN) instillation of UV-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 in C57BL/6 mice and then the evaluation of vitamin D (VitD) ability to control this process. The assays used to estimate the severity of lung involvement included total and differential number of cells in the BALF, histopathological analysis, quantification of T cell subsets and inflammatory mediators by RT-PCR, cytokine quantification in lung homogenates and flow cytometric analysis of cells recovered from lung parenchyma. IN instillation of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 triggered a pulmonary inflammatory process, consisting of various cell types and mediators, resembling the typical inflammation found in COVID-19 patients. This inflammatory process was significantly decreased by IN delivery of vitD, but not by its IP administration, suggesting that this hormone has therapeutic potential in COVID-19 if locally applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0344.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: LC-QQQ; liquid chromatography; triple quadrupole; vitamin D; 25(OH)D; plants; algae
Online: 24 May 2018 (09:27:21 CEST)
Vitamin D has previously been quantified in some plants and algae, particularly in leaves of the Solanaceae family. We measured the vitamin D content of Australian native food plants and Australian-grown edible seaweed. Using liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, 13 samples (including leaf, fruit and seed) were analysed in duplicate for vitamin D2, vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Five samples contained vitamin D2: raw wattleseed (Acacia victoriae) (0.03 µg/100 g dry weight (DW)); fresh and dried lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) leaves (0.03 and 0.24 µg/100 g DW, respectively); dried leaves and berries of Tasmanian mountain pepper (Tasmannia lanceolata) (0.67 and 0.05 µg/100 g DW, respectively). Fresh kombu (Lessonia corrugata) contained vitamin D3 (0.01 µg/100 g DW). Detected amounts were low; however, it is possible that exposure to ultraviolet radiation may increase the vitamin D content of plants and algae if vitamin D precursors are present.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Vitamin D levels; population-based distribution; healthy adults; high solar irradiation.
Online: 8 April 2021 (12:17:33 CEST)
The use of vitamin D (VitD) supplements has become widespread in the last decade due not only to the dissociation between the blood levels recommended as "optimal" and those shown by the healthy population, but also to its presumed beneficial effects on multiple disorders. This work evaluated the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a healthy population of European origin living in a region with high solar irradiation. In serum samples from a population-based study conducted in the Canary Islands, levels of 25(OH)D were analyzed. In 876 individuals who had no history of kidney or malabsorption disorders and who had not been treated with calcium and/or VitD supplementation, the median 25(OH)D level was 26.3 (5th;95th percentile, 14.3;45.8)ng/mL. Notably, 65.4% of the population had 25(OH)D blood levels below 30ng/mL, 23.4% below 20ng/mL and 6.4% below 15ng/mL. Based on the lack of evidence supporting causality between 25(OH)D levels below what is recommended as optimal (≥20ng/mL, or even ≥30ng/mL) and major skeletal and non-skeletal diseases, and in light of the distribution of the concentration of this vitamin in healthy adults living under optimal conditions of solar irradiation, it seems reasonable to consider 25(OH)D levels below 20ng/mL and close to 15ng/mL as adequate for the general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1699.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Vitamin D; mite allergy; dermatophagoides; monomeric allergoid; immunotherapy; rhinitis; anti-histamine; Immunoglobulin; IgE; asthma; corticosteroid; children
Online: 24 May 2023 (05:14:28 CEST)
The post-hoc analysis presented here aimed to address the influence of endogenous vitamin D in the immunological mechanism underlying effective mite allergoid-immunotherapy (AIT). Previously, we have shown that one subpopulation of T regulatory cells results in phenotypically identifiable as functionally potentiated and memory cells in allergic children after 12 months of this immunoactive treatment. Indeed, AIT is the only known treatment able to reshape the detrimental immune response against the allergen into a not noxious one. Besides, VD is widely considered an immunoregulatory molecule endogenously produced and exogenously provided with foods and supplements that might interact with AIT mechanism and affect its outcome. Therefore, a post-hoc analysis of the clinical and immunological data of three different cohorts of allergic patients was performed. One cohort (N=70) was on standard symptoms-controlling pharmacological treatment while the other two (N=60 and N=35, respectively) were treated with AIT for 12 months. Among the first were observed a lower mean endogenous VD level (<22 ng/ml) along with worse symptoms and higher use of medications. Remarkably, the comparison between two sub-cohorts of patients with serum VD above (N=32) or below (N=28) a cut-off value set at mean value (27 ng/ml) revealed that optimal improvement of all clinical and immune parameters was achieved (as expected by effective AIT), irrespective of the VD level. Notably, the third analysis, carried out on one cohort of AIT patients also taking concomitantly VD3 as food supplement (N=19), was distinguished by uppermost overall treatment outcome (amelioration of symptoms, lowest medications requirement, and reduction of total and allergen-specific IgE) as well as the increase of allergen-specific tolerogenic memory T regulatory cells. These findings suggest that endogenous VD level affects allergy severity and allergen immunotherapy effectiveness. Also, VD3 might be investigated as an add-on supplement to get the best out of immunotherapy in VD deficient/insufficient allergic patients. The immunogenic but low-allergenic mite allergoid used as bioactive agent might have contributed to minimize allergic and highlight immunological effects described here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Zinc; vitamin D; iron; Gripes; COVID-19; Anemia
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:34:15 CEST)
Abstract: COVID-19 in 2020 brought challenges to the Brazilian public health system with an emerging virus with respiratory contagion called SARS-CoV-2. There are few studies in Brazil and in some countries, on the increased incidence of certain viral respiratory infections, includ-ing H1N1 and coronavirus and their association with low levels of vitamin D, zinc and iron. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the deficit of vitamin D, zinc and iron has an impact on the infectious process of patients with COVID-19 and to establish new forms of prevention for the worsening of COVID-19 in the human body. Data were collected from medical records and test results from patients being followed up during the treatment period for COVID-19. Patients with low blood levels of vitamin D, zinc and iron during the treatment period of COVID-19 had a higher percentage of worsening and complications requiring hospitalization in intensive care beds. The ingestion of vitamin D, zinc and iron in the treatment period of patients with COVID-19 in addition to being an immunological protector against SARS-CoV-2 and alleviating the process of worsening the disease can also act as a biomarker in cases of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: vitamin D; pediatric type 2 diabetes; Mendelian randomization; GWAS; causal inference
Online: 18 January 2023 (03:40:38 CET)
Observational studies have linked vitamin D insufficiency to pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) , but evidence from vitamin D supplementation trials is sparse. Given the rising prevalence of pediatric T2D in all ethnicities, determining a protective role of vitamin D has significant public health importance. We tested whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are causally linked to youth-onset T2D risk using Mendelian randomization (MR). We selected 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with 25OHD in a European genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 443,734 individuals and obtained their effects on pediatric T2D from the multi-ethnic PRODIGY GWAS (3,006 cases/6,061 controls). We applied inverse variance weighted (IVW) MR, and a series of MR methods to control for pleiotropy. We undertook sensitivity analyses in ethnic sub-cohorts of PRODIGY, and using SNPs in core vitamin D genes or ancestry-informed 25OHD SNPs. Multivariable MR accounted for mediating effects of body mass index. We found that a standard deviation increase in 25OHD in the logarithmic scale did not affect youth-onset T2D risk (IVW MR odds ratio (OR) = 1.04, 95% CI=0.96-1.13, P=0.35) in the multi-ethnic analysis, and sensitivity, ancestry-specific and multivariable MR analyses showed consistent results. Our study had limited power to detect small/moderate effects of 25OHD (OR of pediatric T2D < 1.39 to 2.1). In conclusion, 25OHD levels are unlikely to have large effects on risk of youth-onset T2D across different ethnicities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0235.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); ascorbic acid; cathelicidin; coronavirus; COVID-19; cytokine storm; influenza; observational; pneumonia, prevention; respiratory tract infection; solar radiation; treatment; UVB; vitamin C; vitamin D
Online: 30 March 2020 (05:48:43 CEST)
The world is in the grips of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health measures that can reduce the risk of infection and death in addition to quarantines are desperately needed. This article reviews the roles of vitamin D in reducing risk of respiratory tract infections, knowledge about the epidemiology of influenza and COVID-19, and how vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce risk. Through several mechanisms, vitamin D can reduce risk of infections. Those mechanisms include inducing cathelicidins and defensins that can lower viral replication rates and reducing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines that produce the inflammation that injures the lining of the lungs, leading to pneumonia, as well as increase concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Several observational studies and clinical trials reported that vitamin D supplementation reduced risk of influenza, whereas others did not. Evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in reducing risk of COVID-19 includes that the outbreak occurred in winter, a time when 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are lowest; that the number of cases in the Southern Hemisphere near the end of summer are low; that vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and that case-fatality rates increase with age and with chronic disease comorbidity, both of which are associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration. To reduce risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d. The goal should be to raise 25(OH)D concentrations above 40–60 ng/ml (100–150 nmol/l). For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin-D; 25-OH-D; screening; physician practices; low value care; test overutilization
Online: 16 March 2018 (07:14:14 CET)
The role of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of non-skeletal health issues has received significant media and research attention in recent years. Costs associated with clinical management of low vitamin D (LVD) have increased exponentially. However, no clear evidence supports vitamin D screening to improve health outcomes. Authoritative bodies and professional societies recommend against population-wide vitamin D screening in community-dwelling adults who are asymptomatic or at low risk of LVD. In order to assess patterns of physician management of LVD in this conflicting environment, we conducted a scoping review of three electronic databases and gray literature. Thirty-eight records met inclusion criteria and were summarized in an evidence table. Results from seven countries showed a consistent increase in vitamin D lab tests and related costs. Many vitamin D testing patterns reflected screening rather than targeted testing for individuals at high risk of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Interventions aimed at managing inappropriate clinical practices related to LVD were effective in the short term. Variability and controversy were pervasive in many aspects of vitamin D management, shining light on physician practices in the face of uncertainty. Future research is needed is needed to inform better clinical guidelines and to assess implementation practices that encourage evidence-based management of LVD in adult populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Telomerase; leukocyte telomere length; vitamin D; aging; serum levels; geroscience
Online: 22 January 2023 (03:36:34 CET)
Background: Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is observed in multiple age-related diseases, which are also associated with vitamin D deficiency (i.e., osteosarcopenia, neurocognitive disorders, cancer, osteoarthritis, etc.), which suggests a close association. In this study, we examined the relationship between vitamin D levels and LTL in older participants of the UK Biobank. Methods: Data were collected from the UK Biobank. Participants aged 60 and older (n=148,321) were included. Baseline LTL was measured using a multiplex qPCR technique and expressed as the ratio of the telomere amplification product (T) to that of a single-copy gene (S) (T/S ratio). Se-rum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was stratified by z score and linked to LTL in a linear regression model adjusting for covariates. Results: Compared to the medium level, a low (in the range of 16.6 nmol/L, 29.7 nmol/L) or extremely low (≤ 16.6 nmol/L) level of serum 25OHD was associated with shorter LTL: 0.018 SD (standardized β= -0.018, 95% CI -0.033 to -0.003, P=0.022) and 0.048 SD (standardized β= -0.048, 95% CI -0.083 to -0.014, P=0.006), respectively. Additionally, the high serum 25OHD groups (> 95.9 nmol/L) had 0.038 SD (standardized β= -0.038, 95% CI -0.072 to -0.004, P=0.030) shorter mean LTL than the group with medium 25OHD levels. The associations above were adjusted for multiple variables. Conclusion: In this population-based study, we identified an inverted U-shape relationship between LTL and vitamin D status. Whether high or low vitamin D-associated shorter LTL is mechanistically related to age-related conditions remains to be elucidated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Vitamin D; under five; healthy; sick; sub-Saharan
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:42:07 CET)
Studies shows that, normal to high serum 25(OH)D status appears to have some beneficial influence on the incidence and severity of some, though not all, types of infections. However, studies with vitamin D supplementation on young children produced conflicting results with respect to the level of vitamin D deficiency among common medical illnesses among children. Method: A systematic review of literatures from PubMed, CINAHL, Web of science, global health and Google scholar electronic databases was conducted to assess the pooled prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy and sick children in sub-Saharan Africa. The data was extracted by two authors independently using standard data extraction format and STATA Version 14 was used for analysis. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed by using I2 test. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence among both healthy and sick children. Presence of publication bias was checked using Funnel plot and Egger's test. Result: A total of 1212 articles were identified by the total search of utilized data bases of which 13 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and accessible with full document. The meta-analysis revealed that the pooled prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy children in this study was 50.06% (95%CI 33.46%, 66.67%) with mean serum vitamin D level of 41.06 nm/L (CI range from 23.82nm/L to 58.31nm/L). The pooled prevalence among the sick children was 39.36% (CI 20.57%, 57.96%) with 66.96nm/L (95% CI 54.81nm/L, 79.11nm/L) mean concentration of vitamin D. Comparing the two level of the pooled prevalence, the prevalence among the healthy children was significantly higher compared to those who have common medical illnesses and the pooled mean concentration among the sick was much higher than the mean concentration among healthy children. Conclusion: The level of pooled prevalence among both group of population was significantly of public health concern and the prevalence among the healthy children was much higher among the sick children implying the need for reconsideration of available recommendations for the prevention of vitamin D deficiency
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0318.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus; 1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D; PBMCs; 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1); 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1); miRNA; Ongoing Islet Autoimmunity
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:28:37 CEST)
Background: The immunomodulatory role of 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is exerted through its interaction with the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) present on pancreatic and immune cells. While a deficiency in Vitamin D has been linked to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), the exact molecular mechanism driving this down-regulation in T1DM is yet to be fully understood. This study aimed to decipher differences in the expression of genes associated with Vitamin D metabolism in T1DM patients and to ascertain if there is a correlation between serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels and the expression of these genes. We also sought to understand the influence of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) on the expression of Vitamin D metabolism genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of T1DM patients. Furthermore, the study delved into the potential implications of altered Vitamin D metabolism genes and miRNAs on autoimmune processes. Methods: Utilizing real-time PCR, we assessed the expression profiles of genes encoding for 1-hydroxylases (CYP27B1) and 24-hydroxylases (CYP24A1), as well as related miRNAs, in PBMCs from 30 T1DM patients and 23 healthy controls. ELISA tests facilitated the measurement of 1,25(OH)2D3, GAD65, and IA-2 levels. Results: Our findings showcased down-regulated CYP27B1 mRNA levels, while CYP24A1 expression remained stable compared to healthy subjects (CYP27B1, p = 0.0005; CYP24A1, p = 0.205, respectively). In T1DM patients, the levels of has-miR-216b-5p were found to be increased, while the levels of has-miR-21-5p were decreased in comparison to the control group. Notably, no correlation was identified between the expression of CYP27B1 in T1DM patients and the levels of has-miR-216b-5p, has-miR-21-5p, and 1,25(OH)2D3. A significant negative correlation was identified between CYP27B1 mRNA levels in PBMCs of T1DM and IA2, but not with GAD65. Conclusions: The study highlights there were reduced levels of both CYP27B1 mRNA and has-miR-21-5p, along with elevated levels of has-miR-216b-5p in the PBMCs of T1DM. However, the absence of a correlation between the expression of CYP27B1, levels of has-miR-216b-5p, and the status of 1,25(OH)2D3 suggests the possible existence of other regulatory mechanisms. Additionally, the inverse relationship between IA2 autoantibodies and CYP27B1 expression in T1DM patients indicates a potential connection between this gene and the autoimmune processes inherent in T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutritional intervention; menopausal women; vitamin D3-fortified yogurts; serum 25OHD dose response; seasonality interaction
Online: 31 January 2017 (12:01:31 CET)
A 24 week-controlled trial was conducted in menopausal women (mean age:61.5) to assess serum 25-hydroyvitaminD (s25OHD) evolution in relation to three interdependent determinants: doses of supplemented (Suppl.) vitamin D3 (VitD3); baseline status; seasonality. Participants were randomized into 3 groups (Gr): Gr.Suppl.0, time-controls maintaining dietary habits; Gr.Suppl.5 and Gr.Suppl.10 consuming one and two 125 g servings of VitD3-fortified yogurts with 5 and 10 µg daily doses, respectively. The 16 intervention-weeks lasted from early-January to mid-August, the 8 follow-up-weeks from late-August to mid-October. Before enrollment, subjects were randomized into two s25OHD strata: “Low stratum (LoStr)“: 25-50 nmol/L; “High stratum (HiStr)“: >50-75 nmol/L. All enrolled participants remained compliant until study end: Gr.Suppl.0 (n=45), Gr.Suppl.5 (n=44) Gr.Suppl.10 (n=44). Over the 16 intervention and 8 follow-up weeks, s25OHD increased in both supplemented groups, more in Gr.Suppl.10 than Gr.Suppl.5. The constant rate of s25OHD per supplemental VitD3 microgram was greater in LoStr than HiStr. s25OHD increase was greater with late (mid-March) than early (mid-January) inclusion. In conclusion, this randomized trial demonstrates: -a dose-dependent s25OHD improvement related to fortified yogurt consumption; -an inversely baseline-dependent increase in s25OHD; -a seasonal effect that highlights the importance of vitamin D3 supplementation during winter, even at 5µg/d, in healthy menopausal women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0579.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Keywords: Vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; Rheumatic diseases; Rheumatology; Rheumatoid arthritis; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Spondyloarthropathies; Osteoarthritis; Hyperuricemia; Gout
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:18:44 CEST)
Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining healthy mineralized skeleton. It is also consid-ered an immunomodulatory agent that regulate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Multi-ple observational studies have demonstrated the association between low level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and presence and severity of several rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), spondyloarthropathies and oste-oarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, the specific benefits of vitamin D supplement for treatment and prevention of rheumatic diseases are less accepted as the results from randomized clinical trials are inconsistent, although some conceivable benefits of vitamin D for improvement of disease ac-tivity of RA, SLE and OA have been demonstrated in meta-analyses. It is also possible that some individuals might benefit from vitamin D differently from others since inter-individual difference in responsiveness to vitamin D supplementation has been observed in genomic studies. Although the optimal level of serum 25(OH)D is still debatable, it is advisable it is advisable that patients with rheumatic diseases should maintain serum 25(OH)D level at least 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) to prevent osteomalacia, secondary osteoporosis and fracture, and possibly 40 – 60 ng/mL (100 – 150 nmol/L) to achieve maximal benefit from vitamin D for immune health and overall health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0491.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: epidemiology, causality, association, smoking, lung cancer, vitamin D, sun exposure, multiple sclerosis
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:42:02 CEST)
If environmental exposures are shown to cause an adverse health outcome, reducing exposure should reduce the disease risk. Links between exposures and outcomes are typically based on ‘associations’ derived from observational studies, and causality may not be clear. Randomised controlled trials to ‘prove’ causality are often not feasible or ethical. Here the history of evidence that tobacco smoking causes lung cancer – in observational studies – is compared to that of low sun exposure and/or low vitamin D status as causal risk factors for the autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis. Evidence derives from in vitro and animal studies, as well as ecological, case-control and cohort studies, in order of increasing strength. For smoking and lung cancer, the associations are strong, consistent, and biologically plausible – the evidence is coherent or ‘in harmony’. For low sun exposure/vitamin D as risk factors for MS, the evidence is weaker, with smaller effect sizes, but coherent across a range of sources of evidence, and biologically plausible. The association is less direct – smoking is directly toxic and carcinogenic to the lung, but sun exposure/vitamin D modulate the immune system, which in turn may reduce the risk of immune attack on self-proteins in the central nervous system. Opinion about whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that low sun exposure/vitamin D increase the risk of multiple sclerosis, is divided. General public health advice to receive sufficient sun exposure to avoid vitamin D deficiency (<50nmol/L) should also ensure any benefits for multiple sclerosis.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Hyperthyroid; Hypothyroid; Euthyroid; Vitamin D; Bone Turn Over Markers; Bone Mineral Density
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:52:34 CEST)
Thyroid hormones have a catabolic effect on bone homeostasis. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate and bone marker levels and bone mineral density (BMD) among patients with different thyroid diseases. This cross-sectional study included patients with underlying thyroid diseases (n=64, hyperthyroid; n=53 euthyroid; and n=18, hypothyroid) and healthy controls (n=64). BMD was assessed using z-score and left hip and lumbar bone density (g/cm2). Results showed that the mean serum vitamin D Levels of all groups was low (<50 nmol/L). Thyroid patients had higher serum vitamin D levels than healthy controls. All groups had normal serum calcium and phosphate levels. The bone marker levels were significantly high in the hyperthyroid group and low in the hypothyroid group. The z-score for hip and spine did not significantly differ between thyroid patients and control groups. The hip bone density was remarkably low in the hyperthyroid group. In all groups, the serum vitamin D levels were below the cutoff value. However, thyroid patients had a higher serum vitamin D level than healthy controls. The carboxy terminal collagen crosslink and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels were high in hyperthyroid patients and low in hypothyroid patients. Further, hyperthyroid patients had a low hip BMD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: vitamin D3, D2, calcitriol, oral, topical, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, psoriasis, skin diseases, UVB, phototherapy, sunshine, COVID-19, regulatory T lymphocytes
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:44:17 CET)
Vitamin D, sunshine and UVB phototherapy were first reported in the early 1900s to control psoriasis, cure rickets and cure tuberculosis (TB). Vitamin D also controlled asthma and rheumatoid arthritis with intakes ranging from 60,000 to 600,000 International Units (IU)/day. In the 1980s interest in treating psoriasis with vitamin D rekindled. Since 1985 four different oral forms of vitamin D (D2, D3, 1-hydroxyvitaminD3 (1(OH)D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (calcitriol)) and several topical formulations have been reported safe and effective treatments for psoriasis—as has UVB phototherapy and sunshine. In this review we show that many pre-treatment serum 25(OH)D concentrations fall within the current range of normal, while many post-treatment concentrations fall outside the upper limit of this normal (100 ng/ml). Yet, psoriasis patients showed significant clinical improvement without complications using these treatments. Current estimates of vitamin D sufficiency appear to underestimate serum 25(OH)D concentrations required for optimal health in psoriasis patients, while concentrations associated with adverse events appear to be much higher than current estimates of safe serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Based on these observations, the therapeutic index for vitamin D needs to be reexamined in the treatment of psoriasis and other diseases strongly linked to vitamin D deficiency, including COVID-19 infections, which may also improve safely with sufficient vitamin D intake or UVB exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0651.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Exome-wide association stud; Vitamin D deficiency; genetic determinants; polygenic risk score; Middle Eastern population.
Online: 8 June 2023 (14:18:18 CEST)
Middle East region experiences a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, yet most genetic studies on Vitamin D have focused on European populations. Furthermore, there is a lack of research on the genomic risk factors affecting the elderly population, who are more susceptible to health burden. We investigated the genetic determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in elderly Lebanese individuals (n=199) through a whole exome-based genome-wide association study. We identified new loci with suggestive evidence of an association with Vitamin D levels, including rs141064014 in the MGAM gene (P-value of 4.40 × 10−06) and rs7036592 in PHF2 (P-value of 8.43 × 10−06). A meta-analysis of the Lebanese data and the largest European genome-wide association study confirmed consistence replication of numerous variants, including rs2725405 in SLC38A10 (P-value of 3.73 x 10-08). Despite the lower performance of European-derived polygenic risk scores compared to the European estimations, it still effectively predicted Vitamin D deficiency among elderly Lebanese individuals. Our findings provide novel insights into the genetic mechanisms of Vitamin D deficiency in Middle Eastern elderly populations, facilitating the development of personalized approaches for more effective management of hypovitaminosis D. Additionally, we demonstrated that whole exome-based genome-wide association study is an effective method for identifying genetic components associated with phenotypes.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Vitamin D; Ivermectin; RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase; Spike glycoprotein; Knowledge based docking
Online: 5 May 2020 (15:18:30 CEST)
COVID-19 has emerged as deadly pandemic worldwide with no vaccine or suitable antiviral drugs to prevent or cure the disease. Because of the time-consuming process to develop new vaccines or antiviral agents, there has been a growing interest in repurposing some existing drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2. Vitamin D is known to be protective against acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia and cytokine storm. Recently it has been used as a repurposed drug for the treatment of H5N1 virus-induced lung injury. Circumstantial evidences indicate that people with low level of vitamin D are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Although, vitamin D was suggested to interfere with viral replication, its interaction with any SARS-CoV-2 protein is unexplored yet. Beside this, ivermectin, a well-known anti-parasitic agent, exhibits potent anti-viral activities in vitro against viruses such as HIV-1 and dengue. Very recently, ivermectin has been found to reduce viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. We have analyzed available structures of SARS-CoV-2 proteins to identify probable binding partner(s) of vitamin D and ivermectin through knowledge-based docking studies and figured out possible implication of their binding in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our observations suggest that the non-structural protein nsp7 possesses a potential site to house 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (VDY) or the active form of Vitamin D, calcitrol. Binding of vitamin D with nsp7 likely to hamper the formation of nsp7-nsp8 complex which is required to bind with RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), nsp12 for optimal function. On the other hand, potential binding site of ivermectin has been identified in the S2 subunit of trimeric spike(S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. We propose that deeply inserted mode of ivermectin binding at three inter-subunit junctions may restrict large scale conformational changes of S2 helices which is necessary for efficient fusion of viral and host membrane. Our study, therefore, opens up avenues for further investigations to consider vitamin D and ivermectin as potential drugs against SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: causal effects; irritable bowel syndrome; Mendelian randomization; calcium; vitamin D; parathy-roid hormone
Online: 26 October 2022 (07:56:35 CEST)
Several observational studies have indicated the potential associations between calcium, vitamin D(Vit-D) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the causal relationship deduced from these studies is subjected to residual confounding factors and reverse causation. Therefore, we aim to explore the bidirectional causal effects between serum calcium, Vit-D, PTH and IBS at the genetic level by a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness. The estimates were presented as odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results of the inverse-variance-weighted method did not re-veal any causal relationship shared between genetically predisposed calcium (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.80-1.06, P = 0.25) and Vit-D (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.83-1.19, P = 0.94) level and the risk of IBS. The bidirectional analysis demonstrated that genetic predisposition to IBS was associated with a de-creased level of PTH (beta: -0.19, 95%CI: -0.34 to -0.04, P = 0.01). In conclusion, the present study indicates no causal relationship between the serum calcium and Vit-D concentrations and the risk of IBS. The potential mechanisms by which IBS affects serum PTH need to be further investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy- 2-deoxyguanosine), vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, ROS (reactive oxygen species), TAS (total antioxidant status)
Online: 10 August 2016 (16:49:20 CEST)
The present study was aimed to evaluate the levels of oxidative stress markers in breast diseases by measuring the 8-hydoxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and total antioxidant status (TAS) alterations in relation to cell proliferation activity and disease progression. Significant increases in the level of oxidative damage marker 8-OHdG and cell proliferation activity were observed in breast carcinoma patients in comparison to benign and normal controls, which were accompanied by significant decrease in non enzymatic antioxidants and TAS concentrations. 8-OHdG and cell proliferation level were negatively correlated with non enzymatic antioxidants viz., Vitamin A, Vitamin C, vitamin E level and total antioxidant activity. Altered levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress and cell proliferation activity amongst the malignant, benign and controls suggest a correlation of increased oxidative stress and cell proliferation activity in the progression of disease in breast carcinoma patients. Among the oxidative stress markers and cell proliferation index, decreased level of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, TAS and increased level of 8-OHdG, cell proliferation index emerged as best predicted biomarkers for subjects with malignancy and benign breast disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: vitamin D; premature infants; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; low birth weight infant; very low birth weight infant
Online: 19 September 2023 (05:28:41 CEST)
Low 25 OH vitamin D (25(OH)D) in preterm infants is a risk factor of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), but increased supplementation failed to demonstrate beneficial effect on BPD. In neonatal animal models, deficiency and excessive vitamin D exposure have been associated with increased mortality and lung histological alterations evocative of BPD. Our hypothesis is that 25(OH)D levels ≥ 120nmol/L is also a risk factor for BPD or death. This retrospective single-center cohort study included all infants born <31 weeks gestational age without major malformation with at least a determination of 25(OH)D <36 weeks corrected age and no determination <50 nmol/L. Routine 25(OH)D determination was performed at 1 month and monthly thereafter. A total of 175 infants were included. Infants with BPD or who died had a significantly lower term and weight, but a similar frequency of 25(OH)D ≥120nmol/L (50.5% vs 43.9%, p=0.53). The logistic regression identified weight (OR 0.997, 95%CI [0.995-0.998]) and term (OR 0.737, 95%CI [0.551-0.975]) as significantly associated with BPD or death; the occurrence of excessive 25(OH)D was not significantly associated (OR 1.029, 95%CI [0.503-2.093]). The present study did not demonstrate any significant association between excessive 25(OH)D after one month of age and BPD or death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0442.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: functional state of a person; stress; working capacity; vitamin D; dynamic monitoring; adaptation; the Arctic
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:21:49 CEST)
(1) Background: The issue of human adaptation to the Arctic environmental factors is relevant. The adaptation can be assessed through dynamic monitoring of the functional state of a person during his/her stay there. The vitamin D level in blood is one of the markers of the functional reserves of the human body and can contribute to more successful adaptation in the Arctic. (2) Methods: The study involved 38 participants in the scientific and educational expeditionary project "Arctic Floating University-2021". Blood collection for determination of vitamin D content was carried out at the beginning of the expedition. A dynamic study was carried out for 20 days in the morning and in the evening during a marine scientific expedition to the Arctic. The main parameters of the functional state of the participants were assessed using instrumental psychophysiological, projective and questionnaire methods. Statistical methods: Mann-Whitney U-test, correlation analysis using the Spearman coefficient. (3) Results: It was found that at the beginning of the expedition, the functional state of participants with severe vitamin D deficiency is characterized by a shorter average duration of RR intervals and reduced SDNN values, which may indicate a higher level of regulatory mechanisms tension. The pronounced differences in the nature of the dynamic series of objective and projective working capacity parameters were manifested most clearly. According to the subjective questionnaire characteristics of well-being, activity and mood, no significant features of the participants with vitamin D deficiency were revealed. (4) Conclusion: The participants with vitamin D deficiency in blood are characterized by a reduced adaptive capacity during the expedition to the Arctic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Vitamin D; VDR; CYP27B1; CYP2R1; CYP24A1; GC; DHCR7; Genetic variation; Polymorphism; Systematic review
Online: 11 July 2022 (04:57:43 CEST)
Background: Studies have demonstrated the link between vitamin D-related genetic variations and non-skeletal outcomes. We aimed to identify all available data on the association of vitamin D-related genetic variations with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Potentially eligible studies were identified from Embase and Medline databases from inception to June 2022 using search strategy that comprised terms for “Vitamin D” and “NAFLD”. Eligible study must report the association between vitamin D-related genetic variations and presence, severity or response to treatment of NAFLD. Data were extracted from each eligible study. Results: A total of 3,495 articles were identified. After systematic review, twelve studies were in-cluded. A total of 26 genetic variations were identified. Presence of NAFLD was associated with variations of GC (rs222054, rs222020, rs10011000, rs7041), VDR (rs2228570, rs11168287, rs10783219, rs4752), CYP24A1 (rs3787557, rs6068816, rs2296241, rs2248359) and CYP27B1 (rs4646536). Severity of NAFLD was associated with variations of GC (rs4588), VDR (rs2228570, rs4334089), CYP2R1 (rs10741657), DHCR7 (rs1544410, rs3829251, rs12785878) and CYP24A1 (rs3787557, rs6068816, rs6097809, rs6127119, rs2248359, rs3787554, rs4809960, rs6022999). Response to calcitriol treatment was associated with variation of VDR (rs10735810). Conclusions: Multiple vitamin D-related genetic variations were associated with NAFLD, indi-cating the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0595.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: vitamin D; insulin-resistance; metabolic syndrome; type 1 and 2 diabetes; gestational diabetes; cardiovascular diseases and metabolism
Online: 8 September 2023 (15:34:53 CEST)
In the last decade, an increasing awareness was directed to the role of Vitamin D in non-skeletal and preventive roles for chronic diseases. Vitamin D is a key hormone involved in the regulation of calcium/phosphorous balance and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity. Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) and Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) are the main form of vitamin D: the active form (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) is the result of two hydroxylations that take place in liver, kidney, pancreas and immune cells. Some anti-inflammatory cytokines are produced at higher levels by vitamin D, while some pro-inflammatory cytokines are released at lower levels. Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) expression is increased and a pro-inflammatory state is also linked to low levels of vitamin D. Regardless of how it affects inflammation, various pathways suggest that vitamin D directly improves insulin sensitivity and secretion. The level of vitamin D in the body may change the ratio of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines, which would impact insulin action, lipid metabolism, and the development and function of adipose tissue. Many studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between vitamin D concentrations and pro-inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, obesity and cardiovascular disease. It's interesting to note that several long-term studies also revealed an inverse correlation between vitamin D level and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D supplementation in people has controversial effects, in fact while some studies demonstrated improvements in insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid metabolism, others revealed no significant effect on glycemic control and inflammation. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the molecular basis of the relationship between vitamin D, insulin-resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 1 and 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: bone mineral markers; phosphate/calcium homeostasis; dialysis; inflammation; mortality; vitamin D receptor polymorphism; diabetes; vascular calcification; hs-CRP; CKD
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:34:19 CEST)
Polymorphism of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR), has been associated with low bone mineral density and other immune and metabolic disorders; however, its impact on mortality of female dialysis patients is not well studied. This study aimed to identify bone mass-related factors, VDR gene polymorphism, and their interaction with morbid conditions that could influence all-cause mortality. In 246 female dialysis patients, age 43±11 years on continuous ambulatory dialysis peritoneal; 48%, haemodialysis; 23% and automated peritoneal dialysis; 29%. Tscore, Ca, PO4, albumin, hs-CRP, osteoprotegerin, fetuin, osteocalcin, iPTH, PINP and β-CTx were measured. PCR products were digested with Bsml to analyze VDR polymorphisms. Patients n=229; were followed for a median of 17 (15-31) months; 42 patients died. Bsml polymorphism, bb=64% and BB+Bb=36%. Hs-CRP was the risk of death in multivariate Cox Analysis. Patients with bb and inflammation had a higher risk of death (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.08-5.68) persisted after adjustment for age, diabetes and iPTH (HR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.01-8.33) and after further adjustment for vintage, albumin, osteoprotegerin and vitamin D therapy (HR 3.49; 95% CI, 1.20-10.9). We may conclude that the presences of the bb genotype of VDR and inflammation have additive effects on all cause-mortality in females in CAPD, APD, and HD patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; cathelicidin; antimicrobial peptides; bacteria; mycobacteria; virus; coronavirus; sunshine; UVB phototherapy; tuberculosis; COVID-19; photosynthesis
Online: 16 May 2020 (16:02:26 CEST)
Abstract: A primary action of vitamin D is regulation of gene transcription. Many cell types possess genes that make antimicrobial peptides (AMPS) (endogenous antibiotics), recently discovered to be regulated by vitamin D. Two examples are cathelicidin and beta defensins, both bioactive against many different bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, parasites and viruses. The signal transduction pathway is triggered by sensing microorganisms via cell surface receptors, causing intracellular production of calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) and vitamin D receptors, leading to upregulation of AMP production. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations required to sustain adequate AMP production to eradicate infections are unknown. Vitamin D3 is photosynthesized in skin in amounts ranging from 10,000 (250 mcg) to 25,000 (625 mcg) International Units (IU) from 7-dehydrocholesterol after whole-body exposure to one minimal erythemal dose (MED) of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and is impacted by many factors including geographic localities, seasonal changes and skin pigmentation. We and others have reported extended daily oral dosing with these amounts of vitamin D3 safe. We routinely observe serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 20ng/ml on new admissions, which have been reported insufficient to sustain AMP production. In contrast serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 100ng/ml have been reported after serial UVB treatments for psoriasis. Little vitamin D naturally occurs in food, and insufficient sun exposure may be causing worldwide deficiency. We review evidence suggesting that higher daily intakes of vitamin D3 than the currently recommended 600 (15 mcg) IU/day may be necessary to sustain AMP production in the face of an overwhelming infection, particularly in non-Hispanic blacks, a high risk population suffering the worst outcomes from COVID-19. We propose that increased vitamin D supplementation could provide a safe and cost-effective way to protect all populations from infections, in particular those from pandemic COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0082.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: HILIC chromatography; RPLC chromatography; B1 vitamin; B2 vitamin; B3 vitamin
Online: 6 June 2022 (10:01:49 CEST)
In this work a series of experiments on the retention of B1 (riboflavin), B2 (thiamine) and B3 (nicotinic acid) vitamins in the HILIC and RPLC conditions have been performed involving the effects of organic modifier type and content, pH of the eluent, and buffering salt (ammonium acetate) concentration in the mobile phase, as well as temperature of the system. For the needs of this studies three columns of different features have been chosen: Acclaim™ Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 (Dionex), Eurospher II 100-5 HILIC (Knauer) and the RPLC column Nucleodur® C18 Gravity – SB (Macherey –Nagel). The influence of acetonitrile and methanol content in the eluent and process temperature have been tested and basing on that the most promising systems have been selected regarding the possible separation of the vitamins mixture. Both pH and buffering salt concentrations in the eluent have been adjusted in order to indicate the most effective system which turned out to be the one involving the Nucleodur column and the eluent with 90% methanol, at pH 6 and Cbuff = 20 mmol/dm3 that enables separation of the mixture within the time as short as 2.5 minutes at 1.0 mL/s flowrate in isocratic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: vitamin C; hyperuricemia; gout; glomerular filtration rate
Online: 3 November 2016 (10:49:06 CET)
Abstract: Hyperuricemia is commonly diagnosed in subjects with abnormal purine metabolism. Prolonged hyperuricemia often associated with gout, which is a vital risk factor for joint dysfunction. The current study was designed to determine the efficacy of vitamin C supplements for treatment of high serum uric acid (UA) among hyperuricemic and gouty patients, and finding-out the effect of supplementation on serum creatinine (Cr) level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This intervention study was started in April, 2013, till two months. A convenient sample of 30 adults aged between 24-75 years of both genders was assigned into two study groups: hyperuricemic (n=15) and gouty (n=15) groups. Each participant supplemented with 500 mg/day vitamin C chewable tablets for 2 months. Serum UA, Cr, and GFR were measured before and after treatment. At the end of this study, Cr and GFR enhanced insignificantly in both groups. UA increased insignificantly in gouty group after 2 months by about 0.31 mg/dl. On the other hand, hyperuricemic group showed significant (P ≤0.05) decrease in UA (-0.78 mg/dl) after 2 months duration. In conclusion, supplementation with 500 mg/day vitamin C for 2 months significantly attenuated serum UA for hyperuricemic patients and insignificantly affected serum UA in gouty patients. The uselessness of vitamin C supplements on gouty patients could be associated to a number of possible reasons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: constipation; laxatives; liquid paraffin; fat-soluble vitamins; vitamin A; vitamin E; vitamin D3; vitamin K1; pharmacokinetics; experimental model.
Online: 29 September 2023 (09:52:43 CEST)
The pharmacokinetic profile of fat-soluble vitamins A, E, K1, and D3 co-administered with liquid paraffin or water in an experimental rat model was investigated. Animals received a solution of the four vitamins orally through a probe, followed 10 minutes later by the administration of either the liquid paraffin product dissolved in water (Emuliquen Simple®) or water (control). Vitamin formulations were 20, 50, 0.30 and 0.10 mg/kg for vitamins A, E, K1, and D3, respectively. Blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.17, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours post-dosing. Vitamin concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. No relevant differences in the absorption of vitamins in terms of AUC0-last (area under the curve up to the last measurable concentration) or Cmax in the absence or presence of co-administration of the liquid paraffin product were observed. The difference of these parameters between the treatment groups for all vitamins was in the range of bioequivalence (≤ 20%). The liquid paraffin-based laxative product did not interfere with the absorption of vitamins A, E, K1, and D3 that are ingested in the diet, which is clinically relevant due to the high prevalence of functional constipation in children and adults.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0203.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbate; obesity; body weight; vitamin C intake; plasma ascorbate concentrations; vitamin C requirements; dietary vitamin C
Online: 15 March 2022 (10:45:27 CET)
Higher body weight is known to negatively impact plasma vitamin C status. However, despite this well-documented inverse association, recommendations on daily vitamin C intakes by health authorities worldwide do not include particular reference values for people of higher body weight. This suggests that people of higher body weight and people with obesity may be insufficient in vitamin C in spite of ingesting the amounts recommended by their health authorities. The current preliminary investigation sought to estimate how much additional vitamin C people with higher body weights need to consume in order to attain a comparable vitamin C status to that of a lower weight person consuming an average Western vitamin C intake. Data from two published vitamin C dose-concentration studies were used to generate the relationship: a detailed pharmacokinetic study with seven healthy non-smoking men and a multiple depletion-repletion study with 68 healthy non-smoking men of varying body weights. Our estimates suggest that an additional intake of 10 mg vitamin C/day is required for every 10 kg increase in body weight to attain a comparable plasma concentration to a 60 kg individual with a vitamin C intake of ~110 mg/day, which is the daily intake recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thus, individuals weighing e.g. 80 and 90 kg will need to consume ~130 and 140 mg vitamin C/day, respectively. People with obesity will likely need even higher vitamin C intakes. As poor vitamin C status is associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, these findings may have important public health implications. As such, dose-finding studies are required to determine optimal vitamin C intakes for overweight and obese people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0049.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: vitamin K; vitamin K1; vitamin K2; eye; visual function; cognitive function; vitamin K-dependent protein; matrix Gla protein; ferroptosis
Online: 3 February 2023 (01:15:33 CET)
Vitamin K occupies a unique and often obscured place among its fellow fat-soluble vitamins. Evidence is mounting however, that vitamin K (VK) may play an important role in the visual system apart from the hepatic carboxylation of hemostatic related proteins. However, to our knowledge, no review covering the topic has appeared in the medical literature. Recent studies have confirmed that matrix Gla protein (MGP), a vitamin K-dependent protein (VKDP), is essential for the regulation of intraocular pressure in the mouse. The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized trial involving 5860 adults at risk for cardiovascular disease, demonstrated a 29% reduction in the risk of cataract surgery in participants with the highest tertile of dietary vitamin K1 (PK) intake compared with the lowest tertile. However, the specific requirements of the eye and visual system (EVS) for VK, and what might constitute an optimized VK status, is currently unknown and largely unexplored. It is the intention therefore of this narrative review to provide an introduction concerning VK and the visual system, review ocular VK biology, and to provide some historical context to recent discoveries. Potential opportunities and gaps in current research efforts will be touched upon, in the hope of raising awareness, and encouraging continued VK related investigations in this important and highly specialized sensory system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0561.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: covid19; immunostimulant; immunomodulator; vitamin D; vitamin C; zinc
Online: 24 September 2020 (03:40:34 CEST)
Background & Aims: The covid19 is a world changing challenge. Furthermore, this disease challenges our capacities to change our point of view in the domain of infectiology, immunology and global public health. Many trials try some drug such as antiviral (lopinavir, remdesivir) interferon, and the chloroquine. Unfortunately, all approach is not really convincing at this time. We are proposing another approach on this issue. In infectiology there are two protagonists : the host and its immune system versus pathogens and its virulence. Our approach focuses on an intervention on the host’s immune system and how stimulate and modulate its reactions. Methods: We searched on PubMed and Google Scholar databases for French and English-language studies, without a limit of date of publications, for randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, reviews, systematic reviews, observational studies, case report. We performed a review on the field of immunology enhancements by nutrients use. Results: We identified groups of vitamins (D and C), oligo-elements (magnesium, zinc, selenium) and nutrition advice which enhance immune system response. Indeed, these supplements have some proved properties in modulating and stimulating the immune system. For example, a recent study demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency is linked with the severity of covid19. Majority of the population has a deficiency in these elements. According to this, we propose a therapeutic protocol using these elements to reach an efficient therapy against covid19 by enhancing host’s immune system. Conclusion: Due to this serious pandemic, any solutions must not be disregarded. The nutrition way is an entire part of the solution.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Vitamin B12; Vitamin D; Zinc; Magnesium; COVID-19
Online: 27 August 2020 (10:35:19 CEST)
The impact of nutrition on immunity is an intense area of research. Malnutrition is linked to a higher risk of microbial infections, while severe infections usually lead to a nutritional imbalance in affected patients. The nutritional status has an impact on the severity of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Studies conducted on small numbers of patients have shown the benefits of maintaining optimal vitamin (B12 and D) and mineral (zinc and magnesium) balance in reducing the intensity of COVID-19. Although consuming a balanced diet with a healthy lifestyle is always desirable, the importance of such practice is even more meaningful during the COVID-19 pandemic. Keeping an optimal balance of vitamins and minerals through healthy dietary habits helps to maintain a robust immune system that is essential to combat invading microbial pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: food allergy; PUFA; flavonoid; vitamin A; vitamin D; vitamin E; immune response; anti-inflammatory
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:38:59 CEST)
Specific nutrients including n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), flavonoids, vitamin A, D and E are considered to possess protective properties on human health by impacting on immunological reactions. An ‘inflammation-suppressive’ effect appears to be the common denominator of the beneficial effects of most of these dietary components which may protect against the development of chronic immune disorders such as allergy. However, the majority of these promising data are from preclinical studies such as animal disease models, as the majority of clinical studies only indicate associations. PUFAs, especially n-3 LCPUFAs, have been shown to interact with both the sensitization as well as the effector phase in food allergy. However, it should be noted and realised that PUFAs are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. Flavonoids and fat-soluble vitamins both contain anti-inflammatory properties and are able to act as anti-oxidants as well. Here, we explore the anti-allergic properties of PUFAs, flavonoids and fat-soluble vitamins in order to create an overview and, more importantly, suggest a strategy to target food allergies using these components and combinations thereof. Dietary n-3 LCPUFAs and the above mentioned micronutrients are promising anti‐allergy agents capable of influencing the allergic immune response through multiple and different biological pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0024.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Vitamin E; vitamin A; maternal serum; lactation; liquid chromatography.
Online: 2 May 2017 (17:20:34 CEST)
Vitamin A and E are important during pregnancy, the neonatal period, and childhood. The objective of this study was to assess whether maternal RRR-a-tocopherol supplementation affects serum and breast milk retinol. Serum was collected at baseline and twenty days later, and breast milk, at baseline, and on days 1, 7, and 20 after delivery. After the baseline serum collection, the supplemented group (n=16) received a single 400 IU of RRR-α-tocopherol. The control group (n=18) was only performed collections. Retinol and alpha tocopherol levels were determined by liquid chromatography. Serum retinol and alpha tocopherol at baseline and 20 days after delivery indicated proper vitamin A (> 20 µg/dL) and E (> 516 μg/dL) statuses in the control and supplemented groups (p > 0.05). Colostrum retinol levels on days 1 and 7 after delivery were significantly higher in the supplemented group (p = 0.018 and p = 0.012, respectively). Maternal vitamin E supplementation increased colostrum retinol by 52.23% and 111.2%, 24 hours and 7 days, respectively. However, retinol in mature milk did not differ between the groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation with 400 IU of RRR-α-tocopherol improved vitamin A bioavailability in breast milk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Prolonged fatigue; pomegranate extract; polyphenols; vitamin B complex; vitamin C
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:34:41 CEST)
Prolonged fatigue is associated with non-pathological causes, and lacks an established therapeutic approach. The current study is aimed at assessing the efficacy of a new food supplement (Improve® Response) based on a chemically characterized pomegranate extract and hydro-soluble vitamins (B complex and C). UHPLC-HRMS analysis of pomegranate extract showed the presence of 59 compounds, with gallotannins and ellagitannins being the most abundant phytochemicals. For the clinical study, 58 subjects were randomized into two groups, 1 and 2 (n = 29, each), which received either the food supplement or placebo. The effects of the food supplement against fatigue were assessed via validated questionnaires, recorded at time intervals t0 (at baseline), t1 (after 28 days), t2 (56 days), and t3 (after follow-up) in combination with the analysis of biochemical markers at t0 and t2. Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) questionnaire scores were significantly decreased at the t2 and t3 time intervals in subjects treated with the food supplements, while the effect of the food supplement on a 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12) was not considerable. Moreover, the food supplement did not significantly affect biochemical parameters associated with fatigue and stressed conditions. This study shows that the food supplement tested reduces prolonged fatigue following two months supplementation in healthy subjects with mild prolonged fatigue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Amino Acid Neurotransmitter; Glutamate; Gaba; Pentylenetetrazole; Vitamin B1; Vitamin B6
Online: 5 May 2021 (11:10:42 CEST)
Disturbed metabolism of vitamins B1 or B6, which are essential for neurotransmitters homeostasis, may cause epilepsy. Our study aims at revealing therapeutic potential of vitamins B1 and B6 in epilepsy by estimating effects of their combined administration on a seizure and its consequences in rats subjected to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The PTZ dose dependence of a seizure and its parameters according to Racine’s scale along with delayed physiological and biochemical consequences next day after the seizure are assessed regarding sexual dimorphism in epilepsy. PTZ sensitivity is stronger in the female than male rats. Next day after a seizure, gender differences in behavior and brain biochemistry arise. The induced gender differences in anxiety, exploratory and locomotor activity correspond to disappearance of gender differences in the brain GABA, aspartate, alanine and serine, with appearance of those in glutamate, glutamine and tyrosine. PTZ decreases the brain malate dehydrogenase activity, glutamine and urea in the males, and phenylalanine in the females. Administration of vitamins B1 and B6 24 h before PTZ delays a seizure in female rats only. This desensitization is not observed at short intervals (0.5-2 h) between the vitamins and PTZ administration. With the increasing interval, the pyridoxal kinase (PLK) activity in the female brain decreases, suggesting that the PLK downregulation by vitamins contributes to the desensitization. Delayed effects of vitamins and/or PTZ are mostly gender-specific and interacting. Our findings on the gender differences in sensitivity to epileptogenic factors, action of vitamins B1/B6 and associated biochemical events have medical implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0973.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: vitamin B1; vitamin B6; vitamin B3; pyridoxal-5’-phosphate; thiamine diphosphate; NAD+, mutation in vitamin-binding protein; Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; DHTKD1; PDK3; PDXK
Online: 26 April 2023 (08:33:26 CEST)
Understanding molecular mechanisms of neurological disorders is required for development of personalized medicine. When the diagnosis considers not only the disease symptoms, but also their molecular basis, the treatments tailored for individual patients may be suggested. The vitamins-responsive neurological disorders are induced by deficiencies in the vitamin-dependent processes. The deficiencies may occur due to genetic impairments of proteins whose functions are involved with the vitamins. This review considers the enzymes encoded by DHTKD1, PDK3 and PDXK genes, whose mutations are observed in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The enzymes bind or produce the coenzyme forms of vitamins B1 (thiamine diphosphate, ThDP) and B6 (pyridoxal-5’-phosphate, PLP). Alleviation of such disorders by administration of the lacking vitamin or its derivative calls upon a better introduction of the mechanistic knowledge to medical diagnostics and therapies. Recent data on lower levels of the vitamin B3 derivative, NAD+, in the blood of patients with CMT disease, compared to the control subjects, are also considered in view of the NAD-dependent mechanisms of pathological axonal degeneration, suggesting therapeutic potential of vitamin B3. Thus, improved diagnostics of the underlying causes of the CMT disease may allow the patients with the vitamin-responsive disease forms to benefit from the administration of the vitamins B1, B3, B6, their natural derivatives or pharmacological forms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbic acid; vitamin C requirements; vitamin C recommendations; body weight; obesity; smoking; aging; socioeconomic status; NHANES
Online: 8 March 2023 (03:47:32 CET)
Vitamin C status is known to be associated with several demographic and lifestyle factors. These include gender, age, ethnicity, pregnancy/lactation, body weight, smoking status and dietary habits. In the present study, our aim was to interrogate the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017-2018 datasets to assess the impact of these factors on vitamin C dose-concentration relationships to establish if there are higher requirements for vitamin C in certain subpopulations and the possible extent of these additional requirements. The relevant data were extracted from the NHANES 2017-2018 datasets, the final cohort of which comprised 2828 non-supplementing adult males and females (aged 18 – 80+ years) with both vitamin C serum concentrations and dietary intake data available. The data was subsequently stratified by gender, age tertiles (≤36, 37-58, ≥59 years), ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and total Hispanic), socioeconomic tertiles (poverty income ratios: >3.0, 1.36 – 3.0, ≤1.35), weight tertiles (≤72, 72-91, ≥91 kg), BMI tertiles (≤26, 26-32, ≥32 kg/m2) and smoking status. Sigmoidal (four parameter logistic) curves with asymmetrical 95% confidence intervals were fitted to the dose-concentration data. We found that males required vitamin C intakes ~1.2-fold higher than females to reach ‘adequate’ serum concentrations of 50 µmol/L. Males had both higher body weight and a higher prevalence of smoking than females. Smokers required vitamin C intakes ~2.0-fold higher than non-smokers to reach adequate vitamin C concentrations. Relative to adults in the lighter weight tertile, adults in the heaver weight tertile required ~2.0-fold higher dietary intakes of vitamin C to reach adequate serum concentrations. We did not observe any impact of ethnicity or socioeconomic status on the vitamin C dose-concentration relationship, and although no significant difference between younger and older adults was observed at vitamin C intakes > 75 mg/day, at intakes < 75 mg/day, older adults had an attenuated serum response to vitamin C intake. In conclusion, certain demographic and lifestyle factors, specifically gender, smoking and body weight, have a significant impact on vitamin C requirements. Overall, the data indicate that the general population must consume ~110 mg/day of vitamin C to attain adequate serum concentrations, smokers require ~165 mg/day relative to non-smokers, and heavier people (100+ kg) require ~155 mg/day to reach the same vitamin C concentrations. These findings have important implications for global vitamin C dietary recommendations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Diabetes; mental health; anxiety; depression; supplementation; nutrients; blood glucose; nutrition; omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin D; vitamin E; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; folate; selenium; chromium; iron; magnesium
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:10:50 CEST)
Nutrition, diabetes, and mental disorders are interconnected and significantly impact an individual's overall health and well-being. This comprehensive review aims to explore the complex interplay between nutrition, diabetes, and mental disorders, highlighting the latest research findings in this field. While the influence of nutrition on the development and management of both diabetes and mental disorders is widely recognized, there remains a gap in understanding the intricate interplay between nutrition, mental health, and diabetes. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and cognitive decline. Mental disorders can also contribute to the development of diabetes through various mechanisms including increased stress, poor self-care behaviors, and adverse effects on glucose metabolism. Thus, the mechanisms linking nutrition, diabetes, and mental disorders are complex and multi-factorial. Inflammation, oxidative stress, gut microbiota alterations, and neuroendocrine dysregulation have emerged as potential pathways that may mediate the relationship between nutrition, diabetes, and mental disorders. Additionally, deficiencies in essential nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, B vitamins, zinc, chromium, magnesium, and selenium have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both diabetes and mental disorders. Our findings indicate that the use of personalized dietary interventions and targeted nutrient supplementation can improve metabolic and mental health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: vitamins; micronutrients; deficiencies; screening; general population; lifestyle; prevention; vitamin d; vitamin b12
Online: 10 March 2022 (14:11:38 CET)
Maintaining an adequate micronutrient status can be achieved by following a complete, diverse diet. Yet, food trends in Western countries show suboptimal consumption of healthy nutrients. In this study we explored the prevalence of vitamin and mineral imbalances in a general population cohort of Dutch adults, and evaluated the effect of a digital lifestyle program on the nutritional status and nutrition health behaviors of these individuals. A micronutrient panel was measured in 348 participants, alongside a dietary assessment. One-hundred users subsequently underwent a remeasurement. We identified at least one nutritional imbalance in 301 individuals (86.5%). 80% improved and normalized B6, 67% improved folate, 70% improved B12, and 86% improved vitamin D. Iron abnormalities were corrected in 75% of participants. In conclusion, this study found micronutrient deficiencies of easily obtainable vitamins through diet or supplementation such as B vitamins and vitamin D were more prevalent than expected in a Dutch population. This can partly be explained by an insufficient consumption of food groups rich in B vita-mins. Our preliminary results in those remeasured after a digitally-enabled lifestyle intervention show these imbalances can be corrected with adequate behavioral support in a “food as medicine” approach complemented with supplementation where needed.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C; vitamin C status; vitamin C deficiency; global health; dietary intake; obesity; smoking; communicable disease; infection; non-communicable disease
Online: 4 June 2020 (03:49:42 CEST)
A recent review of global vitamin C status indicated a high prevalence of deficiency, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in specific subgroups within high-income countries. Here we provide a narrative of potential factors influencing vitamin C status. The in vivo status of vitamin C is primarily affected by dietary intake and supplement use. Dietary intake can be influenced by cultural aspects such as staple foods and traditional cooking practices. Environmental factors can also affect vitamin C intake and status; these include geographic region, season and climate, as well as pollution. Demographic factors such as sex, age, and race are known to affect vitamin C status, as do socioeconomic factors such as deprivation, education and social class, and institutionalization. Various health aspects affect vitamin C status; these include body weight, pregnancy and lactation, genetic variants, smoking, and disease states, including severe infections as well as various non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Some of these factors have changed over time, therefore we also explore if vitamin C status has shown temporal changes. Overall, there are numerous factors that can affect vitamin C status to different extents in various regions of the world. Many of these factors are not taken into consideration during the setting of global recommended dietary intakes for vitamin C.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Vitamin E; testis; sperm; antioxidant; reproduction
Online: 20 February 2023 (08:59:03 CET)
Vitamin E facilitates testicular development and semen quality in farm animal. And most research tends to investigate antioxidant roles of Vitamin E in reproductive health; some research also find potential non-antioxidant roles of Vitamin E. To further uncover the mechanism by which Vitamin E modulates reproductive health, the paper reviews specific function of Vitamin E and candidate genes involved in male reproductive performance promoted by Vitamin E. The review found that cell proliferation (PDPN, BMP, Myc, AMPKa, GSK3β, PPARγ, CDK4, CDK6, Ki67, PCNA, Cyclin A2, Cyclin B1, Cyclin B3, BLM, REL, KLHL25)-, cell apoptosis (BCL-2, Caspase 9, Bax)-, spermatogenesis (CatSper1, CatSper2, NDRG1, CYP26B1, FSCN3, FLNA, SPCS3, YBX3, RARS)-, hormone receptor (PGR, FSHR, AR)-related genes are the underlying key points. And two miRNAs, miR-107 and miR-493-3p, which mediate cell cycle process, are also identified in response to Vitamin E treatment. The paper paves the way for a comprehensive understanding about effect of Vitamin E on testis development and semen quality in domestic animals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Vitamin C, Periodontal disease, Periodontitis, Gingivitis
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:46:35 CEST)
Vitamin C is important in preventing and slowing the progression of many diseases. There is significant evidence linking periodontal disease and vitamin C. We aimed to systematically review studies addressing the relationship between vitamin C and periodontal disease and the preventive ability of vitamin C against periodontal disease. Electric searches were performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Studies addressing the relationships between periodontal disease and vitamin C in adults aged over 18 years were included. Quality assessment was done using Critical Appraisal Skills Program guideline and GRADE-CERQual. Seventy hundred and sixteen articles were retrieved and fifteen articles (7 cross-sectional studies, 2 case-control studies, 2 cohort studies, and 4 randomized controlled trial [RCT]) were selected by reviewing all articles. Vitamin C intake and blood level were negatively related to periodontal disease in all 7 cross-sectional studies. Subjects who suffer from periodontitis presented lower vitamin C intake and lower blood vitamin C level than subjects without periodontal disease in the two case-control studies. Patients with lower dietary intake or lower blood level of vitamin C showed greater progression of periodontal disease than did the controls. Intervention using vitamin C administration improved gingival bleeding in gingivitis but not in periodontitis. Alveolar bone absorption was also not improved. The present systematic review suggested that vitamin C contributes to reduced risk of periodontal disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: vitamin and mineral dietary supplements; mercury
Online: 29 March 2018 (03:52:58 CEST)
Dietary supplements are more and more often used to increase daily intake of essential vitamins and minerals. These preparations are classified as special category of foods and are subject to food law, not pharmaceutical regulations. As a result the requirements to dietary supplements are much less restrictive than to medications. Also simple and inexpensive procedure of registration causes that the number of dietary supplements is widely spread every year. On every manufacturing phases of dietary supplements, there is a risk of contamination. One of the pollutions might be mercury which is classified as heavy metal. Its inorganic compounds damage kidneys and liver and methylmercury is easily absorbed from gastrointestinal system. Methylmercury is distributed in all tissues, also in nervous system. The aim of study was to determine the level of mercury in multivitamins and multiminerals preparations and to analyze the results. The study included 22 dietary supplements containing vitamins and minerals available on Polish market. Mercury was analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry using AMA 254. The concentrations of Hg was 0.22–5.85 µg/kg (the average content was 2.40 µg/kg). The highest average mercury content was 4.51 µg/kg, whereas the lowest one was 0.31 µg/kg. The results was also analyzed in individual groups depending on main component and indication for use as well as pharmaceutical formulation. Also according to manufacturer’s recommendation, the dose of mercury taken with a single medicine was estimated for time of a day, a week, a month, 3 months and also a year. The findings were compared to limits defined in regulations of European Union and PTWI set by JECFA to assess the health risk. The results presented in this study proved that the amount of mercury in tested dietary supplements is much lower than the value of valid regulations. Analyzed supplements as long as they are used with the recommendation of manufacturer, do not pose a threat to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: vitamin B12; coronary tortuosity; coronary angiography
Online: 17 August 2016 (10:51:56 CEST)
Background: Vitamin B 12 deficiency has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease via hyperhomocysteinemia. Coronary tortuosity (CorT) is a common coronary angiography finding. The etiology, clinical implication and long term prognosis are still not well clarified. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the relationship between CorT and vitamin B12. Subjects and Method: The medical records of consecutive patients, who underwent coronary angiography, were retrospectively reviewed. The study group consisted of 1624 patients. Taking into consideration the inclusion criteria, 212 patients with CorT and 210 patients with normal coronary angiographies (control group) were included in the study. Vitamin B12, other biochemical parameters, clinical and echocardiographic parameters, and CorT score were evaluated in all patients. CorT is defined as fixed 3 bends during both systole and diastole, with each bend ≥45 °. Results: Patients with CorT had higher prevalence of older, female gender, hypertension, current smoking. Vitamin B12 was significantly decreased in patient with CorT (134.7±47.8 vs 239.6±53.8 p<0.001). On multivariate analysis age, female gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and vitamin B12 were independent predictors for CorT (OR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.247–1.962; p < 0.001, OR 1.628; 95% CI: 1.376-2.048; p<0.001, OR 1.865; 95% CI: 1.387-2.695; p<0.001, OR 1.362; 95% CI: 1.184-1.726; p<0.001, OR 1.862; 95% CI: 1.486-2.674; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In our study, we have founded a significant relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and CorT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1642.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: gasoline vapors; vitamin D3; turmeric; dietary supplements
Online: 27 November 2023 (04:27:57 CET)
Inhalation of gasoline vapors (GV) is associated with developing various pathologies. Particularly, oil refinery and gas station workers are at greater risk of developing lung cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer, and hematological disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia. Therefore, preventing the harmful effects of GV and alleviating their consequences appear to be an important and timely issue. In this study, we investigated the potential of vitamin D3, turmeric powder and their combination to ameliorate the toxicity of gasoline fumes in rats. Separate groups of animals fed with a standard rodent diet, with or without supplementation of vitamin D3 (750 IU/kg of body weight) and/or turmeric powder (0.5%, w/w, in food), were untreated or treated with GV (11.5±1.3 cm3/h/m3/day) for 30, 60 or 90 days. Changes in the body weight were monitored weekly. Histological, biochemical, and hematological parameters were determined at the end of each treatment period. While exposure of rats to GV resulted in a time-dependent reduction in body weight, supplementation with vitamin D3, but not with turmeric root powder or their combination, partially prevented weight loss. Macroscopical and histological analyses showed pronounced time-dependent changes in the organs and tissues of GV-treated rats. These included alveolar wall collapse in the lungs, destruction of the lobular structure and hepato-cytolysis in the liver, shrinkage and fragmentation of glomeruli in the kidneys, and disorganization of the lymphoid follicles in the spleen. However, co-treatment with the nutritional supplements tested, especially vitamin D3, noticeably alleviated the above conditions. This was accompanied by a significant improvement in blood chemistry and hematological parameters. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the harmful effects of environmental exposure to GV can be reduced upon supplementation of vitamin D3. The fact that the protective activity of vitamin D3 alone was higher than that of turmeric root powder or the combined treatment suggests that combinations of these supplements may not always be more beneficial than each agent applied separately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1904.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Face-lifting; vitamin D; collagen; sex difference
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:38:50 CEST)
Background/Aim: Rapid onset of facial ptosis can impact physical appearance and compromise the outcomes of facelift procedures. The level of vitamin D has a potential correlation with collagen formation and its deficiency with inflammatory processes that affect the breakdown of hyaluronic acid. This study aims to investigate the potential relationship between accentuated facial ptosis in women and low levels of vitamin D. Furthermore, it aims to explore preventive measures or strategies to slow down facial ptosis and enhance the longevity of facelift results. Materials and Methods: The study was focused on monitoring the vitamin D levels in women and men with advanced facial ptosis and comparing them with a control group. Results: Notably, a direct association between gender and serum vitamin D levels was observed, indicating less sustainable outcomes in women. Conclusion: Women face additional challenges in the aging process due to hormonal shifts after menopause or premenopausal, which are associated with osteoporosis and lower vitamin D levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Vitamin E, history, animal nutrition, production, activity
Online: 5 July 2023 (13:21:04 CEST)
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds divided into two subgroups: four tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-) and four tocotrienols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-). α-Tocopherol is considered the most biologically active form. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge and historical progression of vitamin E research, with particular emphasis on its role in animal nutrition. Early studies in the 1920s identified vitamin E’s role in preventing neonatal mortality in rats. Over the following decades, scientists discovered the compound’s chemical structure and its importance for the immune system, skin health, anti-inflammatory properties, hormonal balance, and other bodily functions. Production of vitamin E products has evolved, starting with isolating the vitamin from natural sources and advancing to synthesizing it with greater efficiency and standardized potency units. Early animal studies focused on reproductive health and growth disorders, but further research demonstrated the importance of vitamin E in preventing encephalomalacia in domestic fowl and muscular dystrophy in rabbits and other animals. Today, vitamin E is commonly used as a feed additive to meet animals’ requirements and assure immune function and overall health. Despite much knowledge on vitamin E’s role in animal nutrition, many questions remain unanswered, and current research aims to determine optimal supplementation levels, interactions with other nutrients, impacts on gene expression, cell signaling and communication, and effects of supranutritional dosages in livestock. Vitamin E has a long and fascinating history in scientific research, with significant advancements in understanding its chemical structure and biological activity. In animal nutrition, vitamin E continues to play an important role in improving animal health, and ongoing research will continue to expand our understanding of its benefits and mechanisms of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0027.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: homocysteine; estrogen; bradykinin; magnesium; vitamin D; CD147
Online: 15 February 2023 (03:59:17 CET)
Brain fog with compromised ability to concentrate has been the most frequent Long Covid (LC) complaint. This is due to an increased transforming growth factor (TGF) β/interferon (IFN)-γ ratio with consequently increased bradykinin (BKN), especially in Caucasian females. Brain and lung blood vessels “leak.” This same ratio is increased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but decreased in Parkinson’s disease (PD), because CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are differentially affected by the invading associated viruses, e.g., SARS CoV2, HIV, Varicella Zoster (VZV) aka Human Herpesvirus 3 (HHV3), HBV, HCV, …. In Covid-19 CD147 receptors on immune cells are critical in generating the increased TGF-β/IFN-γ and those on endothelial cells, platelets, and erythrocytes are critical to the abnormal microvascular blood flow. ACE2 receptors on pneumocytes and enterocytes enable pulmonary and GI entry, initiating gut dysbiosis. Epigenetics, methylation, magnesium, vitamin D, the B vitamins, and antioxidants suggest that these issues can be surmounted. Biochemical, physiologic, and epidemiologic data are analyzed to answer these questions. An LC model is presented and discussed in the context of the most recent research. Suggestions to avoid these and other worrisome concerns are included. Other topics discussed include estrogen, the gut microbiome, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and homocysteine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0602.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: vitamin D; ferritin; student-athletes; DXA scan
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:25:33 CEST)
Adequate serum vitamin D and iron levels are thought to positively influence physical training adaptations and mood. The purpose of this prospective, observational, study was to investigate relationships between serum 25-OH vitamin D and serum ferritin levels with body composition and athlete burnout symptoms. Seventy-three collegiate athletes (49 female) from 7 indoor and outdoor sports were tested pre-season and post-season for: nutrient biomarkers (serum 25-OH vitamin D and serum ferritin) via venipuncture; body composition (total lean mass, bone mineral densi-ty/BMD, and % body fat) via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans; and athlete burnout symptoms (post-season) via the athlete burnout questionnaire (ABQ). When male and female co-horts were combined, significant relationships were noted between pre-season serum 25-OH vit-amin D versus the change (∆: post-season minus pre-season) in both BMD (r=-0.34;p=0.0003) and % body fat (r=-0.28;p=0.015). Serum ferritin ∆ was significantly associated with lean mass ∆ (r=-0.34;p=0.003). For burnout symptoms, serum 25-OH vitamin D ∆ significantly explained 20.6% of the variance for devaluation of sport in the male cohort only. Across time, serum 25-OH vitamin D levels increased while serum ferritin levels decreased, non-significantly, in both males and fe-males. Relationships between nutrient biomarkers and body composition were opposite of physio-logical expectations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Plant-based diet; Vegan; Vegetarian; vitamin B12; Iron; Essential fatty acids; Calcium; Zinc; vitamin D; essential amino acids
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:01:32 CET)
Plant-based diets are increasingly popular for health as well as financial, ethical, and religious reasons. The medical literature clearly demonstrates that plant-based diets can be both nutritionally sufficient and medically beneficial. However, any person on an intentionally restrictive but poorly-informed diet may predispose themselves to clinically-relevant nutritional deficiencies. For persons on a poorly-informed plant-based diet, deficiencies are possible in both macronutrients (protein, essential fatty acids) and micronutrients (vitamin B12, iron, calcium, zinc and vitamin D). Practitioner evaluation of symptomatic patients on a plant-based diet requires special consideration of 7 key nutrient concerns for plant-based diets. This article translates these concerns into 7 practical questions that all practitioners can introduce into their patient assessments and clinical reasoning. Ideally, persons on plant-based diets should be able to answer these 7 questions. Each serves as a heuristic prompt for both clinician and patient attentiveness to a complete diet. As such, these 7 questions support increased patient nutrition knowledge and practitioner capacity to counsel, refer, and appropriately focus clinical resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0457.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; desmosine; dp-ucMGP; elastic fibers; factor II; matrix Gla protein; PIVKA-II; protein S; vitamin K; vitamin K antagonist
Online: 29 May 2020 (04:16:20 CEST)
Background: A significant proportion of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients develops respiratory failure. Thromboembolism is also prevalent in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Vitamin K plays a role in coagulation and possibly also in lung diseases. We therefore hypothesized that vitamin K is implicated in Covid-19 pathogenesis. Methods: 134 Covid-19 patients and 184 controls were included. Inactive vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (i.e.dp-ucMGP) and prothrombin (i.e. PIVKA-II) were measured, which are inversely related to respectively extrahepatic and hepatic vitamin K status. Desmosine was measured to quantify elastic fiber degradation. Lung involvement and arterial calcifications severity were assessed by computed tomography. Results Dp-ucMGP was elevated in Covid-19 patients compared to controls (P=0.001). Higher dp-ucMGP was found in Covid-19 patients with poor compared to better outcomes (P=0.002). PIVKA-II was normal in 81.8%, mildly elevated in 14.0% and moderately elevated in 4.1% of Covid-19 patients not using vitamin K antagonists. Dp-ucMGP in Covid-19 patients was correlated with desmosine (P<0.001), thoracic aortic calcification (P<0.001) but not with pneumonia severity. Conclusions: Extrahepatic vitamin K status was severely reduced in Covid-19 patients, as reflected by elevated inactive MGP, and related to poor outcome. Procoagulant prothrombin activity remained preserved in the majority of Covid-19 patients, which is compatible with the increased thrombogenicity that is frequently observed in severe Covid-19. Impaired MGP activation was linked to accelerated elastic fiber degradation and premorbid vascular calcifications. A trial should assess whether increasing MGP and protein S activity by vitamin K administration improves Covid-19 outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbic acid; ascorbate; pneumonia; community acquired pneumonia; oxidative stress; protein carbonyls; hypovitaminosis C; vitamin C deficiency
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:12:26 CEST)
Pneumonia is a severe lower respiratory tract infection that is a common complication and a major cause of mortality of the vitamin C-deficiency disease scurvy. This suggests an important link between vitamin C status and lower respiratory tract infections. Due to the paucity of information on the vitamin C status of patients with pneumonia, we assessed the vitamin C status of 50 patients with community-acquired pneumonia and compared these with 50 healthy community controls. The pneumonia cohort comprised 44 patients recruited through the Acute Medical Assessment Unit (AMAU) and 6 patients recruited through the intensive care unit (ICU); mean age 68 ± 17 years, 54% male. Clinical, microbiological and haematological parameters were recorded. Blood samples were tested for vitamin C status using HPLC with electrochemical detection and protein carbonyl concentrations, a marker of oxidative stress, using ELISA. Patients with pneumonia had depleted vitamin C status compared with healthy controls (23 ± 14 µmol/L vs 56 ± 24 µmol/L, P <0.001). The more severe patients in the ICU had significantly lower vitamin C status than those recruited through AMAU (11 ± 3 µmol/L vs 24 ± 14 µmol/L, P = 0.02). The total pneumonia cohort comprised 62% with hypovitaminosis C and 22% with deficiency, compared with only 8% hypovitaminosis C and no cases of deficiency in the healthy controls. The pneumonia cohort also exhibited significantly elevated protein carbonyl concentrations compared with the healthy controls (P < 0.001), indicating enhanced oxidative stress in the patients. We were able to collect subsequent samples form 28% of the cohort (mean 2.7 ± 1.7 days; range 1-7 days). These showed no significant differences in vitamin C status or protein carbonyl concentrations compared with baseline values (P = 0.6). Overall, the depleted vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress observed in the patients with pneumonia indicates an enhanced requirement for the vitamin during their illness. Due to the important roles that vitamin C plays in the immune system, low vitamin C status is possibly both a cause and a consequence of the disease. Therefore, these patients would likely benefit from additional vitamin C supplementation to restore their blood and tissue levels to optimal. This may decrease oxidative stress and aid in their recovery.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immune system; viral infection; influenza; COVID-19; micronutrients; vitamins; omega-3 fatty acids; minerals; vitamin C; vitamin D
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:30:45 CET)
Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, are responsible for approximately 2.65 million deaths per year. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: 1) Supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; 2) Supplementation above the RDA, but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and 3) Public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0118.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Eyes diseases; Oxidative damage; Antioxidant compounds; Vitamin A; Vitamin C; Lutein; Curcumin; Quercetin; Coenzyme Q10; PUFAs; BPF; Grape seed
Online: 7 July 2022 (09:04:14 CEST)
Abstract Eye health is crucial and the onset of diseases can reduce vision and affect the quality of life of patients. The main causes of progressive and irreversible vision loss include various pathologies such as cataracts, ocular atrophy, corneal opacity, age-related macular degeneration, uncorrected refractive error, posterior capsular opacification, uveitis, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, undetermined disease and other disorders involving oxidative stress and inflammation. The eyes are constantly exposed to the external environment and, for this reason, must be protected from damage from the outside. Many drugs, including cortisonics and antinflammatory drugs have widely been used to counteract eye disorders. However, recent advances have been obtained via supplementation of patients with natural antioxidants and nutraceuticals. In particular, evidence has been accumulated that polyphenols (mostly deriving from Citrus Bergamia) represent a reliable source of antioxidants able to counteract oxidative stress accompanying early stages of eye diseases. Luteolin, in particular, has been found to protect foto-receptors thereby improving vision in many disease states. Moreover, a consistent anti-inflammatory response was found to occur when curcumin is used alone or in combination with other nutraceuticals. On the other hand, CoQ10 has been demonstrated to produce consistent effect in reducing ocular pressure thereby leding to protection in patients undergoing glaucoma. Finally, both grape seed extract rich in anthocyanosides and polynsatured fatty acids (PUFAs) seem to contribute in the prevention of retinal disorders. Thus, combination of nutraceuticals and anti-oxidants may represent the right solution for a multiaction activity in eye protection to be associated to current drug therapies, and this will be of potential interest in early stages of eye disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0445.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Iron; Vitamin D; Vitamin B12; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Sleeve gastrectomy; Adjustable gastric banding; nutritional deficiency; bariatric surgery
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:36:21 CET)
Long-term nutritional studies in subjects undergoing bariatric surgery that have assessed weight regain and nutritional deficiencies are few. In this study, we report data 8 years after surgery on weight loss, use of dietary supplements and deficit of micronutrients in a cohort of patients from five centres in central and northern Italy. The study group consisted of 52 subjects (age: 38.1±10.6 yrs, 42 females): 16 patients had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 25 patients sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and 11 subjects adjustable gastric banding (AGB). All three bariatric procedures led to sustained weight loss: average percentage excess weight loss, defined as weight loss divided by excess weight based on ideal body weight was 60.6%±32.3. 80.7% of subjects (72.7%, AGB; 76%, SG; 93.7%, RYGB) reported at least one nutritional deficiency: iron (F 64.3% vs. M 30%), vitamin B12 (F 16.6% vs. M 10%), calcium (F 33.3% vs. M 0%) and vitamin D (F 38.1% vs. M 60%). Average weight loss was constant in RYGB and SG subjects from the third year after surgery. Long-term nutritional deficiencies were greater than the general population among men for iron and among women for vitamin B12.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0418.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: homocysteine; MTHFR; circumventricular organ; magnesium; vitamin D; CD147
Online: 15 September 2023 (02:37:01 CEST)
These three syndromes - long covid (LC), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) - have many symptoms in common. The common denominator remains elusive. The blood brain barrier (BBB) has been a barrier not only to microbes and toxins but also to understanding pathogenetic links. There are several areas within the brain that have no BBB. These are known as circumventricular organs (CVOs) and their location relative to CNS nuclei that direct autonomic and neuroendocrine functions is provocative in the quest for pathogenesis. In addition the majority afflicted with LC and ME/CFS appear to be those with two MTHFR polymorphisms, present in over 50% of Americans. These polymorphisms elevate homocysteine. When homocysteine is combined with CVOs, the fog of POTS and its paradox are lifted. POTS may represent the intersection of LC and ME/CFS in those with the MTHFR gene (hypermethylation or 677TT). The gut microbiomes of LC and ME/CFS, deficient in butyrates, GABA, and diversity, are then linked with MTHFR genotype 677TT. Reactivation of neurotropic EBV and VZV, due to loss of surveillance by CD4+/CD8+ T cells, is seen as secondary. The oxidative stress generated by homocysteine, loss of glutathione, low fiber diet, and persistent chronic inflammation exhaust available mitochondria and, assisted by BKN and estrogen, exacerbate all the elements of these post viral fatigue syndromes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1560.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: hemodialysis, calcifications, vitamin K, osteocalcin, Matrix Gla protein
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:13:49 CEST)
(1) Background: Vitamin K deficiency is a common feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to impaired bone quality and increased risk of vascular calcifications. A method to indirectly measure Vitamin K status is measuring the blood level of Vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDP)- osteocalcin (OC) and matrix GLA protein (MGP). The aim of this study is to correlate the level of OC and MGP with markers of CKD mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). (2) Methods: We conducted a single-center cross-sectional study that included 45 CKD G5D patients and measured blood biochemistry, complete blood count and intact osteocalcin and matrix GLA protein. (3) Results: We found a strong statistically significant correlation of OC with the markers of CKD-MBD such as: iPTH , serum calcium and serum phosphorus and a strong indirect statistically significant correlation with abdominal circumference. There was also a statistically significant correlation of MGP with markers of inflammation (CRP). Higher levels of MGP were found in patients treated with vitamin K antagonists, non-calcium based phosphate binders and vitamin D receptor activator- paricalcitol. (4) Conclusions: In our study, we found that vitamin K deficiency, measured indirectly using the level of VKDP is associated to CKD-MBD. The use of medication such as phosphate binders, that reduce vitamin K absorbtion, Vitamin D that increases Vitamin K requirements and also vitamin K antagonists, seem to have an influence on the blood level of VKDPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: metabolic disorders; nitric oxide; obesity; ultraviolet; vitamin D
Online: 2 March 2023 (09:44:53 CET)
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has both harmful and beneficial effects on human health. It can cause skin damage and cancer, but also provides the primary source of vitamin D. Additionally, UV radiation affects energy metabolism in mice with metabolic diseases and has protective effects on hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.Metabolic Syndrome is a collection of metabolic dysfunctions such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, abdominal/central obesity, and insulin resistance. Chronic UVR exposure suppressed obesity and type 2 diabetes in high-fat diet-fed mice, while vitamin D supplementation did not replicate these effects. On the other hand, topical application of nitric oxide (NO) donors replicated UV effects on mice, and NO scavengers prevented the positive impact of UV. UVR may prevent the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome through mechanisms that depend on UVR-induced NO, not vitamin D. Exposure to sunshine has a protective impact on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Although lower vitamin D concentration is linked to increased hypertension and the incidence of CVD, oral vitamin D supplementation does not decrease blood pressure or the risk of CVD, indicating that vitamin D may not mediate the beneficial effects of sun exposure. Instead, NO plays a crucial role as an endogenous vasodilator, produced by the vascular endothelium. Solar UVA may release nitrogen oxides from skin storage into the bloodstream, lowering blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality.In conclusion, UVR exposure could be a promising non-pharmacological intervention for metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and CVD prevention, and NO may play a crucial role in mediating these effects. Further research is needed to explore the precise mechanisms and identify the optimal doses and exposure times of UVR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0691.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Calcitriol; Vitamin D3; Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma stem-like cells
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:37:43 CEST)
: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor with a very high rate of recurrence and a median survival of 15 months after diagnosis. Abundant evi-dence suggests that a certain sub-population of cancer cells harbors a stem-like phenotype and is likely responsible for disease recurrence, treatment resistance and potentially even for the infil-trative growth of GBM. GBM incidence has been negatively correlated with the serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, while the low pH within tumors has been shown to promote the ex-pression of the vitamin D3-degrading enzyme 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene. Therefore, we hypothesized that calcitriol can specifically target stem-like glioblastoma cells and induce their differentiation. Here, we show using in vitro limiting dilution assays, quantita-tive real-time PCR and ex vivo adult organotypic brain slice transplantation cultures that thera-peutic doses of calcitriol, the hormonally active form of vitamin D3, reduces stemness to varying extent in a panel of investigated GSC lines and effectively hinders tumor growth of responding GSCs ex vivo. We further show that calcitriol synergizes with Temozolomide ex vivo to com-pletely eliminate some GSC tumors. These findings indicate that calcitriol carries potential as an adjuvant therapy for a subgroup of GBM patients and should be analyzed in more detail in fol-low-up studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: kiwifruit; genomics; polyploidy; breeding; ascorbic acid; vitamin C
Online: 28 June 2019 (08:09:04 CEST)
During analysis of kiwifruit derived from hybrids between the high AsA species Actinidia eriantha and A. chinensis var chinensis, we observed bimodal segregation of fruit AsA concentration suggesting major gene segregation. To test this hypothesis we performed whole-genome sequencing on pools of high and low AsA fruit from tetraploid A. chinensis var. deliciosa x A. eriantha backcross families. Pool-GWAS revealed a single QTL spanning more than 5 Mbp on chromosome 26, which we denote as qAsA26.1. A co-dominant PCR marker was used to validate this association in four diploid (A. chinensis x A. eriantha) x A. chinensis backcross families, showing that the eriantha allele at this locus increases fruit AsA levels by 250 mg/100 g fresh weight. Inspection of genome composition and recombination in other A. chinensis genetic maps confirmed that the qAsA26.1 region bears hallmarks of suppressed recombination. The molecular fingerprint of this locus was examined in leaves of backcross validation families by RNASEQ. This confirmed strong allelic expression bias across this region as well as differential expression of transcripts on other chromosomes. This evidence suggests that the region harboring qAsA26.1 constitutes a supergene, which may condition multiple pleiotropic effects on metabolism.