Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: obesity; diabetes mellitus; anti-obesity drugs; obesity metabolism; energy balance
Online: 1 September 2021 (17:29:05 CEST)
Obesity represents a major public health problem with a prevalence increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Continuous intensive efforts to elucidate the complex pathophysiology and improve clinical management have led to a better understanding of biomolecules like gut hormones, an-tagonists of orexigenic signals, stimulants of fat utilization, and/or inhibitors of fat absorption. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of obesity including inter-section points to the new generation of antidiabetic drugs. We provide insight into the effective-ness of currently approved anti-obesity drugs and other therapeutic avenues that can be explored.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: adipogenesis; signaling pathways; anti-obesity treatment; obesity
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:09:51 CEST)
Abstract: As a risk factor, obesity is a threat to human well-being and related metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. adipogenesis is defined as the proliferation and maturation of adipocyte predecessor cells to adipocyte. As the adipogenesis process decides adipocyte production, it may be considered a therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related disorders. White adipose tissue abnormal expansion increases the size and number of adipocytes. For that reason, this review aims to spot the molecular mechanisms implicated in adipogenesis that lead to application in the therapeutic targets. Keywords: adipogenesis, signaling pathways, anti-obesity treatment, obesity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: waist circumstance; obesity; abdominal obesity; glioma; risk factors
Online: 8 April 2021 (12:13:07 CEST)
The association between obesity and the risk of gliomas remains unclear. We sought to evaluate the potential association between general and abdominal obesity and the risk of gliomas based on a nationwide population-based cohort study of Koreans. Using data from the Korean National Health Insurance System cohort, 6,833,744 people older than 20 years who underwent regular national health examination in both 2009 and 2011 were followed until the end of 2017. We documented 4,771 glioma cases based on an ICD-10 code of C71 during the median follow-up period of 7.30 years. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 were at significantly higher risk of gliomas than those with a BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 (HR 1.08 CI 1.02-1.15). Individuals with a waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90 cm (males)/85 cm (females) also had a significantly higher risk of gliomas than those with a WC < 90 cm (males)/85 cm (females) (HR 1.16 CI 1.09-1.24). In the group with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2, individuals with abdominal obesity were at significantly higher risk of gliomas (HR 1.18 CI 1.09-1.27) than those without abdominal obesity. The role of abdominal obesity in this association was stronger in women than in men. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that obese people may be at higher risk of gliomas, especially centrally obese people from an Asian population with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Loss of visceral fat in people with abdominal obesity may reduce their risk of gliomas.
Online: 16 December 2022 (10:10:37 CET)
In the United States, obesity is prevalent, and it could be described as a pandemic. Obesity is excessive fat accumulation, leading to a BMI ≥ 30 (Fruh, 2017). Surveys conducted by the CDC show that the obesity prevalence in the US is on the rise, as several obese people rose from 30.5% to 41.9% between 1999 and 2020 (Bryan et al., 2021). During the same time, several people suffering from severe obesity rose from 4.7% to 9.2% (Bryan et al., 2021). Additionally, childhood obesity is on the rise. Statistics indicate that between 2017-2020 over 19.7% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years had obesity. During the same period, obesity prevalence in children aged 2-5 years, 6-11 years, and 12-19 years olds was 12.7%, 20.7%, and 22.2%, respectively (Bryan et al., 2021). With so many people suffering from obesity, the WHO declared it a public health crisis (WHO, 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the prevalence of obesity in the US. According to the surveys, there was a 4.4% increase in obesity between 2019 to March 2020 due to lifestyle changes that were put on people during the COVID-19 pandemic (Akter et al., 2022). Many comorbidities are associated with obesity. Without adequate health interventions, millions of people could suffer severe health disorders like respiratory problems, type II diabetes, psychological issues, gastrointestinal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. It is also essential to develop health interventions to mitigate obesity due to its strain on the healthcare system. Research shows that people suffering from obesity spend $2,505 more than people with average weight on healthcare (Cawley et al., 2021). Obesity has financial ramifications in every healthcare category: inpatient, outpatient, and prescription drugs (Cawley et al., 2021). One essential action toward the efforts to mitigate the soaring obesity rates is understanding the demographic inequities across populations and how they can be resolved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: obesity; documentation; comorbidities
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:17:30 CEST)
While obesity is a serious chronic condition, its prevalence and documentation as a diagnosis has not been extensively studied in hospitalized patients. We conducted a retrospective chart review to investigate the prevalence and documentation of obesity as a diagnosis among patients admitted to our medical center. IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Body mass index as per CDC, admission and discharge diagnosis of obesity and common comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and others, were recorded. Length of hospital stay was calculated. We also investigated whether counselling for weight loss was provided to obese patients. A total of 540 consecutive patients with mean age of 66 ± 6 years, were investigated, of which 182(34%) had normal weight, 188(35%) patients were overweight and 170(31%) patients were obese. Obese group included 55% female and 45% male. 100 (59%) had class I obesity, 43(25%) had class II obesity and 27(16%) class III obesity. Of the obese patients 40/170(23.5%) patients had obesity documented on the admission problem list and only 21(12%) had obesity documented as a discharge diagnosis. Only 3(2%) patients received appropriate counseling and referral for obesity management during the hospitalization. Comorbidities included hypertension (68%), diabetes (35%), hyperlipidemia (36%), coronary artery disease (18%), chronic kidney disease (17%), congestive heart failure (18%) and COPD (24%). The average length of stay in normal weight, overweight and obese patients was similar (4.5 ± 0.5 days). An overwhelming percentage never had weight status documented despite significant prevalence of obesity. Hospitalization offers health care providers a window of opportunity to identify obesity, communicate risks and initiate weight management interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Cholecystokinin; obesity; bariatric surgery
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:57:04 CEST)
To describe the metabolic effect of cholecystokinin and its relationship with post-bariatric sugery patients. Methodology: This is a qualitative analysis in the form of integrative literature review, the theme chosen clearly and explicitly: "What is the metabolic profile of cholecystokinin and its effect on post-bariatric sugery patients?". After formulating the guiding question, the following keywords in Portuguese, English and Spanish were chosen: "bariatric surgery", "bariatric surgery", "cirugía bariátrica"; "cholecystokinin", "cholecystokinin", "cholecystokinin"; "fome", "hunger", "hambre"; "satiety response", "satiety response", "respuesta de saciedad", "Roux-en-Y anastomosis", "anastomosis Roux-en-Y", and "anastomosis en-Y de Roux", through the combination of the controlled descriptors, Medical Subjetc Heading (MeSH) and the Health Science Descriptors (DeCS) resources, as well as the Boolean operators "AND" and "OR". In the databases Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS), Virtual Health Library (VHL), PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Google Scholar, a search for clinical trials conducted in humans from 2012 to 2022 was performed. Results: 2,038 articles were identified. The final sample of this review consisted of eleven scientific articles; of these, four were found in the VHL database, two in PubMed, and five in Google Scholar. Thus, concepts about the digestion process and the hormones involved, bariatric surgery techniques and their hormonal effects, were observed in each of the selected articles. Conclusions: Cholecystokinin, a gastrointestinal hormone, is one of the major endocrine satiety signals. It is observed that with gastroplasty, the levels of the hormone CCK are elevated; thus, besides increasing satiety, cholecystokinin aids in weight loss. Therefore, bariatric surgery is highly effective in improving the patient's quality of life
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0384.v2
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:23:59 CEST)
Childhood obesity is a preventable multi-systemic disease that has become an epidemic. In this narrative review, we showed evidence, in the literature, of the affectation of body systems by obesity. Co-morbid conditions of obesity in the cardiovascular, nervous, dermatological, respiratory, endocrine, reproductive, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and renal systems, and its effects on mental health are discussed. Obesity ultimately reduces the quality of life of children and is a leading cause of preventable deaths. Effective measures aimed at the prevention of obesity and the treatment of its co-morbid conditions should be taken.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0609.v1
Online: 25 May 2021 (12:59:07 CEST)
Obesity is a complex chronic disease characterized by excess of body fat. It represents a significant public health problem due to the health-related risk factors. There are growing evidences showing that maternal obesity can program the offspring, which influence neonatal phenotype and predispose offspring to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders such as obesity. This increased risk may also be epigenetically transmitted across generations. Thus, there is an urgent need to find effective reprogramming approaches in order to resume normal fetal development. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables that exert their anti-obesity effect through its powerful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polyphenols supplementation has been proven to counteract the deleterious effects of maternal obesity programming on offspring. Indeed, some polyphenols can cross the placenta and protect the fetal predisposition against obesity. The present review summarizes the effects of dietary polyphenols on obesity-induced maternal reprogramming as an offspring anti-obesity approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0067.v1
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:56:02 CEST)
Introduction: Decreasing overweight and obesity prevalence requires precise data at sub-national levels to monitor progress and initiate interventions. This study aimed to estimate baseline age-standardized overweight prevalence at the lowest administrative units among women, 18 years and older, in seven African countries. The study aims are synonymous with indicator 14 of the global non-communicable disease monitoring framework. Methods: We used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey and administrative boundaries data from the GADM. Three Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted and model selection tests implemented. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight among adult women at national, first and second administrative levels were individually reported in each country in the form of maps and tables. Results: Substantial variation in the age-standardized prevalence of adult female overweight was noted across several second-level administrative units. In numerous locations in Tanzania, Nigeria and Zimbabwe, more than half of the adult female population were overweight and in one location in Tanzania, over 72% of the adult female population were overweight. These estimates were roughly twice the national level overweight prevalence and, in some cases, roughly 10 – 20% greater than the overweight prevalence in first-level administrative units. Conclusion: The observed overweight burden in subnational administrative units suggests the presence of an epidemic tantamount to the situation in more affluent economies. African countries lack the resources to effectively handle the fallout from such epidemic, therefore motivating the need for increased urgency in adopting WHO obesity-related intervention guidelines and implementing more rigorous studies to validate the study findings.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; bariatric surgery; preoperative evaluation
Online: 10 November 2020 (09:55:37 CET)
Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Weight losse is associated with improvement or even cure of cardiovascular risk factors with cardiometabolic benefit. nonsurgical measures for weight loss is rarely successful in the long term. Bariatric surgery has achieved clear success in reversing the abnormal metabolic profile associated with obesity. Pre surgical evaluation is important to rule out any medical or psychological problems that increased the surgical mortality or adversely affect the outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0311.v1
Online: 14 August 2020 (08:15:09 CEST)
Prevalence of overweight and obesity are escalating globally among the general population. However, there are limited evidence on the trends and prevalence of overweight /obesity in the military setting. Increased rates of injuries, low work productivity, incurred higher healthcare costs and prematurely discharge from service are consequences of overweight/obesity among the military. Therefore, we aimed to systematically describe the trends and prevalence of overweight and obesity in the military population, by regions and military service branches. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were used. Inclusion criteria were military population (inclusive of all service branches) with BMI reported as the overweight/obesity indicator. Population related to military but not exclusively military personnel such as the retirees, the veterans and their dependents were excluded. From the 27 included studies, 13 were published between year 2010 to 2014 and half were conducted in the United States. Overall, studies showed increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight (30% to 50%) and obesity (2% to 30%); only one study showed a decreasing trend of 0.9% and 0.6% for the prevalence of overweight and obesity respectively. However, the rates of increment differed between countries, where Asian countries demonstrated lower overweight prevalence compared to the United States and the European countries. In conclusion, the military population is not protected from overweight and obesity. Interventions should be implemented to prevent overweight / obesity among the military personnel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0439.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: astrocytes; autophagy; hypothalamus; metabolism; obesity
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:18:35 CET)
Autophagy is an essential mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Besides its role in controlling the quality of cytoplasmic components, it participates in nutrient obtaining and lipid mobilization under stressful conditions. Furthermore, autophagy is involved in the regulation of systemic metabolic, a function mainly performed by neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Several studies have shown that blockade of autophagy in these neurons can affect central regulation of metabolism and impact body energy balance. Moreover, hypothalamic autophagy can be altered during obesity. However, neurons are not the only cell type involved in the central regulation of metabolism. Astrocytes, essential cells for brain homeostasis, are key metabolic regulators. They can sense metabolic signals in the hypothalamus and modulate systemic functions as glucose homeostasis and feeding response. Moreover, the response of astrocytes to obesity has been widely studied. Astrocytes are important mediators of brain inflammation and can be affected by increased levels of saturated fatty acids associated to obesity. Although autophagy plays important roles for astrocyte homeostasis and functioning, the contribution of astrocyte autophagy to systemic metabolism has not been analysed. Furthermore, how obesity can impact astrocyte autophagy is poorly understood. More studies are needed in other to understand the contribution of astrocyte autophagy to metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0082.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: obesity, diabetes, cardiomyopathy, echocardiography, ultrasound
Online: 3 May 2018 (16:06:24 CEST)
Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obese patients. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) is characterized by changes in cardiac morphology with declines in both systolic and diastolic functions. No rodent models fully captured phenotypes of DC. The ZDSD rat, a new generation of T2D rat model with intact leptin signaling features with slow onset of diabetes and obesity, which closely mimics the development of the disease in patients. Age-matched male ZDSD and SD rats were monitored for blood pressure, glucose and cardiac function using echocardiography. Animals were also challenged with 1 mg/kg dobutamine for the assessment of cardiac reserve. ZDSD rats developed hypertension from age of 18 weeks with blood pressure significantly higher than controls. At resting state, ZDSD rats showed biphasic changes in left ventricular posterior wall thickness and cavity volume. Concomitantly, both ejection fraction (EF) and transmitral E/A ratio of LV declined at 34 weeks old. Upon treatment with dobutamine, ZDSD lost cardiac contractility. Therefore, ZDSD rats may serve as a suitable preclinical model to study potential therapeutic approaches to treat cardiomyopathy with presence of metabolic syndromes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Rural Health; Obesity abdominal; Metabolic syndrome
Online: 10 October 2022 (13:59:16 CEST)
(1) Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular complications. Therefore, this study aims to establish cut points for the conicity index based on the components of the metabolic syndrome and to associate it with characteristics sociodemographic, food consumption and occupational factors in Brazilian rural workers; (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out with farmers. The receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated and the cutoff points for the conicity index were identified by the area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity. The variables included in the binary logistic regression analysis were selected by considering p < 0.20 in the bivariate test; (3) Results: The cut points were similar in females according to both criteria, resulting in a single cut-off of 1.269. In males, the cut points showed differences, resulting in 1.272 according to the NCEP-ATP III and 1.252 according to the IDF. We have shown that younger people, those who work more than 40 hours a week and the lowest contribution of culinary ingredients are associated with increased odds of abdominal obesity. While the consumption of the products they sell or produce decreases these chances; (4) Conclusions: The conicity index showed high discriminatory power for the identification of abdominal obesity in rural workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0436.v1
Online: 25 August 2022 (13:21:39 CEST)
Indole and indole-3-lactate are known dominant microbial tryptophan catabolites (MICT). In obesity, the fecal indole concentration corresponds to the normal one, and that of indole-3-lactate significantly decreases along with other MICT, while it increases in blood plasma. During the analysis of the «enzymatic landscape» of the intestinal microbiota we find an almost twofold increase in the correlation between the concentrations of fecal MICT and the «enzymatic landscape», with indole-3-lactate having the closest relationships with the “enzymatic landscape” of all MICT. Here, we report statistically significant correlations of indole-3-lactate and the gut microbial enzymes for fructose, amino sugars, nucleotides, polyamines metabolism, and sulfoglycolysis. We also demonstrate that indole-3-lactate producing microbiota representatives increase three-fold in obesity. The phenotype of the microbiotic population is thus represented by completely different genera and species of microorganisms in obese individuals compared to healthy donors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Breakfast consumption; mortality; coronary diseases; obesity
Online: 29 April 2022 (08:20:22 CEST)
Epidemiological studies indicate that skipping breakfast as a universal behavior, may have adverse effects on cardiovascular diseases [CVDs}and metabolic diseases. However, eating breakfast regularly, may increase satiety, thereby reducing overeating later in the day which prevents weight gain. Recent studies indicate that skipping breakfast increases the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), and cardiovascular mortality as well as all-cause mortality. However, many studies also reported that regular taking of breakfast decreases the risk of CVDs and T2DM and all-cause mortality. Previous studies reported that heavy breakfast, in particular eating western diet may increase circadian rhythm of CVDs and sudden cardiac death. It seems that those who do not eat breakfast, they tend to eat refined and sweetened products, possibly, more in the night resulting in to greater risk of CVDs and T2DM. Breakfast skipping and eating in the night, may be associated with circadian misalignment in the central and peripheral clocks, leading to oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased systemic inflammation damages the adipocytes, beta cells of pancreas, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as well as neurons, which may produce dysfunction in these cells resulting in to related diseases. The beneficial effects of breakfast, may also be, at least in part, due to nutrient dense foods rather than time of eating. Eating regular breakfast, in particular rich in Indo-Mediterranean foods; vegetables, whole grains, fruits, spices and nuts may be protective against circadian increase in oxidative stress in the morning, resulting in to significant decline in the risk of CVDs and T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0554.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; Mental disorders; Obesity; Multimorbidity
Online: 30 November 2021 (10:38:08 CET)
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with a greater risk of morbimortality. Ob-jective: To estimate the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and associated factors in patients of a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional study set at CAPS in the city of Salvador-Bahia, between August 2019 and February 2020. MS was evaluated according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. In addition to descriptive statistics, gross and adjusted prevalence ratios were described. Results: MS was found in 100 (35.2%) individuals, 116 (40.9%) were obese and 165 (58.1%) had increased waist circumference. Polypharmacy was identified in 63 (22.3%) patients and 243 (85.9%) used antipsychotics. In the gross evaluation, the female (PR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.35-2.63) and the use of antidepressants (PR = 1.41; 95%CI: 1.05-1.88) were associated with MS. After logistic re-gression, depression (PR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.38-2.51), acanthosis (PR = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90), use of antipsychotics (PR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.13 - 2.75) and the hypertriglyceremic waist (PR = 3.33; 95%CI: 2.48- 4.46) were associated with MS. Conclusion: The prevalence of MS alerts to multimorbidity among individuals with mental disorders and the need for clinical screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorder; Body Image; Adolescents.
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:34:57 CEST)
There is growing recognition of the adverse effects of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and eating disorder (ED) symptoms on adolescent health. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ED symptoms, BID, and their relationship in adolescents from public schools in Southern Brazil. A total of 782 schoolchildren (male: n=420, female: n=362); age: 15 ± 0,4 years) answered a self-administrated questionnaire to identify sociodemographic data. Children´s Figure Rating Scale was adopted to identify body image and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to investigate ED symptoms. Inferential statistics and hierarchical model-controlled logistic regression were used for association between variables. Most of the schoolchildren reported being satisfied with their bodies. However, we observed a higher prevalence of dissatisfaction among girls for being overweight and thinness among boys. Female students and students from schools located in the central area of the city showed higher chances of developing ED symptoms, and the absence of symptoms of ED appeared to act as a protective factor against BID in schoolchildren. Results of this study show the need to reflect on these factors that influence the development of ED and non-acceptance of their own body in a population concerned with their physical appearance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0537.v1
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:50:24 CEST)
Background: The rising prevalence of obesity has a significant impact on obstetrics practice regarding maternal and perinatal complications includes recurrent miscarriage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and prolonged labor. Objective: To assess the impact of obesity on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among Saudi women. Methods: The study was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Jeddah. Design: A cross-sectional retrospective design. A total number of 186 participants were recruited from July to Dec.2018 according to eligibility criteria. The data were collected retrospectively by a review of the chart records of the labor and delivery department. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 31.94(5.67) years old; two-thirds were in obesity class1. There was a significant association between obesity and pre-existing thyroid disease and induced hypertension class3. However, episiotomy showed that obesity class3 was significantly different from obesity class2. Conclusion: This study concludes obesity affects the outcomes of pregnant Saudi associations between obesity and preeclampsia, perineal tears, and episiotomy variables, and other variables reflect no associations. Recommendations: Further studies are needed to generalize the results. This study endorses the pregnant women start the antenatal follow-up from 1st trimester so, the data will be available on the system for research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; microbiota; probiotics; obesity
Online: 1 April 2021 (10:07:32 CEST)
Depression and metabolic diseases often coexist having several features in common, e.g., chronic low-grade inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Different microbiota interventions have been proposed to be used as a treatment for these disorders. In the paper we review the efficacy of probiotics in depressive disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome and its liver equivalent based on the published experimental studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses. Probiotics seem to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms when administered in addition to antidepressants. Additionally, probiotics intake may ameliorate some of the clinical components of metabolic diseases. However, standardized methodology regarding probiotics clinical trials has not been established yet. In this narrative review we discuss current knowledge on the recently used methodology with its strengths and limitations and propose criteria that may be implemented to create a new study of the effectiveness of probiotics in depressive disorders comorbid with metabolic abnormalities. We put across our choice on type of study population, probiotics genus, strains, dosages and formulations, intervention period, as well as primary and secondary outcome measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Obesity; BMI; maternal outcomes; neonatal outcomes
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:27:06 CET)
The rising prevalence of obesity has a significant impact on obstetrics practice regarding maternal and perinatal complications includes recurrent miscarriage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and prolonged labor. Objective: To assess the impact of obesity on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among Saudi women. Methods: The study was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Jeddah. Design: A quantitative research, cross-sectional retrospective design. A total number of 186 participants were recruited from July to Dec.2018 according to eligibility criteria. The data were collected retrospectively by a review of the chart records of the labor and delivery department. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 31.94(5.67) years old; two-thirds were in obesity class1. There was a significant association between obesity and pre-existing thyroid disease and induced hypertension class3. However, Episiotomy showed that obesity class3 was significantly different from obesity class2. Conclusion: This study concludes obesity affects the outcomes of pregnant Saudi associations between obesity and preeclampsia, perineal tears, and episiotomy variables, and other variables reflect no associations. Recommendations: Further studies are needed to generalize the results. This study endorses the pregnant women start the antenatal follow-up from 1st trimester so, the data will be available on the system for research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; prediabetes; inflammation; microRNAs; cardiovascular function
Online: 8 December 2020 (07:56:14 CET)
Background: obese pre-diabetics have altered expression of cytokines, and sirtuin-1, that might influence myocardial function via microRNAs (miRs) expression. Objectives: to evaluate inflammatory/oxidative stress, miRs’ expression and cardiovascular function in obese pre-diabetics randomly assigned to metformin therapy vs. placebo vs. normo-glycemics at 12 months of follow-up. Materials and methods: eighty-three obese patients enrolled for abdominoplastic surgery, were divided in pre-diabetics (n 55), normo-glycemics (n 28), and assigned to hypocaloric diet. Pre-diabetics were randomly assigned to metformin (n 23) or to placebo (n 22) plus hypocaloric diet. Results: at enrollment, pre-diabetics obese vs. normo-glycemic presented higher values of glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, miR-195 and miR-27, and lower values of sirtuin-1 (p<0.05). At 12 months of follow up, obese pre-diabetics with metformin vs. placebo experienced significant reduction of glucose values, HOMA-IR, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, with significant reduction of intima-media thickness (IMT), septum and posterior wall thickness, and left ventricle mass (LVM), (p <0.05). At 12 months of follow-up, obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normo-glycemics had higher values of inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, higher values of IMT, septum and posterior wall thickness, LVM, and myocardial performance index (MPI), (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo, and obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normoglycemics, had significant differences about IMT, MPI, and LVM (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo showed significant reduction of serum miR-195 and miR-27 (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. normoglycemics showed higher expression of serum miR-195 and miR-27 ( p<0.05). Finally, we found inverse relation between IMT and insulin (R -0.351), HOMA-IR (R -0.340), miR-195 (R -0.355), miR-27 (R -0.181); between LVEF and Insulin (R -0.332), HOMA-IR (R -0.142), miR-195 (R -0.297) and miR-27 (R -0.163). We found inverse correlation between LVM and sirtuin-1 (R -0.272), Insulin (R -0.810), HOMA-IR (R-0.183), miR-195 (R -0.446) and miR-27 (R-0.433), and direct correlation with interleukin-6 (R 0.195). MPI inversely linked to miR-195 (R -0.260) and miR-27 (R -0.591). Conclusion: in obese pre-diabetics metformin therapy significantly reduces inflammation/oxidative stress, circulating miR-195 and miR-27, causing reduction of LVM, IMT and amelioration of cardiac performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Obesity; Garcinia cambogia; Green Coffee; Pakistan
Online: 21 October 2020 (16:52:38 CEST)
Introduction: Various studies have widely documented how weight (being overweight, underweight or obese) plays a significant role in increasing health problems and adversely affects the quality of life. Out of all the weight-related issues, obesity is the number one contributing factor for causing health problems. To overcome this factor, a trial was conducted where a drug 'Lite plus’ (Garcinia Cambogia and Green Coffee bean) was given to a select number of people for a period of three months. Materials and Methods: 'Lite Plus' is a drug which contains Garcinia cambogia 500 mg + Green Coffee Bean Extract 400 mg, with a recommended dosage of 2 tablets/day with or before meals for 3 months. Most of the patients included in our study were females suffering from obesity-related problems such as PCOs and Infertility. During the trial, all patients were given the recommended dosage of 'Lite plus', while those with diabetes had the dose amended accordingly. Results: As a result of this trial, it was found that the use of 'Lite Plus' was very effective in decreasing weight/BMI with continuous use. After 6 weeks, out of the 250 respondents participating in the trial, 232 got a reduction in their BMI, and after 12 weeks (end of the trial), 29 respondents (11.6%) reached the desired level of BMI. Conclusion: Garcinia cambogia and Green Coffee bean are effective and safe in weight reduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0419.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: glucocorticoids; atrophy; obesity; atrogenes; insulin resistance
Online: 20 August 2020 (02:38:54 CEST)
Glucocorticoids promote muscle atrophy by inducing a class of proteins called atrogenes, resulting in reductions in muscle size and strength. In this work, we evaluated whether a mouse model with pre-existing diet-induced obesity had altered glucocorticoid responsiveness. We observed that all animals treated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone had reduced strength, but that obesity exacerbated this effect. These changes were concordant with more pronounced reductions in muscle size, particularly in Type II muscle fibers, and potentiated induction of atrogene expression in the obese mice relative to lean mice. Furthermore, we show that the reductions in lean mass do not fully account for the dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance observed in these mice. Together these data suggest that obesity potentiates glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0228.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Obesity; Dietary practices; Diabetes; College students
Online: 13 May 2020 (15:26:52 CEST)
Obesity is an issue of public health concern as it contributes to chronic non-communicable diseases despite the fact that it is preventable. Dietary practices and environment have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, overweight and obesity among young people. This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns associated with obesity among Babcock University students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to obtain data from 391 participants. Results reveal respondent’s knowledge was 12.06 ± 2.3 translating to an 80% prevalence performance, level of perception was 37.23 ± 9.23 with prevalence of 59.0%, dietary practices was 19.6 ± 5.23 with 59% prevalence. Factors influencing dietary practices revealed mean score of 15.2 ± 4.5 with 72.3% prevalence performance. The factors identified in this study has a great influence on dietary practices of the study participants. In conclusion Babcock University students have an excellent knowledge of dietary practices related to obesity. They also had good dietary practices. The identified factors had a great influence on the study participants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0166.v1
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:37:36 CEST)
On March 11, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review focuses on where the body mass index (BMI) value can be used as a tool to evaluate the risk of development and/or aggravation of this disease. Databases were used to search studies published up to April 18, 2020. In total, 4285 articles and other scientific literature were found, and twelve articles were included in this systematic review. The mean BMI value of severe COVID-19 patients ranged from 24.5 to 33.4 kg/m2, versus 22.0 to 24.3 kg/m2 for non-severe patients Articles using the terms obesity or overweight, without indicating the BMI value, in these patients were common, but this is not useful as the nutritional status, when not defined by this index, is confusing due to the classification being different in the West compared to among,, Asian and Korean criteria-based adults. Furthermore, the use of BMI is important during this pandemic, as it should be applied to nutritional support therapy during hospitalization of infected patients, as well as being considered in the home confinement population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0034.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Hikikomori; hidden youth; health; hypertension; obesity
Online: 4 January 2019 (08:46:13 CET)
Background: A prospective study was conducted to follow-up how the living lifestyle of hikikomori could change the social, mental and physical health profile. Methods: A cohort consisted of 104 young people living as Hikikomori were interviewed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months by using the same set of questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Results: Besides the high attrition of 30% in wave 2 and 25% in wave 3, almost half of the participants have recovered from hikikomori by returning to the workforce in society. The three domains of health profile of hikikomori were significantly improved over the follow-up period by: 1) increasing the social network scores from 2.791.80 to 3.091.87, 2) decreasing the perceived stress scores from 21.185.87 to 20.115.79, and 3) reducing blood pressure levels from 118/75 to 115/71 and waist-to-hip ratios. Those variables were also predictable by lifestyle living with the hikikomori according to the Generalized Estimating Equation analysis, whereas the participants of current study had increased the practice of moderate-intensity exercises. Conclusion: Social work intervention was effective in helping the recovery of hikikomori while physical assessments followed by encouragement from social workers to do more exercises might enhance their awareness in health modification towards a better health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: LPS; microbiota; inflammation; intestinal permeability; obesity
Online: 20 July 2018 (04:56:08 CEST)
Obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation are becoming global epidemics. The dysbiosis has a specific role in the metabolism and energy stocks of the host. The discovery that a low-grade of inflammation could be directly connected to the intestinal microbiota metabolic endotoxemia (elevated levels of plasma lipopolysaccharides) has allowed the identification of novel mechanisms involved in the control of the intestinal barrier. In this review, it will analyze the latest news to explain how human symbiotic microorganisms participate in the growth of the fat reserves and promote insulin resistance as a low-grade inflammation. Besides, it will discuss new treatments with probiotics and prebiotics as a promising therapeutic approach to reverse the host's metabolic changes linked to dysbiosis observed in obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: engagement; adolescents; obesity; diet; prevention; management
Online: 5 June 2018 (11:21:25 CEST)
Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behaviour change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalisation of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices. The aim of this paper is to appraise these strategies, which may be used to improve effective engagement and thereby improve the dietary behaviours of adolescents now and in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: osteosarcopenic obesity; exercise; diet; aging; fall
Online: 2 May 2018 (08:02:13 CEST)
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is described by the simultaneous presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and increased adiposity. Over time, older adults with OSO syndrome might be at greater risk for loss of physical function and bone fractures. Furthermore, a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, pharmaceutical drugs and chronic conditions encompass the multifactorial nature of OSO syndrome. Physical activity and a healthy diet play a crucial role in management and treatment of OSO syndrome. Research has shown that even low-intensity physical activity or daily habitual activity can maintain bone mineral density, muscle strength and improve muscle quality, and reduce adiposity. However, older adults with high risk of fall and injuries require tailored exercise intensity. Also, balanced daily intake of vitamin D, calcium and protein is important in prevention and treatment of OSO syndrome in postmenopausal women. Effective measurement of bone mass, muscle mass and strength is required when detecting OSO syndrome and to evaluate the balance, strength and endurance of elder individuals and severity of the condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: childhood; obesity; activPAL; steps; sedentary behavior
Online: 19 March 2018 (10:16:20 CET)
A major health threat for children in the 21st century is physical inactivity in conjunction with the elevated prevalence of obesity. In Malaysia, low physical activity among children is a major concern. The objective of the study was to analyze the day to day variation of step count in a sample of obese children using the activPALTM monitor. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu. The sample compromised 41 boys and 24 girls between the ages of 9-11 years. Number of steps was objectively measured using an activPALTM accelerometer over a period of 4-7 days and had their height and weight measured. Mean step count from this sample of obese children was 8861 ± 3157steps. Steps per day were significantly higher for boys compared to girls (p=0.034). Obese children took significantly more steps at weekdays than on weekends (p=0.001). Steps/hour were significantly higher in weekday compared to weekend between 0600 to 0700 (p<0.001), 0700 to 0800 (p<0.001), 0800 to 0900 am (p<0.001), 0900 to 1000 (p=0.032), 1000 to 1100 (p=0.046), 1100 to 1200 (p<0.001), 1300 to 1400 (p=0.002), 1400 to 1500 (p<0.001), 1800 to 1900 (p=0.026) and 2000 to 2100 (p=0.019). Detailed daily patterns of physical activity are required to fully understand the differences across days that help future interventions to target those falling short particularly during weekend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0156.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: obesity; obesity rehabilitation; weight maintenance; eating disorders; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Clinical Psychology
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:38:20 CEST)
The purpose of this Individually Randomized Group Treatment Trial was to compare an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based (ACT) group intervention and a Cog-nitive Behavioral Therapy-based (CBT) group intervention for weight loss maintenance in a sample of adult patients with obesity seeking treatment for weight loss. 155 over-weight adults (BMI: Kg/m2= 43.8[6.8]) attending a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for weight loss were randomized into two conditions: ACT and CBT. Demo-graphical, physical, and clinical data were assessed at the beginning of the program (t0), at discharge (t1), and at 6-month follow-up (t2). The following measures were ad-ministered: The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) and the Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Generalized linear mixed models were performed to assess differences between groups. Moderation ef-fects for gender and eating disorders (ED) have been considered. From baseline to dis-charge no significant differences between interventions were found, with the only ex-ception of an improvement in the CORE-OM total score and in the CORE-OM subjective well-being subscale for those in the CBT condition. From discharge to follow-up ACT group participants showed significant results in terms of weight loss maintenance, CORE-OM total score, and CORE-OM and AAQ-II’s wellbeing, symptoms, and psy-chological problems subscales. Gender moderated the effects of time and intervention on the CORE-OM’ subscale reporting the risk for self-harm or harm others. The pres-ence of an eating disorder moderated the effect of time and intervention on the CORE-OM total score, on the CORE-Om’ symptoms and psychological problems sub-scales, and on the AAQ-II. Patients who received the ACT intervention were more likely to achieve a ≥5% weight loss from baseline to follow-up and to maintain the weight loss after discharge. The ACT intervention was thus effective in maintaining weight loss over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0453.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Gestational diabetes; obesity; placenta; syncytiotrophoblast; matrix metalloprotease
Online: 28 October 2022 (10:04:45 CEST)
Background: During placental formation, cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) fuse into multinucleate, microvilli-coated syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs), which contact maternal blood, mediating nutrient, metabolite, and gas exchange between mother and fetus, and providing a barrier against fetal infection. Trophoblasts remodel the surrounding extracellular matrix through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Maternal obesity and diabetes mellitus can negatively impact fetal development and may impair trophoblast function. We sought to model the impact of metabolic stress on STB function by examining MMP and hormone secretion. Methods: The BeWo CTB cell line was syncytialized to STB-like cells with forskolin. Cell morphology was examined by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence; phenotype was further assessed by ELISA and RT-qPCR. STBs were exposed to a metabolic stress cocktail (MetaC: 30 mM glucose, 10 nM insulin, and 0.1 mM palmitic acid). Results: BeWo syncytialization was demonstrated by increased secretion of HCGβ and progesterone, elevated syncytin gene expression (ERVW-1 and ERVFRD-1), loss of tight junctions, and increased surface microvilli. MetaC suppressed HCGβ and progesterone and altered both MMP-9 and MMP-2. Conclusions: Metabolic stress modeling diabetes and obesity altered BeWo STB hormone and MMP production in vitro. These results compel further study into the potential impact of metabolic stress on trophoblast formation and function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: physical activity; overweight; obesity; BMI; university students
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:45:02 CEST)
Overweight and obesity, including its prevalence and consequences reflect a leading public health problem. Studies have already shown that physical activity leads to a reduction in body weight in children and adults. However, the university setting has rarely been investigated. The aim of this review is therefore to examine and summarize the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions to reduce obesity and overweight in university students. Three databases (PubMed, Scopus & Web of Science) were searched for relevant studies published in English between January 2010 and February 2022. Quantitative studies, conducting a physical-activity-based intervention with overweight or obese university students and reporting changes in BMI, were included. Data were described in a narrative synthesis. Eleven of 16 included studies reported a significant reduction in BMI. However, all studies except one were able to demonstrate some BMI improvements, whereas all studies reported significant changes in at least one health-related indicator. Aerobic exercises were able to demonstrate the greatest reductions in BMI. This review is the first systematic presentation on the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions on overweight and obese university students. Future work should reconsider BMI as the primary outcome because it is prone to bias. More interventions are needed to improve strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0242.v1
Online: 26 April 2022 (12:34:42 CEST)
Executive functioning is a key component involved in many of the processes necessary for effective weight management behavior change (e.g., setting goals). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and third-wave CBT (e.g., mindfulness) are considered first-line treatments for obesity, but it is unknown to what extent they can improve or sustain executive functioning. This pilot randomized controlled trial examined if a CBT-based generalized weight management intervention would affect executive functioning and executive function-related brain activity in individuals with obesity or overweight. Participants were randomized to an intervention condition (N=24) that received the Noom Weight program or to a control group (N=26) receiving weekly educational newsletters. EEG measurements were taken during Flanker, Stroop, and N-back tasks at baseline and months 1 through 4. After 4 months, the intervention condition evidenced greater accuracy over time and, to some extent, neural markers of executive function (error-related negativity and beta and gamma band powers) compared to the control group on the Flanker and Stroop tasks. The intervention condition also lost more weight than controls (-7.1 pounds vs. +1.0 pounds). Given mixed evidence on whether CBT-based interventions can change markers of executive function, this study contributes preliminary evidence that a multicomponent CBT-based weight management intervention (i.e., that provide both support for weight management and is based on CBT) can help individuals sustain executive function compared to controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0541.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Codium fragile; marine algae; anti-obesity; prebiotics
Online: 29 November 2021 (14:51:07 CET)
Polysaccharides from marine algae exhibit beneficial biological activities. In this study, we examined the effect of polysaccharides from Codium fragile (PCF) on prebiotic and anti-obesity activity. PCF increases the growth of specific beneficial microbial populations with concomitant decrease in pathogenic microbes. Further, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH activity) after fermentation with PCF as carbon source were higher than for the glucose as control. Moreover, PCF inhibited adipocyte differentiation by inducing differentiation-related factors when the induction of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes was induced. Therefore, we suggest that PCF can be used as prebiotic material with anti-obesity for human health.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; dropout; mobile technology; attrition; pediatric; lifestyle
Online: 7 December 2020 (08:26:08 CET)
Pediatric obesity management strategies suffer from a high rate of dropout and persistence of weight excess, despite the use of new tools, such as the automated mobile technology (MT). We aimed to compare the efficacy of two personalized MT protocols with/without monthly in-presence recalls in terms of better adherence to follow-up, and improved anthropometric and lifestyle parameters. MT contacts consisted in three not automated messages per week, inserted between three-monthly in-presence regular visits with (PediaFit 1.2) or without (PediaFit 1.1) monthly in-presence recalls. The sample included 103 children (mean age 10 years, range 6-14) recruited in the Pediatric Obesity Clinic between January 2017 and February 2019, randomized in Intervention group (IG) (n=24 PediaFit 1.1; n=30 PediaFit 1.2) and Control group (CG) (total n=49). Both IGs achieved significantly better results than the CGs for all considered parameters. Comparison of the two IGs at the 6th month showed that IG 1.2 had a statistically significant lower drop-out rate (10% vs. 62%), along with improved body mass index z-score, systolic blood pressure, sleep duration and physical activity. The study suggests that the hybrid association of messaging through personalized/not automated MT plus monthly in-presence recalls may be considered for a favorable outcome of pediatric obesity programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0638.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: BMI, Child Obesity; Convergence; Clubs; Gender differences
Online: 25 November 2020 (12:52:34 CET)
Infant obesity has become one of the most serious global health challenges of our time. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity has rapidly increased worldwide during the last two decades, especially in some developing countries where obesity is reaching levels on a par with some industrialized countries, or even higher. This fast growth has occurred especially in countries in the midst of rapid social-economic transitions. Most international comparisons focus on the adult population while analyses focusing on the child population are more limited. Using the methodology developed by Phillips and Sul , this paper studies the worldwide evolution of infant body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity prevalence for a large sample of countries during the period 1975-2016. Our results indicate that the figures for BMI or the prevalence of obesity in different countries do not converge, while the opposite is the case for overweight prevalence in children. Furthermore, there is a non-linear relationship between obesity and income or human capital, indicating that low and middle-income countries require a strong initiative for health policies targeting obesity prevention.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0489.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: overweight; obesity; health behaviour; health status; adulthood
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:35:44 CET)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in Iraq. Data from a 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 3,916 persons 18 years and older were analysed that responded to a questionnaire, physical and biochemical measures. Multinomial logistic regression was utilized to predict determinants of overweight and obesity relative to under or normal weight. Results indicate that 3.6% of the participants were underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m²), 30.8% had normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m²), 31.8% were overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m²), and 33.9% had obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m²). In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, aged 40-49 years (Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio-ARRR: 4.47, Confidence Interval-CI: 3.39-5.91), urban residence (ARRR: 1.28, CI: 1.14-2.18), hypertension (ARRR: 3.13, CI: 2.36-4.17) were positively, and male sex (ARRR: 0.47, CI: 0.33-0.68), having more than primary education (ARRR: 0.69, CI: 0.50-0.94), and larger household size (≥5 members) (ARRR: 0.45, CI: 0.33-0.60) were negativey associated with obesity. About two in three adult participants were overweight/obese, and sociodemographic and health risk factors were found that can be utilized in targeting interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; Obesity; BMI; heart; lung; severity
Online: 23 October 2020 (13:28:04 CEST)
Obesity is a significant public health concern with higher morbidity. Obesity patients are at risk of severe COVID-19 infection and obesity is a higher risk factor for intensive Care Unit admission in COVID-19 infection. Obesity status affects lung volumes, cardiac structure and hemodynamics. Obesity is associated with a low inflammation state, endothelial dysfunction, hyperinsulinaemia and metabolic disorders. The authors review cardio-respiratory pathophysiological aspects involved in obesity and propose clinical management in obese patients infected by COVD-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: fat; obesity; randomized controlled trials; meta-analysis
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:53:54 CEST)
Background: Overweight and obese adults seek effective exercise interventions to reduce accumulated fat, but the effectiveness of these interventions vary across studies. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of exercise interventions in overweight and obese adults based on measurement of accumulated fat distributions. (2) Methods: Databases were used to select eligible studies for this meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials with a control and experimental group were included. Degrees of effectiveness of exercise interventions were computed to assess the benefits on reducing weight and subcutaneous, visceral, and ectopic fat accumulation. (3) Results: A total of twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. Participation in exercise interventions showed beneficial effects in reducing weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat. The effectiveness of exercise interventions on ectopic fat accumulation could not be assessed due to the limited number of studies measuring ectopic fat. Additionally, effectiveness of exercise interventions that depended on measurements of accumulated fat varied. The average exercise intervention for overweight and obese individuals was moderate to vigorous intensity, 4 times per week, 50 minutes per session, and 22 weeks duration. (4) Conclusions: Participating in exercise interventions has favorable effects on reducing weight and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: attitudes; clinicians; hospital; in-patient; obesity; perceptions
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:27:25 CEST)
While obesity is recognized as a key global public health issue, there has been no research to date on the perceptions of care for people with this condition held by individuals in positions of organizational power. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the perceptions and experiences of clinical leaders and managers of providing care to inpatients with obesity at a metropolitan public health service. This study applied an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach to qualitative research, conducting interviews with 17 participants. Their perceptions of care for inpatients with obesity encompassed both their personal understanding as an individual, and their observations about the organizational, patient and carer perspectives. Three overall themes were identified: 1) The problem of inpatients with obesity, 2) Inpatients with obesity as sources of risk and 3) Personal and professional perceptions of inpatients with obesity. While clinical leaders and managers were aware of potential impact of stigma and weight bias on the care given to this cohort, elements of implicit bias, stereotyping, ‘othering’ and ambivalence were frequently present in the data. Ongoing efforts to improve care for patients with obesity must therefore include efforts to address perceptions and attitudes at all organisational levels of the workforce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia; BCR-ABL1 transcript; obesity
Online: 7 August 2020 (13:07:53 CEST)
Background: It has been reported that general adiposity in adulthood and early adulthood, and greater height may increase the risk of almost all types of lympho-haematopoietic cancers while a study done in MD Anderson found that obesity and adult weight gain are independent risk factors for CML however no study evaluated the role of obesity in the disease progression while more studies investigate the impact of translocation types. Method: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the files of 37 patients being treated in our center for CML in chronic phase (CMP-CP) with known BCR-ABL1 breakpoints, Results: patients’ management and response assessment was done based on ELN 2013 guidelines. Analysis is done based on two main groups, obese vs normal BMI, and then based on BCR-ABL1 transcripts: e13a2 vs e14a2. Although the number of cases is limited, in the patient-cohort studied an e14a2 BCR-ABL1 transcript type / normal body weight was associated with an inferior outcome when compared to e13a2 transcript / obesity groups Conclusion: our finding suggest the need to enlarge the series to better evaluate a potential role of altered metabolism and/or specific transcripts in the response to TKI in CML.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; weight-loss; body composition
Online: 12 April 2020 (16:44:13 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D was studied in regards to its possible impact on body mass reduction and metabolic changes in adults and children with obesity yet there were no studies assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation during a weight management programme in children and adolescence. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 26 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese children undergoing an integrated 12-months’ long weight loss programme on body mass reduction, body composition and bone mineral density. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Vitamin D deficient patients ( <30 ng/ml level of vitamin D) aged 6-14, participating in multidisciplinary weight management programme were randomly allocated to receiving vitamin D (1200 IU) or placebo for the first 26 weeks of the intervention. Results: Out of the 152 qualified patients, 109 (72%) completed a full cycle of four visits scheduled in the programme. There were no difference in the level of BMI change. Although the reduction was greater in the vitamin D vs. placebo group (-4.28 ± 8.43 vs. -2.53 ±6.10) the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.319). Similarly the reduction in fat mass – assessed both using bioimpedance and DEXa was achieved, yet the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study ads substantial results to support the thesis on no effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight reduction in children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing a weight management programme. Trial registration no: NCT 02828228; trial registration date: 8 June 2016 registered in: ClinicalTrials.gov.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0125.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: adults; dietary pattern; fast food; KNHANES; obesity
Online: 11 September 2019 (14:59:00 CEST)
Background: Few studies have examined multifaceted aspects of fast food consumption and dietary patterns for their effects on obesity. We examined the independent associations of obesity with fast food consumption and dietary pattern in Korean adults. Methods: A total of 19,017 adults aged 19–64y participated from KNHANES 2010-2014. Fast food items were removed from diet and then dietary patterns were generated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the odds for overweight/obesity and central obesity according to fast food consumption and dietary patterns. Results: Fast food consumers were about 10% of Korean adults. Both of White rice and kimchi pattern and Meat and alcohol pattern were associated with low intakes of fiber, calcium, vitamin C, grains, fruit, and milk(p<0.05). Fast food consumers had higher the Meat and alcohol pattern and the Grains, fruit, and milk pattern, and they had lower the White rice and kimchi pattern than non-fast-food-consumers. Fast food consumer were not associated with overweight/obesity, whereas the participants with Meat and alcohol pattern had 14% higher overweight/obesity(95%CI:1.01,1.28) and 16% higher central obesity(95%CI:1.00,1.34). Conclusions: Fast food consumption was not directly associated with obesity, whereas the Meat and alcohol pattern had independent associations with overweight/obesity and central obesity among Korean adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0284.v1
Online: 25 July 2019 (08:12:19 CEST)
Reducing carbohydrates digestion by having low glycaemic index (GI) foods has been linked to weight loss. Inhibiting related enzymes is an alternative way to decrease carbohydrate digestion. RCM-107, an eight-herb formula that is modified from the RCM-104, has indicated significant weight-loss action in clinical trials. However, no research has been conducted to study its effect on the activity of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), which is involved in carbohydrate absorption. In this paper, we used fluorescence PPA inhibition assay to investigate the inhibitory effects of RCM-107 and the individual herbs present in this herbal mixture on amylase activity. Subsequently, molecular docking predicted the key active compounds that may be responsible for the enzyme inhibition. According to our results, both the RCM-107 formula and several individual herbs displayed α-amylase inhibitory effects. Also, marginal synergistic effects of RCM-107 were also detected. In addition, alisol B, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and plantagoside have been predicted as the key active compounds that may be responsible for the α-amylase inhibition effect of RCM-107 according to inter-residue contact analysis. Finally, Glu233, Gln63, His305, Asp300 and Tyr151 are predicted to be markers of important areas with which potential amylase inhibitors would interact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: obesity; breast screening; mammograms; health service utilization;
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:10:11 CET)
Obesity in Australia is rapidly rising, and is a major public health concern. Obesity increases risk of breast cancer and worse associated outcomes, yet breast screening participation rates in Australia are suboptimal and can be lower in higher risk, obese women. This study qualitatively explored barriers to breast screening participation in obese women in Australia. In-depth interviews (n=29), were conducted with obese women (BMI 30) and key health stakeholders. A disconnect between stakeholders’ and women’s perceptions was found. For women, low knowledge around a heightened need to screen existed, they reported limited desire to prioritize personal health needs, reluctance to screen due to poor body image and prior negative mammographic experiences due to issues with weight. Stakeholders perceived few issues in screening obese women beyond equipment limitations, and health and safety issues. Overall, weight was a taboo topic among our interviewees, indicating that a lack of discourse around this issue may be putting obese women at increased risk of breast cancer morbidity and mortality. Consideration of breast screening policy in obese women is warranted. Targeted health promotion on increased breast cancer risk in obese women is required as is a need to address body image issues and encourage screening participation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0073.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Phenylbutyrate, PFKL, Obesity, UCP1, Brown adipose tissue
Online: 8 January 2019 (15:22:39 CET)
Obesity, which is characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, is one of the critical factors causing metabolic syndrome. Many studies have been performed to identify appropriate agents to control obesity, but toxicity remains a problem. Herein, we identified that phenylbutyrate (PBA), which has been used to treat urea cycle disorder with very low toxicity for a long time, efficiently inhibited high fat-induced body weight gain in a diet-induced obesity mouse model (DIO model). PBA treatment decreased body fat mass and increased lean composition. Moreover, PBA increased brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity by increasing glucose uptake, thereby improving glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Interestingly, PBA could induce the expression of phosphofructokinase (PFKL), a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, and knocking down PFKL dramatically repressed the expression level of Ucp1 as well as those of Prdm16, Cidea, Pgc1α, and Pparγ, which are marker genes for BAT activation. These results strongly suggested that PBA could increase energy expenditure by increasing BAT activity via the induction of PFKL. Taken together, PBA could be used as a therapeutic agent for people with obesity to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0053.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; fucoidan; meniscectomy; obesity; osteoarthritis
Online: 22 May 2018 (07:54:22 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) has become one of the most common disabilities among elders, especially in female. Obesity and mechanical injury causing OA are attributed to joint loading, cartilage disintegration, bone loss and inflammation as well. Several strategies used for treatment OA including non-pharmacological and pharmacological. Fucoidan possesses several bioactivities such as antitumor, antiviral, anticoagulation, anti-obesity, and immunomodulation. This study aims to investigate the effect of fucoidan in surgery-induced OA on diet-induced obesity rats. OA was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT+MMx). Male SD rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks to induce obesity before ACLT+MMx to induce OA. OA rats were administered with intragastric water or fucoidan in three different concentrations (32 mg/kg, 64 mg/kg, and 320 mg/kg) after the surgeries for 40 days with HFD. We observed that the swelling in knee joint was alleviated and hind paw weight distribution was rectified after feeding fucoidan, with no significant effect on weight gain and feed intake. Fucoidan administration indicated no significant variation on HDL-Cholesterol level, but reduced plasma triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol level. In addition, weight-bearing tests showed improvement in the fucoidan-treated group. Our results suggested that fucoidan may improve meniscal/ligamentous injury and obesity-induced OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0033.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: cordycepin; adenosine A1 receptor; prolactin; anti-obesity
Online: 3 April 2018 (07:53:24 CEST)
Cordycepin is an extract from the insect fungus Cordyceps. militaris, which is a traditional medicine with various biological function. In previous studies, cordycepin had been reported with excellent anti-obesity effect, but the mechanism is unclear. A large quantity of evidences showed that prolactin plays an important part in body weight regulation, hyperprolactinemia can promote appetite and accelerate fat deposition. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of cordycepin by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor. In vivo, obese rats model was induced by high fat diet for 5 weeks, the serum and liver lipids coupling with serum prolactin were reduced by treatment of cordycepin, the results suggested that cordycepin is a potential drug for therapying obesity which could be related with prolactin. In vitro, cordycepin could inhibit prolactin secretion in GH3 cells via upregulating the expression of adenosine A1 receptor, the inhibition effect could be blocked by an antagonist of adenosine receptor A1 DPDPX, prolactin induced the upregulation of lipogenesis genes PRLR, and P-JAK2 in 3T3-L1 cells. Intriguingly, cordycepin would down-regulate the expression of prolactin receptor (PRLR). Thus, we concluded that cordycepin modulate body weight by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: gene expression obesity triple negative breast cancer
Online: 20 March 2018 (07:56:33 CET)
Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer with poor outcomes. The molecular basis of TNBC remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between obesity and TNBC in premenopausal and postmenopausal Caucasian women using whole genome transcription profiling. Methods: We compared gene expression levels of tumor samples drawn from normal weight, overweight and obese in pre and postmenopausal women diagnosed with TNBC. We performed hierarchical clustering to assess similarity in patterns of gene expression profiles, and conducted network and pathway analysis to identify molecular networks and biological pathways. Results: We discovered gene signatures distinguishing normal weight from obese, normal weight from overweight and overweight from obese individuals in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The analysis revealed molecular networks and biological pathways dysregulated in response to obesity. Among the discovered pathways included the unfolded protein response, endoplasmatic reticulum stress, B cell receptor and the autophagy signaling pathways in obese premenopausal women and the integrin, axonal guidance, ERK/MAPK and Glutathione biosynthesis signaling pathways obese postmenopausal women. Conclusions: The results suggest that both overweight and obesity are associated with TNBC, highlighting the need for conformation of these results in independent studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: coffee; obesity; body mass index; waist circumference
Online: 30 September 2017 (05:12:52 CEST)
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5,995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption was evaluated using the food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity measured by BMI (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; P for the trend < 0.001) and abdominal obesity measured by WC (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59-2.79; P for the trend < 0.001). The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Body mass index, Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Obesity paradox, Telomere, Waist circumference, Waist-to-hip ratio, Waist-to-height ratio
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:20:32 CEST)
Background Telomere shortening is related to aging and unfavourable health outcomes. Obesity and metabolic diseases are important factors for accelerating aging. This study aimed to find out the association between obesity, metabolic disease, and telomere length in metabolically healthy adults. Methods 237 adults were enrolled with written consents at a health promotion centre of a tertiary hospital from February 2014 to March 2015. After excluding 99 subjects who met the exclusion criterion, a total of 130 metabolically healthy subjects were selected for final analysis. The subjects were divided into quartile groups according to the telomere lengths of their oral mucosal cells. Results The subjects consisted of 66 (50.8%) males with a mean age of 58.59 years. The body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) increased significantly along with the quartile groups (Q1, 23.00; Q2, 23.96; Q3, 23.70; Q4, 25.20; P-for trend=0.008). Waist circumference (WC, P-for trend=0.022), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, P-for trend=0.005), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, P=0.001) also increased along with the quartile groups. Obesity prevalence (BMI ≥25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men, ≥85 cm for women), WHR 〉1.0 for men or 〉0.85 for women, and WHtR ≥0.5 increased significantly as the telomere length increased (P-for trend <0.05). After adjusting for covariates, the ORs for each obesity markers increased as the telomere length increased (P-for trend <0.05); and the ORs of WHtR were especially meaningful (Q1, 1.00; Q2, 2.53; Q3, 2.97; Q4, 7.81; P-for trend = 0.001). There were no significant trends for metabolic syndrome and its components along with the prevalence of fatty liver disease. Conclusion Obesity markers and telomere length had significant positive correlation despite the established theory. The obesity paradox may exist in metabolically healthy adults with regard to telomere length, However, further studies with larger sample sizes for the association between obesity and telomere length are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: appetite; saciety response; eating behavior; pediatric obesity; anthropometry
Online: 21 October 2022 (03:27:47 CEST)
Background: Different investigations have shown an association between the eating behavior of children and adolescents, and their nutritional status. The objective is to identify eating behavior patterns associated with nutritional status diagnosed by anthropometry in a sample of Spanish schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional study in 283 Spanish schoolchildren (6 to 16 years old). Methods: The sample was assessed anthropometrically by Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist-to height ratio (WHtR) and body fat percentage (%BF). Eating behavior was analyzed using the CEBQ "Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire" answered by parents or guardians. Results: A positive association was found between excess weight, abdominal obesity, high adiposity, lower scores in anti-intake subscales and higher scores in pro-intake subscales. These were mainly associated with lower satiety response, higher food intake, higher food enjoyment, higher eating speed, and emotional overeating. Conclusion: Our results support the usefulness of the CEBQ as an easy-to-use tool to identify eating behaviors associated with the development of childhood and adolescent obesity. Its use in future research could help to understand behavioral phenotypes in schoolchildren and guide nutrition education and obesity prevention initiatives
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0210.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Obesity; gut microbiota; placenta; brain development; fatal development
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:15:21 CEST)
Obesity in pregnancy induces metabolic syndrome, low-grade inflammation, altered endocrine factors, placental function, and the maternal gut microbiome. All these factors impact fetal growth and development, including brain development. The lipid metabolic transporters of the maternal-fetal-placental unit are dysregulated in obesity. Consequently, the transport of essential long-chain PUFAs for fetal brain development is disturbed. The mother’s gut microbiota is vital in maintaining postnatal energy homeostasis and maternal-fetal immune competence. Obesity during pregnancy changes the gut microbiota, affecting fetal brain development. Obesity and a high-fat diet in pregnancy can induce placental and intrauterine inflammation and thus influence the neurodevelopmental outcomes of the offspring. Several epidemiological studies observed an association between maternal obesity and adverse neurodevelopment. This review discusses the effects of maternal obesity and gut microbiota on fetal neurodevelopment outcomes. In addition, the possible mechanisms of the impacts of obesity and gut microbiota on fetal brain development are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0377.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: aging; immunosenescence; physical fitness; physical activity; obesity; sex
Online: 26 September 2022 (05:00:15 CEST)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential for sustained work ability in good health, but declines with aging as does the functionality of the immune system, the latter process commonly referred to as immunosenescence. This study aimed to compare the capacity of immunosenescence biomarkers with chronological age for predicting low CRF in a cross-sectional sample recruited from the regional working population. CRF was determined by submaximal bicycle ergometer testing in a cross-sectional sample of 597 volunteers aged 20–70 years from the ’Dortmund Vital Study’ (DVS, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05155397). Low CRF was scored, if the ergometer test was not completed due to medical reasons or if the power output projected to a heart rate of 130 bpm divided by body mass was below sex-specific reference values of 1.25 W/kg for females and 1.5 W/kg for males, respectively. In addition to established biomarkers of immunosenescence, we calibrated a comprehensive metric of immune age to our data and compared its predictive capacity for low CRF to chronological age while adjusting our analysis for the influence of sex, obesity, and level of regular physical activity by applying univariate and multiple logistic regression. While obesity, low physical activity, chronological and immune age were all associated with increased probability for low CRF in univariate analyses, multiple logistic regression revealed that obesity and physical activity together with immune age, but not chronological age, were statistically significant predictors of low CRF outcome. Sex was non-significant due to the applied sex-specific reference values. These results demonstrate that biological age assessed by our immunological metric can outperform chronological age as a predictor for CRF and indicate a potential role for immunosenescence in explaining the inter-individual variability of the age-related decline in cardiorespiratory fitness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0148.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: oveweight; obesity; public policy; nutrition education; malnutrition; school
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:26:50 CEST)
Being overweight or obese is a public health problem. This work evaluated a food and nutrition education (EAN) intervention against overweight schoolchildren in four schools in the West Panama Province. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study that implemented a 34-week EAN intervention through workshops with didactic material to 403 children between 8 and 13 years old. The knowledge and attitude survey was used as an evaluation tool before and after the educational intervention. The prevalence of excess weight (40%) did not report differences after the intervention. No differences were reported in the median level of attitude, although higher levels of knowledge were reported in students of both sexes. EAN in schoolchildren can be effective in acquiring knowledge and maintaining a positive attitude towards food.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cesarean section; body mass index; obesity; meta-analysis
Online: 7 December 2021 (13:48:15 CET)
Overweight/obesity is one of the most important health problem worldwide. Birth by cesarean section has been shown to influence long-term health outcome including obesity. The aim of this systematic review-meta-analysis is to examine whether cesarean section increases the risk of offspring’ s overweight/obesity. The study follows the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. A systematic literature search was con-ducted on Scopus, PubMed, and WoS until December 2020. For inclusion, studies must have re-ported either (I) both Birth by cesarean section and adult (≥ 18 years) offspring BMI, (II) cohort or case–control study design and (III) a risk estimate. Heterogeneity testing was performed using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test and Begg’s test. Me-ta-analysis was performed through a random effect model. Eleven studies with a combined population of 180.408 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis (n = 18) yielded a combined risk estimate for overweight/obesity of 1.19 (95% CI 1.08-1.31) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=53,37 (I2 = 70,37 %, P≤0•0001). The risk of offspring obesity is 1.23 (95% CI 1.09-1.39) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=39.50 (I2= 72,15%, P≤0•0001). Children born by cesarean section have an increased risk of developing obesity in adulthood
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0444.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: F. thonningii; ethnomedicine; obesity; lipid profile; liver disease
Online: 24 November 2021 (08:17:39 CET)
BACKGROUND: Ficus thonningii extracts exhibit hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. We investigated the potential of methanolic F. thonningii stem-bark extracts (MEFT) to protect growing Sprague-Dawley (SD) against high-fructose diet-induced metabolic derangements (MD) in a model mimicking children fed obesogenic diets. METHODS: Eighty (40 males; 40 females) 21-days old SD rat pups were randomly allocat-ed to and administered, for 8 weeks, five treatment regimens: 1 - standard rat chow (SC) + water (PW), 2 - SC + 20% (w/v) fructose solution (FS), 3 - SC + FS + fenofibrate at 100 mg/kg bwt/day, 4 - SC + FS + low dose MEFT (LD; 50 mg/kg bwt/day) and 5 - SC + FS + high dose MEFT (HD; 500 mg/kg bwt/day). Body weight, glucose load tolerance, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride, plasma insulin concentration, sensitivity to insulin, liver mass and fat content, steatosis and inflammation were determined. RESULTS: Fructose had no effect on the rats’ growth, glucose and insulin concentration, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity (P>0.05) but increased triglycerides in females; in-duced hepatic microsteatosis and inflammation in both sexes but macrosteatosis in females (P<0.05). In females, MEFT prevented fructose-induced plasma triglyceride increase. Low dose MEFT increased liver lipid content in females (P<0.05). The MEFT protected the rats against hepatic steatosis and inflammation but fenofibrate protected against hepatic mi-crosteatosis. CONCLUSION: MEFT can be used as prophylaxis against dietary fructose-induced ele-ments of MD but caution must be taken as low dose MEFT increases hepatic lipid accretion in females predisposing to fatty liver disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0322.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: adolescents; lifestyles; nutrition; overweight and obesity; food intake
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:20:18 CEST)
(1) Objective: This study analyzes the evolution of the body mass index (BMI) throughout the academic year associated with changes in the lifestyle associated with the place where they live during the course and design lifestyle and health strategies to the university community. (2) Methods: 93 first-year nursing students participated in this study. Data were collected throughout the course by administering self-reported questionnaires about eating habits and lifestyles, weight, and height to calculate their BMI and place of residence throughout the course. Data were analyzed using statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, student's t- test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and least significant difference tests). (3) Results: We found that the mean BMI increases significantly throughout the course among all students regardless of sex, age, eating habits or where they live during the course. At the beginning course the mean BMI was 22.1 ± 3,642. The mean difference between the beginning of the course and the middle has a value of p value <0. 015 and between the middle of the course and the end a p value <0.009. The group that increased the most is found among students who continue to live in the family nucleus rather than those who live alone or in residence. Students significantly change their eating and health habits, especially those who live alone or in residences.: (4) Conclusions: There is an increase in BMI among students. It is necessary to carry out seminars or talks that can help students understand the importance of good eating practices and healthy habits to maintain their weight and, therefore, their health, in the short, medium, and long term and acquire a good quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0434.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: fast food; neighbourhood; deprivation; overweight; obesity; adolesence; confounding
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:51:26 CEST)
The aim of our study is to utilise longitudinal and representative national data to explore the extent that the association between the fast food environment and overweight in adolescents is confounded by neighbourhood deprivation. Longitudinal data from the Millennium Cohort Study for England were obtained for waves 5 (ages 11/12; 2011/12; n=13,469) and 6 (ages 14/15; 2014/15; n=11,884). Our outcome variable was overweight/obesity defined using age and sex-specific International Obesity Task Force cut points. Individuals were linked, based on their residential location, to data on the density of fast food outlets and neighbourhood deprivation. Structural Equation Models were used to model associations at both ages and explicitly test for confounding. While we found some evidence for an association between the number of fast food outlets and overweight, any associations disappeared following accounting for the confounding nature of neighbourhood deprivation. Neighbourhood deprivation was consistently associated to overweight, with adolescents who resided in deprived areas more likely to be overweight. Results were largely consistent depending on different methodological decisions. Our findings suggest that policy efforts should prioritise focusing on tackling the social determinants of excess body mass which will be more effective than interventions aimed at the built environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: PCOS; obesity; inflammation; specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs)
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:07:27 CEST)
Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinologic disorder that affects 5-15 % of women of their reproductive age and is a frequent cause of infertility. Major symptoms include hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, a characteristic multi-follicular morphology of the ovary, an elevated ratio of LH/FSH, and often obesity and/or insulin resistance. PCOS also represents a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that is closely interlinked with the metabolic features. Inflammatory processes consist of the acute inflammatory response and resolution processes initiated concomitantly. "Classical" pro-inflammatory lipid mediators like prostaglandins (PG), leukotrienes (LT), or thromboxanes (TX) are derived from arachidonic acid (AA) and are crucial for the initial response. Resolution processes are driven by four families of so-called specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs): resolvins, maresins, lipoxins, and protectins. SPM biosynthesis starts from the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids DHA, DPA, or EPA via certain hydroxylated intermediates (18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, 14-HDHA). The present study aimed to establish lipid mediator profiles of PCOS patients compared to healthy women to identify differences in their resolutive and pro-inflammatory lipid parameters. Material and Methods: Blood samples were taken (20 ml), separated into plasma and serum, and analyzed by HPLC/MS-QQQ. Fifteen female patients (18-45 years) were diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria, and five healthy women, as comparator group, were recruited for the study. The main outcome measures were: Pro-inflammatory lipid mediators (PG, LT, TX) and their precursor AA; SPMs (Resolvins, Maresins, Protectins, Lipoxins), their precursors EPA, DHA, DPA, and their active biosynthesis pathway intermediates (18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, 14-HDHA). Ratio [(sum of pro-inflammatory molecules)/sum of SPMs]. Results: The level of pro-inflammatory parameters in serum was significantly higher in PCOS-affected women. The ratio [(sum of pro-inflammatory molecules) / (sum of SPMs plus hydroxylated intermediates)] reflecting the inflammatory state was significantly lower in the group of healthy women. Conclusion: There is a strong pro-inflammatory state in PCOS patients. Further research will clarify whether supplementation with SPMs or their precursors may improve this state.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis; hybrid hyaluronic acid; viscosupplementation; obesity; overweight.
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:46:23 CEST)
(1) Background:A BMI > 25 is the most decisive, albeit modifiable,risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of intra-articular injections of hybrid hyaluronic acid (HA) complexes (Synovial® H-L)for the treatment of kneeOA in overweight patientsin terms ofdisease severity, cardiocirculatory capacity, and quality of life. (2) Materials: In this single-site, open-label, prospective trial, 37 patients with symptomatic knee OA were assessed at baseline and 3 months after ultrasound-guided intra-articular injection of hybrid HA complexes (Synovial® H-L). (3) Results: Primary variables displaying a statistically significant improvement after treatment were pain (NRS), disease severity (WOMAC), and cardiopulmonary capacity a(6-Minute Walk Test). Among secondary variables, quality of life (SF-12) improved significantly, as did analgesic intake for pain control. No statistically significant difference was observed in body fat and muscle mass percentage measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. (4) Conclusions:Intra-articular hybrid HA injections are significantly effective in improving OA-related disease severity, cardiopulmonary function, and analgesic intake. This supports the role of hybrid HA viscosupplementation as a non-pharmacological treatment to relieve pain, reduce disability and improve quality of life, and limit the risk of polypharmacy in overweight patients with knee OA.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: central obesity; fetuin-A; lean NAFLD; insulin resistance
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:32:33 CEST)
Patients with lean NAFLD make up an increasing subset of liver diseases. The association between lean NAFLD and feutin-A, which serves as a hepatokine and adipokine, has never been examined. Our study aimed to explore the association of serum fetuin-A among lean and nonlean patients. The study comprised 606 adults from the community, stratified into lean or nonlean (BMI </≥ 24 kg/m2) and NAFLD or non-NAFLD (scoring of ultrasonographic fatty liver indicator, US-FLI ≥ 2/<2). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratio of having NAFLD among the tertiles of fetuin-A after adjustment. The least square means were computed by general linear models to estimate marginal means of the serum fetuin-A concentrations in relation to the NAFLD groups. The OR of having NAFLD for the highest versus the lowest tertile of fetuin-A was 2.62 (95% CI: 1.72-3.98; P for trend<0.001). Stratifying by BMI, the OR of having lean NAFLD for the highest versus the lowest tertile of fetuin-A was 2.09 (95% CI: 1.09-3.98; P for trend 0.026), while nonlean NAFLD had no significant association with the fetuin-A gradient after adjustments. Fetuin-A was positively associated with lean NAFLD after adjusting for central obesity and insulin resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0356.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: lncRNA; obesity; fatness, pig; gene expression regulation; miRNA
Online: 12 March 2021 (21:25:35 CET)
Obesity is a problem in the last decades since the development of different technologies forced the submission of a faster pace of life, resulting in nutrition style changes. In turn, domestic pigs are an excellent animal model in recognition of adiposity-related processes, corresponding to the size of individual organs, the distribution of body fat in the organism, and similar metabolism. The present study applied the next-generation sequencing method to identify adipose tissue (AT) transcriptomic signals related to increased fat content by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), included long-non coding RNA molecules. The Freiburg RNA tool was applied to recognise predicting hybridisation energy of RNA-RNA interactions. The results indicated several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) whose expression was significantly positively or negatively associated with fat deposition. lncRNAs play an essential role in regulating gene expression by sponging miRNA, binding transcripts, facilitating translation, or coding other smaller RNA regulatory elements. In the pig fat tissue of obese group, increased expression of lncRNAs corresponding to human MALAT1 was observed that previously recognised in the obesity-related context. Moreover, hybridisation energy analyses pinpointed numerous potential interactions between identified differentially expressed lncRNAs, and obesity-related genes and miRNAs expressed in AT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; bariatric surgery; adaptive complex system; network analysis.
Online: 4 February 2021 (11:59:54 CET)
Weight gain affects about 10-20% of patients after bariatric surgery. It is a phenomenon that is difficult to understand and to intervene due to its complexity and etiological heterogeneity. In the present study, we investigated, from a network analysis perspective, the associations between weight regain, psychological, sociodemographic factors and physical activity in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The sample consisted of 124 patients, of both sexes, aged 39 ± 9.1 years, who had undergone surgical intervention for more than 18 months. After voluntary consent, respondents answered questionnaires and instruments directly on the Google Forms platform. The results indicated that weight gain was negatively associated with the items of depression, anxiety and stress, binge eating and with the dimensions of the personality questionnaire (negative affectivity -0.182; detachment -0.078; antagonism -0.107; disinterest - 0.198 and psychoticism -0.158). The centrality indicators revealed that the characteristics of disinterest and negative affectivity and most of the items on the depression, anxiety and stress scale had a greater expected influence (values from 1,043 to 1,502), indicating that these are the most sensitive variables to intervention and who need more attention from health professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0267.v1
Online: 14 January 2021 (12:47:52 CET)
Background: Overweight and obesity are becoming serious public health menace in the world today. Weight gain is skyrocketing across the globe due to growing economy, fast food expansion and a shift towards more sedentary living. However, most people lack knowledge regarding risks associated with overweight and obesity. Aim: The study aimed to explore the knowledge level of bankers in the Ho Municipality on the health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Methodology: A cross-sectional study design with quantitative method was employed. The study spanned from September 7, 2018 to April 25, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire and convenience sampling technique were used to obtain data. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 Developer and the results presented in statistical tables and graphs. Results: Of 136 participants investigated, 67 (49.3%) were between 31 - 40 years. 2 participants (1.5%) were underweight, 49(36.0%) had normal weight, 43(31.6%) were overweight while 42 (30.9%) were obese. The study revealed that female bankers were prone to overweight (37.78%) while the males were prone to obesity (56.52%). Participants generally had low knowledge and awareness on health risks of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Most bankers in the Ho Municipality were overweight and obese due to insufficient knowledge and low awareness on the risks associated with overweight and obesity. Public education and awareness creation are urgently needed to stem the tide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Exercise; Health; Obesity; Northern Latitudes; Cross-country skiing
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:15:58 CET)
Background: Physical activity is recommended to mitigate the incidence of obesity, but delivery of community wide initiatives is cumbersome. The challenges met by such programs are magnified when implementation transpires in the remote villages of Alaska. To overcome the difficulty of this challenge in the Arctic, the Skiku/AK Nordic cross-country skiing program was developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to Skiku/AK Nordic program would promote physical activity levels that met the daily recommendations for physical activity in Alaska Native children. Methods: Eight children (4 females and 4 males; 10±2 years/age) were recruited from Kaktovik, Alaska for participation in this study. Expert coaches and staff provided one week of cross-country ski instruction and access to ski equipment. Physical activity was monitored using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Data collected from the devices was then downloaded and analyzed using ActiLife software. Results: The participants expended ~586 calories/day devoted to physical activity. Light and moderate physical activity was 68±38 minutes/day and 447±248 minutes/day, respectively. Conclusions: Delivery of the Skiku/AK Nordic program promoted favorable levels of physical activity in Alaska Native children. Further research is needed to assess the longitudinal and seasonal effectiveness of the Skiku/AK Nordic program.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food outlet usage; obesity; energy intake; energy contents
Online: 21 August 2020 (11:09:22 CEST)
Background: The frequency of visits to restaurants has been suggested to contribute to the pandemic of obesity. However, few studies have examined how individual use of these restaurants is related to BMI using new technology of reminding to avoid memory error. Aim: To investigate the association between the usage of different types of food outlets and BMI among adults in Scotland. Method: The study was cross-sectional. Participants (n = 681) completed an online survey for seven consecutive days where all food purchased at food outlets was reported each day. We explored the relationship between BMI and usage of these restaurants using auto-reminder text system. Results: Body Mass Index (BMI) of both males and females was not related to frequency of use of Full-Service Restaurants (FSRs), Fast Food Restaurants (FFRs), delivery or takeaways, when assessed individually, or combined (TFO= Total Food Outlet). Conclusion: These data do not support the widespread belief that consumption of food out of the home at fast-food and full-service restaurants, combined with that derived from deliveries and takeaways, is a major driver of obesity in UK.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorders; Adolescents; Prevention programs; Systematic Review
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:38:34 CEST)
An effective behavior changes program is the first-line of prevention for youth obesity. However, effectiveness in prevention of adolescent obesity requires several approaches, with special attention paid to disordered eating behaviors and psychological support among other environmental factors. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the impact of two types of obesity prevention programs, inclusive of behavior change components on weight outcomes. Energy-balance studies were aimed at reducing calories from high-energy sources and increasing PA levels, while “shared risk factors for obesity and eating disorders” focused on reducing disordered eating behaviors to promote a positive relationship with food and eating. A systematic search of ProQuest, PubMed, PsycInfo, SciELO, and Web of Science identified 8825 articles. Twenty were considered “energy-balance” and fifteen “shared-risk factors for obesity and eating disorders”. Overall, energy-balance studies were unable to support a maintenance weight status, diet, and PA over time. Shared risk factors programs also did not result in significant differences in weight status over time. However, the majority of shared risk factors studies demonstrated reduced body dissatisfaction, dieting, and weight-control behaviors. More research is needed to examine how a shared risk factor approach can address both obesity and eating disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: sport; health; body mass index; obesity; morbidity; mortality
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:21:17 CEST)
The classic Body Mass Index, (BMI), developed in the 19th century by the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet  is an important indicator of the risk of death, of obesity, of negative health consequences, body fat percentage and of the shape of the body. While he BMI is assumed to indicate obesity in sedentary people and in people who do not practice sports, it is undisputed and a consensus among researchers  that Body Mass Index (BMI) is not a good indicator for obesity in people who developed their body through heavy physical work or sport but also in other segments of population such as those who appear to have a normal weight but in fact have a high body fat percentage and obese methabolism. The BMI also does not include all the variables essential for a health predictor. The BMI is not always a good predictor of metabolic disease, people who appear of healthy weight according to BMI have in some cases an obese metabolic syndrome. The BMI was developed as a law of natural sciences and “social physics” , as it was called then, before the middle of the 19th century, and it had been used from the 70s for medical purposes, to detect obesity and the risk of mortality . The BMI has a huge importance for modern society, affected by an obesity epidemic . BMI has applications in medicine, sport medicine, sport, fitness, bodybuilding, insurance, nutrition, pharmacology. The main limitation of the BMI is that it does not account for body composition including non fat body mass such as muscles, joints, body frame and makes no difference between fat and non fat components of the body weight. The body composition and the proportion of fat and muscles make a difference in health outcomes  …. Body composition makes a difference also in the level of sport performance for athletes of every level. In nearly two centuries since the Body Mass Index was developed, no formula had been successfully developed to account for body composition and make the difference between muscle and fat in a consistent way. This can be considered a longstanding open problem of major importance for society. The objective of this analysis is to develop new formulae taking into account the health implication of body composition measured through indirect, simple indicators and making the difference between muscles and fat, healthy and non healthy metabolism. The formulae developed in this article are the only formula to successfully generalize BMI and make this difference. I develop a direct generalization of BMI, in the mathematical and physiological sense to account for fat and fat free mass and muscles, small and large body frames. It is the first such generalization because the classic BMI can be determined as a particular case of my formulae in the strict mathematical and practical physiologic sense. No other formula generalized the BMI to make the difference between fat and a large frame and muscles has ever been published in nearly two centuries since the BMI formula had been developed. The formulae I developed explain and generalize the conclusions of a large number of highly cited empirical experiments cited in the reference section.  .. Most of the experimental proof I bring in support of my formulae and bodyweight quantification theory comes from many highly cited experimental research publications in medicine, sports medicine, sport science and physiology. My formulae explain also performance in decades of competitive sports and athletics
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: obesity; mesenchymal stromal cells; cell cycle; senescence; differentiation
Online: 27 January 2020 (09:18:05 CET)
White adipose tissue (WAT) is distributed in several depots that have distinct metabolic and inflammatory functions. In our body there are subcutaneous (sWAT), visceral (vWAT) and bone marrow fat depots (BFAT). Obesity affects size, function and inflammatory state of WATs. This process can alter the stem cell niches present in these tissues and affect the functions of stem cells residing within. In particular, obesity may affect the activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) present in WAT. MSCs are an heterogenous population containing stromal cells, progenitor cells, fibroblasts and stem cells that are able to differentiate in adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes and other mesodermal derivatives. We performed a comparison of the effects of obesity on MSCs obtained from sWAT, vWAT and BFAT. Our study evidenced that obesity affected mainly the biological functions of MSCs obtained from bone marrow and vWAT with a decrease in proliferation rate, reduced percentage of cells in S phase and trigger of senescence. The onset of senescence was confirmed by expression of genes belonging to RB and P53 pathways. Our study evidenced that negative consequences of obesity on body physiology may be related also to impairment in the functions of stromal compartment present in the several adipose tissues. This finding provides new insights on the targets that should be considered for an effective treatment of obesity-related diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: red grape polyphenols; immunity; inflammation, obesity; allergy; cancer
Online: 3 December 2019 (12:12:14 CET)
In this review, special emphasis will be placed on red grape polyphenols for their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, their capacity to inhibit major pathways responsible for activation of oxidative systems and expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines will be discussed. Furthermore, regulation of immune cells by polyphenols will be illustrated with special reference to the activation of T regulatory cells which support a tolerogenic pathway at intestinal level. Furthermore, the effects of red grape polyphenols will be analyzed in obesity, as a low grade systemic inflammation. Also, possible modifications of inflammatory bowel disease biomarkers and clinical course have been studied upon polyphenol administration, either in animal models or in clinical trials. Moreover, the ability of polyphenols to cross the blood-brain barrier has been exploited to investigate their neuroprotective properties. In cancer, polyphenols seem to exert several beneficial effects, even if conflicting data are reported about their influence on T regulatory cells. Finally, the effects of polyphenols have been evaluated in experimental models of allergy and autoimmune diseases. Conclusively, red grape polyphenols are endowed with a great anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential but some issues, such as polyphenol bioavailability, activity of metabolites and interaction with microbiota, deserve deeper studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0397.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Children; Eating disorders; Eating behavior; Feeding practices; Obesity
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:31:50 CET)
Abstract: Given the links between parental obesity and eating psychopathology in their children, it is important to understand the mechanisms via which unhealthy relationships with eating are passed from parents to children. The aim was to review research focusing on food-related parenting practices (FPPs) used by parents with overweight/obesity. Web of Science, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched. Twenty studies were included in the review. Single studies suggest differences between parents with healthy-weight vs overweight/obesity with respect to; food accessibility, food availability and modelling. Multiple studies suggest that several parenting strategies do not differ according to parental weight status (child involvement, praise, use of food to control negative emotions, use of food-based threats and bribes, pressure, restriction, meal and snack routines, monitoring, and rules and limits). There was inconclusive evidence with respect to differences in parental control, encouragement and use of unstructured FPPs among parents with healthy-weight vs overweight/obesity. The findings of this review imply some differences between parents with overweight/obesity and healthy-weight and the use of some food-related parenting practices, however they should be interpreted with caution since research remains limited and is generally methodologically weak. The review highlights opportunities for further research and to improve current measures of FPPs and help clarify current study findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nuts; walnuts; body weight; adiposity; obesity; elderly; energy
Online: 14 September 2018 (08:05:18 CEST)
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts And Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University [LLU]), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns only the LLU cohort. Healthy elders (mean age 69 y, 67% women) were randomly assigned to walnut (n = 183) or control diets (n = 173). Subjects in the walnut group received packaged walnuts (28–56 g/d), equivalent to ≈15% of daily energy requirements, to incorporate into their habitual diet, while those in the control group abstained from walnuts. Adiposity was measured periodically, and data were adjusted for in-trial changes in self-reported physical activity. Results: After 2 years, body weight significantly decreased (P = 0.031), while body fat significantly increased (P = 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the control and walnut groups regarding body weight (−0.6 kg and −0.4 kg, respectively, P = 0.67) or body fat (+0.9% and +1.3%, respectively, P = 0.53). Lean body mass, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio remained essentially unchanged. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of primary analysis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without concern for adverse effects on body weight or body composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: double burden of malnutrition; anaemia; undernutrition; overweight; obesity
Online: 3 September 2018 (05:45:23 CEST)
Double burden of malnutrition (DBM) and anaemia is a growing concern in developing countries. 5,763 mother-child pairs were selected from a cross-sectional study (Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2011) to examine DBM and anaemia in households. Overweight mothers had stunted (24.5%), underweight (19.8%), wasted (9.3%) and anaemic (51.7%) children. Region and drinking water were positively associated with both DBM and anaemia (p < 0.001). Father’s occupation and wealth index were positively associated with DBM (p <0.001) only. More policies and awareness programmes are needed to address the coexistence of child undernutrition and maternal overweight/obesity and anaemia in the same household.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0373.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: archaic human genes; obesity; diabetes mellitus; Indigenous Australians
Online: 25 June 2018 (08:13:36 CEST)
Indigenous Australians have been particularly affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus due to their genetic susceptibility and a range of environmental risk factors. Recent genetic studies link predisposition to some diseases, including diabetes, to archaic humans, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting persistence of ancient alleles in the genomes of modern humans. In this review we discuss the evolutionary role of the negative genetic selection associated with an adopted Western lifestyle as well as DNA variants influencing predisposition to obesity and diabetes in the Australian Indigenous population. We review the contribution of the ancient gene/pathways to the modern human phenotypes including the Neanderthal haplotype-tagging SNPs in NTRK2 gene, which may continue to play a role in obesity in Indigenous Australians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0232.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: obesity; plant secondary compound; Clinacanthus nutans; gene expression
Online: 24 April 2018 (10:04:11 CEST)
Obesity is a universal health concern that can lead to serious diseases. The side effects of synthetic anti-obesity drugs necessitate the finding of suitable natural/herbal alternatives. Mother nature offers a wide range of plants with medicinal properties that include crude extracts and isolated compounds which are effective for controlling and reducing weight gain. Obesity was induced in 60, 3-week-old male ICR mice, using high-fat diet (60% dietary energy from fat) for 16-week. The mice were divided at random into six groups with 10 mice: mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) only, mice fed normal diet only (NC), and orlistat at 15.9 mg/kg (HFD+Orlistat), and mice in three other high-fat diet groups treated with methanolic leaf extract of Clinacanthus nutans (MECN) at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg. After 21-day of the treatment, MECN significantly reduced (P<0.05) the body weight, visceral fat and muscle saturated fatty acid compositions. There was also significant downregulation of HSL, PPAR α and PPAR γ and SCD genes expressions in the obese mice treated with 1500 mg/kg MECN compared to the HFD group. Therefore, MECN is a potentially useful natural supplement for alleviating obesity and obesity-mediated metabolic diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Optimized protein in formula, infants, obesity risk reduction
Online: 31 October 2017 (15:29:45 CET)
Background. Increasing evidence demonstrate that concentration of protein in infant formula >1.9g/100Kcal with high levels of insulinogenic aminoacids is associated with accelerated weight gain, increased fat mass accumulation and risk of adiposity. Purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the metabolic effects in infants feed with infant formula optimized in protein. Methods. Systematic review was conducted according PRISMA Statement. RCTs with one intervention group (infant formula with 1.6-1.9gr of protein/100Kcal) and at least one comparative control group (infant formula with >1.9gr of protein/100Kcal) were included. Standardized mean differences (SMD), through random model were calculated. Results. 15 RCT were included. Optimized protein in infant formula was associated with less gain of BMI at 24 months of follow-up (SMD -0.25, IC95% -0.36 to -0.13, p 0.01) and less fat mass accumulation (SMD -0.68, IC95% -0.98 to -0.37, p 0.01). Optimized protein was also associated to less gain of weight, weight/age Z-score, weight/length Z-score, BUN (mmol/dL) and IGF1 (ng/ml). No effect on length/age Z-score was observed. Conclusions. Robust evidence showed optimized protein (1.6gr/100Kcal to 1.9gr/100Kcal) in infant formula is associated with metabolic benefits in infants with less weight gain, BMI and fat mass accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0395.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Ketogenic diet; obesity; overweight; metabolism; energy low carb foods
Online: 21 December 2022 (09:04:52 CET)
Healthcare systems are mindful of the importance of proper diet and nutrition in reducing the risk of various chronic diseases resulting in hospitalizations. In this regard, they are focusing on promoting the intake of foods comprising various diets with health benefits, such as the ketogenic diet. In this meta-analysis, a total of 20 research studies on the effect of the ketogenic diet on the immune system were analyzed. The research studies were obtained from three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. From the meta-analysis, the odd ratio of a similar outcome of an improvement in the strength of immunity between the intervention and control group was 0.76. On the other hand, the p-value for the studies was 0.09, with 15 out of the 20 being considered statistically significant. The heterogeneity between the studies was I2 = 15%, signifying a low variability in the findings that is not by chance. The Ketogenic diet indeed has positive effects on immunity. Nonetheless, it can also result in negative effects that may harm human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; BMI; obesity; overweight; normal weight; statistical significance
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:57:58 CET)
A significant number of research studies have focused on determining whether BMI influences various types of cancer. The findings of these studies showed that people have to manage their BMIs to decrease their risk of developing various types of cancer, one of which is ovarian cancer. A PRISMA guideline for systematic review and meta-analysis was used to identify 20 research studies related to the topic to establish the truth or falsity of the findings. Later, their findings were synthesized. The synthesis of the findings of such research articles suggests that overweight and obesity increase an individual’s risk of developing ovarian cancer and experiencing severe symptoms of the disease. In such a manner, the current research study can conclude that effective management of BMI is necessary for decreasing the prevalence and mortality rates associated with ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Indonesia; islands cluster; multiple logistic regression; obesity; risk factor
Online: 27 January 2022 (06:53:58 CET)
Obesity has become a rising global health problem affecting adults’ quality of life. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity in Indonesian adults based on the cluster of islands. The study was also aimed to identify the risk factors of obesity in each island cluster. This study analysed secondary data of Indonesian Basic Health Research 2018. Our data for analysis comprised 688,638 adults (>=15 years) randomly selected using proportionate to population size throughout Indonesia. We included 20 variables for sociodemographic and obesity-related risk factors for analysis. Obese status was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI) >= 27.5 kg/m2. Our current study defined seven major islands cluster as the unit analysis consisting of 34 provinces in Indonesia. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the characteristics of the population and to calculate the prevalence of obesity within provinces in each of the island’s clusters. Multivariate logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) was performed using R version 3.6.3. The study results showed that all island clusters had at least one province with an obesity prevalence of more than 20%. Six out of twenty variables, comprising four diet factors (consumption of sweet food, high-salt food, meat food, and carbonated drinks) and two other factors (mental health disorders and smoking behaviour), varied across the island clusters. In conclusion, there was a variation of obesity prevalence of the provinces within and between island clusters. Variation of risk factors raised in each cluster island suggested the government rethink and reframe the intervention to address obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: metabolic syndrome; diabetes; hypertension; obesity; frailty; older people; Asian
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:09:59 CET)
Background: There has been evidence that metabolic syndrome (MetS) may increase the risk of frailty. However, there is limited evidence on this association in Asian populations. Aims: This study aims to identify the association between MetS and frailty in older people in Vietnam. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a dataset obtained from an observational study on frailty and sarcopenia in patients aged ≥60 at a geriatric hospital in Vietnam. Frailty was defined by the frailty phenotype. Participants were defined as having MetS if they had ≥3 out of 5 criteria from the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adults Treatment Panel (ATP) III. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to estimate the risk of having frailty in patients with MetS. Results: There were 669 participants (mean age 71, 60.2% female), 62.3% had MetS and 39.0% was frail. The prevalence of frailty was 42.2% in participants with MetS, 33.7% in participants without MetS (p=0.029). On logistic regression models, MetS was associated with increased likelihood of being frail (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.01-2.28), allowing for age, sex, education, nutritional status, history of hospitalisation and chronic diseases. Conclusion: There was a significant association between MetS and frailty in this population. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm this association.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Probiotics; Gut microbiota; Obesity; Insulin resistance; Type 2 Diabetes
Online: 8 October 2021 (10:52:45 CEST)
Background: Obesity and diabetes are two metabolic disorders linked by an inflammatory process named insulin resistance (IR). Various research on the role of gut microbiota in developing obesity and its associated disorders has led to the growing interest in probiotic supplementation. Considering the life-threatening complications of diabesity this mini-review explored the effects of probiotic supplementation on IR in obesity-associated diabetes. Method: This review is based on recent articles from 2005-2020, studying the role of probiotic supplementation on glucose and insulin parameters in healthy and diabetic mouse models. Result: Probiotic supplementation altered the gut microbiota composition, increased short-chain fatty acid production, and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, they decreased intestinal permeability, circulating lipopolysaccharide, and metabolic endotoxemia hence improved insulin sensitivity and reduced obesity. Although multi-strain probiotic supplementation showed greater benefits than single strain interventions, variations in the concentration of probiotics used and the duration of treatment also influenced the results. Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation could manipulate the gut microbiota by reducing intestinal permeability, inflammation and ameliorate IR and obesity-associated diabetes in animal models which requires further long-term clinical studies in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0385.v1
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:15:22 CEST)
Obesity and hyperglycemia can trigger various diseases, including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular ailments. Health-promoting fermented milk products can be useful in tackling these issues. One such product is the fermented milk developed using Lactobacillus casei AP, a probiotic strain from Indonesia that has not been tested in humans thus far. Our objective was to examine the effects of L. casei AP-fermented milk products on lipid profiles, blood glucose levels and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in obese adults. A total of 29 obese subjects were given L. casei AP-fermented milk products, and their fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride levels were measured using diagnostic system kits. MCP-1 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was determined that the administration of L. casei AP-fermented milk products significantly reduced total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels (p < 0.05); however, it did not increase HDL (p > 0.05), MCP-1 or fasting blood glucose levels (p ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, in obese Indonesian adults, L. casei AP-fermented milk might reduce total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels but may not affect HDL, MCP-1 or fasting blood glucose levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0226.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: EEG-Neurofeedback, Overweight, Obesity, Signal Processing, Power Spectral Density
Online: 10 August 2021 (10:05:40 CEST)
Background: This study aims to investigate the effects of visual neurofeedback stimulation on the brain activity in overweight cases. The neuroscience studies indicated the personal decision about eating under the impact of environmental factors such as (visually, smelling, tasting) is related to neural activity of the prefrontal lobe of the brain. Therefore, there were many attempts to modify the food intake behavior in overweight cases through the stimulation of the prefrontal cortex. However, the empirical viewing of EEG-neurofeedback experiments has not explicated the details about the effect of the EEG-NF, the specificity of positive treatment effects remains in a challenging scope.Methods: This study is a cue-exposure EEG-NF experiment to verify the hypothesis of effecting the EEG-NF on the electrical activity of PFC and modifying the general symptoms of food intake behavior in overweight cases. Twenty-four individuals were recruited as participants for this study. These participants were assigned randomly into two groups; the EX-Group (N=12) enrolled in 8 sessions of the EEG-NF experiment, and the C-Group (N=12) was listed in no EEG-NF sessions. The participants provided researchers with a self-report questionnaire relating to their observation of general symptoms of food intake behavior, and EEG signals recordings into the pre and posts stimulation phase. The power spectral density (PSD) method was applied for EEG parameters extraction.Results: The results of a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) explained that a significant variation in variables between the two groups after the EEG-NF experiment. The analysis of the quantitative variables indicated that the effect of EEG-NF experiment was a significant decrement in EEG power bands which significantly influenced changing the median of self-report questionnaire responses that is related to general symptoms of food intake behavior.Conclusions: This study provides preliminary support for the therapeutic potential of EEG-NF experiment that targets the prefrontal cortex, to influence neural processes underlying food intake behavior in overweight cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Overweight; Obesity paradox; Physical activity; Nutrition; Sugar-sweetened beverages
Online: 18 March 2021 (11:03:09 CET)
Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. However, it is not fully understood which lifestyle factors are associated with MUO in youth. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MUO and lifestyle patterns in youth. 7-17 years old youth with overweight (N=48; 60.4% girls) and obesity (N=71; 56.3% girls) were recruited in the Pediatric Clinic, Luxembourg (cross-sectional study). Eating and sedentary habits, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) were assessed. 72.3% of the participants had MUO. Multivariable logistic regressions showed that MUO is most likely to be associated with moderate to low weekly levels of MVPA [OR: 2.09 (95% CI: 1.07 – 4.09; p = 0.030)] and moderate to high weekly soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.92 (95% CI: 1.32 – 6.48; p = 0.008)]. After adjustment for age, gender and Tanner stages, MUO was most likely to be associated with moderate to high soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.72 (95% CI: 1.21– 6.12; p = 0.016)] and with Tanner stages [OR: 2.06 (95% CI: 1.08– 3.94; p = 0.029)]. We support the promotion of MVPA and the moderation in the sugar-sweetened beverages consumption to manage cardiometabolic health in youth with obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: MAFLD; NAFLD; fatty liver; metabolic syndrome; obesity; children; nomenclature
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:36:49 CET)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, which predispose to more serious hepatic conditions. It ranges from simple liver steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress to cirrhosis and even end-stage liver disease. Since obesity became one of the most important health concerns wordwide, a considerable increase in the prevalance of NAFLD and other metabolic implications has been observed, both in adults, and children. Due to the coexistence of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). These relationship between NAFLD and MetS led to set up in adults new term combining both of these conditions, called metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Based of these findings, we propose set of criteria, which may be useful to diagnose MAFLD in children and adolescents.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Behaviours; Childhood; Infant feeding; Interventions; Obesity; Prevention; Physical activity.
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:35:46 CET)
Childhood overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Our objective was to describe planned, ongoing and completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed for the prevention of obesity in early childhood. Two databases (World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched to identify RCTs with the primary aim of preventing childhood obesity and at least one outcome related to child weight. Interventions needed to start in the first two years of childhood or earlier, continue for at least 6 months postnatally, include a component related to lifestyle or behaviors, and have a follow up time of at least 2 years. We identified 29 unique RCTs, implemented since 2008, with most being undertaken in high income countries. Interventions ranged from advice on diet, activity, sleep, emotion regulation and parenting education through individual home visits, clinic-based consultations or group education sessions. Eleven trials have published data on child weight related outcomes to date, though most were not sufficiently powered to detect significant effects. Many trials detected improvements in practices such as breastfeeding, screen time and physical activity in the intervention groups compared to the control groups. Further follow-up of ongoing trials is needed to assess longer-term effects.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; obesity; overweight; multifocality; bilaterality; extrathyroidal extension
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:28:18 CET)
Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between high body mass index (BMI) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We assessed the clinical and histopathological features of PTC in patients with a higher BMI and compared them to analogous parameters in PTC patients with a normal BMI. We retrospectively analyzed 5,021 medical records of patients admitted and surgically treated for thyroid tumors in one center between 2008 and 2018. Finally, we extracted data from 523 adult patients with PTC and stratified patients into two groups according to BMI: Group 1 with BMI < 25 kg/m² and Group 2 with BMI ≥25 kg/m². Data stratification was performed to estimate the association of overweight and obesity with clinical and histopathological features of PTC in both univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, compared to patients with a normal BMI, overweight and obese patients had a greater risk of minimal extrathyroidal extension (minimal ETE), multifocality and bilaterality of PTC (p<0.001 for all). Analysis did not show that BMI was significantly associated with more advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (p=0.894). Obesity and overweight were significantly associated with higher aggressiveness of PTC. When considering various management options for PTC patients, these findings regarding overweight and obesity should be taken into consideration during the decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0332.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: obesity; renal injury; lipocalin-2; collagen type IV; inflammation
Online: 22 August 2020 (03:56:22 CEST)
Rats fed a high-fat diet with a single streptozotocin (STZ) injection developed obesity, prediabetes, cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Here we aimed to explore the renal consequences of prediabetes in the same groups of rats. Male Long-Evans rats were fed normal chow (CON; n = 9) or high-fat diet containing 40% lard and were administered STZ at 20 mg/kg (i.p.) at week four (prediabetic rats, PRED, n = 9). At week 21 cardiac functions were examined (Koncsos et al., 2016) and blood and urine samples were taken. Kidney samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry and for analysis of gene expression. High-fat diet and streptozotocin increased body weight gain and visceral adiposity, and plasma leptin, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, despite hyperleptinemia, plasma C-reactive protein concentration decreased in PRED rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed elevated collagen IV protein expression in the glomeruli, and Lcn2 mRNA expression increased, while Il-1β mRNA expression decreased in both the renal cortex and medulla in PRED vs. CON rats. Kidney histology, urinary protein excretion, plasma creatinine, glomerular Feret diameter, desmin protein expression and cortical and medullary mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Nrf2, PPARγ were similar in CON and PRED rats. Reduced AMPKα phosphorylation of the autophagy regulator Akt was the first sign of liver damage, while serum lipid and liver enzyme levels were similar. In conclusion, glomerular collagen deposition and increased lipocalin-2 expression were the early signs of kidney injury, while most biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis were negative in the kidneys of obese, prediabetic rats with mild heart and liver injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; Obesity; inflammation; Oxidative Stress; nitrosative stress; biomarkers
Online: 23 June 2020 (11:35:38 CEST)
Purpose: To investigate the alterations in nitro-oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidant status in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether these alterations occur independently from effects of overweight or obesity.Methods: Blood was collected in 47 adolescents with MetS and 94 adolescents without MetS as assessed with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria were used to classify the subjects into those with overweight or obesity. We measured nitro-oxidative biomarkers including nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant biomarkers, i.e. total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), paraoxonase (PON)-1 activity, thiol (SH-) groups, as well as tumor necrosis factor-α, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that increased MDA and NOx and a lowered TRAP/uric acid ratio were associated with MetS. Machine learning including soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) showed that the top-3 most important features of MetS were increased glucose and MDA and lowered HDL-C. Support vector machine using MDA, glucose, insulin, HDL-C, triglycerides and body mass index as input variables yielded a 10-fold cross-validated accuracy of 89.8% when discriminating MetS from controls. The association between MetS and increased MDA was independent from the effects of overweight-obesity. glucose, insulin, triglycerides and HDL-C.Conclusion: In adolescents, increased MDA formation is a key component of MetS, indicating that increased production of reactive oxygen species with consequent lipid peroxidation and aldehyde formation participate in the development of MetS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: carotenoids; seaweeds; antioxidants; astaxanthin; fucoxanthin; anti-obesity; oxidative stress
Online: 24 February 2020 (12:26:44 CET)
Present-day lifestyle associated with high calorie-fat intake and accumulation, as well as energy imbalance, has led to the development of obesity and its comorbidities, which have emerged as some of the major health issues globally. To combat the disease, many studies have reported the anti-obesity effects of natural compounds in foods, with some advantages over chemical treatments. Carotenoids, particularly xanthophyll derived from seaweeds, have attracted the attention of researchers due to their notable biological activities, which are associated mainly with their antioxidant properties. Their involvement in oxidative stress modulation, regulation of major transcription factors and enzymes as well as their antagonistic effects on various obesity parameters have been examined in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The present review is a collation of published research over the last decade on the anti-oxidant properties of seaweed xanthophyll carotenoids, with a focus on fucoxanthin and astaxanthin and their mechanisms of action in obesity prevention and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0359.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: adiposity; dysbiosis; hops; menopause; microbiota; 8-prenylnaringenin; obesity; ovariectomy
Online: 31 October 2019 (02:22:34 CET)
Estrogen decline during menopause is associated with altered metabolism, weight gain and increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The gut microbiota also plays a role in the development of cardiometabolic dysfunction and is also subject to changes associated with age-related hormone changes. Phytoestrogens are plant-based estrogen mimics that have gained popularity as dietary supplements for treatment or prevention of menopause-related symptoms. These compounds have the potential to both modulate and to be metabolized by the gut microbiota. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) contain potent phytoestrogen precursors, which rely on microbial biotransformation in the gut to estrogenic forms. We supplemented ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SHAM) C57BL/6 mice, with oral estradiol (E2), a flavonoid-rich extract from hops, or a placebo carrier oil to observe effects on adiposity, inflammation, and gut bacteria composition. Hops extract and E2 protected against increased visceral adiposity and liver triglyceride accumulation in OVX animals. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of OVX having a significant impact on the overall gut bacterial community structure. We did find differences in abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, which was lower with HE treatment relative to the OVX E2 treatment and to placebo in the SHAM group.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: allergy; pulmonary function; allergic rhinitis; asthma; nutritional status; obesity
Online: 14 July 2019 (17:35:01 CEST)
Introduction: The rising trend in allergic diseases has occurred in parallel with an increasing prevalence in obesity, and suggesting a possible association. The increased body mass has numerous health consequences, including an impairment function of the respiratory system. The associations between eating habits and hypersensitivity to allergens have not been clarified sufficiently. Aim: to evaluate pulmonary function, nutritional status, eating habits and risk factors of obesity in children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis. Material and Methods: The study was performed in 106 children with allergic rhinitis (mean age 12.1+/-3.4; M/F 60/46) from the Department of Allergology. 43 (40.6%) of children presented only allergic rhinitis and in 63 (59.4%) additionally diagnosed with asthma bronchiale. Clinical data, detailed interview about allergies, assessment of pulmonary function and nutritional status, allergy skin test (Allergopharma) and spirometry (Jaeger) were evaluated. Nutritional habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The statistical analysis was done using the program Statistica v 10.0. Results: In the study group the mean centile of BMI was 49.4; underweight presented 25.4% of children, 55.6 % normal BMI and 18.8 % presented overweight or obesity. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant (adjusted R-squared: 0.97; p<0.05) association between high BMI and snacking between meals and low physical activity. No statistical association between the severity of diseases and BMI or body composition was observed. Conclusions: 1. The prevalence of excess body mass in the study group reached 13.5%. Eating habits were incorrect, especially obese children significantly more frequently ate snacks between meals than children with normal body weight. 2. Among the studied group of children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis and asthma bronchiale, the significant risk factors of obesity were snacking and low physical activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: physical activity; accelerometer; neck circumference; obesity; body composition; anthropometric
Online: 2 July 2018 (08:58:54 CEST)
The present study investigated the association of accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with neck circumference (NC) in adolescents and adults from eight Latin American countries. The sample consisted of 2370 participants from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health, a multicenter cross-sectional nutrition and health surveillance study of a nationally representative sample from eight Latin American countries. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to monitor MVPA. Adolescents were categorized as NC > 34.25 cm in boys and NC > 31.25 cm in girls, and adults were categorized as NC > 39 cm in men and NC > 35 cm in women. The average time of MVPA was 34.88 min/day, ranging from 31.16 in Venezuela to 40.27 in Chile. Concerning NC, 37.0% of the sample was classified as having elevated NC. Chile was the country with the highest percentage of people with elevated NC (56.9%), and Colombia had the lowest percentage (24.8%). Overall, the MVPA (min/day) was associated with elevated NC (OR = 0.994, CI95% = 0.990–0.998). In Costa Rica and Peru, there were significant associations between MVPA and NC when analyzed by country. Further research is required to understand the differences between countries in the observed associations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: animal protein; plant protein; elderly; obesity; glomerular filtration rate
Online: 27 March 2018 (11:23:20 CEST)
Controversy exists on whether animal and plant proteins influence obesity differently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between total, animal, and plant protein intake with the obesity index and renal function in Korean adults. Study participants included Korean adults aged 60 years or older from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013-2014. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. One-day 24-hour recall data were used to estimate the daily total, animal, and plant protein intake. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. General linear modellings were used to assess the relationships between protein intake, BMI and WC. The mean age was 69.2 ± 0.2 years, 44.2% were male. The total daily protein intake was 1.1 ± 0.02 g/kg/d and 0.9 ± 0.02 g/kg/d for males and females, respectively. Only one third of protein intake was from animal sources. In males, BMI (p < 0.001, p = 0.016, p < 0.001 respectively) and WC (p < 0.001, p = 0.010, p < 0.001, respectively) decreased as daily intake of plant protein (g/kg/d), animal protein (g/kg/d) and total protein (g/kg/d) increased. Similar associations were shown in Korean female. GFR was not associated with protein intake regardless of protein source in both sexes. In Korean adults aged 60 years or older, the protein intake was associated with a favorable obesity index without decrease in renal function. The effect was similar in both male and females, with both animal and plant proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: breastfeeding; mortality; obesity; overweight; stunting; wasting; education; life expectancy
Online: 20 March 2018 (10:29:32 CET)
Background: The preexistence of obesity with nutritional anaemia is becoming an increasing problem in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Much controversy exists around the role of continued breastfeeding in alleviating the health and survival consequences of these problems in the region. Aim: To examine trends and relationships of nutritional anaemia (NA) in women and children under-five years of age (CU5) with obesity and breastfeeding practices in the EMR. Methods: Data from regional database banks of WHO and UNICEF for anaemia in pregnant and non-pregnant women and CU5 from 22 countries in EMR were retrieved, compiled, and statistically analyzed. Breastfeeding indicators for timely first suckle (TFS), exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and continued breastfeeding for 12 (BFC12) and 24 months (BFC24), low-birth-weight (LBW), stunting, overweight, total fertility rates (TFR) and mortality rates (MR) were correlated with nutritional anaemia and analyzed by income groups into 5 low income countries (LIC), 11 middle income countries (MIC) and 6 high income countries (HIC). Results: Trends in mean prevalence of anaemia in women showed a concave curve increasing after a short decrease in the early 2000 in all income groups (P > 0.05). Trends in anaemia in the CU5 exhibited a steep decrease from a mean of 52.59 ± 16.4 in 2000 to 37.3 ± 14.9 in 2016 at P < 0.002, the steep decline was significant in HIC (P < 0.01) and MIC (P < 0.02), but not for LIC (P > 0.05). Anaemia prevalence in women and CU5 was significantly correlated to LBW, stunting, and with overweight and obesity in adults but negatively in CU5. All age specific MRs were highly correlated with anaemia in pregnant, non-pregnant and CU5 at P < 0.001 and TFR at P < 0.05. BFC for shorter durations was negatively correlated with anaemia in pregnant women (r-0.5) at P < 0.05 and was positively correlated in MIC and HIC. In non-pregnant women, BFC12 and BFC 24 correlated positively with anaemia prevalence in all three income groups at P < 0.01. Conclusions: Completing optimal breastfeeding for two years should be promoted to protect women and CU5 from anemia and obesity. Nutritional anemia during pregnancy increases regional rates of LBW, stunting and mortality. Spacing out births by encouraging longer duration of breastfeeding, to replenish iron stores, can help alleviate many of the health and nutritional problems in the region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0040.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Gut microbiota; obesity; insulin resistance, NAFLD; probiotic; prebiotic; symbiotic
Online: 6 October 2017 (16:15:42 CEST)
Gut microbiota play critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance, which highlighted the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies on these diseases. There are various ways that can manipulate gut microbiota including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics and some active components from herbal medicines. In this review, we first reviewed the main roles of gut microbiota in mediating the development of NAFLD, and the advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies on NAFLD in both the experimental and clinical studies, as well as the conclusions on the prospect of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0103.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: fructose; obesity; liver; aerobic exercise; strength exercise; combined exercise
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:02:06 CET)
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance. However, physical exercise has been indicated for the treatment of several chronic diseases. In this review, we show how each exercise protocol (aerobic, strength or a combination of both) promote improvements in the obesogenic state created by fructose consumption as an improvement in the serum and liver lipid profile (HDL increase and decrease TG and LDL levels) and a reduction of markers of inflammation caused by an excess of fructose. Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of aerobic physical exercise, strength or a combination of both is essential for attenuating the complications developed by the consumption of fructose.