REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Enhancers; BET inhibitors; CDK7 inhibitors; HDAC inhibitors; Transcription factors; eRNAs; cancer
Online: 30 March 2019 (08:33:07 CET)
Tight regulation of gene transcription is essential for normal development, tissue homeostasis and disease-free survival. Enhancers are distal regulatory elements in the genome that provide specificity to gene expression programs and are frequently misregulated in cancer. Recent studies examined various enhancer-driven malignant dependencies and identified different approaches to specifically target these programs. In this review, we describe numerous features that make enhancers good transcriptional targets in cancer therapy and discuss different approaches to overcome enhancer perturbation. Interestingly, a number of approved therapeutic agents such as cyclosporine, steroid hormones, and thiazolidinediones actually function by affecting enhancer landscapes by directly targeting very specific transcription factor programs. More recently, a broader approach to targeting deregulated enhancer programs has been achieved via Bromodomain and Extraterminal (BET) inhibition or perturbation of transcription-related cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). One challenge to enhancer-targeted therapy is proper patient stratification. We suggest that monitoring of enhancer RNA (eRNA) expression may serve as a unique biomarker of enhancer activity that can help to predict and monitor responsiveness to enhancer-targeted therapies. A more thorough investigation of cancer-specific enhancers and the underlying mechanisms of deregulation will pave the road for an effective utilization of enhancer modulators in a precision oncology approach to cancer treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: immunocheckpoint inhibitors; chemotherapy; tirosin kinase inhibitors; angiogenesis
Online: 28 March 2019 (06:48:37 CET)
Despite the impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors on malignancies treatment is unprecedented, a lack of response to these molecules is observed in several cases. Differently from melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, where the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors results in a high efficacy, the response rate in other tumors, such as gastrointestinal cancers, breast cancer, sarcomas, and part of genitor-urinary cancers remains low. The first strategy evaluated to improve the response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors is the use of predictive factors for the response as PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden, and clinical features. In addition to the identification of the patients with a high sensibility to immune checkpoint inhibitors, another approach currently under intensive investigation is the use of therapeutics in a combinatory manner with immune checkpoint inhibitors to obtain an enhancement of efficacy through the modification of the tumor immune microenvironment. In addition to the abscopal effect induced by radiotherapy, a lot of studies are evaluating several drugs able to improve response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors, including microbiota modifiers, drugs targeting co-inhibitors receptors, anti-angiogenic therapeutics, small molecules, and oncolytic viruses. In view of the rapid and extensive development of this research field, we conducted a systematic review of the literature identifying which of these drugs are closer to achieving validation in the clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Melanoma; BRAF mutations; BRAF inhibitors; MEK inhibitors; Immunotherapy
Online: 4 September 2023 (15:46:20 CEST)
Skin cancer is a prevalent and heterogenous disease with several subtypes, such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Among them, melanoma is the most aggressive subtype, with a higher propensity to spread compared to most solid tumors. The application of OMICS approaches has revolutionized the field of melanoma research by providing comprehensive insights into the molecular alterations and biological processes underlying melanoma development and progression. This review aims to offer an overview of melanoma biology, covering its transition from primary to malignant melanoma, as well as the key genes and pathways involved in the initiation and progression of this disease. Utilizing online databases, we extensively explored the general expression profile of genes, identified the most frequently altered genes, and gene mutations, and examined genetic alterations responsible for drug resistance. Additionally, we studied the mechanisms responsible for immune checkpoint inhibitors resistance in melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2038.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Neurodegenerative diseases; cholinesterase inhibitors; monoaminoxidase inhibitors; photo-pharmacology
Online: 29 June 2023 (02:47:23 CEST)
The multitarget therapeutic strategy, as opposed to the more traditional ‘one disease-one tar-get-one drug’, may hold promise in treating multifactorial neurodegenerative syndromes, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias. Recently, combining a photopharmacology approach with the multitarget-directed ligand (MTDL) design strategy, we disclosed a novel donepezil-like compound, namely 2-(4-((diethylamino)methyl)benzylidene)-5-methoxy- 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (1a), which in the E diastereomeric form (and about tenfold less in the UV-B photo-induced isomer Z) showed the best activity as dual inhibitor of the AD-related targets acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Herein, we investigated further photoisomerizable 2-benzylideneindan-1-one analogs 1b-h with the unconjugated tertiary amino moiety bearing alkyls of different bulkiness and lipophilicity. For each compound the thermal stable E diastereoisomer, along with the E/Z mixture as produced by UV-B light irradia-tion in the photostationary state (PSS, 75% Z), was investigated for the inhibition of human ChEs and MAOs. The pure E-diastereoisomer of the N-benzyl(ethyl)amino analog 1h achieved low nanomolar AChE and high nanomolar MAO-B inhibition potencies (IC50s 39 and 355 nM, re-spectively), whereas photoisomerization to the Z isomer (75% Z in the PSS mixture) resulted in a decrease (about 30%) of AChE inhibitory potency, and not in the MAO-B one. Molecular docking studies were performed to rationalize the different E/Z diastereoselectivity of 1h toward the two target enzymes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0539.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; immune checkpoint inhibitors; biomarkers
Online: 17 July 2023 (13:22:33 CEST)
A number of agents, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, have become available for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the objective response rate of these drugs is currently only 30% to 40%, with a high incidence of side effects. There are also no prac-tical biomarkers to predict their therapeutic effects. Most of the systemic therapies for HCC are performed in general hospitals without research facilities. Such hospitals can perform imaging tests, like CT and MRI, as well as pathological diagnosis using tumor tissue sampling and im-munohistochemical staining. However, analyzing tumor genomic or transcriptomic profiles is difficult because of limitations in facilities, personnel, and cost. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the wide range of research that has been conducted on HCC biomarkers from blood, tissue, or imaging information that can be used practically in general hospitals for predicting the therapeutic effect of systemic therapies before treatment begins. For general hos-pitals that treat HCC patients, we recommend conducting treatment after assessing the state within the tumor tissue as much as possible by collecting blood and tissue samples and per-forming pre- treatment MRI image evaluations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: APE1; inhibitors; cancer.
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:05:48 CEST)
APE1 is an essential endodeoxyribonuclease of the base excision repair pathway that maintains genome stability. It was identified as a pivotal factor favoring tumor progression and chemo-resistance through the control of gene expression by a redox-based mechanism. APE1 is overex-pressed and serum-secreted in different cancers, representing a prognostic and predictive factor, and a promising non-invasive biomarker. Strategies directly targeting APE1 funtions led to the identification of inhibitors showing a potential therapeutic value, which some of them are cur-rently in clinical trials. Interestingly, evidence indicates novel roles of APE1 in RNA metabolism still not fully understood, including its activity in processing damaged RNA in chemoresistant phenotypes, regulating oncomiRs maturation, and oxidized-RNA decay. Recent data point out a control role of APE1 in the expression and sorting of oncomiRs, within secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs). This review is focused on giving a portrait of the pros and cons of the last two decades of research aiming at the identification of inhibitors of the redox or the DNA-repair functions of APE1 for the definition of novel targeted therapies for cancer. We will discuss the new perspectives in cancer therapy coming from the unexpected finding of the APE1 role in miRNA processing for personalized therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0008.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: adamantanes; antivirals; cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitors; influenza; neuraminidase inhibitors; umifenovir
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:16:16 CEST)
Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory infections responsible for significant mortality and morbidity around the world. Various factors, such as antigenic drift, allow influenza strains to avoid being fully suppressed by seasonal vaccines. This has led to the increased scrutiny of antivirals as treatment and prophylaxis options for seasonal outbreaks and potential pandemics. Unfortunately, many influenza antivirals suffer from a lack of adequate clinical trials, as well as a lack of toxicity data. This is especially true of umifenovir (arbidol), a drug popularly used for the prevention and treatment of influenza strains in China and Russia. Neuraminidase inhibitors, though widely prescribed, display a potential for future resistance. Adamantanes, while proven to be effective in treating influenza A, are already encountering rapid and widespread cross-resistance and are effectively obsolete. Baloxavir marboxil, a newer antiviral, shows promise in treating acute uncomplicated influenza and may avoid the development of resistance when co-administered with other antiviral drugs. Indeed, the low genetic barrier to resistance associated with influenza antivirals could potentially be overcome by co-administration with other antivirals. This review explores the most widely prescribed antivirals for influenza treatment, their mechanisms of action, and the data currently available about their susceptibility to resistance and efficacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0251.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: gastric acid suppressant; chemotherapy; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; proton pump inhibitors
Online: 31 March 2020 (03:40:46 CEST)
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of gastric acid suppressant use on outcomes of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and oral chemotherapy. We identified all researches evaluating the effect of GAS use on patients receiving oral chemotherapy or TKIs for solid tumors. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated with fixed-effects or random-effects model. The study population included n=16 retrospective studies and 372,418 patients. Series concerned gastrointestinal tract tumors (n=5 studies), renal cell carcinomas (RCC, n=3 studies), non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC, n=5 studies), and soft tissue sarcomas or mixed histologies solid tumors in n=3 studies. The pooled HRs for OS and PFS were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.20–1.43; P<01) and 1.3 (95%CI 1.07-1.57; P<0.01) for GAS and no GAS users, respectively. Only studies of EGFR mutated NSCLC patients receiving TKIs and those with colorectal cancer receiving oral chemotherapy showed a significant correlation between GAS and poor survival. Our study supports the evidence of a possible negative impact of concomitant GAS therapy on survival outcomes of patients receiving oral anti-cancer drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: alloimmune response; immunosuppressants; calcineurin inhibitors; corticosteroids; mTOR inhibitors; neurotoxicity; neuroprotective effects
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:37:44 CEST)
Although transplantation procedures have been developed for patients with end-stagec hepatic insufficiency or other diseases, allograft rejection still threatens patient health and lifespan. Over the last few decades, the emergence of immunosuppressive agents, such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, have strikingly increased graft survival. Unfortunately, immunosuppressive agent-related neurotoxicity is commonly occurred in clinical situations, with the majority of neurotoxicity cases caused by CNIs. The possible mechanisms whereby CNIs cause neurotoxicity include: increasing the permeability or injury of the blood-brain barrier, alterations of mitochondrial function, and alterations in electrophysiological state. Other immunosuppressants can also induce neuropsychiatric complications. For example, mTOR inhibitors induce seizures; mycophenolate mofetil induces depression and headache; methotrexate affects the central nervous system; mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 antibody against cluster of differentiation 3 also induces headache; and patients using corticosteroids usually experience cognitive alteration. Therapeutic drug monitoring, individual therapy based on pharmacogenetics, and early recognition of symptoms have greatly reduced neurotoxic events. Once neurotoxicity occurs, a reduction in the drug dosage, switching to other immunosuppressants, using drugs to treat the neuropsychiatric manifestation, or blood purification therapy have proven to be effective against neurotoxicity. In this review, we summarize the recent topics on the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. In addition, some information about neuroprotective effects of several immunosuppressants are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1391.v1
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:32:12 CEST)
This study presents a transversal investigation, that we performed at Fundeni hospital, into the therapeutic benefits and efficacy of Emicizumab, a non-factor therapy, in the context of hemophilia A. Ten patients diagnosed with hemophilia A were closely monitored, using clinical and laboratory resources, during the course of Emicizumab treatment, with an average of 12.8 months. Among these patients, six exhibited anti-factor VIII inhibitors, changing the medical approach and adding complexity to their clinical profiles. A comprehensive approach was adopted to assess the coagulation status of patients under Emicizumab therapy. The study employed several key coagulation monitoring tools, of which including thrombin generation time (TGT) and thrombelastography (TEG). These methodologies proved highly valuable results in evaluating the patients' coagulation profiles during the treatment regimen. Additionally, traditionally coagulation assays were utilized to gain a comprehensive understanding of the overall coagulation dynamics. Noteworthy, impressive outcomes emerged from the study. During prophylaxis with Emicizumab all patients had experienced a reduced number of bleeding events. Moreover, a subset of these patients underwent major surgical procedures (orthopedic joint replacements) with successful outcomes. These findings underscore the potential of Emicizumab therapy as an effective option for hemophilia A patients, including those that presented a prompt production of anti-factor VIII inhibitors. As for the outcomes, this transversal study sheds some light on the positive impact of Emicizumab therapy in addressing the coagulation challenges posed by hemophilia A. The utilization of global coagulation assays, such as thrombin generation time, thrombelastography and combined with traditional coagulation assays, used as monitoring tools highlights their significance once more in evaluating the therapeutic response. This research contributes by providing physicians with valuable insights to the field, offering a potential avenue for improved patients’ care and treatment strategies that translate in enhanced quality of life for hemophilia A patients undergoing Emicizumab therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: dengue virus; antiviral targets; NS5; flavivirus; polymerase; nucleoside inhibitors; non-nucleoside inhibitors
Online: 17 August 2021 (14:07:29 CEST)
Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease globally and affects approximately 2.5 billion people living in over 100 countries. The increasing geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which transmit the virus has made dengue fever a global health concern. There are currently no approved antivirals available to treat dengue, and the only approved vaccine used in some countries is limited to seropositive patients. Treatment of dengue therefore remains largely supportive to date; hence research efforts are being intensified for the development of antivirals against dengue. The NS3 and NS5 nonstructural proteins have been the major targets for dengue antiviral development due to their indispensable enzymatic and biological functions in the viral replication process. NS5 is the largest and most conserved nonstructural protein encoded by flaviviruses including dengue. Its multifunctionality makes it an attractive target for antiviral development against dengue, but research efforts are hindered due to its limited structural characterization compared to the NS5 of other flaviviruses like the Zika virus. Increase in structural insights into the dengue NS5 protein will accelerate drug discovery efforts focused on NS5 as an antiviral target. In this review, we will give an overview of the current state of therapeutic development against dengue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1058.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Heart Failure; Therapy; type-2 sodium-glucose cotransporters inhibitors; angiotensin receptor neprylisin inhibitors
Online: 17 July 2023 (15:07:48 CEST)
Background. The type-2 sodium-glucose cotransporters inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a new relevant therapeutic option for patients affected by chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a real-world population from a single center, the feasibility of introducing SGLT2i and their interaction with other recommended drug classes. Methods. We evaluated the consecutive patients affected by chronic heart failure (CHF) since January 2022. At baseline clinical visit the therapy taken by the patients as well as that prescribed were accurately collected. During a 6-12 month follow-up the the changes in concomitant therapy were analyzed. Results. At baseline, among 350 patients evaluated, only 17 (5%) were already taking SGLT2i, 13 with HFrEF, 2 with CHF with mild reduced (HFmrEF) and 2 with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). After baseline evaluation, SGLT2i were prescribed to 220 (63%) of all the patients enrolled, among whom 178 (84%) of HFrEF patients, 25 (42%) of HFmrEF and 17 (22%) of HFpEF. After follow-up, SGLT2i therapy was highly tolerated and it was associated with a significant increased prescription of sacubitril/valsartan and a reduced use of diuretics. Finally, a significant improvement in functional status and left ventricular systolic function after SGLT2i therapy was observed. Conclusions. In this single center “real world” study, SGLT2i were prescribed in HFrEF patients most of all already in therapy with the other classes of drugs currently recommended for their treatment. Moreover, a further optimization in prescribed ther-apy was observed during a short term follow-up. These data further support the use of this thera-peutic approach in routine clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0286.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1 Gag; Gag inhibitors; Protease; Protease inhibitors; drug resistance mutations; drug design
Online: 25 July 2019 (10:05:03 CEST)
HIV treatment strategies against viral enzymes are continuously hampered by viral drug resistance. Recent findings show that viral substrate Gag contributes to HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor (PI) resistance, leading to demands for new strategies in HIV treatment where Gag is recognized as a drug target. To successfully target Gag, there is a need of in-depth understanding of the Gag polyprotein and the effects of Gag mutations. Here, we propose new strategies in designing novel Gag inhibitors against existing and novel emerging Gag mutations via a structural understanding of the Gag-Protease relationship in PI resistance. In this review, we discuss the role of both novel and previously reported mutations, revealing insights to how they aid in PI resistance, and how new Gag inhibitors can be designed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0213.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: bichalcones; sirtuin inhibitors; virtual screening
Online: 23 January 2018 (09:12:43 CET)
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent class III histone deacetylases and have been linked to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases such as HIV, metabolic disorders, neurodegeneration and cancer. Docking of the virtual pan-African natural products library (p-ANAPL), followed by in vitro testing, resulted in the identification of two inhibitors of sirtuin 1, 2 and 3 (sirt1-3). Two bichalcones; rhuschalcone IV (8) and rhuschalcone I (9), previously isolated from the medicinal plant Rhus pyroides, were shown to be active in the in vitro assay, with rhuschalcone I showing the best activity against sirt1, having an IC50 = 40.8 µM. Based on the docking experiments, suggestions for improving the biological activities of the newly identified hit compounds have been provided.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1892.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oncolytic virus; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:58:30 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer care and shown remarkable efficacy clinically. This efficacy is, however, limited to subsets of patients with significant infiltration of lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment. To extend their efficacy to patients who fail to respond or achieve durable responses, it is now becoming evident that complex combinations of immunomodulatory agents may be required to extend efficacy to patients with immunologically “cold” tumours. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the capacity to selectively replicate within and kill tumour cells resulting in the induction of immunogenic cell death and the augmentation of anti-tumour immunity and have emerged as a promising modality for combination therapy to overcome the limitations seen with ICIs. Pre-clinical and clinical data has demonstrated that OVs can increase immune cell infiltration into the tumour and induce anti-tumour immunity, thus changing a “cold” tumour microenvironment that is commonly associated with poor response to ICIs, to a “hot” microenvironment which can render patients more susceptible to ICIs. Here, we review the major viral vector platforms used in OV clinical trials, their success when used as a monotherapy and when combined with adjuvant ICIs, as well as pre-clinical studies looking at the effectiveness of encoding OVs to deliver ICIs locally to the tumour microenvironment through transgene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0031.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Ionic Liquids; Corrosion Inhibitors; Bio-based
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:23:59 CEST)
In this work, the inhibition properties of new bio-based lignine ILs on the corrosion of mild steel in an aqueous solution of 0.01 M NaCl were investigated by Potentiostatic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (PEIS), Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP). Moreover, the surface was characterized using SEM, EDS, and optical profilometry. The influence of cation and anion on the inhibitor properties and a possible synergistic effect were investigated. The IL choline syringate showed a promising performance, reducing the corrosion current after 24-hour immersion in 0.01 M sodium chloride, from 1.66 µA/cm2 for the control to 0.066 µA/cm2 with 10 mM of the IL present. In addition to the performance as a corrosion inhibitor, both components of this IL also meet or exceed current additional desired properties of such compounds, being readily available, economically efficient, and well tolerated in organisms and the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1789.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PTK6; Colorectal cancer; Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Online: 25 May 2023 (09:52:24 CEST)
PTK6, a Non-Receptor–Tyrosine-Kinase, modulates the pathogenesis of breast and prostate cancers, and is recognized as a biomarker of breast cancer prognosis. There are over 30 known substrates of PTK6, including signal transducers, transcription factors and RNA binding proteins. Many of these substrates are known drivers of other cancer types such as colorectal cancer. Colon and rectal tumours also express higher levels of PTK6 than the normal intestine suggesting a potential role in tumorigenesis. However, the importance of PTK6 in colorectal cancer remains unclear. PTK6 inhibitors such as XMU-MP-2 and Tilfrinib have demonstrated potency and selectivity in breast cancer cells when used in combination with chemotherapy, indicating the potential for PTK6 targeted therapy in cancer. However, most of these inhibitors are yet to be tested in other cancer types. Here, we discuss the current understanding of the function of PTK6 in normal intestinal cells compared with colorectal cancer cells. We review existing PTK6 targeting therapeutics and explore the possibility of PTK6 inhibitory therapy for colorectal cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0065.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; Main protease; Mpro; inhibitors
Online: 8 April 2022 (03:01:37 CEST)
Since the outbreak of COVID-19, one of the strategies used to search for new drugs has been to find inhibitors of the main protease (Mpro) of virus SARS-CoV-2. Initially, previously reported inhibitors of related proteases like the main proteases of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were tested. Then a huge effort has been done by the scientific community to design, synthesize and test new small molecules acting as inactivators of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. From the structure view, these compounds can be classified into two main groups: one corresponds to modified peptides displaying an adequate sequence for high affinity and a reactive warhead, and the second one is a diverse group including chemical compounds which do not have a peptide framework. Although a drug including a SARS-CoV-2 main protease has already been commercialized, denoting the importance of this field, more compounds have been demonstrated to be promising potent inhibitors as potential antiviral drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0027.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: microginins; cyanobacteria; Microcystis; aminopeptidase M inhibitors
Online: 5 January 2018 (04:16:23 CET)
During blooms, cyanobacteria produce diverse modified peptides. Among these are the microginins, which inhibit zinc-containing metalloproteases. Ten microginins, microginins KR767 (1), KR801(2), KR835 (3), KR785 (4), KR604 (5), KR638 (6), KR781 (7), KR815 (8), FR3 (9), and FR4 (10) were isolated from the extract of a bloom material of Microcystis sp. (IL-405) collected from the Kishon Reservoir, Israel in the fall of 2009. The structures of the pure compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the chiral centers of the amino acids were determined by Marfey’s and advance Marfey’s methods and by comparison of 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the Ahda derivatives with those of known microginins. These microginins differ in sequence and absolute configuration of the chiral centers of the Ahda moieties and by N-methylation of Ahda amine group and extent of chlorination of Ahda terminal methyl group. The compounds were evaluated for inhibition of the zinc metalloprotease aminopeptidase M and exhibited low- to sub-nanomolar IC50 values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0880.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1); tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2); usnic acid; Tdp2 inhibitors; Tdp1 inhibitors
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:18:31 CEST)
Tdp1 and Tdp2 are DNA repair enzymes that repair DNA damages caused by various agents, including anticancer drugs. Thus, these enzymes resist anticancer therapy and could be the reasons of resistance to such widely used drugs as topotecan and etoposide. In the present work, we found compounds capable of inhibiting both enzymes among derivatives of (-)-usnic acid. Both (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of compounds act equally effectively against Tdp1, and only (-)-enantiomers inhibited Tdp2. Surprisingly, the compounds protect HEK293FT wild type cells from the cytotoxic effect of etoposide but potentiate it against Tdp2 knockout cells. We assume that the sensitizing effect of the compounds in the absence of Tdp2 is associated with effective inhibition of Tdp1, which could take over the functions of Tdp2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0279.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: NS3 inhibitors; allosteric inhibitors; NS4A; peptidomimetics; imidazole; hepatitis C virus; molecular dynamics; Flaviviridae; DSLS; binding assay
Online: 24 January 2020 (11:11:46 CET)
The non-structural protein NS3/4A protease is a critical factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) maturation that requires activation by NS4A. Synthetic peptide mutants of NS4A were found to inhibit NS3 function. The bridging from peptide inhibitors to heterocyclic peptidomimetics of NS4A has not been in consideration in literature, and therefore, we decided to explore this strategy to develop a new class of NS3 inhibitors. In this report, a structure-based design approach was used to convert the bound form of NS4A into 1H-imidazole-2,5-dicarboxamide derivatives as first generation peptidomimetics. This scaffold mimics the buried amino acid sequence Ile-25` to Arg-28` at the core of NS4A21`-33` needed to activate the NS3 protease. Some of the synthesized MOC compounds were able to compete with and displace NS4A21`-33` for binding to NS3. For instance, N5-(4-guanidinobutyl)-N2-(n-hexyl)-1H-imidazole-2,5-dicarboxamide (MOC-24) inhibited the binding of NS4A21`-33` with a competition IC50 of 1.9 ± 0.12 µM in a fluorescence anisotropy assay, stabilized the denaturation of NS3 by increasing the aggregation temperature by ΔTagg 0.6 ± 0.140 ℃. MOC-24 also inhibited NS3 protease activity in a fluorometric assay. Molecular dynamics simulations rationalized the structure-activity relationship (SAR) differences between the active MOC-24 and the inactive MOC-26. Our data shows that MOC compounds are possibly the first examples of NS4A peptidomimetics that demonstrated promising activities against NS3 proteins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer; new hormonal agents; transcriptomic profiling; DNA damage repair genes; tumor suppressor genes; androgen receptor; immunotherapy; CDK4/6 inhibitors; PARP inhibitors; AKT inhibitors.
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:17:07 CEST)
De novo metastatic hormone-sensitive PC (mHSPC) accounts for 5-10% of all prostate cancer (PC) diagnoses but it is responsible for nearly 50% of PC-related deaths. Since 2015, the prognosis of mHSPC has slightly improved thanks to the introduction of new hormonal agents and chemotherapy combined with androgen deprivation therapy from the first-line setting. This review describes the current therapeutic opportunities in de novo mHSPC, focusing on potential molecular biomarkers identified in the main clinical trials that have changed the standard of care, the genomic features of de novo mHSPC, and the principal ongoing trials that are investigating new therapeutic approaches and the efficacy of a biomarker-guided treatment in this setting. The road towards a personalized treatment for de novo mHSPC is still long considering that the randomized clinical trials, which have furnished the basis of the current therapeutic options, stratified patients according to clinical criteria that not necessarily reflect the biological rationale of the chosen therapy. The role of transcriptomic profiling of mHSPC as predictive biomarker requires further validation, as well as it remains to ascertain how the genomic alterations detected in mHSPC, that are considered predictive in the castration-resistant disease, can be exploited in the mHSPC setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0542.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: safety analysis; targeted therapy; monoclonal antibody therapy; immune checkpoint inhibibitors; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; breast cancer; gynecological cancer; Helixor; Viscum album L.; PARP inhibitors; CDK 4/6 inhibitors
Online: 30 December 2022 (12:00:35 CET)
Background: Newer personalized medicine including targeted therapies such as PARP inhibitors and CDK 4/6 inhibitors have shown to improve survival of breast and gynaecological cancer patients. However, efficacy outcomes may be hampered by treatment discontinuation due to targeted therapy-related adverse drug reactions or resistance. Studies suggest that add-on mistletoe (Viscum album L., VA) improves quality of life and ameliorates cytotoxic side effects of standard oncological therapy in cancer patients. The primary objective of this real-world data study was to determine the safety profile of targeted therapy in combination with add-on Helixor® VA therapy in breast and gynecological cancer patients. Methods: The present study is a real-world data study utilizing demographic and treatment data from the accredited national Network Oncology (NO) registry. The study has received ethics approval. The safety profile of targeted with or without Helixor® VA therapy as well as safety - associated variables were evaluated by univariate and adjusted multivariable regression analyses. Results: All stage breast or gynecological cancer patients (n = 242) were on average 54.5±14.2 years old. One hundred and sixty patients (66.1%) were in the control (CTRL, targeted therapy) and 82 patients (33.9%) in the combinational (COMB, targeted plus Helixor® VA therapy) group. The addition of Helixor® VA did not hamper the safety profile (χ2 = 0.107, p-value = 0.99) of targeted therapy. Furthermore, no adverse events and a trend towards an improved targeted therapy adherence were observed in the COMB group. Conclusions: The present study is the first of its kind showing the applicability of Helixor® VA in combination with targeted therapies. The results indicate that add-on Helixor® VA does not negatively alter the safety profile of targeted therapies in breast and gynaecological cancer patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: BET inhibitors; HDAC inhibitors; pancreatic cancer; aberrant transcription; enhancers; transcription factors; distal regulatory elements; MYC; FOXA1; BRD4
Online: 8 May 2018 (10:47:27 CEST)
While the mortality rates of cancer are generally declining, pancreatic cancer persists to be an exception with a 5-year-survival rate of less than 7%. Late diagnosis and resistance to conventional therapies contribute to high mortality rates in spite of the remarkable recent advances in cancer management and research. Consequently, there is an urgent need to find new and unconventional therapeutic targets to improve prognosis and survival of pancreatic cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the transcriptional effects of the most widely used epigenetic inhibitors in pancreatic cancer focusing on Bromodomain and Extraterminal domain (BET) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which are currently highly promising therapeutic options. We suggest that these inhibitors can be better utilized at lower doses which exploit their transcriptional modulatory effects on pancreatic cancer transcriptional programs directed by specific factors such as MYC and FOXA1, rather than simply based on their anti-proliferative effects. This approach can potentially help avoid the intolerable adverse events frequently elicited by the use of these treatments at higher doses. In particular, we underscore the crucial role of distal regulatory elements in mediating the specific effects of these epigenetic inhibitors and propose using them in a more selective and prudent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1626.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Proton pump inhibitors; Clopidogrel; Stroke; Myocardial infarction
Online: 25 July 2023 (07:26:31 CEST)
Background/Aims: Conflicting results have been reported regarding the interaction between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and clopidogrel. We investigated whether concomitant PPI use influenced the risk of recurrence in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: This study used two databases for different designs, the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database for a self-controlled case series design, and the national sample cohort of the NHIS database converted to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership-Common Data Model version for a cohort study. Results: In the PPI co-prescription group, recurrent hospitalization with stroke occurred in 17.6% of the 8,201 patients with history of stroke, and recurrent MI occurred in 17.1% of the 1,216 patients with history of MI during 1 year. According to the self-controlled case series, the overall relative risk (RR) of recurrent stroke was 2.09 [95% confidence interval (CI); 1.83-2.38], and the RR showed an increasing trend with PPI duration. In the cohort study, there was a higher incidence of recurrent stroke in the PPI co-prescription group [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.76, P=0.04]. The overall RR of recurrent MI was 1.47 (95% CI; 1.02-2.11) in the self-controlled case series; however, there was no statistically significant difference in recurrent MI in the cohort study (HR:1.42, 95% CI:0.79-2.49, P=0.23). The impact of individual PPIs on stroke and MI showed different patterns. Conclusions: PPI co-prescription with clopidogrel was associated with recurrent stroke; however, its association with recurrent MI remains inconclusive. The influence of individual PPIs should be clarified in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; PARP inhibitors; DDR gene; CRPC
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:22:22 CEST)
The possibility of treating more patients for a longer time, has exploded the concept of anticipation in the systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer (mPC). The genetic analysis of Damage DNA Repair (DDR) mutations in pathogenetic variants (PV) and the development of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors led to the first valid precision medicine option tailored for mPC. PARP inhibitors are repeating the same evolutionary path experienced for androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI), starting from the late stage of second line mCRPC in a limited population and time frame. Inevitably also PARP inhibitors will be absorbed by the concept of anticipation and intensification of care. The anticipation of PARP inhibitors in the first line mCRPC therapy is already underway and further one in mHSPC will soon be verified. According to the crosstalk between androgen receptors (AR) and DNA repair, the new message that is emerging is that the combination of PARP inhibitors with ARSI, disconnects PARP from the genetic analysis. Most of the recent trials analyzing PARP inhibitors plus abiraterone or enzalutamide, enrolled first line mCRPC irrespectively to gene PV. The conclusion of the PROPEL trial was that the advantage was independent to PV status, however the highest advantage was reported in BRCA1/2 mutated subgroup. The conclusion of the MAGNITUDE trial was different, with a significant advantage only in the DDR mutated subgroup and the DDR non-mutated was closed for further enrollment. The combination of PARP inhibitors with ARSI represents a significant strategy in the concept of anticipation and intensification of care in mPC. However, it should not nullify the advantages of precision medicine linked to the genetic analysis of DDR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0956.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NSCLC,; Immunotherapy; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Special populations
Online: 13 June 2023 (16:01:04 CEST)
Over the last decade, the therapeutic scenario for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has undergone a major paradigm shift. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown a meaningful clinical and survival improvement in different settings of the disease. However, the real benefit of this therapeutic approach remains controversial in selected NSCLC subsets, such as those of the elderly with active brain metastases or oncogene-addicted mutations. This is mainly due to the exclusion or underrepresentation of these patient subpopulations in most of the pivotal phase III studies; this precludes the generalization of the ICI efficacy in this context. Moreover, no predictive biomarkers of ICI response exist that can help with patient selection for this therapeutic approach. Here, we critically summarize the current state of ICI efficacy in the most common “special” NSCLC subpopulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Kinases; human diseases; macrocyclic inhibitors; drug discovery
Online: 8 June 2023 (08:54:08 CEST)
Kinases play an important role in regulating various intracellular signaling pathways that control cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and other cellular processes and their deregulation causes more than 400 diseases. Consequently, macrocyclization can be considered a noteworthy approach to develop new therapeutic agents for human diseases. Macrocyclization has emerged as an effective drug discovery strategy over the past decade to improve target selectivity and potency of small molecules. Small compounds with linear structures upon macrocyclization can lead to changes in their physicochemical and biological properties by firmly reducing conformational flexibility. A number of distinct protein kinases exhibit similar binding sites. Comparison of protein binding site provides crucial insights for the drug discovery and development. Binding site similarities are helpful to understand polypharmacology, identifying potential off-targets and repurposing of known drugs. In this review, we focused on comparing binding sites of those kinases for which macrocyclic inhibitors are available/studied so far. Furthermore, we calculated the volume of binding site pocket for each targeted kinase and then compared it with the binding site pocket of the kinase for which only acyclic inhibitors were designed till date. Our review and analysis of several explored kinases might be useful to target new protein kinases for macrocyclic drug discovery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PD-L1; CTCs; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:28:01 CEST)
The approval of monoclonal antibodies against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death protein (PD1), has changed the landscape of cancer treatment. To date, many Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic cancer as well as locally recurrent advanced cancer. However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) of ICIs highlight the need for biomarker analysis with strong predictive value. Liquid biopsy is an important tool for clinical oncologists to monitor cancer patients and administer or change appropriate therapy. CTCs frequently express PD-L1 and this constitutes a clinically useful and non-invasive method to assess PD-L1 status in real time. This review summarizes all the latest findings about the clinical significance of CTC for the management of cancer patients during administration of immunotherapy and mainly focuses on the assessment of PD-L1 expression in CTCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Cx43; gap junctions; conductance; inhibitors; docking; IC50
Online: 5 April 2023 (12:30:58 CEST)
Gap junctions (GJs) made of connexin-43 (Cx43) are important for the conduction of electrical impulses in the heart. Modulation of Cx43 activity may be useful in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and other dysfunctions. Search of novel GJ modulating agents using molecular docking approach allows to predict the binding affinities that often significantly differ from experimentally estimated their potencies. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model could be used for more precise identification of potent Cx43 GJ inhibitors. Using the QSAR model and molecular docking, we evaluated the known Cx43 GJ inhibitors, suggested a new one, and tested it experimentally. Our QSAR model predicted the concentrations required to produce 50% of the maximal effect (IC50) for each of these compounds and estimated the correlation between predicted and experimental IC50ies (pIC50 and eIC50). This led to suggestion of monocyclic monoterpene d-limonene as putative Cx43 inhibitor with pIC50 = 1.07. In turn, dual whole-cell patch-clamp measurements provided eIC50=1.41. The pIC50ies of d-limonene and other Cx43 GJ inhibitors examined by our QSAR model well correlated with their eIC50ies (R = 0.88) in contrast to pIC50s obtained from molecular docking (R = 0.42). However, the molecular docking suggested that inhibitor potency may depend on their docking sites on Cx43.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adsorption; Scale Inhibitors; Fine sands; Colloids; Reservoir
Online: 7 May 2021 (10:42:36 CEST)
Scale inhibitors are deployed as preventive and rejuvenation operation in oil and gas industry when production operations are under threat or menace of scale blockage. The application of scale inhibitors is carried out through a method known as squeezing. In general, the squeeze process is governed by inhibitor-rock interaction which is described by adsorption/desorption isotherm. Most reservoirs produce loose sand grains or fine sand which float and flow within the pore spaces along with the squeezed scale inhibitors. Hypothetical reports have shown that not all scale inhibitors pumped into the formation adsorb onto the formation rock. A number of factors (irreversible adsorption, pH changes, competing ions, concentration and temperature) have been considered to affect the adsorption and return profile of these scale inhibitors. This review work examines the performances of most common scale inhibitors used in the oil and gas production activities, theoretical application in reservoirs and how loose fine sand grains affect the adsorption and desorption characteristics of squeezed scale inhibitors. Additionally, presented were overviews of previous reports on fine sand production and migration of fine sands through formation pores in reservoirs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0023.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: anti-yeast; enzyme inhibitors; Terminalia mantaly; Combretaceae
Online: 3 November 2016 (09:35:17 CET)
The chemical investigation of the anti-yeast methanol extract from the stem bark of Terminalia mantaly led to the isolation of seven compounds: 3-O-methyl-4-O-α-rhamnopyranoside ellagic acid (1), 3-O-mehylellagic acid (2), arjungenin or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid (3), arjunglucoside or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid glucopyranoside (4), 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18)-dien-28-oïc acid (5), stigmasterol (6), stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Their structures were established by means of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data. Compounds 1-5 were tested in vitro for activity against three pathogenic yeast isolates, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei. The activity of compounds 1, 2 and 4 were comparable to that of the reference compound fluconazole (MIC values below 32 µg/ml) against the three tested yeast isolates. They were also tested for inhibitory properties against four enzymes of metabolic significance: Glucose-6-Phosphate Deshydrogenase (G6PD), human erythrocyte Carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I and hCA II), Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Compound 4 showed highly potent inhibitory property against the four tested enzymes with overall IC50 values below 4 µM and inhibitory constant (Ki) <3 µM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0736.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: advanced breast cancer; germline BRCA1/2 mutations; pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants; CDK4/6 inhibitors; Pi3Ka inhibitors; HER2-low
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:12:48 CEST)
We explored the outcomes of germline BRCA1/2 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (PVs/LPVs) in the endocrine-sensitive disease treated with first line standard of care cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors. Three studies retrospectively showed a reduction in overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in gBRCA1/2m patients compared to both germinal BRCA1/2 wild type (gBRCA1/2wt) and to the untested population. Regarding the efficacy of PI3K inhibitors, there are no subgroup or biomarker analyses in which germinal BRCA status was explored. However, the biological interactions between the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway and BRCA1/2 at a molecular level could help us to understand the activity of these drugs when used to treat BC in BRCA1/2 PVs/LPVs carriers. The efficacy of trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd), an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting HER2 for HER2-low and HER2-positive (HER2+) BC, has been increasingly described. Unfortunately, data on T-DXd in HER2+ or HER2-low metastatic BC harboring germinal BRCA1/2 PVs/LPVs is lacking. Including germinal BRCA1/2 status in the subgroup analysis of the registration trials of this ADC would be of great interest, especially in the phase III trial DESTINY-breast04. This trial enrolled patients with HER2-negative (HER2-) and both HR+ and HR- metastatic disease, which can now be categorized as HER2-low. The HER2-low subgroup includes tumors that were previously classified as triple negative, so it is highly likely that some women were germline BRCA1/2 PVs/LPVs carriers and this data was not reported. Germline BRCA1/2 status will be available for a higher number of individuals with BC in the near future and data on the prognostic and predictive role of these PVs/LPVs is needed in order to choose the best treatment options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0638.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 18F-FDG PET/CT; contrast-enhanced CT; melanoma; metastases; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; follow-up; therapy monitoring
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:14:06 CEST)
Aim To perform a comprehensive analysis of discordances between contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of the extra-cerebral treatment monitoring in patients with stage IV melanoma. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective monocentric observational study over a 3 years period in patients referred for 18F-FDG PET/CT and ceCT in the framework of therapy monitoring of immune checkpoint or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ICIs or TKIs) as of January-2017. Imaging reports were analysed by two physicians in consensus. Anatomical site responsible for discordances, as well as induced changes in treatment were noted. Results Eighty patients were included and 195 couples of scans analysed. Overall, discordances occurred in 65 cases (33%). Eighty percent of the discordances (52/65) were due to 18F-FDG PET/CT scans upstaging the patient. Amongst these discordances, 17/52 (33%) led to change in patient’s management, the most frequent being radiotherapy of a progressing site. ceCT represented 13/65 (20%) of discordances and induced changes in patients’ management in 2/13 cases (15%). The more frequent anatomical site involved was subcutaneous for 18F-FDG PET/CT findings and lung or liver for ceCT. Conclusions Treatment monitoring with 18F-FDG
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 18F-FDG PET/CT; contrast-enhanced CT; melanoma; metastases; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; follow-up; therapy monitoring
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:01:17 CET)
Aim To perform a comprehensive analysis of discordances between contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of the extra-cerebral treatment monitoring in patients with stage IV melanoma. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective monocentric observational study over a 3 years period in patients referred for 18F-FDG PET/CT and ceCT in the framework of therapy monitoring of immune checkpoint or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ICIs or TKIs) as of January-2017. Imaging reports were analysed by two physicians in consensus. Anatomical site responsible for discordances, as well as induced changes in treatment were noted. Results Eighty patients were included and 195 couples of scans analysed. Overall, discordances occurred in 65 cases (33%). Eighty percent of the discordances (52/65) were due to 18F-FDG PET/CT scans upstaging the patient. Amongst these discordances, 17/52 (33%) led to change in patient’s management, the most frequent being radiotherapy of a progressing site. ceCT represented 13/65 (20%) of discordances and induced changes in patients’ management in 2/13 cases (15%). The more frequent anatomical site involved was subcutaneous for 18F-FDG PET/CT findings and lung or liver for ceCT. Conclusions Treatment monitoring with 18F-FDG
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: psoriasis; plasma cytokines; TNFα inhibitors; etanercept; infliximab; adalimumab
Online: 18 September 2023 (02:32:17 CEST)
An analysis of the relationship between plasma cytokines and the effectiveness of treatment with TNFαinhibitors was performed in 81 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Treatment efficacy was assessed by PASI score, and patients were classified into a positive effect (PASI≥75) and no effect group (PASI≤50). A positive effect was reached in 11 (41%) patients for etanercept, 14 (52%) for adalimumab, and 26 (96%) for infliximab. Data analysis did not show differences in baseline TNFα levels and subsequent treatment effectiveness. The CART algorithm showed that at the baseline level of VEGF ≥ 32 pg/ml and IL17F < 26 pg/ml, there was an 83% probability of a positive effect. Random forest analysis showed the importance of VEGF, ICAM1, sCD40L, IL17F and IL31 baseline levels in the prediction of treatment effectiveness. Significant differences between the groups before/after the treatment were found only for TNFα: the median values were more than 50 times higher in no effect compared with positive effect group. There were differences before/after therapy in the levels of IL20, ICAM1, IL22, IL23 in the no effect group. The treatment affected the cytokine profile in most cases regardless of the effectiveness of therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2046.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: CADD; SBDD; LBDD; kinase; small molecule kinase inhibitors
Online: 31 July 2023 (03:05:42 CEST)
Small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs) are one of the heightened concerns in the field of drug research and development. There are seventy-nine (up to July 2023) small molecule kinase inhibitors have been approved by FDA and hundreds kinase inhibitors candidates in clinical trials, which shed light on the treatment of some major diseases. As an important strategy of drug design, computer-aided drug design (CADD) plays an indispensable role in the discovery of SMKIs. CADD methods, such as docking, molecular dynamic, pharmacophore have been applied to the design and optimization of small molecule kinase inhibitors. In the review, we provide an overview of recent advances in CADD and SMKIs; and the application of CADD for discovery of SMKIs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0658.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: hypertriglyceridemia; dyslipidemia; evinacumab; ANGPTL3-inhibitors; lipid-lowering drugs
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:45:58 CEST)
Evinacumab, a human monoclonal antibody against angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), has recently been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an add-on therapy for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) in patients of 12 years and older. Its role as a triglyceride-lowering drug is also emerging in the literature. However, it has not been approved for this indication yet, neither in the adult nor in the pediatric population. We describe the case of a 10-year-old boy who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by chronic graft–versus–host disease (GVHD) and presented life-threatening refractory hypertriglyceridemia due to the concomitant use of ruxolitinib and sirolimus. After the failure of the insulin treatment and due to the technical impossibility of performing lipid apheresis, we underwent the child to evinacumab treatment, obtaining a dramatic rapid reduction in triglyceride and cholesterol levels. This is the first report of a pediatric patient younger than 12 years in Europa receiving evinacumab to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia. The therapy with angiopoietin-like proteins inhibitors has been effective, safe, and well-tolerated in our patient, suggesting that evinacumab may be used in the pediatric population when other therapeutic strategies are ineffective or contraindicated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Gliomas; Tumour Microenvironment; Immunotherapy; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; Vaccines
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:39:07 CEST)
Gliomas are aggressive, primary central nervous system tumours arising from glial cells. Glioblastomas are the most malignant. They are known for their poor prognosis or median overall survival. Current standard of care is overwhelmed by the heterogeneous, immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment promoting immune evasion and tumour proliferation. The advent of immunotherapy with its various modalities – immune checkpoint inhibitors, cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, chimeric antigen receptor T cells and NK cells have shown promise. Clinical trials incorporating combination therapies of the above have overcome the microenvironment resistance and yielded survival and prognostic benefit. Rolling these new therapies out in the real-world scenario in a low cost, high throughput manner is the unmet need of the hour. These will bring practice changing implications to the glioma treatment landscape. In this review article, we focus on describing the hallmarks of the glioma microenvironment and its interplay with the different emerging modalities of immunotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Cholesterol; PCSK9 inhibitors; HMG-CoA; LDL receptor; statins
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:01:24 CEST)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a proteolytic enzyme that indirectly regulates serum LDL cholesterol by destroying LDL receptors. In clinical studies, the main role of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin type9 (PCSK9) inhibitor in cholesterol regulation was elucidated. It is produced in the liver but is also present in the kidney and intestine. It prevents HMGCo from synthesizing cholesterol. SREBP-2 is a reductase that is induced by statins. In a dose-dependent manner, increasing SREBP-2 levels enhanced LDL-R and PCSK9 gene expression. At the minimum, two procedures have been developed to overcome the plasma level of PCSK9. This is the LDLR test, polyclonal antibodies, and sentience oligonucleotide. Lower dosage statin treatment with a proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin type9 inhibitor will be most efficient in lowering LDL and avoiding statin adverse effects. In multiple long-term trials, statins have been found to reduce cardiovascular mortality by 30% and stroke incidence by 20%. In this way, we conclude the role of PCSK9 in hypercholesterolemia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Epigenetic targets; Histone deacetylases; Inhibitors; PROTACs
Online: 12 May 2022 (05:41:21 CEST)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that increasingly become a global threat for the elder people's health and life. Although there are some drugs in clinic for treating PD, these treatments only can alleviate the symptoms of PD patients but fail in curative therapies. Therefore, seeking other potential mechanisms to develop more effective treatments that can modify the course of PD is still highly desirable. In the last two decades, histone deacetylases as an important group of epigenetic targets in drug discovery have attracted much attention. This review is focused on the current knowledge about histone deacetylases involved in PD pathophysiology and their inhibitors used in PD study. Further perspectives related to small molecules that can inhibit or degrade histone deacetylases to treat PD are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Phytoene, Dunaliella salina, mitosis inhibitors, herbicides, red light
Online: 30 September 2021 (14:18:55 CEST)
Phytoene is a colourless natural carotenoid that absorbs UV light and provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as protection against photodamage. It is therefore valued for its skin health and aesthetic benefits by the cosmetic industry, as well as by the health food sector. The halotolerant green microalga Dunaliella salina is one of the richest sources of natural carotenoids. We have previously investigated over-production of phytoene in D. salina after cultivation with the well-characterised mitosis inhibitor, chlorpropham. In this study, 15 herbicides with different modes of action were tested for their potential to promote phytoene accumulation. All herbicides showed different levels of capabilities to support phytoene over-production in D. salina. Most significantly, the two mitosis inhibitors tested in this study, propyzamide and chlorpropham, showed similar capacities to support over-production of phytoene by D. salina cultures, as phytoene desaturase inhibitors. The cellular content of phytoene increased by over 10-fold within 48 h after treatment with the mitosis inhibitors compared to untreated cultures. Results indicate a general effect of mitosis inhibitors on phytoene accumulation in D. salina. Furthermore, red light was found to significantly enhance the phytoene yield when used in combination with effective inhibitor treatments. Red light can be applied to maximize the production of phytoene from D. salina.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: triterpenoids; Acacia stem bark; polypharmacology; protein kinase inhibitors
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:04:47 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to investigate the protein kinase inhibitory activity of constituents from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Acacia auriculiformis stem bark. Column chromatography, gel filtration and NMR spectroscopy were used to purified and characterized betulin from the extract. Betulin which is a known inducer of apoptosis was screened against a panel of 16 disease-related protein kinases. Betulin was shown to inhibit Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1) kinase, casein kinase 1epsilon (CK1epsilon), glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha/β (GSK-3alpha/β), Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), NIMA Related Kinase 6 (NEK6) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 kinase (VEGFR2) and with activity in µM range. The effect of betulin on the cell viability of doxorubicin-resistant K562R chronic myelogenous leukemia cells was then verified to underline its putative use as anti-cancer compound. Betulin was shown to modulate the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway similarly to imatinib mesylate, a well-known inhibitor of ABL1 kinase. The interaction of betulin and ABL1 was studied by molecular docking showing an interaction of the inhibitor with the ATP binding pocket. Altogether, these data demonstrate that betulin is a multi-target inhibitor of protein kinases, an activity that can contribute to the anticancer properties of the natural compound and notably for treatment of leukemia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0679.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Sildenafil; phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors; drug repurposing; cancer; chemoadjuvant
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:02:08 CEST)
Enhanced permeation retention (EPR) was a significant milestone discovery by Maeda et al. paving the road for the emerging nanomedicine as a powerful tool in the fight against cancer. Sildenafil is a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) used for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) through the relaxation of smooth muscles and the modulation of vascular endothelial permeability. Overexpression of PDE-5 was reported in lung, colon, metastatic breast cancers and bladder squamous carcinoma. Accordingly, there has been a growing interest in using sildenafil as monotherapy or chemoadjuvant in EPR augmentation and management of different types of cancer. Sildenafil had been reported to increase the sensitivity of tumor cells of different origins to the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents with augmented apoptosis mediated through inducing the expression of Bad and Bax proapoptotic proteins. It was also reported that the use of sildenafil prior to the administration of Doxorubicin (DOX) increased its EPR-related concentration in breast cancer tissues by 2 folds. Further, a substantial reason of anticancer chemotherapeutic failure is due to multidrug resistance (MDR), exacerbated by the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as ABCB1 and ABCCs. Sildenafil has demonstrated inhibitory effects on the efflux activity of ABCC4, ABCC5, ABCB1, and ABCG2, ultimately reversing MDR caused by these transporters. In this review, we critically examine the overall potential of sildenafil in enhancing EPR-based anticancer drug delivery pointing up the outcome of the most important related preclinical and clinical studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; pediatric solid tumor; immune suppression
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:22:35 CEST)
Tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a complex network between tumor cells and a variety of components including immune, stromal and vascular endothelial cells as well as extracellular matrix. A wide panel of signals and interactions here take place, resulting in a bi-directional modulation of cellular functions. Many stimuli, on one hand, induce tumor growth and spread of metastatic cells and, on the other hand, contribute to the establishment of an immunosuppressive environment. The latter feature is achieved by soothing immune effector cells, mainly cytotoxic T lymphocytes, B and NK cells, and/or through expansion of regulatory cell populations, including regulatory T and B cells, tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this context, immune checkpoints (IC) are key players in the control of T cell activation and anti-cancer activities, leading to the inhibition of tumor cell lysis and of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Thus, these pathways represent promising targets for the development of effective and innovative therapies both in adults and childhood. Here we address the role of different cell populations homing the TME and of well-known and recently characterized IC in the context of pediatric solid tumors. We also discuss preclinical and clinical data available using IC inhibitors alone, in combination each other or administered with standard therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0005.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, small molecule inhibitors, human diseases
Online: 2 November 2020 (09:09:37 CET)
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are essential enzymes for translating amino acids for protein synthesis. Their function in pathogen-derived infectious diseases has been well established, which has led to development of small molecule therapeutics. The applicability of ARS inhibitors for other human diseases such as fibrosis has recently been explored in the clinical setting. There are active studies to find small molecule therapeutics for cancers. Studies on central nervous system (CNS) disorders are burgeoning as well. In this regard, we present a concise analysis of the recent development of ARS inhibitors based on small molecules from the discovery research stage to clinical studies as well as a recent patent analysis from the medicinal chemistry point of view.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: programmed cell death; inflammation; intestinal disease; cancer; inhibitors
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:21:17 CEST)
Necroptosis is a caspases-independent form of programmed cell death exhibiting intermediate features between necrosis and apoptosis. Albeit some physiological roles during embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and innate immune response are documented, necroptosis is mainly considered a pro-inflammatory cell death. Key actors of necroptosis are the receptor-interacting-protein-kinases, RIPK1 and RIPK3, and their target, the mixed-lineage-kinase-domain-like protein, MLKL. The intestinal epithelium has one of the highest rates of cellular turnover in a process that is tightly regulated. Altered necroptosis at the intestinal epithelium leads to uncontrolled microbial translocation and deleterious inflammation. Indeed, necroptosis has been associated to chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Drugs that inhibit necroptosis could, therefore, be used therapeutically for the treatment of these diseases, and researches to develop such inhibitors are already underway. In this Review, we outline pathways for necroptosis and its role in chronic inflammation and cancer. We also discuss current and developing therapies that target necroptosis machinery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitors; survival; antibiotic; meta-analysis
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:43:23 CEST)
Antibiotics (ABs) are common medications used for treating infections. In cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), concomitant exposure to ABs may impair the efficacy of ICIs and lead to a poorer outcome compared to AB non-users. We report here the results of a meta-analysis evaluating the effects of ABs on the outcome of patients with solid tumors treated with ICIs. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from inception until September 2019 for observational or prospective studies reporting prognosis of adult patients with cancer treated with ICIs and with or without ABs. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint, and progression-free survival (PFS) was the secondary endpoint. The effect size was reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with a 95% confidence interval (CI), and an HR > 1 associated with a worse outcome in ABs users compared to no-ABs users. Fifteen publications were retrieved for a total of 2363 patients. In the main analysis (n = 15 studies reporting data), OS was reduced in patients exposed to ABs before or during treatment with ICIs (HR = 2.07, 95%CI 1.51–2.84; P<.01). Similarly, PFS was inferior in ABs users in n = 13 studies with data available (HR = 1.53, 95%CI 1.22–1.93; p<.01). In cancer patients treated with ICIs, AB use significantly reduces OS and PFS. Short duration/course of ABs may be considered in clinical situations in which they are strictly needed.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CYP3A5; androgen receptor; African American; CYP3A5 inhibitors/inducers
Online: 6 March 2020 (03:33:52 CET)
Androgen receptor signaling is crucial for prostate cancer growth and is positively regulated in part by intratumoral CYP3A5. As African American (AA) men often carry the wild type CYP3A5 and express high level of CYP3A5 protein, we blocked the wild type CYP3A5 in AA origin prostate cancer cells and tested its effect on androgen receptor signaling. q-PCR based profiler assay identified several AR regulated genes known to regulate AR nuclear translocation, cell cycle progression and cell growth. CYP3A5 processes several commonly prescribed drugs and many of these are CYP3A5 inducers or inhibitors. In this study, we test the effect of these commonly prescribed CYP3A5 inducers/inhibitors on AR signaling. The results show that the CYP3A5 inducers promoted AR nuclear translocation, downstream signaling and cell growth whereas CYP3A5 inhibitors abrogated them. The observed changes in AR activity is specific to alterations in CYP3A5 activity. Both the inducers tested demonstrated increased cell growth of prostate cancer cells, whereas the inhibitors showed reduced cell growth. Further, characterization and utilization of the observation that CYP3A5 inducers and inhibitors alter AR signaling may provide guidance to physicians prescribing CYP3A5 modulating drugs to treat comorbidities in elderly patients undergoing ADT, particularly AA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: hPSCs; ROCK inhibitors; fasudil; cell survival; metabolism; differentiation
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:41:13 CET)
Poor survival of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) following freezing, thawing, or passaging hinders maintenance and differentiation in stem cell research. Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) play a crucial role in hPSC survival. To date, a typical ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, has been the primary agent used in hPSC research. Here, we report that another ROCK inhibitor, fasudil, can be used as an alternative. Fasudil increased hPSC growth due to survival rather than proliferation following thawing and passaging, similar to Y-27632. It did not affect pluripotency and genetic integrity including mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). Notably, the genes related to metabolism, mTORC1, and TP53 have mainly displayed a faster recovery pattern with ROCK inhibitors than control. Furthermore, fasudil was confirmed as useful for the single dissociation of hPSCs and for aggregation. It also increased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiation and the survival of neural crest cells during differentiation. These findings suggest that fasudil can replace Y-27632 for use in stem cell research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Nipah Virus, outbreak, inhibitors, QSAR, database, prediction algorithm
Online: 5 October 2018 (15:04:23 CEST)
Nipah virus (NiV) is responsible to cause various outbreaks in Asian countries, with latest from Kerala state of India. Till date there is no drug available despite its urgent requirement. In the current study, we have provided a computational one-stop solution for NiV inhibitors. We have developed “anti-Nipah” web resource, which comprised of a data repository, prediction method, and data visualization modules. The database comprised of 313 (181 unique) inhibitors from different strains and outbreaks of NiV extracted from research articles and patents. However, the quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) based predictors were accomplished using classification approach employing 10-fold cross validation through support vector machine with 120 (68p + 52n) inhibitors. The overall predictor showed the accuracy and Matthew’s correlation coefficient of 88.89% and 0.77 on training/testing dataset respectively. The independent validation dataset also performed equally well. The data visualization modules from chemical clustering and principal component analyses displayed the diversity in the NiV inhibitors. Therefore, our web platform would be of immense help to the researchers working in developing effective inhibitors against NiV. The user-friendly webserver is freely available on URL: http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/antinipah/
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia; FLT3; Tyrosine kinase inhibitors; resistance
Online: 21 September 2018 (10:28:34 CEST)
Identification of recurrent driver mutations in genes encoding tyrosine kinases has resulted in the development of molecularly targeted strategies designed to improve the outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, is the most commonly mutated gene in AML, with internal tandem duplications within the juxtamembrane domain (FLT3-ITD) or missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD), present in 30%-35% of AML patients at diagnosis. An established driver mutation and marker of poor prognosis, the FLT3 tyrosine kinase has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target, and thus has encouraged the development of FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the therapeutic benefit of FLT3 inhibition, particularly as monotherapy, frequently results in the development of treatment resistance and disease relapse. Commonly, FLT3 inhibitor resistance is induced by the emergence of secondary lesions in the FLT3 gene, particularly in the second tyrosine kinase domain at residue Asp835 (D835) to form a ‘dual mutation’ (ITD-D835). Individual FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD mutations influence independent signaling cascades however, currently little is known which divergent signaling pathways are controlled by each of these FLT3 specific mutations, particularly in the context of patients harboring dual ITD-D835 mutations. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the known discrete and cooperative signaling pathways regulated by each of the FLT3 specific mutations, as well as the therapeutic approaches that hold the most promise for development of more durable and personalized therapeutic approaches targeting mutant FLT3, to improve the treatment of AML.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: CCR6, CCL20, Inhibitors, TH17, Treg, Inflammatory diseases, Cancer
Online: 17 September 2018 (09:31:43 CEST)
Prototypical functions of the chemokine receptor CCR6 include immune regulation by manoeuvring cell chemotaxis and selective delimiting of the pro-inflammatory TH17 and regulatory Treg subsets during chronic or acute systemic inflammation. Inhibition of CCR6 is proposed to attenuate disease symptoms and promote recuperation of multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Prescription medicines with pharmacodynamics involving the inhibition of the chemokine axis CCR6-CCL20 is very limited. Developing such therapeutics is still at an early experimental stage which has mostly utilized pre-clinical models and neutralizing mono or polyclonal antibodies against either partner, CCR6 or CCL20. Other methods have been constitutive use of small molecules as peptide inhibitors or small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) to interfere with transcription at the nuclear level. We in our review aim at introducing the wide array of potential CCR6-CCL20 inhibitors that have been tried to date in the research field with accent on attendant immune-modulator capacity and which are immensely promising compounds as forerunners of future curatives. 16 different tractable inhibitors of the CCR6-CCL20 duo have been identified to possess high medicinal potential to the drug developers worldwide to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. A multitude of antibody preparations are already available in the current pharmaceutical market as patented treatment for diseases in which the CCR6-CCL20 axis is operative, yet must be used only as supplements with existing routinely prescribed medication as they collectively produce adverse side effects. Novel inhibitors are needed to evaluate this invaluable therapeutic target which holds much promise in the research and development of complaisant remedies for inflammatory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A inhibitors; Sepsis
Online: 27 July 2018 (13:07:17 CEST)
Background: Most sepsis patients died during their first episode and the long-term survival post discharge was low. Major adverse cardiovascular events and repeated infections were regarded as the major causes in such conditions. No definite medications were proven to effectively improve the long-term outcome. We aimed to examine the benefit of statins on the long-term outcome of survived sepsis patients. Methods: Between 1999 and 2013, a total of 220,082 patients with the first episode of sepsis hospitalization were included and 134,448 ones (61.09%) survived to discharge. The survived patients who subsequently had statins use of >30 cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs) post discharge were defined as the statin users. After propensity score matching of 1:5, a total of 7,356 and 36,780 survived patients were retrieved as the study (statin-users) and comparison cohort (non-statin users), respectively. The main outcome was the long term survival post discharge. HR with 95% CI was calculated using the Cox regression model to evaluate the effectiveness of statins with further stratification analyses according to cDDDs. Results: The study cohort, that is, the statin users had an adjusted HR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.27-0.31) in long term mortality rate compared with the comparison cohort. For statin users with the cDDDs of 30–180, 180–365, and >365, the adjusted HRs were 0.32, 0.22, and 0.16, respectively, (95% CI, 0.30-0.34, 0.19-0.26, and 0.12-0.23, respectively) compared with the non-statin users (defined as statins use <30 cDDDs post discharge), and the P for trend <.0001. In the sensitivity analysis, after excluding the survived patients who died within three and six months post discharge, the adjusted HR of statins use remained significant (0.35, 95% CI 0.32-0.37 and 0.42, 95% CI 0.39-0.45, respectively). Conclusions: Statins decreased the long-term mortality post sepsis. Further randomized control trial deserved to be conducted to confirm this observation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ALS-inhibitors; horseweed; multiple-resistance; alternative chemical control
Online: 11 July 2018 (11:56:59 CEST)
Conyza canadensis is a species invading large agricultural areas throughout the world, mainly to its ability to evolve herbicide resistance. Specifically, in Hungary, extensive areas have been infested by this species due to the difficulty in controlling it with glyphosate. To corroborate this fact as resistance and not as an incorrect herbicide application, eight suspicious glyphosate-resistant C. canadensis populations from different Hungarian regions were studied. In dose-response assays with glyphosate, the LD50 and GR50 values indicated that populations 1 to 5 were resistant to this herbicide (H-5 population the most resistant). Besides, the shikimic acid accumulation tests corroborated the results observed in the dose-response assays. 11 alternative herbicides from 6 different mode of action (MOA) were applied at field doses as control alternatives on populations H-5 and H-6 (both in the same regions). The H-5 population showed an unexpected resistance to flazasulfuron (ALS-inhibitor). The ALS enzyme activity studies indicated that the I50 for H-5 was 63.3 fold higher compared to its correspondent susceptible population (H-6). Therefore, the H-5 population exhibited multiple-resistance to flazasulfuron and glyphosate, being the first case reported in Europe for this two MOA. For that reason, the other herbicides with different MOA have to be tested here.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Acalabrutinib; Bruton’s tyrosine kinase; BTK; CLL; Covalent inhibitors; COVID-19; Ibrutinib; Non-covalent inhibitors; Fenebrutinib; MK1026; Pirtobrutinib; Spebrutinib; Tirabrutinib; Zanubrutinib
Online: 16 December 2021 (16:13:54 CET)
The use of the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors has changed the management and clinical history of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). BTK is a critical molecule that interconnects B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling. BTKIs are classified into two categories: irreversible (covalent) inhibitors and reversible (non-covalent) inhibitors. Ibrutinib is the ﬁrst irreversible BTK inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2013 as a breakthrough therapy in CLL patients. Subsequently, several studies evaluated the efﬁcacy and safety of new agents with reduced toxicity when compared with ibrutinib. Two other irreversible, second-generation BTK inhibitors, acalabrutinib and zanubrutinib, were developed to reduce ibrutinib-mediated adverse effects. Additionally, new reversible BTK inhibitors are currently under development in an early phase studies to improve their activity and to diminish adverse effects. This review summarizes the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, dosing, drug-drug interactions associated with the treatment of CLL with BTK inhibitors, and examines its further implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: cardiovascular risk; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors; glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists; sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Online: 24 November 2019 (04:26:47 CET)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease. Contributing pathophysiologic factors include endothelial dysfunction caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased activity of nuclear factor kB (NFkB), altered macrophage polarization, and reduced synthesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Consequently, there can be a potentially rapid progression of the atherosclerotic disease with a higher propensity to unstable plaque, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. Management is aimed at prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of hyperglycemia and vascular complications. Innovative therapeutic approaches for T2DM seek to customize the antidiabetic treatment to each patient in order to optimize glucose-lowering effects, minimize hypoglycemia and adverse effects, and prevent cardiovascular events. The newer drugs (Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists, GLP-1 RAs; Sodium GLucose coTransporter-2 inhibitors, SGLT2is; DiPeptidyl Peptidase-4 inhibitors, DPP4is) impact body weight, lipid parameters, and blood pressure, as well as endothelial function, inflammatory markers, markers of oxidative stress, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The present review summarizes the results of trials that evaluated the cardiovascular safety of these drugs and found them to be safe from the CV standpoint.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibitors; new therapeutic landscapes
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:36:13 CEST)
In the last years, molecularly targeted agents and immune based treatments (ITs) have deeply changed the landscape of anti-cancer therapy. Indeed, ITs proved to be very effective in metastatic solid tumors, where outcomes were extremely poor with standard approaches. Such a scenario has been only partially reproduced in hematologic malignancies. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as innovative drugs are eagerly awaited in relapsed/refractory setting, different ITs have been explored, but the results are still unsatisfactory. In this work, we will discuss the most important clinical studies to date adopting ITs in AML, providing the bases to understand how this approach, although still in its infancy, may represent a promising therapeutic tool for the next future treatment of AML patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1873.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: Tyrosinases; melanogenesis; inhibitors; computatinal analysis; van der Waals interactions
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:34:23 CEST)
Tyrosinases (TYR) play an important role in oxidizing phenols and catechols, leading to the formation of catechols and ortho-quinones, respectively. In mammals, TYR catalyzes the conversion of L-Tyrosine to quinone, a pivotal step in melanogenesis, which generates melanin pigments responsible for protecting against UV radiation and oxidative stress. Given TYR's importance in melanin-related disorders and cosmetic applications, the inhibition of TYR has garnered attention for controlling melanin production. However, current inhibitors like hydroquinone, arbutin, and kojic acid (KA) have limitations in terms of side effects and effectiveness. A novel class of TYR inhibitors featuring arylpiperidine and arylpiperazine components has demonstrated potent inhibitory activity. This study presents a computational analysis of these inhibitors using molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the Linear Interaction Energy (LIE) method was used to estimate binding free energies. The arylpiperidine and arylpiperazine inhibitors exhibit remarkable stability within the TYR active site during simulations. The van der Waals interactions are notably sustained, indicating effective inhibition mechanisms. The results from LIE calculations closely align with experimental binding affinities. In summary, these results contribute to the understanding of TYR inhibition and underscore the potential of arylpiperidine and arylpiperazine derivatives as effective agents for modulating melanin production in both cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Overall, this study sheds light on the intricate interactions between inhibitors and TYR, opening avenues for the development of novel therapies and interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1955.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; CDK4/6 inhibitors; estrogen receptor; therapeutic resistance
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:39:44 CEST)
The emergence of CDK4/6 inhibitors, such as palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib, has revolutionized the treatment landscape for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. These agents have demonstrated significant clinical benefits in terms of both progression-free survival and overall survival. However, resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors remains a challenge, limiting their long-term efficacy. Understanding the complex mechanisms driving resistance is crucial for the development of novel therapeutic strategies and improvement of patient outcomes. Translational research efforts, such as preclinical models and biomarker studies, offer valuable insight into resistance mechanisms and may guide the identification of novel combination therapies. This review paper aims to outline the reported mechanisms underlying CDK4/6 inhibitor resistance, drawing insights from both clinical data and translational research in order to help direct the future of treatment for hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1643.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: metastasis treatment; small molecules; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; integrins; siRNA
Online: 22 June 2023 (16:10:15 CEST)
Metastasis is the main cause of anti-cancer therapies failure, leading to unfavorable prognosis for patients. The true challenge to increase cancer patient life expectancy by making cancer a chronic disease with periodic but manageable relapses, relies on the development of efficient therapeutic strategies specifically directed against key targets in the metastatic process. Traditional chemotherapy with classical alkylating agents, microtubule inhibitors and antimetabolites has demonstrated its limited efficacy against metastatic cells due to their capacity to select chemo-resistant cell populations that undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (ETM) thus promoting the colonization of distant sites that in turn sustain the initial metastatic process. This scenario has prompted efforts aimed at discovering a wide variety of small molecules as potential anti-metastatic drugs directed against more specific targets known to be involved in the various stages of metastasis. In this short reviews we will give an overview of the most recent advances related to three main large families of antimetastatic small molecules: intracellular tyrosine kinase inhibitors, integrin antagonists and small interfering (siRNAs). Although the majority of these small molecules are not yet approved and not available in the drug market, any information related to their stage of development could represent a precious and valuable tool to identify new targets in the endless fight against metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: checkpoint inhibitors; colitis; immune-related adverse events; enterocolitis; diarrhea
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:03:37 CEST)
The advent of immunotherapy and specifically of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for the treatment of solid tumors has deeply transformed therapeutic algorithms in medical oncology. Approximately one third of patients treated with ICIs may develop immune-related adverse events, being the gastrointestinal tract often affected with different grades of mucosal inflammation. Checkpoint inhibitors colitis (CIC) presents with watery or bloody diarrhoea and in case of severe activity requires ICIs discontinuation. The pathogenesis of CIC is multifactorial and still partially unknow: anti-tumor activity that collaterally effects the colonic tissue and the upregulation of specific systemic inflammatory pathways (i.e., CD8+ cytotoxic and CD4+ T lymphocytes) are mainly involved. Many open issues remain on treatment timing and options, and biological treatment, above all with anti-TNF alpha, can be offered to these patients aiming to rapidly resume the oncological therapies. This review aims to summarize the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CIC and to discuss evidenced-based management including the role of biological therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0843.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: CLL, Zanubrutinib, BTK inhibitors, efficacy, safety, chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Online: 22 May 2023 (16:15:16 CEST)
Ibrutinib, a first-in-class Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor (BTKi), is a commonly deployed therapeutic option for previously untreated, and relapsed/refractory (R/R) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The use of ibrutinib is, however, partially limited by significant off-target side effects. Zanubrutinib (zanu) is a second-generation BTKi with enhanced target selectivity and occupancy of the kinase binding site. The SEQUOIA study showed that zanu significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) when compared to bendamustine–rituximab (BR) in treatment-naive CLL patients with an acceptable safety profile. More recently, data from the phase III ALPINE trial which directly compared zanu with ibrutinib has demonstrated that zanu’s advantages are both an improved safety profile and enhanced clinical efficacy. Based on the results of the SEQUOIA and ALPINE pivotal trials the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) licensed zanu for the treatment of patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) in January 2023. The updated (v2.2023) National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines and newly released German CLL algorithm, suggest that zanu may replace first-generation BTKi as one of the preferred therapeutic options for patients with CLL/SLL due to its increased selectivity for the kinase binding site, improved therapeutic efficacy, and favorable toxicity profile.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1317.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Starchy food; potato protease inhibitors; phytochemicals; antioxidants; cancer prevention
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:48:15 CEST)
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) gradually becomes a stable food worldwide since it can be treated as practical nutritional supplement and antioxidant, as well as energy provider for human beings. Financially and nutritionally, cultivation and utility of potatoes is worthy enough attention of the world. To further explore functionality and maximize utilization of component parts, also to develop new products based on potato still be an ongoing issue. To maximize the benefits of potato and induce new high-value products while avoiding unfavorable properties of the crop has been a growing trend in food and medical areas. This review intends to summarize the factors that influence the changes in the key functional components of potatoes and discuss referred research focuses, then help further researchers to make efforts into. Afterwards, it summarizes the application of the latest commercial products and potential value of components existing in potato. Particularly, there are several main tasks for the next potato research: preparing starchy foods for special group of people and developing fiber-rich products to supply the dietary fiber intake as well as manufacturing bio-friendly and specific design films/coating in packaging industry; extracting bioactive proteins and potato protease inhibitors with high biological activity, and continue to build new commercial products based on potato protein and examine their health benefits. Noteworthy, the preservation methods play a key role in phytochemicals contents left in foods and potato performs superior to many common vegetables when meeting demand of mineral daily intake and alleviating mineral deficiencies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0976.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: quorum sensing; quorum sensing inhibitors; Chromobacterium violaceum; plant extracts
Online: 15 May 2023 (05:07:34 CEST)
In the new antibiotic era, the exponential increase of multiresistant bacterial strains become the main global health problem. Many researchers focused their efforts to explore novel or combined strategies for combating bacterial resistance. The good knowledge of molecular mechanisms of resistance and bacterial virulence factors as key targets gives us a good scenario to resolve the problem. One particularly attractive and promising way is to attack the main regulatory “network” of bacterial virulence determinants known as Quorum sensing (QS). The inhibition of QS signals will be a novel way for screening more effective Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) and will put a key role in next-generation antimicrobials in the resistance battle. This determined the aim of the present review: comprehensive clarification of the regulatory mechanisms of quorum-sensing signaling pathways in Chromobacterium violaceum and discovery of potential plant quorum sensing inhibitors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0914.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pancreatic cancer; KRAS; KRAS inhibitors; KRAS-dependency; resistance; escaping.
Online: 12 May 2023 (09:33:30 CEST)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still one of the deadliest cancers in Oncology be-cause of its increasing incidence and poor survival rate. More than 90% of PDAC patients are KRAS mutated (KRASmu), with KRASG12D and KRASG12V being the most common mutations. Despite this critical role, its characteristics have made direct targeting of the RAS protein ex-tremely difficult. KRAS regulates development, cell growth, Epigenetically-dysregulated differ-entiation, and survival in PDAC through activation of key downstream pathways, such as MAPK-ERK and PI3K-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, in a KRAS-dependent manner. KRASmu induces the occurrence of Acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and leads to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). In this context, the oncogenic mutation of KRAS induces an epigenetic program that leads to the initiation of PDAC. Several studies have identified multiple direct and indirect inhibitors of KRAS signaling. Therefore, KRAS dependency is so essential in KRASmu PDAC that cancer cells have secured several compensatory escape mechanisms to counteract the efficacy of KRAS inhibitors, such as activation of MEK/ERK signaling or YAP1 upregulation. This review will provide insights into KRAS dependency in PDAC and analyze recent data on inhibitors of KRAS signaling, focusing on how cancer cells establish compensatory escape mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; SGLT2 inhibitors; Dapagliflozin; Empagliflozin; Canagliflozin; Translational modeling
Online: 21 April 2022 (10:12:04 CEST)
SGLT2 inhibitors act to induce glucosuria and have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus but have also been shown to positively affect cardiovascular conditions and some benefitting kidney function. SGLT2i have shown to be effective in more advanced conditions but may eventually be a treatment in more general metabolic dysfunction. Metabolic syndrome is a clinical diagnosis for establishing risk for ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and severe vascular events steadily increased over recent decades. In addition to the established benefits of diet and exercise, SGLT2 inhibitor therapy may be able to aid in the treatment of metabolic syndrome from its proven cardiovascular and anti-hyperglycemic benefits. Pharmacologic modeling in canines is also considered, as they present with similar diagnoses and offer a model that shares many of the characteristics of humans in metabolic dysfunction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia; dasatinib; ponatinib; pimozide; STAT inhibitors; K562
Online: 11 October 2021 (16:17:32 CEST)
Background: Though tyrosine kinase inhibitors managed to reach outstanding responses in the treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, resistance is still a challenging point, occurring in approximately 10–20% of the cases, due to several mechanisms. STAT5 expression has been strictly linked to resistance and disease progression and may thus represent a significant target to overcome resistance to TKI in CML. The aim of the study is to explore the in vitro antineoplastic role of the STAT5 inhibitor Pimozide in association with 2nd and 3rd generation inhibitors on chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Methods: The cytotoxic effect was evaluated by the Trypan blue dye exclusion test. K562 cell lines were exposed to pimozide alone and in association with ponatinib and dasatinib at different concentrations to explore the drugs association effect and the in vitro cytotoxic concentrations. Conclusions: Pimozide showed a synergic effect when associated with ponatinib and dasatinib in survival inhibition of K562 cell lines. This results are of note and pave the way for a possible in vivo associations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Vorinostat, histone deacetylase, HDAC inhibitors, dibenzodiazocines, hydroxamic acid, selectivity
Online: 11 May 2021 (15:35:00 CEST)
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are class of drugs used in the cancer treatment. Here, we developed a library of 19 analogues of Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor used in lymphomas treatment. In Vorinostat, we replaced the hydrophobic phenyl group with various tricyclic ‘caps’ possessing a central, eight-membered, heterocyclic ring, and investigated the HDAC activity and cytotoxic effect on the cancer and normal cell lines. We found that three out of the 19 compounds, based on dibenzo[b,f]azocin-6(5H)-one, 11,12-dihydrodibenzo[b,f]azocin-6(5H)-one and benzo[b]naphtho[2,3-f][1,5]diazocine-6,14(5H,13H)-dione scaffolds, showed better HDACs inhibition than the referenced Vorinostat. In leukemic cell line MV4-11 and in lymphoma cell line – Daudi three compounds showed lower IC50 values than Vorinostat. These compounds had higher activity and selectivity against MV4-11 and Daudi cell lines than reference Vorinostat. We also observed a strong correlation between HDACs inhibition and the cytotoxic effect. Cell lines derived from solid tumors: A549 (lung carcinoma) and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) as well as reference Balb/3T3 (normal murine fibroblasts) were less susceptible to compounds tested. Developed derivatives show superior properties than Vorinostat, thus they are applicable as selective agents for leukemia and lymphoma treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0667.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast cancer; CDK inhibitors; liquid biopsy; resistance mechanisms; therapy
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:57:01 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in women worldwide. Approximately 70% of BC patients have the luminal subtype, which expresses hormone receptors (HR+). Adjuvant endocrine treatments are the standard of care for HR+/HER2- BC patients. Over time, approximately 30% of those patients develop endocrine resistance and metastatic disease. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) in combination with an aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant have demonstrated superior efficacies in increasing progression-free survival, with a safe toxicity profile, in HR+/HER2- metastatic BC patients. CDKi blocks kinases 4/6, preventing G1/S cell cycle transition. However, not all patients respond to CDKi, and those who do respond ultimately develop resistance to the combined therapy. Studies in tumour tissues and cell lines have tried to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this progression, but there are still no conclusive data. Over the last few years, liquid biopsy has contributed relevant information. Circulating tumour materials are potential prognostic markers for determining patient prognosis in metastatic luminal BC, for monitoring disease and for treatment selection. This review outlines the different studies performed using liquid biopsy in patients with HR+ metastatic BC treated with CDKi plus endocrine therapy. We focus mainly on those studies that describe possible resistance mechanisms in circulating tumour-derived material.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast cancer, CDK inhibitors, liquid biopsy, resistance mechanisms, therapy
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:53:38 CET)
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Approximately, 70 % of breast cancer patients express hormone receptors (HR) (Luminal subtype). Adjuvant endocrine treatments are the standard of care in HR+/HER2- breast cancer. Over time, about 50% of those patients develop endocrine resistance and metastatic breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) in combination with an aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant have demonstrated superior efficacy increasing progression-free survival, with a safe toxicity profile, in HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer patients. CDKi blocks kinases 4/6 ATP-binding domain preventing G1/S cell cycle transition. Despite this, not all patients respond to CDKi and those who respond, finally develop resistance to combination therapy. Different studies, in tumour tissue or cell lines, have tried to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this progression, but there are still no conclusive data. In the last few years, liquid biopsy has contributed relevant information to this knowledge. Liquid biopsy can be performed in real-time, non-invasively and be repeated whenever needed. Circulating tumour material are potential prognostic markers in metastatic luminal breast cancer to determine patient prognosis, monitor disease and treatment selection. The objective of this review is to outline the different studies carried out in HR+ metastatic breast cancer patients treated with CDKi plus endocrine therapy using liquid biopsy approaches looking for possible resistance mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0525.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: HIV-RT; ribonuclease H; dual inhibitors; docking; putative binding
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:51:40 CET)
Current therapeutic protocols for the treatment of HIV infection consist of the combination of diverse anti-retroviral drugs in order to reduce the selection of resistant mutants and to allow for the use of lower doses of each single agent to reduce toxicity. However, avoiding drugs interactions and patient compliance are issues not fully accomplished so far. In this respect the identification of single agents with multitarget potential might represent the ideal solution. Accordingly, a small library of biphenylhydrazo 4-arylthiazoles derivatives has been synthesised and evaluated to investigate the ability of the new derivatives to simultaneously inhibit both associated functions of HIV reverse transcriptase. All compounds were active towards the two functions, although at different concentrations. The substitution pattern on the biphenyl moiety appears relevant to determine the activity.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0365.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: corrosion; amino acids; inhibitors; steel; iron; Monte Carlo simulation
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:09:29 CET)
This research evaluates the inhibitory effect of L-amino acids (AAs) with different side chain lengths on Fe surface implementing Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. A quantitative and qualitative description of the adsorption behavior of AAs on the iron surface has been carried out. Calculations have shown that the absolute values of the adsorption energy of L-amino acids increase with side chain prolongation; they are also determined by the presence of heteroatoms. AAs from nonpolar and basic groups have the best adsorption ability to the iron surface, which indicates their highest inhibitory efficiency according to the results of MC simulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0449.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: oleaginous microorganisms; microbial lipids; lignocellulose pretreatment; enzymatic hydrolysis; inhibitors
Online: 19 September 2020 (05:16:42 CEST)
The microorganisms able of accumulating lipids in high percentages, known as oleaginous microorganisms, have been widely studied as an alternative for producing oleochemicals and biofuels. Microbial lipid, so called Single Cell Oil (SCO), production depends on several growth parameters, including the nature of the carbon substrate, which must be efficiently taken up and converted into storage lipid. Οn the other hand, substrates considered for large scale applications must be abundant and of low acquisition cost. Among others, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable substrate containing high percentages of assimilable sugars (hexoses and pentoses). However, it is also highly recalcitrant and therefore it requires specific pretreatments in order to release its assimilable components. The main drawback of lignocellulose pretreatment is the generation of several by-products that can inhibit the microbial metabolism. In this review, we discuss the main aspects related to the cultivation of oleaginous microorganisms using lignocellulosic biomass as substrate, hoping to contribute to the development of a sustainable process for SCO production in the near future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: RAAS inhibitors; COVID-19; coronavirus; angiotensin; clinical outcome; antihypertensive
Online: 24 May 2020 (17:48:42 CEST)
Since the effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have been conflicting in different studies, we performed this meta-analysis. A systematic search of published articles was performed in PubMed and EMBASE from January-May 5, 2020. Studies that reported the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19, stratified by the class of concomitant antihypertensive drug therapy, were included. The Mantel-Haenszel random effects model was used to estimate pooled odds ratio (OR). A total of 6,997 hypertensive patients with COVID-19 were included. The overall risk of poor patient outcomes (severe COVID-19 or death) was lower in patients taking RAAS inhibitors (OR=0.84, 95% CI: [0.73, 0.96]; P=0.017) compared with those receiving non-RAAS inhibitor antihypertensives. Patients taking angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were less likely to experience poor clinical outcomes (OR=0.73, 95% CI: [0.58-0.92]; P=0.01) compared with those receiving angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs). Compared to all other antihypertensives, ACEIs decreases the risk poor COVID-19 outcomes (OR=0.77, 95% CI: [0.63-0.93]) while ARBs did not (OR=1.13, 95% CI: [0.95-1.35]). The risk of poor patient outcomes from COVID-19 was lower in patients who received RAAS inhibitors compared with those who took non-RAAS inhibitors. Unlike ARBs, ACEIs might help in decreasing the severity and mortality of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: aromatase inhibitors; anastrozole; levonorgestrel-iud; endometriosis; endometriomas; clinical trial
Online: 1 November 2019 (12:47:34 CET)
Background: Effectiveness of Anastrozole and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD, Mirena®) in the treatment of endometriosis. Methods: Randomized clinical trial. Elegibility criteria: Endometriomas >3×4 cm, CA-125>35 U/mL and symptoms suggestive of endometriosis. Thirty-one women were randomized to anastrozole+Mirena®+Conservative Surgery(CS) (n=8), anastrozole+Mirena®+transvaginal ultrasound-guided puncture-aspiration(TUGPA) (n=7), Mirena®+CS (n=9), or Mirena®+TUGPA (n=7). Interventions: Anastrozole 1 mg/day and/or only Mirena® for 6 months. CS or TUGPA one month after starting medical treatment. Results: A significant improvement in symptoms during the treatment (difference of 43%, 95% CI 29.9-56.2) occurred, which was maintained at 1 and 2 years. It was more significant in patients treated with anastrozole. For CA-125, the most significant decrease was observed without anastrozole. After CS for endometriosis, a reduction of findings of endometriomas and long-term recurrences occurred, with or without anastrozole, although anastrozole seems to delay recurrences. At 4,2±1,7 years, 88% of the patients who underwent CS were asymptomatic, compared to only 21% if TUGPA was performed, with or without anastrozole (p=0.019). Conclusion: Dosing anastrozole for 6 months, starting one month before CS of endometriosis, reduces more significantly the painful symptoms and delays recurrences, but has no other significant advantages over the single insertion of LNG-IUD (Mirena®) during the same time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: cyanobacteria; protease inhibitors; digestive enzyme; daphnia; HPLC; UV/Vis
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:56:49 CEST)
Cyanobacterial mass developments in eutrophic ponds and lakes are a major concern for lake management, as many cyanobacteria produce a huge variety of toxic secondary metabolites, e.g. microcystins. The aim of this research was to culture a strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp strain BM25, to observe its biomass production and to isolate and purify protease inhibitors from this cyanobacterial biomass. Different secondary metabolites were isolated following a standard bioassay-guideline. Isolation was performed, with an enzymatic protease assay as bioassay. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify different fractions of secondary metabolite from the strain BM25. Moreover, protease homogenates were isolated from Daphnia magna in order to test the inhibitors against naturally occurring major digestive proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin. It was measured that 60% MeOH and the 80% MeOH C18-SPE fraction inhibits chymotrypsin activity 98% (6 nmol pNA min-1 mg-1) and 99 % (4 nmol pNA min-1 mg-1), respectively. In contrast, trypsin activity was not inhibited by methanolic extracts of this cyanobacterium strain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0046.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: aminopeptidases; inhibitors; aminophosphonate; phenylglycine analogues; fluorine substituted; molecular modeling
Online: 6 May 2019 (10:16:45 CEST)
Inhibitory activity of 14 phosphonic analogues of phenylglycine, substituted in aromatic ring by fluorine and chlorine, was determined towards porcine aminopeptidase N. The obtained data served as a basis for studying their interaction with the enzyme as modelled by the use of Schrödinger Release 2018 program. The observed linearity between modelled Gibbs free energy differences and inhibitory constants indicated the usefulness of this program. The obtained binding mode was compared with this modelled for bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase. Although both enzymes differ in the number of zinc ions present in the active site, they are considered to exhibit similar activity towards substrates and inhibitors. Our studies seem to support that supposition since the modes of binding of the studied inhibitors are quite similar. Additionally, inhibitory activity of the phosphonic analogues of phenylglycine towards barley aminopetpidase was determined showing that this enzyme could be considered as neutral aminopeptidase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: histone demethylase inhibitors; DNA damage; epigenetic drugs; breast cancer
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:29:10 CEST)
Background: KDM5 enzymes are H3K4 specific histone demethylases involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. These proteins are over-expressed in different kinds of cancer, including breast, prostate and bladder carcinoma, with positive effects on cancer proliferation and chemo-resistance. For these reasons, these enzymes are potential therapeutic cancer targets. Methods: In the present study, we analyzed the effects of three different inhibitors of KDM5 enzymes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells over-expressing JARID1B. In particular we tested H3K4 demethylation (western blot); target gene transcription (RNAseq and real time PCR); radio-sensitivity (citoxicity and clonogenic assays) and damage accumulation (kinetics of H2AX phosphorylation). Results: we show that two compounds with completely different chemical structure can selectively inhibit KDM5 enzymes and that both compounds are capable of increasing sensitivity of breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation and H2AX phosphorylation. Conclusions: These findings confirm the involvement of H3K4 specific demethylases in DNA damage signaling and repair and suggest new strategies for the therapeutic use of their inhibitors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0160.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE; ACE2; Angiotensin II; Bradykinin; RAS inhibitors; ACE inhibitors; AT1 receptor blockers; Losartan; Bradykinin Antagonists; Ang II loading; Giapreza; Icatibant.
Online: 14 April 2020 (14:34:43 CEST)
As the world grapples with a pandemic with various and expanding epicenters, a flurry of medical and scientific activity has gained speed and momentum in a race to halt COVID-19. A controversial topic has been the connection between COVID-19 and the Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS). COVID-19, like Sars before it, enters by way of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues in the body serving as the doorway by which the virus can enter and spread causing inflammatory havoc. Demographic evidence coming out of China and other locations make it clear that the elderly and those suffering cardiovascular complications such as hypertension etc are most at risk. The connection to RAS and the demographic nature of the data coming out has led many to advance hypothesis, recommendations and even therapies based on existing RAS inhibitors and other components of the renin-Angiotensin system. It is pertinent to review the literature in the context of our understanding of the renin-angiotesnin system to allow better judgements to be made as well as lines of research initiated advancing a quick resolution to COVID-19. Covid-19 appears invincible as if dipped in the river Styx, but even Achilles had a vulnerable heel. Understanding the homeostatic balance that the coronavirus disrupts, we can discover the arrow in corona’s heel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis; Lung Neoplasms; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Database
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:01:14 CEST)
Little is known about the effect of statin use in lung cancer development in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We analyzed the database of the National Health Insurance Service to further investigate the clinical impacts of statin on lung cancer development and overall survival (OS) in IPF patients. The analysis included 9,182 individuals diagnosed with IPF, of which 3,372 (36.7%) were statin users. Compared to statin non-users, the time from diagnosis of IPF to lung cancer development and OS were longer in statin users in IPF patients. In Cox proportional hazard regression models, higher statin compliance, statin use, and being female had an inverse association with lung cancer risk, while older age at diagnosis of IPF and smoking history were associated with higher risk of lung cancer in IPF patients. For OS, statin use, female sex, higher exercise frequency, and diabetes were associated with longer survival. In contrast, older age at diagnosis of IPF and smoking history were associated with shorter OS in IPF patients. These data from a large population indicate that statin had an independent protective association with lung cancer development and mortality in IPF patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Systemic sclerosis; treatment; Janus kinase inhibitors; fibrosis; anti-cytokine treatment
Online: 2 June 2023 (07:07:00 CEST)
Citation: Lastname, F.; Lastname, F.; Last-name, F. Title. Phar-maceuticals 2022, 15, x. https://doi.org/10.3390/xxxxx Academic Editor: Firstname Lastname Received: date Accepted: date Published: date Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdic-tional claims in pub-lished maps and insti-tutional affiliations. Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons 1Olga Gumkowska-Sroka, 2Kacper Kotyla, 3Ewa Mojs, 2Klaudia Palka, 1,2*Przemysław Kotyla 1. Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Voivodeship Hospital No5 in Sosnowiec Medical University of Silesia Katowice, Poland 2. Department of Internal Medicine Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Medical University of Silesia Katowice , Poland 3. 3. Department of Clinical Psychology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences Poznan, Poland *Correspondence: Prof Przemysław Kotyla Department of Internal Medicine Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland- Summary Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease of unknown origin and unpredictable course, with both cutaneous and internal organ manifestations. In spite of enormous progress in rheumatology and clinical immunology, the background of diseases is largely unknown and no specific therapy exists. The therapeutic approach to the disease is aimed to treat and preserve the function of internal organs, and this approach is commonly referred to as an organ-based treatment. However, in modern times data from the other branches of medicine may help to treat disease-related complications, making it possible to find a group of drugs to be utilized in the treatment of the disease. In this review, we present possible therapeutic options aiming to stop the progression of fibrotic processes, restore aberrant immune response, stop improper signalling from proinflammatory cytokines, and halt the production of disease-related autoantibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: mutate HIV protease inhibitors; carboxamides; heteroarenes; mammalian cells essay; ADME
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:32:28 CEST)
The Virus HIV-1 infection still represents a serious disease even if actually it is transformed in chronic pathology. Considering the crucial role of the enzyme Protease in life cycle of HIV many efforts have been made in the research of new organic compounds showing inhibitory activity. After development of several series of non peptidic inhibitors we report here the synthesis of novel simple HIV-Protease inhibitors containing heteroaryl carboxamides and their antiviral activity in vitro and in HEK293 cells. Benzofuryl- benzothienyl- and indolyl rings as well as aryl sulfonamides with different electronic properties have been introduced by efficient synthetic procedures. All compounds showed inhibitory activity similar to the commercial drug Darunavir, effective against both wild-type HIV-1 protease and that containing the V32I or V82A mutations. ADME properties were also evaluated, showing the potential of such compounds to be developed as drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0564.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: serotonin antagonist/reuptake inhibitors; comorbidity; psychiatric disorders; trazodone; neurobiology; emotion
Online: 19 April 2023 (07:52:17 CEST)
Personality disorders (PD) are described as enduring patterns of markedly deviant and pervasive inner experiences and behaviors, with onset in adolescence, which lead to severe distress or impairment. Patients suffering with major depressive disorder (MDD) display higher rates of comorbidity with personality disorders, often complicating the treatment, and worsening the outcome. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the most common of PD and is frequently associated with MDD, with which shares several features. The most part of research agrees on the fact that comorbid BPD in MDD patients quite double the poor response to treatments. Moreover, no treatment strategy stands out currently to emerge as more effective in these cases, thus urging the call for the need of a new approach. Herein, we revise the current literature on BPD, its neurobiology and comorbidity with MDD, as well as the more recent treatment strategies used. Then, based on its pharmacology, we propose a possible role of trazodone as a valuable tool to approach underlying BPD in MDD
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Ovarian cancer; PARP inhibitors; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; drug response
Online: 13 April 2023 (14:30:07 CEST)
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, largely due to metastasis and drug resistant recurrences. Fifteen percent of ovarian tumors carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, rendering them vulnerable to treatment with PARP inhibitors such as olaparib. Recent studies have shown that TGFβ can induce “BRCAness” in BRCA wild-type cancer cells. Given that TGFβ is a known driver of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the con-nection between EMT and metastatic spread in EOC and other cancers, we asked if TGFβ and EMT alter susceptibility of EOC to PARP inhibition. Epithelial EOC cells were transiently treated with soluble TGFβ and their clonogenic potential, expression and function of EMT and DNA repair genes, and response to PARP inhibitors compared with untreated controls. A second epithelial cell line was compared to its mesenchymal derivative for EMT and DNA repair gene expression and drug responses. We found that TGFβ and EMT resulted in downregulation of genes responsible for homologous recombination (HR) and sensitized cells to olaparib. HR efficiency was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, mesenchymal cells displayed sensitivity to olaparib, cis-platin, and the DNA-PK inhibitor Nu-7441. Therefore, treatment of disseminated, mesenchymal tumors may represent an opportunity to expand clinical utility of PARP inhibitors and similar agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0405.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: α-amylase inhibitors; diabetes; hemi-pyocyanin; marine discards; microbial conversion
Online: 31 March 2022 (10:47:24 CEST)
α-amylase inhibitors (aAIs) have been proved efficient for the management of type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to search the potential aAIs produced by microbial fermentation. Among various bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TUN03 was found as a potential aAI - producing strain, and shrimp heads powder (SHP) was screened as the most suitable C/N source for fermentation. P. aeruginosa TUN03 exhibited the highest aAIs productivity (3100 U/mL) in the medium containing 1.5% SHP with the initial pH of 7-7.5, and fermentation was performed at 27.5 °C in 2 days. Further, aAIs compounds were investigated for scale-up production in a 14 L – bioreactor system, and the results highlighted high yield (4200 U/mL) in much shorter fermentation time (12 h) compared to fermentation in flasks. The bioactivity-guided purification resulted in the isolation of one major target compound. This active compound was confirmed as hemi-pyocyanin (HPC), with good purity, via using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Notably, HPC demonstrated potent activity comparable to acarbose, a commercial antidiabetic drug; this is the first-ever report of aAI activity of HPC. The docking study indicated that HPC inhibits α-amylase via binding to amino acid Arg421 at the biding site on enzyme α-amylase with good binding energy (-9.3 kcal/mol) and creating two linkages of H-acceptor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virome; microbiota; cancer; bacteriophages; fecal microbiota transplantation; checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:30:14 CET)
Viral infections as well as changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and virome have been linked to cancer. Moreover, the success of cancer immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has been correlated with the intestinal microbial composition of patients. The transfer of feces – which contains mainly bacteria and their viruses (phages) – from immunotherapy responders to non-responders, known as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), has been shown to be able convert some non-responders to responders. Since phages may also increase the response to immunotherapy, for example by inducing T cells cross-reacting with cancer antigens, modulating phage populations may provide a new avenue to improve immunotherapy responsiveness. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the human virome and its links to cancer, and discuss the potential utility of bacteriophages in increasing the responder rate for cancer immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Phosphodiesterase (PDE); natural products; inhibitors; Protein Kinase; selectivity; fluorescence polarization
Online: 6 April 2021 (12:07:58 CEST)
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides to modulate multiple signaling events in cells. PDEs are recognized to actively associate with cyclic nucleotide receptors (Protein Kinases, PK) in larger macromolecular assemblies referred to as signalosomes. Complexation of PDEs with PK generates an expanded active site which enhances PDE activity. This facilitates signalosome-associated PDEs to preferentially catalyze active hydrolysis of cyclic nucleotides bound to PK, and aid in signal termination. PDEs are important drug targets and current strategies for inhibitor discovery are based entirely on targeting conserved PDE catalytic domains. This often results in inhibitors with cross-reactivity amongst closely related PDEs and attendant unwanted side effects. Here, our approach targets PDE-PK complexes as they would occur in signalosomes, thereby offering greater specificity. Our developed fluorescence polarization assay has been adapted to identify inhibitors that block cyclic nucleotide pockets in PDE-PK complexes in one mode, and disrupt protein-protein interactions between PDEs and cyclic nucleotide activating protein kinases in a second mode. We tested this approach with three different systems: cAMP-specific PDE8-PKAR, cGMP-specific PDE5-PKG and dual-specificity RegA-RD complexes and ranked inhibitors according to their inhibition potency. Targeting PDE-PK complexes offers biochemical tools for describing the exquisite specificity of cyclic nucleotide signaling networks in cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Urothelial carcinoma; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; tumor microenvironment; metabolic pathway
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:00:41 CEST)
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has long been viewed as the first-line chemotherapy for advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, many patients with UC have been classified as “cisplatin-ineligible patient”, which requires alternative chemotherapy due to their poor responses. In fact, vast majority of those who initially responded to cisplatin-based chemotherapy eventually progressed. Understanding of UC tumor immunology provided an immunopathogenic bases for immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4, to treat cisplatin ineligible metastatic UC and patients with platinum-refractory metastatic UC. In 2020, data from the trail further showed that PD-L1 inhibitors benefit prolonged survival and progression-free survival as maintenance therapy. Besides immune-targeting therapies, manipulation of tumor microenvironment via metabolic pathways alternation, such as inhibiting tumor glycolysis, lactate accumulation and exogenous glutamine uptake, has been investigated in the past few years. In this comprehensive review, we started by introducing traditional chemotherapy of UC, and summarized current evidences supporting the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and highlighted ongoing clinical trials. Lastly, we reviewed the tumor metabolic characteristic and the anti-tumor treatments targeting metabolic pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; elderly; proton pump inhibitors; antipsychotics; metformin; oral antidiabetics
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:48:33 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 is a disease of the elderly as 95% of deaths related to COVID-19 occur in people over 60 years of age. Despite the urgent need for a preventive treatment there are currently no serious leads, other than the vaccination. Objective: To find a preventive treatment of COVID-19 in elderly patients. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Robertsau Geriatric Hospital of the University Hospitals of Strasbourg, France. Patients: 179 elderly patients who had been in contact with the SARS-CoV-2, of whom 89 had tested RT-PCR-positive (COVID-pos) for the virus and 90 had tested RT-PCR-negative (COVID-neg). Measurements: Treatments within 15 days prior to RT-PCR (including antihypertensive drugs, antipsychotics, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), paracetamol, anticoagulant, oral antidiabetics (OADs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressants), comorbidities, symptoms, laboratory values, and clinical outcome were all collected using the electronic patient record. Results: COVID-pos patients more frequently had a history of diabetes (P=.016) and alcoholism (P=.023), a lower leukocyte count (P=.014) and a higher mortality rate– 29.2% versus 14.4% – (P=.014) when compared to COVID-neg patients. Patients on PPIs were 2.3 times less likely (odds ratio [OR] = 0.4381, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.2331, 0.8175], P=.0053) to develop COVID-19 infection, compared to those not on PPIs. No other treatment decreased or increased this risk. COVID-19 patients on antipsychotics (P=.0013) and OADs (P=.0166) were less likely to die. Limitations: retrospective study. Conclusion: PPIs treatment lowered the risk of development of COVID-19 infection, and antipsychotics and OADs decreased the risk of mortality in geriatric patients. If further studies confirm this finding, PPIs could be used preventatively in the elderly in this pandemic context. Moreover, OADS and antipsychotics should be tested in clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; associated comorbidities; treatment; ACE2 inhibitors; Type 2 diabetes
Online: 19 April 2020 (05:42:22 CEST)
The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is becoming pandemic with the highest mortality in people with associated comorbidities. These RNA viruses containing four structural proteins usually use spike protein to enter the host cell. It has been demonstrated that Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) ,as a part of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), acts as a host receptor for the virus which is the main target of therapeutic approaches. However, medications acting on RAAS can lead to serious complications especially in people with diabetes and hypertension. To avoid this, other potential treatment modalities should be used in COVID-19 patients with associated comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0003.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; protease; virtual screening; pharmacophore; inhibitors; natural compounds
Online: 17 April 2020 (11:00:55 CEST)
Background: SARS-CoV-2 that are the causal agent of a current pandemic are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Proteases of SARS-CoV-2 are necessary for viral replication, structural assembly and pathogenicity. The ~33.8KDa Mpro protease of SARS-CoV-2 is a non-human homologue and highly conserved among several coronaviruses indicating Mpro could be a potential drug target for Coronaviruses.Methods: Here we performed computational ligand screening of four pharmacophores (OEW, Remdesivir, Hydroxycholoquine and N3) that are presumed to have positive effects against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro protease (6LU7) and also screened 50,000 molecules from the ZINC Database dataset against this protease target.Results: We found 40 pharmacophore-like structures of natural compounds from diverse chemical classes that exhibited better affinity of docking as compared to the known ligands. The 10 best selected ligands namely, ZINC1845382, ZINC1875405, ZINC2092396, ZINC2104424, ZINC44018332, ZINC2101723, ZINC2094526, ZINC2094304, ZINC2104482, ZINC3984030, and ZINC1531664, are mainly classified as β-carboline, Alkaloids and Polyflavonoids, and all of them displayed interactions with dyad CYS145 and HIS41 from the protease pocket in a similar way as with other known ligands.Conclusion: Our results suggest that these 10 molecules could be effective against SARS-CoV-2 protease and may be tested in vitro and in vivo to develop novel drugs against this virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0221.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase; cannabinoid; carboxamide inhibitors; 3D-QSAR; CoMSIA.
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:52:23 CET)
Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is one of the enzymes responsible of endocannabinoids metabolism. The inhibition of FAAH is a useful and indirect strategy to raise endogenous cannabinoid concentrations, which would be useful for the treatment of various pathological processes in which cannabinoid concentrations are lowered. In the present work, we present an extensive 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA study on a series of 90 irreversible inhibitors of FAAH of pyrimidinyl-piperazine-carboxamide structure. The final model obtained was extensively validated (q2 = 0.734; r2test = 0.966; r2m = 0.723), and based on the information derived from the contour maps we reported a series of 10 new compounds designed as powerful FAAH inhibitors (pIC50 of the best-proposed compounds = 12.196; 12.416).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: angiogenesis inhibitors; VEGF inhibitors; ovarian cancer; progression-free survival; overall sur-vival; toxicity; systematic review; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials; FDA approval of cancer drugs
Online: 2 February 2023 (05:26:47 CET)
(1)Background: Among new anti-angiogenetic agents being developed and everchanging guidelines indications, the question of benefits/safety ratio remains unclear. (2)Methods: we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials (15487 patients), evaluating overall survival – OS, progression free survival– PFS and toxicity (grade ≥3 adverse effects, type and number of all adverse effects. (3)Results: analysis showed improvement of pooled-PFS (HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.66–0.78, I2 = 77%, P<0.00001) regardless of treatment settings (first-line - HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.77-0.90, P<0.00001, recurrent cancer – HR 0.61, 95%CI 0.54-0.68, P<0.00001 or maintenance – HR 0.82, 95%CI 0.67-1.00, P=0.04) and type of anti-angiogenetic drug used (VEGF inhibitors, VEGF-R inhibitors or angiopoietin inhibitors). Improved OS was also observed (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91–0.99, P=0.02). OS benefits were only observed in recurrent platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant cancers. Grade≥3 adverse effects were increased across all trials. Anti-angiogenetic therapy increased the risk of hypertension, infection, thromboembolic/ hemorrhagic events, gastro-intestinal perforations but not the risk of wound related issues, anemia or posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. (4)Conclusions: Although angiogenesis inhibitors improve PFS, there is little to no OS benefits. Given the high risk of severe adverse reactions a careful selection of patients is required for obtaining the best results possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0751.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Skin pigmentation; melanin; Tyrosinase inhibitors; hypopigmentation; hyperpigmentation; Vitiligo; skin-lightening; Depigmentation
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:32:48 CEST)
Humans have extremely variable skin pigmentation and melanin production influenced by genetics, UV exposure, and some medications. A significant number of skin illnesses that result in pigmentary abnormalities have an impact on patients’ physical appearance as well as their psychological and social well-being. Skin pigmentation can be divided into two basic categories: hyperpigmentation, where pigment appears to overflow, and hypopigmentation, where pigment is reduced. Albinism, melasma, vitiligo, Addison's disease, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, which can be brought on by eczema, acne vulgaris, and drug interactions, are the most common skin pigmentation disorders in clinical practice. Anti-inflammatory medications, antioxidants, and medications that inhibit tyrosine, which prevents the production of melanin, are all possible treatments for pigmentation problems. Skin pigmentation can be treated orally and topically with medications, herbal remedies, and cosmetic products, but a doctor should always be consulted before beginning any new medicine or treatment plan. This review article explores the numerous types of pigmentation problems, their causes, and treatments, as well as the 25 plants, four marine species, and 17 topical and oral medications now on the market that have been clinically tested to treat skin diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: FLT3 mutations; resistant/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; gilteritinib
Online: 29 April 2023 (10:55:21 CEST)
The traditionally dismal outcome of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients carrying the FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations has been mitigated by the recent introduction into the clinics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as midostaurin and gilteritinib. The present work summarizes the clinical data that led to the use of gilteritinib in clinical practice. Gilteritinib is a 2nd generation TKI with deeper single-agent activity than 1st generation drugs against both FLT3-ITD and TKD mutations, in human studies. Moreover, the phase I/II dose-escalation, dose-expansion Chrysalis trial showed an acceptable safety profile of gilteritinib (diarrhea, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, febrile neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, sepsis, and pneumonia) and a 49% overall response rate (ORR) in 191 FLT3-mutated relapsed/refractory (R/R) AML patients. In 2019, the pivotal ADMIRAL trial showed that the median overall survival was significantly longer in patients treated with gilteritinib than among those receiving chemotherapy (9.3 vs 5.6 months, respectively) and the ORR to gilteritinib was 67.6%, outperforming the 25.8% for chemotherapy arm and leading to the license for its clinical use by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since then, several real-world experiences confirmed the positive results in the R/R AML setting. Finally, gilterinib based combinations currently under investigation with several compounds (venetoclax, azacitidine, conventional chemotherapy, etc.) and some practical tips (maintenance after allogeneic transplantation, interaction with antifungal drugs, extramedullary disease, and onset of resistance) will be analyzed in detail in the review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; ovarian cancer; PARP inhibitors; Alu repeats; protein-protein interactions
Online: 13 February 2023 (07:54:35 CET)
Two related tumor suppressor genes, Brca1 and Brca2, attract a lot of attention from both fundamental and clinical points of view. Oncogenic hereditary mutations in these genes are firmly linked to the early onset of breast and ovarian cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive extensive mutagenesis in these genes are not known. In this review we hypothesize that one of the potential mechanisms behind this phenomenon can be mediated by Alu mobile genomic elements. Linking mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to the general mechanism(s) of genome stability and DNA repair is critical to ensure the rationalized choice of anti-cancer therapy. Accordingly, we review the literature available on mechanisms of DNA damage repair where these proteins are involved in and how the inactivating mutations in these genes (BRCAness) can be exploited in anti-cancer therapy. We also propose a hypothesis that explains why breast and ovarian epithelial tissues are preferentially susceptible to mutations in BRCA genes. Finally, we discuss perspectives of novel therapeutic approaches for treating BRCAness cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Anti-tumor immunity; Predictive biomarker; Malignant melanoma; NSCLC
Online: 18 January 2023 (08:39:18 CET)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are currently use in a wide range of tumors, but only 20-40% of patients achieve clinical benefit. Aim of our study was to find predictive biomarkers of ICI treatment. We analyzed by immunohistochemistry various cell subsets, including CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells, CD68+ cells, CD20+ cells, FoxP3+ cells, and molecules as LAG-3, IDO1, TGfβ. Comprehensive genomic profiles were analyzed. Correlation of various biomarkers with efficacy of ICI treatment in patients with advanced solid tumors was evaluated. We evaluated 56 patients treated with ICI monotherapy. Longer median progression-free survival (PFS) was found in tumors negative for nuclear FoxP3 (P = 0.002, HR 0.14) and in TMB-high tumors (P = 0.024, HR 0.38). Longer overall survival (OS) was found in patient with intraepithelial CD8 negativity (P = 0.045, HR 0.47). In malignant melanoma CD68 negativity, FoxP3 negativity and PDL TPS ≥ 1 was associated with longer PFS. In NSCLC FoxP3 was associated with longer PFS and OS. We found that absence of expression of several biomarkers such as CD68 and FoxP3 is associated with better survival. TMB-high and PD-L1 expression not universally but in certain disease could predict response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0468.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Flavivirus; NS2B-NS3; ZIKA Virus; Dengue Virus; West Nile Virus; Inhibitors
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:46:44 CET)
Flaviviruses cause a significant amount of mortality and morbidity, especially in the area where they are endemic. A recent example is the outbreak of Zika virus though out the world. Development of antiviral drugs against different viral targets is as important as development of vaccine. During viral replication, the flavivirus genome is translated as a single polyprotein precursor, which must be cleaved into individual proteins by a complex of the viral protease, NS3, and its cofactor, NS2B. Flavivirus protease is the most attractive target for development of therapeutic antivirals because it is essential for processing of viral polyprotein precursor and generation of functional viral proteins. In this review, we have summarized recent development in drug discovery targeting NS3-NS2B protease of flaviviruses, especially Zika, dengue and West Nile virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0565.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1 transcription; HIV-1 Tat; TAR RNA; small molecule inhibitors
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:04:21 CEST)
HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with TAR RNA and recruits CDK9/cyclin T1 and other host factors to induce HIV-1 transcription. Thus Tat-TAR RNA interaction, which is unique for HIV-1, represents an attractive target for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. To target Tat-TAR RNA interaction, we used a crystal structure of TAR RNA with acetylpromazine bound to the bulge of TAR RNA, to dock compounds from Enamine database containing 1.6 million individual compounds. Docking identified 173 compounds that were analyzed for the inhibition of HIV-1 infection. Top ten inhibitory compounds with IC50 ≤ 6 µM were selected and the three least toxic compounds, T6780107 (IC50=2.97 μM), T0516-4834 (IC50=0.2 μM) and T5628834 (IC50=3.46 μM), were further tested for HIV-1 transcription inhibition. Only T0516-4834 compound showed selective inhibition of Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription, whereas T6780107 compound inhibited equally basal and Tat-induced transcription and T5628834 compound only inhibited basal HIV-1 transcription. The T0516-4834 compound also showed strongest inhibition of HIV-1 gag RNA expression and p24 production in CEM T cells infected with HIV-1 IIIB. Of the three compounds, only the T0516-4834 compound disrupted Tat-TAR RNA interaction indicating that it might target TAR RNA. Also, of the three tested compounds, T5628834 but not T6780107 or T0516-4834 disrupted Tat-CDK9/cyclin T1 interaction. Taken together, our study identified novel compound T0516-4834 that disrupted Tat-TAR RNA interaction and inhibited Tat-induced transcription and HIV-1 infection suggesting that this compound might serve as a new lead for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.