Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Vitamin K and the Visual System: A Narrative Review

Version 1 : Received: 1 February 2023 / Approved: 3 February 2023 / Online: 3 February 2023 (01:15:33 CET)

How to cite: Mong, M.A. Vitamin K and the Visual System: A Narrative Review. Preprints 2023, 2023020049. Mong, M.A. Vitamin K and the Visual System: A Narrative Review. Preprints 2023, 2023020049.


Vitamin K occupies a unique and often obscured place among its fellow fat-soluble vitamins. Evidence is mounting however, that vitamin K (VK) may play an important role in the visual system apart from the hepatic carboxylation of hemostatic related proteins. However, to our knowledge, no review covering the topic has appeared in the medical literature. Recent studies have confirmed that matrix Gla protein (MGP), a vitamin K-dependent protein (VKDP), is essential for the regulation of intraocular pressure in the mouse. The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized trial involving 5860 adults at risk for cardiovascular disease, demonstrated a 29% reduction in the risk of cataract surgery in participants with the highest tertile of dietary vitamin K1 (PK) intake compared with the lowest tertile. However, the specific requirements of the eye and visual system (EVS) for VK, and what might constitute an optimized VK status, is currently unknown and largely unexplored. It is the intention therefore of this narrative review to provide an introduction concerning VK and the visual system, review ocular VK biology, and to provide some historical context to recent discoveries. Potential opportunities and gaps in current research efforts will be touched upon, in the hope of raising awareness, and encouraging continued VK related investigations in this important and highly specialized sensory system.


vitamin K; vitamin K1; vitamin K2; eye; visual function; cognitive function; vitamin K-dependent protein; matrix Gla protein; ferroptosis


Medicine and Pharmacology, Ophthalmology

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