Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Vitamin D and Rheumatic Diseases: A Review of Clinical Evidence

Version 1 : Received: 25 July 2021 / Approved: 26 July 2021 / Online: 26 July 2021 (14:18:44 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Charoenngam, N. Vitamin D and Rheumatic Diseases: A Review of Clinical Evidence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 10659. Charoenngam, N. Vitamin D and Rheumatic Diseases: A Review of Clinical Evidence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 10659.


Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining healthy mineralized skeleton. It is also consid-ered an immunomodulatory agent that regulate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Multi-ple observational studies have demonstrated the association between low level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and presence and severity of several rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), spondyloarthropathies and oste-oarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, the specific benefits of vitamin D supplement for treatment and prevention of rheumatic diseases are less accepted as the results from randomized clinical trials are inconsistent, although some conceivable benefits of vitamin D for improvement of disease ac-tivity of RA, SLE and OA have been demonstrated in meta-analyses. It is also possible that some individuals might benefit from vitamin D differently from others since inter-individual difference in responsiveness to vitamin D supplementation has been observed in genomic studies. Although the optimal level of serum 25(OH)D is still debatable, it is advisable it is advisable that patients with rheumatic diseases should maintain serum 25(OH)D level at least 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) to prevent osteomalacia, secondary osteoporosis and fracture, and possibly 40 – 60 ng/mL (100 – 150 nmol/L) to achieve maximal benefit from vitamin D for immune health and overall health.


Keywords: Vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; Rheumatic diseases; Rheumatology; Rheumatoid arthritis; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Spondyloarthropathies; Osteoarthritis; Hyperuricemia; Gout


Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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