Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Stabilization of Vitamin D in Pea Protein Isolate Nanoemulsions Increases Its Bioefficacy in Rats

Version 1 : Received: 12 November 2018 / Approved: 13 November 2018 / Online: 13 November 2018 (09:46:27 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Almajwal, A.M.; Abulmeaty, M.M.A.; Feng, H.; Alruwaili, N.W.; Dominguez-Uscanga, A.; Andrade, J.E.; Razak, S.; ElSadek, M.F. Stabilization of Vitamin D in Pea Protein Isolate Nanoemulsions Increases Its Bioefficacy in Rats. Nutrients 2019, 11, 75. Almajwal, A.M.; Abulmeaty, M.M.A.; Feng, H.; Alruwaili, N.W.; Dominguez-Uscanga, A.; Andrade, J.E.; Razak, S.; ElSadek, M.F. Stabilization of Vitamin D in Pea Protein Isolate Nanoemulsions Increases Its Bioefficacy in Rats. Nutrients 2019, 11, 75.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2019, 11, 75
DOI: 10.3390/nu11010075

Abstract

1) Background: The aim was to evaluate the bioefficacy of vitamin D (VitD) encapsulated in nanoemulsions developed by sonication and pH-shifting of pea protein isolate in restoring VitD status in VitD-deficient rats. 2) Methods: Weaned (3-week old), male albino rats (n = 35) were initially divided into two groups: control sufficient group (VDS; n = 7) fed on a normal AIN-93G diet and a VitD-deficient group (n = 28) fed a VitD-deficient diet for six weeks. VitD-deficient rats were divided into four subgroups: two treatment groups (Nano+VitD and Oil+VitD) and two control groups (Nano-VitD and Oil-VitD), receiving seven rats in each sub-group. Nano+VitD and Oil+VitD groups received VitD dispersed in PPI-nanoemulsions and in canola oil, respectively, while the control groups received the respective delivery vehicles without VitD. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)VitD], parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), phosphorus levels (P), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. Femur bone was used to prepare histopathological sections. 3) Results: After one week of treatment, the VitD-deficient rats consuming Nano+VitD recovered from VitD deficiency (serum 25(OH)VitD 34.38 ± 7.00) compared to the sufficient control (36.84 ± 9.16; p > 0.05) and the deficient control consuming VitD+Oil (14.05 ± 3.08; p < 0.01). Enhancement in VitD status was followed with expected changes in serum PTH, Ca, P, and ALP levels, no difference in similar biomarkers against the sufficient control, and an improvement of the osteoid area and reduction of trabecular separation in bone. 4) Conclusions: Stabilization of VitD within PPI-based nanoemulsions enhances its absorption and restores its status and biomarkers of bone resorption in VitD-deficient rats.

Subject Areas

nanoemulsion; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; bioefficacy; fortification; rat

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