Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Effects of Breakfast Skipping on The Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus

Version 1 : Received: 29 April 2022 / Approved: 29 April 2022 / Online: 29 April 2022 (08:20:22 CEST)

How to cite: Singh, R.B.; Fedačko, J.; Fatima, G.; Pella, D.; Mojto, V. Effects of Breakfast Skipping on The Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus . Preprints 2022, 2022040292 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202204.0292.v1). Singh, R.B.; Fedačko, J.; Fatima, G.; Pella, D.; Mojto, V. Effects of Breakfast Skipping on The Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus . Preprints 2022, 2022040292 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202204.0292.v1).

Abstract

Epidemiological studies indicate that skipping breakfast as a universal behavior, may have adverse effects on cardiovascular diseases [CVDs}and metabolic diseases. However, eating breakfast regularly, may increase satiety, thereby reducing overeating later in the day which prevents weight gain. Recent studies indicate that skipping breakfast increases the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), and cardiovascular mortality as well as all-cause mortality. However, many studies also reported that regular taking of breakfast decreases the risk of CVDs and T2DM and all-cause mortality. Previous studies reported that heavy breakfast, in particular eating western diet may increase circadian rhythm of CVDs and sudden cardiac death. It seems that those who do not eat breakfast, they tend to eat refined and sweetened products, possibly, more in the night resulting in to greater risk of CVDs and T2DM. Breakfast skipping and eating in the night, may be associated with circadian misalignment in the central and peripheral clocks, leading to oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased systemic inflammation damages the adipocytes, beta cells of pancreas, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as well as neurons, which may produce dysfunction in these cells resulting in to related diseases. The beneficial effects of breakfast, may also be, at least in part, due to nutrient dense foods rather than time of eating. Eating regular breakfast, in particular rich in Indo-Mediterranean foods; vegetables, whole grains, fruits, spices and nuts may be protective against circadian increase in oxidative stress in the morning, resulting in to significant decline in the risk of CVDs and T2DM.

Keywords

Breakfast consumption; mortality; coronary diseases; obesity

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Nutrition

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