ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0210.v1
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:44:55 CEST)
We propose a method for the estimation of the spectral response of a photodetector, using only the variation of the temperature of a black body source without the need of an expensive monochromator or a circular filter. The proposed method is suitable especially for infrared detectors in which the cut – off wavelength and the responsivity vs. wavelength is not exactly known. The method provides a rough estimation of the curve S(l) solving a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The precision of this technique depends on the number of temperatures at which the detector output is measured. Some example is given in order to better explain the proposed technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0085.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: beam profiler; bolometer; laser spot-size; infrared; infrared spectroscopy; time-resolved spectroscopy
Online: 7 December 2019 (00:11:31 CET)
Knowledge of a lasers beam’s profile throughout a laser system and experiment can help immensely in diagnosing laser problems and assisting in beam alignment and focusing at a sample. Obtaining such profiles is a trivial task in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range but more challenging with near-infrared to infrared beams. Scientific grade bolometer arrays, suitable for such a task, do exist but are extremely costly, relatively large and have a large pixel size, of the order of 80 μm, which is adequate for profiling larger beams but poses an issue when trying to profile sub 100 μm beams for example at a focal point. This communication identifies a micro-bolometer array for near- to mid-infrared laser beam profiling, which is extremely low cost. In addition, the device is very compact, enabling use in confined spaces, and has a small, 12 μm, pixel size permitting the profiling of focused laser beams. The best scientific grade device identified has a pixel size of 17 μm. This device is a powerful tool for infrared laser spectroscopists, reducing the time required to measure the spot size of beams and to achieve spatial overlap of multiple infrared beams as used in two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, saving many hours of setup time. The use of the bolometer array as a spectrographic detector and probe of long-term beam drifts is also demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0546.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: mid-infrared light sources; near-infrared light sources; rare earth-doped fibers
Online: 23 October 2018 (16:32:22 CEST)
Modeling and design of fiber lasers facilitate the process of their practical realization. Of particular interest during the last few years is the development of lanthanide ion-doped fiber lasers which operate at wavelengths exceeding 2000 nm. There are two main host glass materials considered for this purpose, namely fluoride and chalcogenide glasses. Therefore, this study concerns comparative modeling of fiber lasers operating within the infrared wavelength region beyond 2000 nm. In particular, the convergence properties of selected algorithms, implemented within various software environments, are studied with a specific focus on the central processing unit (CPU) time and calculation residual. Two representative fiber laser cavities are considered: one is based on a chalcogenide-selenide glass step-index fiber doped with trivalent dysprosium ions whilst the other is a fluoride step-index fiber doped with trivalent erbium ions. The practical calculation accuracy is also assessed by comparing directly the results obtained from the different models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0432.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: infrared spectroscopy; diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy; ion-exchange resin; drinking water
Online: 21 September 2018 (08:29:11 CEST)
Infrared spectroscopy is an effective method for the determination of compositions and concentrations of liquids, with advantages of fast response, no-sampling, flexible in use and is able for on-line monitoring. However, for trace substances in drinking water, such as nitrates and heavy metals, infrared spectroscopy is not sensitive enough for the quantitative and qualitative measurement. In this study, we improved the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy for nitrite determination by developing an ion-exchange-enhanced diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which consist of an accessory based on ion-exchange resin for enrichment and a FTIR spectrometer for measurement. Using this method, the limit of detection for nitrate is 1.7 mg/L, which is enough for drinking water sensing. We also verified the quantitative measurement ability of the method. Furthermore, the limit of detection and quantitative measuring range could be adjusted by changing the mass of resin and adsorption time. This study demonstrated the method can be used to detect trace nitrites in drinking water, can be applied in the field, and is sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive with a wide dynamic range.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: NICU; Physio-features; Neonatal imaging; Infrared thermography; Optical coherence tomography; Tissue optics; Near-infrared imaging; Short-wave infrared imaging; Visible light imaging
Online: 17 August 2018 (02:27:17 CEST)
The monitoring of sick newborns is a challenging task that health care providers in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) must contend with each day. Conventionally, newborns are monitored via probes that are affixed to their skin and attached to processing monitors (Fig.1). However, an alternative exists in contactless imaging to record such physiological signals (Physio-Markers), surface changes and internal structures which can be used independently of, or in conjunction with conventional monitors. Advantages of contactless monitoring methods include: i) quick data generation; ii) lack of contact with skin, which reduces skin breakdown and decreases risk of infection; and iii) minimizing the number of probes and monitors affixed to the skin, which allows greater body surface-area for other care. This paper is an attempt to build a foundation for and to provide a vision of the potential neonatal clinical applications of technologies that use non-contact modalities such as Visible Light Imaging (VLI), Near InfraRed Spectrum (NIRS), and Thermal Imaging (TI) using InfraRed Spectrum (IRS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0083.v1
Online: 7 March 2019 (06:43:58 CET)
Waste heat dissipated in the exhaust system in a combustion engine represents a major source of energy to be recovered and converted into useful work. A waste heat recovery system (WHRS) based on an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising approach, and has gained interest in the last few years in an automotive industry interested in reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Understanding the thermodynamic response of the boiler employed in an ORC plays an important role in steam cycle performance prediction and control system design. The aim of this study is therefore to present a methodology to study these devices by means of pattern recognition with infrared thermography. In addition, the experimental test bench and its operating conditions are described. The methodology proposed identifies the wall coordinates, traces paths, and tracks wall temperature along them in a way that can be exported for subsequent post-processing and analysis. As for the results, through the wall temperature paths on both sides (exhaust gas and working fluid) it was possible to quantitatively estimate the temperature evolution along the boiler and, in particular, the beginning and end of evaporation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0061.v1
Online: 13 March 2017 (08:31:22 CET)
This paper presents a novel CNN-based architecture, referred to as Q-Net, to learn local feature descriptors that are useful for matching image patches from two different spectral bands. Given correctly matched and non-matching cross-spectral image pairs, a quadruplet network is trained to map input image patches to a common Euclidean space, regardless of the input spectral band. Our approach is inspired by the recent success of triplet networks in the visible spectrum, but adapted for cross-spectral scenarios, where for each matching pair there are always two possible non-matching patches; one for each spectrum. Experimental evaluations on a public cross-spectral VIS-NIR dataset shows that the proposed approach improves the state-of-the-art. Moreover, the proposed technique can also be used in mono-spectral settings, obtaining a similar performance to triplet network descriptors, but requiring less training data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: real-time quality prediction; spatio-temporal features; feature importance; recurrent neural network; high-speed infrared imaging; convolutional neural network; lack of fusion (false friends)
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:55:12 CEST)
An effective process monitoring strategy is a requirement for meeting the challenges posed by increasingly complex products and manufacturing processes. To address these needs, this study investigates a comprehensive scheme based on classical machine learning methods, deep learning algorithms, and feature extraction and selection techniques. In a first step, a novel deep learning architecture based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) and gated recurrent units (GRU) is introduced to predict the local weld quality based on mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and near-infrared (NIR) image data. The developed technology is used to discover critical welding defects including lack of fusion (false friends), sagging and lack of penetration, and geometric deviations of the weld seam. Additional work is conducted to investigate the significance of various geometrical, statistical, and spatio-temporal features extracted from the keyhole and weld pool regions. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed deep learning architecture is compared to that of classical supervised machine learning algorithms, such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP), logistic regression (LogReg), support vector machines (SVM), decision trees (DT), random forest (RF) and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN). Optimal hyperparameters for each algorithm are determined by an extensive grid search. Ultimately, the three best classification models are combined into an ensemble classifier that yields the highest detection rates and achieves the most robust estimation of welding defects among all classifiers studied, which is validated on previously unknown welding trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0528.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Infrared sensors; calibration model; Online monitoring
Online: 23 July 2021 (08:08:45 CEST)
Infrared sensors are applied more and more widely in industrial production applications. Based on the theory of thermal radiation, this paper discusses the system design principle, temperature calibration method and thermal image analysis method in detail. The system has passed the measurement unit certification, showing that the field of view is 180°, the number of scanning points is 2048, the linear velocity is 10-100Hz, the spatial resolution is 2.5mrad, and the precision is ±1℃. On-line monitoring test has been done in the steelmaking plant of Bao Steel. The results show that the system has strong anti-interference ability, stability and reliability, and meets the application requirements of online monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0358.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: metasurface; mid infrared absorption; perfect absorption
Online: 27 March 2020 (12:32:57 CET)
The realization of a perfect absorber A = 1 with transmittance and reflectance T=R=0 by a thin metasurface is one of the hot topics in recent nanophotonics prompted by energy harvesting and sensor applications (A + R + T =1 is the energy conservation). Here we tested optical properties of over 400 structures of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) metasurfaces for a range of variation in thickness of insulator, the diameter of a disc and intra-disc distance experimentally and numerically. Conditions of a near-perfect absorption A > 95% with simultaneously occurring anti-reflection property (R < 5%) were experimentally determined. Differences between the bulk vs. nano-thin film properties at mid-IR of the used materials can be of interest for plasmonic multi-metal alloys and high entropy metals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0054.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: plasmonics; infrared detector; MEMS; gas sensing
Online: 10 March 2017 (10:21:40 CET)
A lead zirconate titanate [PZT;Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3] layer embedded infrared (IR) detector decorated with wavelength-selective plasmonic crystals has been investigated for high-performance non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy. A plasmonic IR detector with an enhanced IR absorption band has been designed based on numerical simulations, fabricated by conventional microfabrication techniques, and characterized with a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser. The enhanced responsivity of the plasmonic IR detector at specific wavelength band has improved the performance of NDIR spectroscopy and pushed the limit of detection (LOD) by an order of magnitude. In this paper, a 13 fold enhancement in the LOD of a methane gas sensing using NDIR spectroscopy is demonstrated with the plasmonic IR detector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0034.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: hydrogen; biocatalysis; hydride chemistry; photochemistry; infrared spectroscopy
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:12:12 CEST)
Hydrogenases are iron-sulfur enzymes that catalyze proton reduction and H2 oxidation with outstanding efficiency. They are considered blueprints for the design of transition metal complexes, e.g. as heterogenous catalysts in the context of H2 production from water. Moreover, hydrogenases are biological model systems for metal hydride chemistry and proton-coupled electron transfer. Depending on the composition of the active site cofactor, [NiFe]-hydrogenases are distinguished from [FeFe]-hydrogenases. The former binds a hetero bimetallic nickel/iron site, embedded in the protein by four cysteine ligands. The later, by contrast, carries a homo bimetallic iron/iron site attached to the protein by only a single cysteine. Carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands (CO/CN) at the active site facilitated detailed investigations of hydrogenase catalysis by infrared spectroscopy, owing to strong signals and redox-dependent frequency shifts. However, the details of proton transfer have not been addressed experimentally.We found that specific redox state transitions in [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenase can be triggered by visible light to record extremely sensitive ‘light-minus-dark’ infrared difference spectra monitoring key amino acid residues as shown in the ToC figure. As these transitions are coupled to protonation changes, our data allowed investigating dynamic hydrogen-bonding changes that go well beyond the resolution of protein crystallography. In [NiFe]-hydrogenase, photolysis of the bridging hydride ligand in the ‘Ni-C’ state was followed by rapid accumulation of the ‘Ni-SIa’ state and/or ‘Ni-L’ state. Infrared difference spectra in various isotopic media clearly indicated the formation of a protonated cysteine residue as well as hydrogen-bonding changes involving the COOH group of a glutamic acid residue and a ‘dangling water’ molecule. These findings are in excellent agreement with crystallographic analyses of [NiFe]-hydrogenase in the Ni-R state and allowed devising a molecular precise model of catalytic proton transfer. In [FeFe]-hydrogenase, an external redox dye was used to accumulate the ‘Hred’ state over the oxidized resting state ‘Hox’. Infrared difference spectra of wild-type enzyme and numerous amino acid variants indicated hydrogen-bonding changes involving the COOH groups of two glutamic acid residues. Moreover, we noted the deprotonation of an arginine residue. Crystallographic analyses of [FeFe]-hydrogenase in the Hox state failed to explain the rapid proton transfer due to a ‘breach’ in the succession of residues. To this end, our findings facilitated a molecular precise model of ‘discontinued’ proton transfer.The comparison of catalytic proton transfer in bimetallic hydrogenases emphasizes the role of the outer coordination sphere. We suggest that the stable protonation of a nickel-ligating cysteine in [NiFe]-hydrogenase has a crucial influence on the preferred direction of proton flow and catalysis (i.e., H2 oxidation). On the contrary, proton transfer in [FeFe]-hydrogenase involves an adjacent cysteine as a relay group that promotes both proton release and proton uptake. We presume that this causes the notable bidirectionality of [FeFe]-hydrogenase. These observations must guide the design of biomimetic compounds for the production or consumption of H2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: infrared sensors; cameras; indoor positioning; sensor fusion
Online: 29 May 2019 (04:45:00 CEST)
A method for infrared and cameras sensor fusion, applied to indoor positioning in intelligent spaces, is proposed in this work. The fused position is obtained with a maximum likelihood estimator from infrared and camera independent observations. Specific models are proposed for variance propagation from infrared and camera observations (phase shifts and image respectively) to their respective position estimates and to the final fused estimation. Model simulations are compared with real measurements in a setup designed to validate the system. The difference between theoretical prediction and real measurements is between 0.4 cm (fusion) and 2.5 cm (camera), within a 95% confidence margin. The positioning precision is in the cm level (sub-cm level can be achieved at most tested positions) in a 4x3 m locating cell with 5 infrared detectors on the ceiling and one single camera, at distances from target up to 5 m and 7 m respectively. Due to the low cost system design and the results observed, the system is expected to be feasible and scalable to large real spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0572.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: silicon; near-infrared; photodetectors, internal photoemission; erbium.
Online: 28 September 2018 (16:14:09 CEST)
This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of Schottky erbium/silicon photodetectors working at 1.55 µm. These erbium/silicon junctions are carefully characterized using both electric and optical measurements at room temperature. A Schottky barrier ΦB of ~673 meV is extrapolated; the photodetectors show external responsivity of 0.55 mA/W at room temperature under a 8 V of reverse bias applied. In addition, the device performance is discussed in terms of normalized noise and noise equivalent power. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first Er/Si photodetectors designed for operation in free space at 1.55 µm. The proposed devices will pave the way towards development of Er-based photodetectors and light sources to be monolithically integrated in the same silicon substrate and both operating at 1.55 µm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0015.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Casimir effect, dispersion, ultraviolet divergences, infrared divergences
Online: 1 March 2018 (16:58:15 CET)
It is familiar that the Casimir self-energy of a homogeneous dielectric ball is divergent, although a finite self-energy can be extracted through second order in the deviation of the permittivity from the vacuum value. The exception occurs when the speed of light inside the spherical boundary is the same as that outside, so the self-energy of a perfectly conducting spherical shell is finite, as is the energy of a dielectric-diamagnetic sphere with $\varepsilon\mu=1$, a so-called isorefractive or diaphanous ball. Here we re-examine that example, and attempt to extend it to an electromagnetic $\delta$-function sphere, where the electric and magnetic couplings are equal and opposite. Unfortunately, although the energy expression is superficially ultraviolet finite, additional divergences appear that render it difficult to extract a meaningful result in general, but some limited results are presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0011.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: infrared remote sensing; volcanoes; earth observation, satellites
Online: 5 October 2016 (11:54:54 CEST)
Volcanic activity essentially consists of the transfer of heat from the Earth’ interior to the surface. The precise signature of this heat transfer relates directly to the processes underway at and within a particular volcano and this can be observed, at a safe distance, remotely, using infrared sensors that are present on Earth-orbiting satellites. For over 50 years, scientists have perfected this art using sensors intended for other purposes, and they are now in a position to determine the particular sort of activity that characterizes different volcanoes. This review will describe the theoretical basis of the discipline and then discuss the sensors available for the task and the history of their use. Challenges and opportunities for future development in the discipline are then discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0630.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Exercise; Runners; Near-infrared spectroscopy; Respiratory muscles; Respiration.
Online: 28 June 2021 (09:44:55 CEST)
The study aimed to evaluate the association between the changes in ventilatory variables (tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (RR), and lung ventilation (VE)) and deoxygenation of m.intescostales (∆SmO2-m.intercostales) during a maximal incremental exercise in nineteen male competitive marathon runners. The ventilatory variables and oxygen-consumption (VO2) were recorded breath-by-breath by exhaled gas analysis. A near-infrared spectroscopy device (MOXY) located in the right-hemithorax allowed recording SmO2-m.intercostales. To explore changes in oxygen levels in muscles with high demand during exercise, a second MOXY records SmO2-m.vastus laterallis. The triphasic model of exercise intensity was used for evaluating changes in SmO2 in both muscle groups. We found that ∆SmO2-m.intercostales correlated with VO2-peak (r=0.65; p=0.002) and the increase of VE (r=0.78; p=0.001), RR (r=0.54; p=0.001), but not Vt (p=0.210). The interaction of factors (muscles X exercise-phases) in SmO2 expressed as an arbitrary unit (a.u) was significant (p=0.005). At VT1 were no difference (p=0.177), but SmO2-m.intercostales was higher at VT1 (p<0.001) and VO2-peak (p<0.001). In competitive marathon runners, the m.intercostales deoxygenation during incremental exercise is directly associated with the aerobic capacity and increased lung ventilation and respiratory rate, but not tidal volume. Besides, it shows less deoxygenation than m.vastus laterallis at intensities above the aerobic ventilatory threshold.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: MoS2; photodetector; Raman; drop casting; infrared; thin film
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:21:57 CEST)
In this work, a highly efficient, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based near infrared (NIR) heterojunction photodetector is fabricated on a Si substrate using a cost-effective and simple drop casting method. A non-stoichiometric and inhomogeneous MoS2 layer with a S/Mo ratio of 2.02 is detected using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope analysis. Raman shifts are noticed at 382.42 cm-1 and 407.97 cm-1, validating MoS2 thin film growth with a direct bandgap of 2.01 eV. The fabricated n-MoS2/p-Si photodetector is illuminated with a 785 nm laser at different intensities, and demonstrate the ability of the photodetector to work in both regions, the forward biased and reverse biased from above 1.5 V and less than -1.0 V. The highest responsivity, R is calculated to be 0.52 A/W while the detectivity D* is 4.08 x 10^10 Jones for an incident light intensity of 9.57 mW/cm2. The minimum rise and fall times are calculated as 1.77 ms and 1.31 ms for an incident laser power of 9.57 mW/cm^2 and 6.99 mW/cm^2 respectively at a direct current bias voltage of 10 V. The demonstrated results are promising for the low-cost fabrication of a thin MoS2 film for photonics and optoelectronic device applications.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: graphene; silicon; photodetectors; internal photoemission effect; near-infrared
Online: 5 March 2021 (10:49:26 CET)
In this work we theoretically investigate the responsivity/noise equivalent power (NEP) trade-off in graphene/semiconductor Schottky photodetectors (PDs) operating in the near-infrared regime and working at room temperature. Our analysis shows as the responsivity/NEP ratio is strongly dependent on the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of the junction and we derive a closed analytical formula for maximizing it. In addition, we theoretically discuss as the SBH is linked to the bias applied to the junction in order to show how these devices could be optimized in practice for different semiconductors. We discover that graphene/n-silicon (Si) Schottky PDs could be optimized at 1550nm showing a responsivity and NEP of 133mA/W and 500fW/Hz, respectively, by a low reverse bias of only 0.66V. Moreover, we show that graphene/n-germanium (Ge) Schottky PDs optimized in term of responsivity/NEP ratio could be employed at 2000nm with a responsivity and NEP of 233mA/W and 31pW/Hz, respectively. We believe that our insights are of great importance in the field of silicon photonics for the realization of Si-based PDs to be employed in power monitoring, lab-on-chip and environment monitoring applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0655.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: dialysis membrane; ectosomes; exosomes; FTIR; infrared spectroscopy; purification
Online: 27 July 2020 (00:46:38 CEST)
Recent years brought great focus in the field of development of extracellular vesicles (EVs) based drug-delivery systems. Considering possible applications of EVs as a drug carriers the isolation process is a crucial step. To solve problems related with EV isolation, we created and validated a new EVs isolation method – Low Vacuum Filtration (LVF) and compared it with two commonly applied procedures - differential centrifugation (DC) and ultracentrifugation (UC). EVs isolated from endothelial cells culture media have been characterized by a) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) b) nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), c) western blot and d) Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Additionally, the membrane surface have been imaged with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). We showed that LVF is reproducible and efficient method for EVs isolation form conditioned media. Additionally, we observed correlation between ATR-FTIR spectra quality and the EVs and proteins concentration. ESEM imaging confirmed that actual pore diameter are close to the values calculated theoretically. LVF method is an easy, fast and inexpensive EVs isolation method which allows for isolation of both ectosomes and exosomes from high volume sources with good repeatability. We think that it could be an efficient alternative for commonly applied methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0018.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Fast Forward Model, Infrared, Emissivity Spectrum, Satellite, Validation
Online: 4 March 2019 (08:42:15 CET)
Timely processing of observations from hyper-spectral imagers, such as SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager), largely depends on fast radiative transfer calculations. This paper mostly concerns the development and implementation of a new forward model for SEVIRI to be applied to real time processing of infrared radiances for the physical retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity. The new radiative transfer model improves computational time by a factor of ≈ 7 compared to the previous versions and makes it possible to process SEVIRI data at nearly real time. The new forward model has been applied for the simultaneous retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity in three infrared channels (8.7, 10.8, 12 μm). The inverse scheme relies on a Kalman filter approach, which allows us to exploit a sequential processing of SEVIRI observations. Based on the new forward model, the paper also presents a validation retrieval performed with in situ observations acquired during a field experiment carried out in 2017 at Gobabeb (Namib desert) validation station. Furthermore, a comparison with IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer) emissivity retrievals has been performed as well. It has been found that the retrieved emissivities are in good agreement with each other and with in situ observations, i.e. average differences are generally well below 0.01.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0060.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: perfect absorber; ultra-broadband; visible region; near infrared region
Online: 5 July 2022 (05:15:18 CEST)
As solar energy is a low-cost and clean energy source, there has been a great deal of interest in how to harvest it. To absorb solar energy efficiently, we have designed a broadband metamaterial absorber based on the principle of Fabry–Pérot (FP) cavity and surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). We propose a broadband perfect absorber consisting of a four-layer structure of silica-tungsten-silica-titanium (SiO2-W-SiO2-Ti) for the incident light wavelength range of 300–2500 nm. The structure achieves perfect absorption of incident light in the wavelength range of 351.8–2465.0 nm (absorption >90%), with an average absorption of 96.3%. The advantage of our proposed structure is that it combines the characteristics of both high and broadband absorption and has a high overall absorption efficiency for solar radiation. It is also independent of polarization and insensitive to incident angle. We investigated how absorption was affected by different structures, materials, geometrical parameters, and refractive indices for different dielectric materials, and we explored the reasons for high absorption. This structure is refractory and ultra-thin, and it offers a good trade-off between bandwidth and absorption. It therefore has premium application prospects and value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0262.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Stereo winds; midwave infrared; weather satellite; atmospheric motion vectors
Online: 18 January 2022 (15:15:47 CET)
The Compact Midwave Imaging System (CMIS) is a wide field of view, multi-angle, multi-spectral pushframe imager that relies on the forward motion of the satellite to create a two-dimensional (2D) image swath. An airborne demonstration of CMIS was successfully completed in January-February 2021 on the NASA Langley Research Center Gulfstream III. The primary objective of the four-flight campaign was to demonstrate the capability of this unique instrument to perform stereo observations of clouds and other particulates (e.g. smoke) in the atmosphere. It is shown that the midwave infrared (MWIR) spectral bands of CMIS provide a unique 24/7 capability with high resolution for accurate stereo sensing. The instrument relies on new focal plane array (FPA) technology, which provides excellent sensitivity at much warmer detector temperatures than traditional technologies. This capability enabled a compact, low-cost design that can provide atmospheric motion vectors and cloud heights to support requirements for atmospheric winds in the 2017-2027 Earth Science Decadal Survey. Applications include day/night observations of the planetary boundary layer, severe weather, and wildfires. A comparison with current space-based earth science instruments demonstrates that the SWIR/MWIR multi-spectral capability of CMIS is competitive with larger, more expensive instrumentation. Imagery obtained over a controlled burn and operating nuclear power plant demonstrated the sensitivity of the instrument to temperature variations. The system relies on a mature stereoscopic imaging technique applied to the same scene from two independent platforms to unambiguously retrieve atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) with accurate height assignment. This capability has been successfully applied to geostationary and low-earth orbit satellites to achieve excellent accuracy. When applied to a ground-point validation case, the accuracy for the CMIS aircraft observations was 20 m and 0.3 m/s for cloud heights and motion vectors, respectively. This result was confirmed by a detailed error analysis with analytical and covariance models. The results for CMIS cases with underflights of Aeolus, CALIPSO and Aqua provided a good validation of expected accuracies. The paper also showed the feasibility of accommodating CMIS on CubeSats to enable multiple instruments to be flown in a leader-follower mode.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: infrared spectroscopy; visible image; support vector machine; olive quality.
Online: 16 December 2020 (11:18:07 CET)
The color and NIR spectrum are key to build an oil estimation model, thus it requires individual olives clustering before the Sohlext oil extraction method can be applied. The objective was to analyze an OC estimation model of individual olives, based on cluster of similar color and NIR spectrum in different combination of the first and/or the second season. This study was performed with Chilean Arbequina olives in 2016 and 2017. The descriptor of the cluster consisted of the 3 color channels of c1, c2, c3 color model plus 11 reflectance points between 1710 and 1735 nm of each olive, normalized with the Z-score index. Clusters of similar color and NIR spectrum were formed with the k-means++ algorithm, leaving a sufficient amount of olives to be able to perform the Sohlext analysis of OC, as reference value. The estimation models were based on the Support Vector Machine. The test was carried out with the Leave One-Out Cross Validation in different training-testing combinations. The best model predicted the OC with 6% and 13%deviation respect to the real value in one season by itself and when one season tested with another season, respectively. The use of clustering in estimation model is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: thermal sensation; ageing; infrared thermography; frailty; assessment; comfort; extremities
Online: 15 August 2020 (04:56:17 CEST)
The temperature of the indoor environment is important for health and wellbeing especially at the extremes of age. The study aim was to undertsand the relationship between self-reported thermal sensation and extremity skin temperature in care home residents with and without dementia. The Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) was used to discriminate residents to two categories, those with and those without dementia. After acclimatisation, measurements included: tympanic membrane temperature, thermal sensation rating followed by infrared thermal mapping of non-dominant hand and forearm. Sixty-nine afebrile adults (60-101 years of age) were studied in groups of two to five, in mean ambient temperatures of 21.4oC-26.6oC (median 23.6oC). Significant differences were observed between groups; thermal sensation rating (p=0.02), tympanic temperature (p=0.01), fingertip skin temperature (p=0.01) and temperature gradients; fingertip-wrist p=0.001 and fingertip-distal forearm, p=0.001.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0172.v1
Subject: Keywords: molecular biosignatures; Mars; UV irradiation; infrared spectroscopy; life detection
Online: 10 March 2020 (14:10:19 CET)
The search for molecular biosignatures at the surface of Mars is complicated by an intense irradiation in the mid- and near- ultraviolet (UV) spectral range for several reasons: (i) many astrobiologically relevant molecules are electronically excited by efficient absorption of UV radiation and rapidly undergo photochemical reactions; (ii) even though the penetration depth of UV radiation is limited, aeolian erosion continually exposes fresh material to radiation; and (iii) UV irradiation generates strong oxidants such as perchlorates that can penetrate deep into soils and cause subsurface oxidative degradation of organics.As a consequence, it is crucial to investigate the effects of UV radiation on organic molecules embedded in mineral matrices mimicking the martian soil, in order to validate hypotheses about the nature of the organic compounds detected so far at the surface of Mars by the Curiosity rover, as well as organics that will be possibly found by the next rover missions Mars 2020 and ExoMars 2020. In addition, studying the alteration of possible molecular biosignatures in the martian environment will help to redefine the molecular targets for life detection missions and devise suitable detection methods.Here we report the results of mid-UV irradiation experiments of Mars soil analog samples obtained adsorbing relevant organic molecules on a clay mineral that is quite common on Mars, i.e. montmorillonite, doped with 1 wt% of magnesium perchlorate. Specifically, we chose to investigate the photostability of a plausible precursor of the chlorohydrocarbons detected on Mars by the Curiosity rover, namely phthalic acid, along with the biomarkers of extant life L-phenylalanine and L-glutamic acid, which are proteomic amino acids, and adenosine 5’-monophosphate, which is a nucleic acid component.We monitored the degradation of these molecules adsorbed on montmorillonite through in situ spectroscopic analysis, investigating the reflectance properties of the samples in the Near InfraRed (NIR) spectral region. Such spectroscopic characterization of molecular alteration products provides support for two upcoming robotic missions to Mars that will employ NIR spectroscopy to look for molecular biosignatures, through the instruments SuperCam on board Mars 2020, ISEM, Ma_Miss and MicrOmega on board ExoMars 2020.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0332.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: nucleic acids; airborne microorganisms; far infrared radiation; RNA virus
Online: 23 February 2020 (15:51:12 CET)
Emergence of zoonotic-human pathogens is proven to be a lethal threat to public health, and RNA virus including influenza viruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19), plays a pivotal role. As those viruses as airborne microorganisms spread mainly by tiny airborne particles, it is important to de-active those airborne particles before their entry into human bodies. In this study, we investigated the effect of far infrared (FIR) radiation on inhibition of airborne microorganisms. The result confirmed that double stand DNA from airborne microorganisms were stable under mild FIR radiation. However, single strand RNA from them was found to be sensitive to FIR radiation, indicating that RNA virus in airborne particles is instable under FIR radiation. Based on this observation, two models on usage of FIR radiation to prevent RNA virus transmission and cure RNA virus infection were proposed, implying that FIR radiation might be a cheap, convenient, and efficient method in clinic to treat RNA virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0322.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Tengchongite; microscopic laser Raman spectroscopy; infrared spectroscopy; Yunnan Province
Online: 27 January 2020 (07:53:31 CET)
Tengchongite is a uranyl molybdate uranium mineral and it was found and named by Chen 1985.No more scholars studied on tengchongite after Chen’s work, The identification of this mineral has only been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the paper, micro laser Raman spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy are used to identify the spectroscopy properties of tengchongite. The studies fill in the gaps of more than 30 years in terms of the molecular spectroscopy research of tengchongite. The mineral has an ideal model of Ca(UO2)6(MoO4)2O5•12H2O its bands attributed to the vibrating units are clearly identified in the Raman spectrum. Symmetric stretching modes at 812 cm-1 and 839 cm-1 are assigned to ν1 (UO2)2+ ,The ν3 antisymmetric stretching modes of (UO2)2+ are observed at 896 cm-1, Symmetric stretching modes at 419-1 and 440 cm-1 are assigned to ν2 (UO2)2+ .Symmetric stretching modes at 919cm-1 are assigned to ν1(MoO4)2-,The ν3 antisymmetric stretching modes of (MoO4)2- are observed at 752 cm-1, the in-plane ν2(MoO4)2-and the out-of-plane ν4(MoO4)2- bending modes are at 169 cm-1 and 254 cm-1. IR spectrum of tengchongite shows the major uranyl band at 858 cm-1 and 693 cm-1, Mo-O bonds are observed at about 985 cm-1 and 780 cm-1, and H2O groups are present with a wide range peaks from 3100 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 and 1647 cm-1, and the band at 1432.4 cm-1 is probably due to the stretching vibration hydroxyl (OH-1), therefore, tengchongite contains may include hydroxyl and its chemical formula needs to be modified .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0597.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: global energy budget; simple greenhouse model; infrared-opaque limit
Online: 27 November 2018 (03:47:23 CET)
Earth atmosphere is almost opaque in the infrared: about 374 W/m2 is absorbed by the atmosphere out of 396 W/m2 surface upward longwave radiation, and only about 22 W/m2 leaves the system unabsorbed in the atmospheric window. This makes rise to the idea to approximate the annual global mean energy flow system from a simple idealized greenhouse model, where the surface is surrounded by a single-layer shortwave (SW) transparent, longwave (LW) opaque, non-turbulent atmosphere. The energy flows in this geometry can be described by elementary arithmetic relationships. Starting from this model, the realistic Earth’s atmosphere can be achieved by introducing partial atmospheric SW opacity, partial atmospheric LW transparency and turbulent fluxes during the course of the deduction. The resulted global mean energy flow system is then compared to several data sets such as satellite observations from the CERES mission; estimates using direct surface observations and climate models; global energy and water cycle assessments; and independent detailed clear-sky radiative transfer computations. We find that the deduction from this idealized model approximates the real values in Earth energy budget with reasonable accuracy: the deduced fluxes and the observed ones are consistent within the acknowledged error of observations; while fundamental features of the initial geometry like special ratios and definite relationships between the fluxes are preserved.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0589.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: squaraine dye; near infrared; fluorescence; chloroquine; malaria; Plasmodium falciparium
Online: 29 September 2018 (10:15:33 CEST)
Chloroquine was among the first of several effective drug treatments against malaria until the onset of chloroquine resistance. In light of diminished clinical efficacy of chloroquine as an antimalarial therapeutic, there is potential in efforts to adapt chloroquine for other clinical applications, such as in combination therapies and in diagnostics. In this context, we designed and synthesized a novel asymmetrical squaraine dye coupled with chloroquine (SQR1-CQ). In this study, SQR1-CQ was used to label live Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) parasite cultures of varying sensitivities towards chloroquine. SQR1-CQ positively stained ring, mature trophozoite and schizont stages of both chloroquine–sensitive and chloroquine–resistant P. falciparum strains. In addition, SQR1-CQ exhibited significantly higher fluorescence, when compared to a chloroquine-BODIPY (borondipyrromethene) conjugate. We also achieved successful SQR1-CQ labelling of P. falciparum directly on thin blood smear preparations. Drug efficacy experiments measuring half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) showed lower concentration of effective inhibition against resistant strain K1 by SQR1-CQ compared to conventional chloroquine. Taken together, the versatile and highly fluorescent labelling capability of SQR1-CQ and promising preliminary IC50 findings potentiates it to be further developed as a promising diagnostic bioimaging tool with drug efficacy against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0010.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: infrared thermal imaging; infrared thermography; veterinary thermal imaging; pain assessment; osteoarthritis; canine back pain; canine brief pain inventory; photobiomodulation therapy; laser therapy
Online: 17 December 2021 (14:32:16 CET)
Historically, the evaluation and assessment of the clinical response to treatment for canine back pain is subjective and relies on owner and clinician assessment of pain. This study evaluated the use of sequential infrared thermal images as a measure of the response of canine patients with back pain to a prescribed series of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) treatments. Qualifying participants had histories of pain and dysfunction associated with spinal osteoarthritis or intervertebral disk disease, or of non-specific uni- or bilateral back pain along the paravertebral epaxial muscles. Each patient was initially thermally imaged prior to PBMT treatment and then received multiple PBMT treatments delivered to the appropriate spinal area on days 1, 2, 3, and 4. Participants were reimaged on day 7. Thermal images provided an objective measure of superficial temperature changes over the area of PBMT treatment of each patient after the PBMT regimen. The temperature correlated with statistically significant changes in Colorado State University Canine Chronic Pain Scale scoring (CPS) and owner assessment using the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), which includes a Pain Severity Score (PSS) and Pain Interference Score (PIS). The correlation of objective thermal imaging data with more subjective outcome measures suggests thermal imaging may be a valuable additional tool in monitoring therapy outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0385.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: spectral imaging; metallurgy; infrared thermography; pyrometry; temperature measurement; flow rate
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:47:38 CEST)
Real-time closed-loop control of metallurgical processes is still in its infancy, mostly based on simple models and limited sensor data, challenged by extreme temperature, harsh process conditions. Contact-free thermal imaging-based measurement approaches thus appear to be particularly suitable for process monitoring. With the potential to generate vast amounts of accurate data in real-time, combined with artificial intelligence methods to enable real-time analysis and integration of expert knowledge, thermal spectral imaging is identified as a promising method offering more robust and accurate identification of key parameters, such as surface temperature, morphology, composition and flow rate.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0360.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Thermal Infrared satellite data; carbon monoxide; boreal fires; carbon dioxide
Online: 19 August 2022 (08:27:04 CEST)
Biomass burning is an important and changing component of the global and hemispheric carbon cycles. Boreal forest fires in Russia and Canada are significant sources of greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The influence of carbon monoxide (CO) on the greenhouse effect is practically absent: its main absorption bands of 4.6 and 2.3 μm are far away from the climatically important spectral regions. Meanwhile, CO concentrations in fire plumes are closely related to CO2 and CH4 emissions from fires. On the other hand, satellite measurements of CO are much simpler than those for the aforementioned gases. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) provides a satellite-based CO data set since October, 2002 up to now. This communication presents estimates of CO emissions from biomass burning north of 30° N using a simple two-box mass-balance model. These results correlate closely with independently estimated CO emissions from the GFED4 bottom-up data base. Both ones reported record high emissions in 2021 throughout two decades, double the annual emissions comparing to the previous years. There have been two years with extremely high emissions (2003 and 2021), but for the rest of data upward trend with a rate of 3.6 ± 2.2 Tg CO yr-2 (4.8 ± 2.7% yr-1), was found. A similar rate of CO emission follows from the GFED4 data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0070.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Thermal Infrared satellite data; carbon monoxide; boreal fires; carbon dioxide
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:39:43 CEST)
Biomass burning is an important and changing component of the global and hemispheric carbon cycles. In particular, boreal forest fires in Russia and Canada are important sources of greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The influence of carbon monoxide (CO) on the climate is insignificant: its main absorption bands of 4.6 and 2.3 μm are far away from the climatically important regions of the spectrum. Meanwhile, CO concentrations in fire plumes are closely related to CO2 and CH4 emissions from fires. On the other hand, satellite measurements of CO are much simpler than those for the aforementioned gases. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) provides a long satellite-based CO data set. This article presents estimates of CO emissions from biomass burning north of 30° N using a simple two-box model. These results correlate closely with independently estimated CO emissions from the GFED4 bottom-up data base. Both ones reported record high emissions in 2021 throughout two decades, double the annual emissions comparing to the previous a few years. There have been several years with extreme emissions, but for the rest of data upward trend with a rate of 3.7 ± 2.3 Tg CO yr-2 (4.4 ± 2.8% per year), was found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: end-stage renal disease; peritoneal dialysis; far-infrared therapy (FIR)
Online: 20 January 2022 (09:05:44 CET)
Introduction: The treatment of peritoneal dialysis in end-stage renal disease is increasing in clinical practice. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation therapy on inflammation and the cellular immunity of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Materials and Methods: We recruited 56 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, and we included 32 patients from the experimental group and 24 patients from the control group in the final analysis. The experimental evaluation in our study was as follows: (1) We used abdominal computed tomography to measure the diameter and degree of hardening of the abdominal veins and large blood vessels to explore the changes in abdominal blood vessels. (2) The study compared the effects of peritoneal dialysis using albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, white blood cell, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Hs-CRP clearance rate, and HBAlC. (3) We compared the cytokine concentration of blood between the two groups while controlling for GM-CSF, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-18, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Results and Discussion: (1) There was no significant difference in the abdominal blood vessels of the experimental group relative to the control group according to abdominal CT measured over 6 months. (2) Our study demonstrates the statistically significant effect of FIR therapy on the following parameters: albumin (p = 0.048*), creatinine (p = 0.039*), and Hs-CRP (p < 0.001**) decreased significantly, and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, p = 0.043*) and glucose (p < 0.001**) increased significantly. Our study found that, in the experimental group, albumin and creatinine decreased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. However, our study also found that, in the experimental group, glucose (p < 0.001**) increased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. Peritoneal dialysis combined with FIR can reduce the side effects of glucose in dialysis buffer, which interferes with peritoneal inflammation and peritoneal mesothelial cell fibrosis. In addition, we also found that, in the experimental group, Hs-CRP (p < 0.001**) decreased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. (3) No statistical significance in the inflammatory cytokines related to FIR therapy differences was observed in our study. IFN-γ (p = 0.124), IL-12p70 (p = 0.093), IL-18 (p = 0.213), and TNF-α (p = 0.254) did not exhibit significant improvements in peritoneal dialysis with FIR treatment over 6 months. IFN-γ and IL-18 in the plasma of patients in the experimental group and the control group were higher in the third month than in the first month. Conclusion: We found that the effect of peritoneal dialysis improved significantly with FIR therapy, and significant improvements in the peritoneal permeability and inflammatory response were observed. end-stage renal disease; peritoneal dialysis; far-infrared therapy (FIR)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: concrete protection; infrared detection; image processing; cluster analysis; uniformity evaluation
Online: 23 July 2021 (11:02:54 CEST)
With the continuous development of urbanization and industrialization in the world, concrete is widely used in various engineering constructions as an engineering material. However, the consequent problem of durability of concrete structures is also becoming increasingly prominent. As an important additional measures, protective coating can effectively improve the durability of concrete performance. Moreover, the uniformity of the concrete surface coating will directly affect its protective effect. Therefore, we propose a nondestructive inspection and evaluation method of coating uniformity based on infrared imaging and cluster analysis for concrete surface coating uniformity detection and evaluation. Based on the obtained infrared images, a series of processing and analysis of the images were carried out using MATLAB software to obtain the characteristics of the infrared images of concrete surface. Finally, by extracting the temperature distribution data of the pixel points on the concrete surface, an evaluation method of concrete surface coating uniformity based on a combination of cluster analysis and hierarchical analysis was established. The evaluation results show that the determination results obtained by this method are consistent with the actual situation. This study has a positive contribution to the testing of concrete surface coating uniformity and its evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0414.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Skin hydration; Optical sensor; near infrared spectroscopy; Monte Carlo Simulation
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:07:29 CET)
Dermal water content is an important biophysical parameter in preserving skin integrity and preventing skin damage. Traditional electrical-based and open-chamber evaporimeters have several well-known limitations. In particular, such devices are costly, sizeable, and only provide arbitrary outputs. They also do not permit continuous and non-invasive monitoring of dermal water content, which can be beneficial for various consumer, clinical and cosmetic purposes. We report here on the design and development of a digital multi-wavelength optical sensor that performs continuous and non-invasive measurement of dermal water content. In-silico investigation on porcine skin was carried out using the Monte Carlo modelling strategy to evaluate the feasibility and characterise the sensor. Subsequently, an in-vitro experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of the sensor and benchmark its accuracy against a high-end, broad band spectrophotometer. Reference measurements were made against gravimetric analysis. The results demonstrate that the developed sensor can deliver accurate, continuous, and non-invasive measurement of skin hydration through measurement of dermal water content. Remarkably, the novel design of the sensor exceeded the performance of the high-end spectrophotometer due to the important denoising effects of temporal averaging. The authors believe, in addition to wellbeing and skin health monitoring, the designed sensor can particularly facilitate disease management in patients presenting diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, and atopic dermatitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0238.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: land surface temperature; all-weather; infrared; microwave; surface energy balance
Online: 20 November 2019 (11:12:02 CET)
An all-weather land surface temperature (LST) product derived at the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) is presented. The product is based on clear-sky LST retrieved from MSG/SEVIRI infrared (IR) measurements, complemented by LST estimated with a land surface energy balance (EB) model to fill gaps caused by clouds. The EB model solves the surface energy balance mostly using products derived at LSA-SAF. The new product is compared with in situ observations made at 3 dedicated validation stations, and with a Microwave (MW) based LST product derived from AMSR-E measurements. The validation against in-situ LST indicates an accuracy of the new product between -0.8 K and 1.1 K and a precision between 1.0 K and 1.4 K, generally showing a better performance than the MW product. The EB model shows some limitations concerning the representation of the LST diurnal cycle. Comparisons with MW LST generally show higher LST of the new product over desert areas, and lower LST over tropical regions. Several other imagers provide suitable measurements for implementing the proposed methodology, which offers the potential to obtain a global, nearly gap-free LST product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0314.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: near infrared spectroscopy; NIRS; skeletal muscle; muscle metabolism; electrical stimulation
Online: 28 April 2019 (11:27:52 CEST)
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to measure muscle mitochondrial capacity. The current method requires as many as 22 short ischemic occlusions to generate a recovery curve for mitochondrial capacity. PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of using a 6-occlusion analysis protocol to study muscle mitochondrial capacity. METHOD: Two independent, unidentified data sets were analyzed (bicep n=48, forearm n=41) from previous studies using a NIRS device (Artinis, Ltd.). Both data sets had two recovery tests that included 22 ischemic occlusions. A recovery rate used to indicate mitochondrial capacity was calculated two different ways (simultaneously). Each sample was analyzed with a MATLAB program; with a curve-fit for the 22 ischemic occlusions and curve matching for the first six ischemic cuffs and an end resting value. The two resulting rate constants were compared using correlations, both for the two data sets, good and bad fitting data, using the best 5 of 6 points for the 6 cuff approach. RESULTS: The rate constants were not significantly different between the 22 cmuff and 6 cuff for the total data sets: bicep (1.43+0.32min-1, 1.44+0.35min-1, p=0.56), forearm (1.94+0.42min-1, 1.95+0.44min-1, p=0.76). The average bicep rate constants, when compared to each other, had an equation of y=1.07x-0.09, R2=0.90. The average forearm rate constants, when compared to each other, had an equation of 0.98x+0.02, R2=0.93. CONCLUSIONS: The 6-Cuff analysis provided the same results as the longer 22-cuff. The 6-cuff approach is both shorter in time and uses less ischemic occlusion periods, increasing the practicality of the NIRS mitochondrial capacity test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0088.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS); oxygen consumption; hemoglobin; myoglobin; skeletal muscle
Online: 8 April 2019 (11:28:43 CEST)
NIRS uses the relative absorption of light at 850nm and 760nm, to determine skeletal muscle oxygen saturation. Previous studies have used the ratio of both signals to report muscle oxygen saturation. Purpose: To evaluate the different approaches used to represent muscle oxygen saturation, and to evaluate the pulsations of the O2heme and Heme signal. Method: Twelve participants, ages 20-29years were tested on the forearm flexor muscles using continuous wave NIRS at rest. Measurements were taken during 2-3mins rest, during physiological calibration (5-minuts Ischemia) and during reperfusion. Results: There was a significant difference in pulse size between O2heme and Heme signal at the three locations (p < 0.05). Resting oxygen saturation was 58.8+9.2%, 69.6+3.9%, and 89.2+6.9% when calibrated using O2heme, TSI, and Heme, respectively. Conclusion: The difference in magnitude of O2heme and Heme pulse with each heartbeat might suggest different anatomical locations of these signals, which propose calibrating with just one of the signals instead of the ratio of both. Calculations of physiological calibration must account for increased blood volume in the tissue, because of the changes in blood volume which appear to be primarily from the O2heme signal. Resting oxygen levels calibrated with Heme agrees with theoretical oxygen saturation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0042.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: infrared imaging; wide field of view; athermalization; two-piece lens
Online: 8 March 2017 (04:40:47 CET)
For a wide field of view (FoV) wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system with a single decoding kernel, the off-axis aberration tends to cause artefacts. In order to correct off-axis aberration, many pieces of lenses will reduce the transmission efficiency and increase the weight and cost. To meet requirements for wide FoV, wide operating temperature and low weight of infrared imaging systems, this paper reports a wide-FoV wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system with a two-piece lens. Its principle, design, manufacture, measurement and performance validation are successively discussed. This paper constructs an optimization problem which maximizes the weighted mean of PSF consistency for both the FoV and operating temperature range. The two-piece lens contains four surfaces, where three aspheric surfaces are introduced to reduce optical off-axis aberrations and a cubic surface is introduced to achieve athermalization. The optical phase mask containing an aspheric surface and a cubic surface is manufactured by nano-metric machining of ion implanted material(NiIM). Experimental results validate that our wide-FoV wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system has a full FoV of 26.10° and an operating temperature over -20°C to +70°C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0132.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: magnetite; sol-gel; carbonic anhydrase; protein secondary structure; entrapment; infrared spectroscopy
Online: 10 May 2022 (10:00:22 CEST)
Enzymatically active nanocomposites are a perspective class of bioactive materials that finds their application in numerous fields of science and technology ranging from biosensors and therapeutic agents to industrial catalysts. Key properties of such systems are their stability and activity under various conditions, the problems that are addressed in any research devoted to this class of materials. Сomprehension ща the principles that affect these properties play the most important role in the development of the field, especially when it takes to a new class of bioactive systems. Recently, a new class of enzymatically doped magnetite-based sol-gel systems emerged and paved the way for a variety of potent bioactive magnetic materials with improved thermal stability. Such systems already showed themself as perspective industrial and therapeutic agents, but are still under intense investigation and many aspects are still unclear. Here we made a first attempt to describe the interaction of biomolecules with magnetite-based sol-gel materials and to investigate facets of protein structure rearrangements occurring within the pores of magnetite sol-gel matrix using dedicate Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0487.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; brain; BOLD signal; breath holding; cytochrome C oxidase
Online: 29 September 2021 (10:50:12 CEST)
A major limitation of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is its high sensitivity to the scalp and low sensitivity to the brain of adult humans. In the present work we use multi-distance hyperspectral NIRS (hNIRS) to investigate the optimal source-detector distances, range of wavelengths, and analysis techniques to separate cerebral responses to 30-s breath holds (BHs) from the responses in the superficial tissue layer in healthy adult humans. We observed significant responses to BHs in the scalp hemodynamics. Cerebral responses to BHs were detected in the cytochrome C oxidase redox (rCCO) at 4 cm without using data from the short-distance channel. Using the data from the 1 cm channel in the two-layer regression algorithm showed that hemodynamic and rCCO responses also occurred at 3cm. We found that the waveband 700-900 nm was optimal for the detection of cerebral responses to BHs in adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0599.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: upconversion nanoparticles; near-infrared-II; excitation mechanisms; luminescence quenching; microscopic imaging
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:18:36 CET)
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising bioimaging nanoprobes due to their excellent photostability. As one of the most commonly-used lanthanide activators, Tm3+ ions have perfect ladder-type electron configuration and can be directly excited by bio-friendly near-infrared-II (NIR-II) wavelengths. Here, the emission characteristics of Tm3+-doped nanoparticles under laser excitations of different near-infrared-II wavelengths were systematically investigated. The 1064 nm, 1150 nm and 1208 nm lasers are proposed to be three excitation strategies with different response spectra of Tm3+ ions. Particularly we found that 1150 nm laser excitation enables intense three-photon 475 nm emission, which is nearly 100 times stronger than that excited by 1064 nm excitation. We further optimized the luminescence brightness after investigating the luminescence quenching mechanism of bare NaYF4:Tm (1.75%) core. After growing inert shell, ten-fold increase of emission intensity was achieved. Combining the advantages of NIR-II wavelength and the higher-order nonlinear excitation, a promising facile excitation strategy was developed for the application of thulium-doped upconversion nanoparticles in single nanoparticle imaging and cancer cell microscopic imaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: iodate; crystal structure; x-ray diffraction; density functional theory; infrared absorption
Online: 7 August 2019 (03:42:19 CEST)
Synthesis and characterization of anhydrous LiZn(IO3)3 powders prepared from an aqueous solution are reported. Morphological and compositional analyses were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray measurements. The synthesized powders exhibit a needle-like morphology after annealing at 400°C. A crystal structure for the synthesized compound has been proposed from powder X-ray diffraction and density-functional theory calculations. Rietveld refinements led to a monoclinic structure, which can be described with space group P21, number 4, and unit-cell parameters a = 21.874(9) Å, b = 5.171(2) Å, c = 5.433(2) Å, and beta = 120.93(4)º. Density-functional theory calculations supported the same crystal structure. Infrared spectra were also collected and the vibrations associated to the different modes discussed. The non-centrosymmetric space group determined for this new polymorph of LiZn(IO3)3, the characteristics of its infrared absorption spectrum, and the observed second harmonic generation suggest a promising infrared non-linear optical material.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0306.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: silicon; graphene; internal photoemission; field-effect transistor; photodetector; near-infrared; waveguide
Online: 29 June 2019 (10:41:17 CEST)
In recent years graphene has attracted much interest due to its unique properties of flexibility, strong light-matter interaction, high carrier mobility and broadband absorption. In addition, graphene can be deposited on many substrates including silicon with which is able to form Schottky junctions opening the path to the realization of near-infrared silicon photodetectors based on the internal photoemission effect where graphene play the role of the metal. In this work, we review the very recent progress of the near-infrared photodetectors based on Schottky junctions involving graphene. This new family of device promises to overcome the limitations of the Schottky photodetectors based on metals showing the potentialities to compare favorably with germanium photodetectors currently employed in silicon photonics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0433.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy; Camellia seeds kernel; Oil content; Moisture content
Online: 23 July 2018 (21:12:39 CEST)
A fast and effective determination method of different species of vegetable seeds oil is vital in the plant oil industry. The near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method was developed in this study to massively analyze the oil and moisture contents of Camellia gauchowensis Chang and C. semiserrata Chi seeds kernels. In the prediction models of NIRS, the levels of accuracy obtained were sufficient for C. gauchowensis Chang and C. semiserrata Chi, the correlation coefficient of which oil were 0.983 and 0.962, respectively, while which of moisture were 0.937 and 0.907, respectively. The near infrared spectrum of crush seeds kernels was more precise compared to intact kernels. Based on the calibration models of the two Camellia species, the NIRS predictive oil contents of C. gauchowensis Chang and C. semiserrata Chi seeds kernels were 48.71 ± 8.94% and 31.71 ± 7.39%, respectively, and the NIRS predictive moisture contents were 4.39 ± 1.08% and 3.49 ± 0.71%, respectively. Compared with the traditional chemical measurement, the rapid, precise measurement of oil and moisture of C. gauchowensis Chang and C. semiserrata Chi seeds kernels can be actualized by NIRS method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: optoelectronic sensor; near-infrared spectroscopy; thrombus diagnosis; shock monitoring; fatigue evaluation
Online: 26 April 2017 (06:05:07 CEST)
We attempted to apply the optoelectronic sensor entitled 'OPT101' in intensive care unit clinics, based on its optoelectronic response characteristics in near-infrared wavelength range and near-infrared spectroscopy principle. The successful novel applications in our lab include early-diagnosis and therapeutic effect tracking of thrombus, noninvasive monitoring of patients' shock severity, and fatigue evaluation. This study also expects further improvements of the detector in noninvasive clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: exhaled breath analysis; field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry; FAIMS; Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; FTIR; luminescence sensing; infrared sensors; hyphenated techniques; hybrid techniques; acetone; carbon dioxide; oxygen
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:49:38 CEST)
The reliable online analysis of volatile compounds in exhaled breath remains a challenge as a plethora of molecules occur in different concentration ranges (i.e. ppt to %), and need to be detected against an extremely complex background matrix. While this complexity is commonly addressed by hyphenating a specific analytical technique with appropriate preconcentration and/or preseparation strategies prior to detection, we herein propose the combination of three analytical tools based on truly orthogonal measurement principles as an alternative solution: field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy-based sensors utilizing substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (iHWG), and luminescence sensing (LS). These three tools have been integrated into a single compact analytical platform suitable for online exhaled breath analysis. The analytical performance of this prototype system was tested via artificial breath samples containing nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and acetone as a model volatile organic compound (VOC) commonly present and detected in breath. Functionality of the combined system was demonstrated by detecting these analytes in their respectively breath-relevant concentration range and mutually independent of each other generating orthogonal yet correlated analytical signals. Finally, adaptation of the system towards the analysis of real breath samples during future studies is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0327.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy; water structure; hydrogen bonds; protein solution; solvent properties
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:25:26 CEST)
This work presents the first evidence that dissolved globular proteins change the arrangement of hydrogen bonds in water, with different proteins showing quantitatively different effects. Using ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflection – Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopic analysis of OH-stretch bands, we obtain quantitative estimates of the relative amounts of the previously reported four subpopulations of water structures coexisting in a variety of aqueous solutions. Where solvatochromic dyes can measure the properties of solutions of non-ionic polymers, the results correlate well with ATR-FTIR measurements. In protein solutions to which solvatochromic dye probes cannot be applied, NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy was used for the first time to estimate the hydrogen bond donor acidity of water. We found strong correlations between the solvent acidity and arrangement of hydrogen bonds in aqueous solutions for several globular proteins. Even quite similar proteins are found to change water properties in dramatically different ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0236.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: apple vinegar; sodium diacetate; high moisture maize grain; aerobic stability; infrared thermography
Online: 17 January 2022 (15:21:36 CET)
This study was carried out to determine the effects of apple vinegar and sodium diacetate addition on the aerobic stability of fermented high moisture maize grain (HMM) silage after opening. In the study, the effect of three different levels (0, 0.5, 1.0%) of apple vinegar (AV) and sodium diacetate (SDA) supplementation to fermented HMM at two different storage conditions (27-29°C, 48% Humidity; 35-37°C, 26% Humidity) were investigated. The material of the study was fermented rolled maize grain with 62% moisture content stored for about 120 days. Silage samples were subjected to aerobic stability test with 3 replicates for each treatment group. Wendee and microbiological analyses were made at 0, 2, 4, 7, and 12 days. Meanwhile, samples were displayed in the T200 IR brand thermal camera. According to the thermogram results, 1% SDA addition positively affected HMM silages at the second and fourth days of aerobic stability at both storage conditions (p<0.05). Aerobic stability and infrared thermography analysis indicated that 1% AV, 0.5%, and 1% SDA additions to HMM silages had promising effects. Due to our results, we concluded that thermal camera images might be used as an alternative quality indicator for silages in laboratory conditions.
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: high-frequency near-infrared diode laser; osteoarthritis; inflammation; matrix metalloproteinase; human chondrocyte
Online: 9 January 2020 (12:22:18 CET)
High-frequency near-infrared diode laser provides high peak output, low heat accumulation, and efficient biostimulation. Although these characteristics are considered suitable for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment, the effect of high-frequency near-infrared diode laser in in vitro or in vivo OA models has not yet been reported. Therefore, we aimed to assess the biological effects of high-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation on IL-1β-induced chondrocyte inflammation in an in vitro OA model. Normal Human Articular Chondrocyte-Knee (NHAC-Kn) cells were stimulated with human recombinant IL-1β and irradiated with high-frequency near-infrared diode laser (910 nm, 4 or 8 J/cm2). The mRNA and protein expression of relevant inflammation- and cartilage destruction-related proteins was analyzed. IL-1β treatment significantly increased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13. High-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation significantly reduced the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-1, and MMP-3. Similarly, high-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation decreased the IL-1β-induced increase in protein expression and secreted levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of high-frequency near-infrared diode laser in OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: trapezoidal flap; modified triangular flap; sinus augmentation; VAS; VRS; thermal infrared imaging
Online: 18 May 2018 (09:26:15 CEST)
Background: Post-operative pain and swelling are frequently observed after sinus lift procedures. The aim of the present study was a clinical evaluation of swelling and pain of two sinus lift different flaps technique measured through visual analogue scale (VAS), verbal rating scale (VRS) and infrared thermal imaging (i.e., thermography). Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in fifteen patients treated for a total of 30 sinus randomly allotted into two groups. In patients of Group I, a triangular flap was performed, while in Group II modified triangular flap without anterior release was performed. Postoperative pain was scored by VAS and inflammation was recorded by VRS at 2, 4, 6 and 14 days. The facial temperature was recorded before and after sinus augmentation, at 2, 4, 6 day intervals for the first week and at 14 day, to check the course of healing. Results: In group I the pain intensity was recorded at 2 days after the surgery with a score of 38.67 ± 6.4 mm. Swelling was higher at 2 and 4 day, and it was absent at day 6. Facial temperature difference before and after the procedure was 3 (4.737 °C ± 0.37). In Group II the pain was lower than in Group I (p < 0,05). Swelling scored 2 on the first and second day, and it was reduced at day 4. After the second day the difference of temperature reduced significantly compared to day of surgery (0.77 °C), at 2 and 4 days no difference was registered. Conclusion: In conclusion based on the outcome of the present study, modified triangular flap can be used with success in sinus augmentation procedures and is to be preferred to trapezoidal flap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: systems analysis; model predictive control; transcranial electrical stimulation; functional near infrared spectroscopy; pupillometry
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:26:00 CEST)
Individual differences in the responsiveness of the brain to transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is increasingly demonstrated in large variability in the tES effects. Anatomically detailed computational brain models have been developed to address this variability; however, static brain models are not ‘realistic’ in accounting for the dynamic state of the brain. Therefore, human-in-the-loop optimization is proposed in this perspective article based on an extensive systems analysis of the tES neurovascular effects. First, modal analysis was conducted using a physiologically detailed neurovascular model that found stable modes in the 0 Hz to 0.05 Hz range for the pathway for vessel response through the smooth muscle cells, measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). tES effects in the 0 Hz to 0.05 Hz range can also be measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-tDCS data with a maximum TR=10sec. Therefore, we investigated an open-source fMRI-tDCS dataset that used a TR=3.36sec. We found that both the anodal tDCS condition and sham tDCS condition had similar Finite Impulse Response at the region of interest underlying the anode and a remote location, which indicated a global hemodynamic effect of sham tDCS beyond the intended transient sensations. Here, transient sensations can have arousal effects on the hemodynamics so we conducted a healthy case series for black box modeling of fNIRS-pupillometry of short-duration tDCS effects. The block exogeneity test rejected the claim that tDCS is not a 1-step Granger-cause of the fNIRS total hemoglobin changes (HbT) and pupil dilation changes (p<0.05). Also, grey-box modeling using fNIRS of the tDCS effects in chronic stroke showed HbT response to be significantly different (paired-sample t-test, p<0.05) between the ipsilesional and the contralesional hemisphere for primary motor cortex tDCS and cerebellar tDCS which was subserved by the smooth muscle cells. Here, our perspective is that various physiological pathways subserving tES effects can lead to state-trait variability that can be challenging for clinical translation. Therefore, we conducted a case study on human-in-the-loop optimization using our reduced dimension model and a stochastic, derivative-free Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy. Future studies need to investigate human-in-the-loop optimization of tES for reducing inter-subject and intra-subject variability in tES effects.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Single-pixel; spectroscopy; near-infrared; DMD; multiplexing; spectral coding; sub-millisecond; compressive measurement
Online: 31 July 2021 (15:10:23 CEST)
In this contribution, we present a high-speed multiplex grating spectrometer based on a spectral coding approach that is founded on principles of compressive sensing. The spectrometer employs a single-pixel InGaAs detector to measure the signals encoded by an amplitude spatial light modulator (digital micromirror device, DMD). This approach leads to a speed advantage and multiplex sensitivity advantage atypical for standard dispersive systems. Exploiting the 18.2 kHz pattern rate of the DMD, we demonstrate 4.2 ms acquisition times for full spectra with a bandwidth of 450 nm (5250 cm-1 – 4300 cm-1; 1.9 µm – 2.33 µm). Due to the programmability of the DMD, spectral regions of interest can be chosen freely, thus reducing acquisition times further, down to the sub-millisecond regime. The adjustable resolving power of the system accessed by means of computer simulations is discussed, quantified for different measurement modes, and verified by comparison with a state-of-the-art Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. We show measurements of characteristic polymer absorption bands in different operation regimes of the spectrometer. The theoretical multiplex advantage of 8 was experimentally verified by comparison of the noise behavior of the spectral coding approach and a standard line-scan approach.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Peroxy radicals, near-infrared spectroscopy, Ã←X electronic transition, cavity ring down spectroscopy
Online: 21 July 2021 (16:19:16 CEST)
The absolute absorption cross section of the ethyl peroxy radical, C2H5O2, in the Ã←X ̃ electronic transition with the peak wavelength at 7596 cm-1, has been determined by the method of dual wavelengths time resolved continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy. C2H5O2 radicals were generated from pulsed 351 nm photolysis of C2H6/Cl2 mixture in presence of O2 and detected on one of the CRDS paths. Two methods have been applied for the determination of the C2H5O2 absorption cross section: (i) based on Cl-atoms being converted alternatively to either C2H5O2 by adding C2H6 or to hydro peroxy radicals, HO2, by adding CH3OH to the mixture, whereby HO2 was reliably quantified on the second CRDS path in the 21 vibrational overtone at 6638.2 cm-1 (ii) based on the reaction of C2H5O2 with HO2, measured under either excess HO2 or under excess C2H5O2 concentration. Both methods lead to the same peak absorption cross section of C2H5O2,7596 cm-1 = (1.0±0.2) × 10-20 cm2. The rate constant for the cross reaction between of C2H5O2 and HO2 has been measured to be (6.5±1.6) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0127.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: focal plane array, thermal source, synchrotron radiation, infrared spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, silk, SZ2080
Online: 11 March 2019 (09:38:21 CET)
A focal plane array (FPA) detector was used for hyperspectral imaging in the infrared (IR) spectral region using thermal and synchrotron light sources. FPA Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) imaging microspectroscopy will be able to monitor real time changes at specific absorption bands when combined with high brightness synchrotron source. In this study, several types of samples with unique structural motifs were selected and used for assessing the capability of the FPA-FTIR imaging technique. It was shown that the time required for polariscopy at IR wavelengths can be substantially reduced by the FPA-FTIR imaging approach. By using natural and laser fabricated polymers with sub-wavelength features, alignment of absorbing molecular dipoles was revealed as well as higher order patterns (laser fabricated structures). Micro-spectroscopy of absorber orientation reveals alignment patterns even when they are not spatially resolved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0120.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: NDIR; methane; sensor; infrared; thin film; III-V; heterostructure; bandpass; microwave; sputter; MBE
Online: 7 October 2018 (10:52:34 CEST)
In this work performance improvements are described of a low power consumption non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) methane (CH4) gas sensor using customised optical thin film bandpass filters (BPF). BPF’s shape the spectral characteristic of the combined mid infrared III-V based light emitting diode (LED)/ photodiode (PD) light source/detector optopair, enhancing NDIR CH4 sensor performance. The BPF, deposited using a novel microwave plasma assisted pulsed DC sputter deposition process, is deposited at room temperature directly onto the temperature sensitive PD heterostructure. BPF’s comprise germanium (Ge) and niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) alternating high and low refractive index layers respectively. Two different optical filter designs are progressed; with BPF bandwidths (BWs) of 160 nm and 300 nm. Comparison of modelled and measured NDIR sensor performance is described, highlighting maximized signal to noise ratio (SNR) and minimized cross talk performance benefits. BPF spectral stability for various environmental temperature and humidity conditions is demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: clay ball; asphalt pavement; pattern and density; infrared image collection system; field core
Online: 16 January 2018 (05:00:02 CET)
Clay ball is a pavement surface defect which refers to a clump in which clay or dirt is mixed with hot asphalt mixture. Clay ball is typically caused by a combination of aggregate contamination of clay or soil, high aggregate moisture, and low production temperature at the asphalt plant. It usually appears a few weeks or months after paving under traffic load, after being liquefied and knocked from the pavement surface. Clay balls can be the source of potholing, raveling, and other issues such as moisture infiltration and reduced ride quality. This paper presents an investigation of the clay balls on US-31 one winter after construction in Hamilton County, Indiana. In order to understand the pavement condition, their severity was measured using both visual observation and infrared image collection system. In addition, a clay ball distribution pattern, its density, and cores condition were evaluated. A precipitation effect on clay ball formation was investigated for finding a cause of the clay balls. The investigation found that infrared image collection system was appropriate in detecting the clay balls. The clay balls were elliptic in shape with 1 inch to 4 inches in diameter, and the maximum clay ball depth is almost penetrating the entire surface course. It was also found that the asphalt paving on the raining days or right after raining could increase the potential of clay balls. Monitoring of aggregate moisture during construction on or after raining days should be able to reduce the risk of clay balls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0028.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Yb2+ doped glass; fiber laser; visible-infrared lasers; white light source; rod in tube
Online: 6 April 2022 (04:04:54 CEST)
In this study, divalent Yb2+-doped silica fiber was fabricated using rod-in-tube technology. The fiber core of Yb2+-doped silica glass was prepared by high-temperature melting technology under vacuum conditions. The spectroscopic properties of the Yb2+-doped glass and fiber were studied. The experiments indicate that divalent Yb2+-doped glass has a high quantum efficiency and superbroadband fluorescence in the visible region with an excitation wavelength of 405 nm. In additionally, the results suggest that Yb2+-doped fiber has a potential for application in visible fiber laser and fiber amplification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0335.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cereals; Grain protein; Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS)-based sensors; Prediction algorithms; FOSS; Hone Lab
Online: 25 February 2022 (11:21:57 CET)
Achieving global goals on sustainable nutrition, health, and wellbeing will depend on delivering enhanced diets to humankind. This will require, among others, instantaneous access to information on food quality at key points within agri-food systems. Although stationary methods are usually used to quantify grain quality (wet-lab chemistry, benchtop NIR spectrometer); these do not suit many required user-cases, such as stakeholders in decentralized agri-food-chains that are typical for emerging economies. Therefore, we explored new technologies and models that might aid these particular user-cases. For this purpose, we generated the NIR spectra of 328 grain samples from multiple cereals (finger millet, foxtail millet, maize, pearl millet, sorghum) with a standard benchtop NIR Spectrometer (DS2500, FOSS) and a novel mobile NIR-based sensor (HL-EVT5, Hone). We explored a range of classical deterministic and novel machine learning (ML)-driven models to build calibrations out of the NIR spectra. We were able to build relevant calibrations out of both types of spectra. At the same time, ML-based methods enhanced the prediction capacity of calibration models compared to classical deterministic methods. We also documented that the prediction of grain protein content based on NIR spectra generated by a mobile sensor (HL-EVT5, Hone) was highly relevant for quantitative protein predictions (R2 = 0.91, RMSE = 0.97, RPD = 3.48). Thus, the findings of this study lay the foundations on which to expand the utilization of NIR spectroscopy applications for agricultural research and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0376.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: thermal infrared; reflectance spectroscopy; emissivity; surface roughness; geological sample preparation; hyperspectral; drill core scanning
Online: 17 October 2018 (07:51:17 CEST)
High-resolution laboratory-based thermal infrared spectroscopy is an up-and-coming tool in the field of geological remote sensing. Its spatial resolution allows for detailed analyses at centimeter to sub-millimeter scale. However, this increase in resolution creates challenges with sample characteristics such as grain size, surface roughness and porosity that can influence the spectral signature. This research explores the effect of rock sample surface preparation on the TIR spectral signatures. We applied three surface preparation methods (split, saw and polish) to determine how the resulting differences in surface roughness affects both the spectral shape as well as the spectral contrast. The selected samples are a pure quartz sandstone, a quartz sandstone containing a small percentage of kaolinite, and an intermediate-grained gabbro. To avoid instrument or measurement type biases we conducted measurements on three TIR instruments, resulting in directional hemispherical reflectance spectra, emissivity spectra and bi-directional reflectance images. Surface imaging and analyses were performed with scanning electron microscopy and profilometer measurements. We demonstrate that surface preparation affects the TIR spectral signatures influencing both the spectral contrast as well as the spectral shape. The results show that polished surfaces predominantly display a high spectral contrast while the sawed and split surfaces display up to 25% lower reflectance values. Furthermore, the sawed and split surfaces display spectral signature shape differences at specific wavelengths, which we link to mineral transmission features, surface orientation effects and multiple reflections in fine-grained minerals. Hence, the influence of rock surface preparation should be taken in consideration to avoid an inaccurate geological interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: infrared thermography; blood perfusion signal; thermal excitation; bioheat transfer; Pennes equation; active thermography imaging
Online: 8 August 2018 (03:28:55 CEST)
Blood perfusion quantification is important vital parameters in different diagnostic procedure, using infrared thermography imaging; it is reliable to use this technique as non-contact, non-invasive blood flow measurement method. Therefore, we developed a measurement protocol for blood flow over the arm's anterior surface. By using the superficial brachial and radial veins to be monitored under the impact of cold-excitation of (2 °C to 5 °C), the blood perfusion signal was detected using thermal imager of long-wave infrared spectral range (LWIR, 7μm - 14 μm). The simulation of Penne's bioheat transfer equation was performed to be compared with results obtained from the infrared thermography. Furthermore, the proposed blood flow monitoring using external adjusting of the excitation temperature, by using (cold-compress, or cold air-stream) applied to the region under testing. The signal detected resembles to the hemodynamic pulse of the superficial veins, in the definition of systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. Moreover, statistical analysis applied to the BFIRT signals from 24 subjects to estimate the skin's mean temperature after recovery from the thermal excitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0099.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; multivariate analysis; partial least-squares regression; floor litter; optimal wavelength selection
Online: 21 September 2017 (04:36:21 CEST)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was implemented to monitor the moisture content of broadleaf litters. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models, incorporating optimal wavelength selection techniques, have been proposed to better predict the litter moisture of forest floor. Three broadleaf litters were used to sample the reflection spectra corresponding the different degrees of litter moisture. Maximum normalization preprocessing technique was successfully applied to remove unwanted noise from the reflectance spectra of litters. Four variable selection methods were also employed to extract the optimal subset of measured spectra for establishing the best prediction model. The results showed that the PLSR model with the peak of beta coefficients method was the best predictor among all candidate models. The proposed NIRS procedure is thought to be a suitable technique for on-the-spot evaluation of litter moisture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0073.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: land surface temperature; thermal infrared; calibration; generalized split-window; mono-window; database; radiative transfer
Online: 16 September 2016 (13:12:09 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is routinely retrieved from remote sensing instruments using semi-empirical relationships between top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances and LST, using ancillary data such as total column water vapor or emissivity. These algorithms are calibrated using a set of forward radiative transfer simulations that return the TOA radiances given the LST and the thermodynamic profiles. The simulations are done in order to cover a wide range of surface and atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries. This work analyses calibration strategies, considering some of the most critical factors that need to be taken into account when building a calibration dataset, covering the full dynamic range of relevant variables. A sensitivity analysis of split-windows and single channel algorithms revealed that selecting a set of atmospheric profiles that spans the full range of surface temperatures and total column water vapor combinations that are physically possible seems beneficial for the quality of the regression model. However, the calibration is extremely sensitive to the low-level structure of the atmosphere indicating that the presence of atmospheric boundary layer features such as temperature inversions or strong vertical gradients of thermodynamic properties may affect LST retrievals in a non-trivial way. This article describes the criteria established in the EUMETSAT Land Surface Analysis – Satellite Application Facility to calibrate its LST algorithms applied both for current and forthcoming sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0289.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: molecular recognition; infrared spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy; supersonic expansion; chirality induction; hydrogen bond topology; cooperativity; chlorination
Online: 17 December 2021 (14:25:55 CET)
Prereactive complexes in noncovalent organocatalysis are sensitive to the relative chirality of the binding partners and to hydrogen bond isomerism. Both effects are present when a transiently chiral alcohol docks on a chiral α-hydroxy ester, turning such 1:1 complexes into elementary, non-reactive model systems for chirality induction in the gas phase. With the help of linear infrared and Raman spectroscopy in supersonic jet expansions, conformational preferences are investigated for benzyl alcohol in combination with methyl lactate, also exploring p-chlorination of the alcohol and the achiral homolog methyl glycolate to identify potential London dispersion and chirality effects on the energy sequence. Three of the four combinations prefer barrierless complexation via the hydroxy group of the ester (association). In contrast, the lightest complex shows predominantly insertion into the intramolecular hydrogen bond, like the analogous lactate and glycolate complexes of methanol. The experimental findings are rationalized with computations and a uniform helicality induction in the alcohol by the lactate is predicted, independent on insertion into or association with the internal lactate hydrogen bond. p-Chlorination of benzyl alcohol has a stabilizing effect on association, because the insertion motif prevents a close contact between the chlorine and the hydroxy ester. After simple anharmonicity and substitution corrections, the B3LYP-D3 approach offers a fairly systematic description of the known spectroscopic data on alcohol complexes with α-hydroxy esters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0388.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: cosmic microwave background; cosmic infrared background; cosmic background detector; Planck Surveyor; Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey
Online: 26 October 2021 (13:53:29 CEST)
In this research, the other reasonable explanations for the cosmic microwave background radiation is revealed. Due to the microwave resolution, it very roughly shows the image of galaxies in the universe. Moreover, the intensity measurement on each pixel of the image is the sum of the incident microwaves from different directions, so the microwave image cannot represent the microwave sources clearly far away from the Earth. Hence, we propose a simulation after removing several strongest microwave sources, the remaining microwave radiation sources can establish a very uniform intensity distribution over a range of several ten light years. On the other hand, Sloan Digital Sky Survey reveals 200 million galaxies in the universe and, in fact, only to eliminate the contributions of all galaxies from the microwave image is impossible. The way to further obtain the fine-scale structure by only removing the few strongest microwave sources as the foreground effect will keep the other contributions from all the rest galaxies and stars. Therefore, the Cosmic Microwave Background cannot be uniquely explained the radiation which was left after the initial formation of the universe. Moreover, it is the mainly residual radiation from the un-calculated galaxies and inaccurate estimation of the microwave source strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0120.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: IMERG; Stage IV; Infrared; Passive microwave; Snow; Ice; Precipitation; GPM; Wet-bulb temperature; AMSR-2
Online: 3 June 2021 (14:59:21 CEST)
Various products of the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and passive mi-crowave (PMW) sensors are assessed with respect to near-surface wet-bulb temperature (Tw), precipitation intensity, and surface type (i.e., with and without snow and ice on the surface) over the CONUS and using Stage-IV product as reference precipitation. IMERG products include precipitation estimates from infrared (IR), combined PMW, and their combination. PMW products generally have higher skills than IR over snow- and ice-free surfaces. Over snow- and ice-covered surfaces (1) PMW products (except AMSR-2) show a higher correlation coefficient than IR, (2) IR and PMW precipitation products tend to overestimate precipitation, but at colder temperatures (e.g., Tw<-10oC) PMW products tend to underestimate and IR product continues to show large overestimations, and (3) PMW sensors show higher overall skill in detecting precipitation oc-currence, but not necessarily at very cold Tw. The results suggest that the current approach of IMERG (i.e., replacing PMW with IR precipitation estimates over snow- and ice-surfaces) may need to be revised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0054.v1
Subject: Keywords: Asphalt Rheology, Asphalt Rubber, Component Analysis, Crumb Rubber Modifier, FTIR, Guayule Resin, Infrared Spectra, Superpave
Online: 5 October 2020 (08:15:30 CEST)
Asphalt cement will not last for a long time as the world encounters a diminishment in the crude oil. For sustainable, flexible pavement development, new resources can provide a contribution to replace it partially or entirely. In this study, asphalt was partially and entirely replaced by guayule resin as a bioresource by-product, extracted during the guayule natural rubber production. Crumb rubber modifier (CRM) was used as an asphalt enhancer. The Superpave grading system was followed at high, intermediate, and low temperatures to evaluate such innovative binder for rutting, fatigue, and thermal cracking, respectively, in addition to viscosity. Therefore, the original, short-term aging and long-term aging were simulated using tank, rolling thin film oven, and pressure aging vessel materials. Additionally, component analysis using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was provided to link the rheological properties with the chemical changes. Outcomes showed a relatively much lower viscosity of guayule in the same high-temperature asphalt grade indicating savings in plant energy consumption and reduced environmental emissions. CRM enhanced guayule, but not as much as asphalt, proven by polymeric component migration through liquid binder. This enhancement was reflected in the rheological performance besides other factors. As-received guayule seems to have high oxygen content proven by strong absorption peak intensities of oxidative bonds (e.g., Carbonyl and sulfoxide). Such pre-oxidation was negatively reflected in the intermediate- and low-temperature performance of guayule and guayule-based binders. However, the investigated guayule had potential to compensate for asphalt replacement in the presence of CRM by 23–42% by weight of blend.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land surface temperature; operational land imager; thermal infrared sensor; normalized difference vegetation Index; geospatial technology
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:28:24 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature is a one of the key variable of Global climate changes and model which estimate radiating budget in heat balance as control of climate model. It is a major influenced factor by the ability of the surface emissivity. In this study, were used Landsat 8 satellite image that have Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor to calculate Land Surface Temperature through geospatial technology over Ampara district, Sri Lanka. The Land Surface Temperature was estimated with respect to Land Surface Emissivity and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values determined from the Red and Near Infrared channels. Land Surface Emissivity was processed directly by the thermal Infrared bands. Pixels based calculation were used to effort at LANDSAT 8 images that thermal Band 10 various dates in this study. The results were achievable to compute Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Land Surface Emissivity, and Land Surface Temperature with applicable manner to compare with land use/ land cover data. It determines and predicts the changes of surface temperature to favorable to decision making process for the society. Study area faces seasonal drought in Sri Lanka, the prediction method that how land can be efficiently used with the present condition. Therefore, the Land Surface Temperature estimation can prove whether new irrigation systems for agricultural activities or can transformed source of energy into useful form that introducing solar hubs for energy production in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: tabletop system, user position identification, infrared image recognition, multi-touch gesture, FTIR panel, system usability
Online: 8 March 2018 (16:15:54 CET)
A tabletop system can facilitate multi-user collaboration in a variety of settings including small meetings, group work, and education and training exercises. The ability of identifying the users touching the table and their positions can promote collaborative work among participants, so methods have been studied that involve the attaching of sensors to the table or chairs or to the users themselves. An effective method of recognizing user actions without placing a burden on the user would be some type of visual process, so the development of a method that processes multi-touch gestures by visual means is desired. This paper describes the development of a multi-touch tabletop system using infrared image recognition for user position identification and presents the results of touch-gesture recognition experiments and a system usability evaluation. Using an FTIR touch panel and infrared light, this system picks up the shadow area of the user’s hand by infrared camera in relation to user touch operations and estimates user position by image recognition. The multi-touch gestures prepared for this system include an operation to change the direction of an object to face the user and a copy operation in which two users generate duplicates of an object. The average recognition rate of the change-direction gesture and copy gesture were found to be 96% and 85%, respectively. In addition, the system usability evaluation revealed that prior learning was easy and that system operations could be easily performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; patient-derived xenograft; tumor spheroids; somatostatin receptor-2; Near infrared-labelled octreotide analog
Online: 7 February 2022 (13:12:50 CET)
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP NENs) are rare cancers consisting of neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which have been increasing in incidence in recent years. Few cell lines and pre-clinical models exist for the study of GEP NECs and NETs, limiting the ability to discover novel imaging and treatment modalities. To address this gap, we isolated tumor cells from cryopreserved patient GEP NECs and NETs and injected them into the flanks of immunocompromised mice to establish patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Two of 6 mice developed tumors (NEC913 and NEC1452). Over 90% of NEC913 and NEC1452 tumor cells stained positive for Ki67. NEC913 PDX tumors expressed neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin (SYP), and somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) whereas NEC1452 PDX tumors do not express SSTR2. Exome sequencing revealed loss of p53 and RB1 in both tumors. To demonstrate an application of these novel NEC PDX models for SSTR2-targeted peptide imaging, the NEC913 and NEC1452 cells were bilaterally injected into mice. Near infrared-labelled octreotide was administered and fluorescent signal was specifically observed for the NEC913 SSTR2 positive tumors. These 2 GEP NEC PDX models serve as valuable resource for GEP NEN therapy testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0008.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: functional near-infrared spectroscopy; electroencephalogram; cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop; transcranial electrical stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation
Online: 4 January 2022 (14:47:00 CET)
Background: Maladaptive neuroplasticity related learned response in substance use disorder (SUD) can be ameliorated using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS); however, inter-individual variability needs to be addressed for clinical translation. Objective: Our first objective was to develop a hypothesis for NIBS for learned response in SUD based on competing neurobehavioral decision systems model. Next objective was to conduct computational simulation of NIBS of cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CCTC) loop in cannabis use disorder (CUD) related dysfunctional “cue-reactivity” – a closely related construct of “craving” that is a core symptom. Our third objective was to test the feasibility of our neuroimaging guided rational NIBS approach in healthy humans. Methods: “Cue-reactivity” can be measured using behavioral paradigms and portable neuroimaging, including functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalogram (EEG), metrics of sensorimotor gating. Therefore, we conducted computational simulation of NIBS, including transcranial direct current stimulation(tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation(tACS) of the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei(DCN), of the CCTC loop for its postulated effects on fNIRS and EEG metrics. We also developed a rational neuroimaging guided NIBS approach for cerebellar lobule (VII) and prefrontal cortex based on healthy human study. Results: Simulation study of cerebellar tDCS induced gamma oscillations in the cerebral cortex while tTIS induced gamma-to-beta frequency shift. Experimental fNIRS study found that 2mA cerebellar tDCS evoked similar oxyhemoglobin(HbO) response in-the-range of 5x10-6M across cerebellum and PFC brain regions (=0.01); however, infra-slow (0.01–0.10 Hz) prefrontal cortex HbO driven(phase-amplitude-coupling, PAC) 4Hz, ±2mA (max.) cerebellar tACS evoked HbO in-the-range of 10-7M that was statistically different (=0.01) across those brain regions. Conclusion: Our healthy human study showed the feasibility of fNIRS of cerebellum and PFC as well as fNIRS-driven ctACS at 4Hz that may facilitate cerebellar cognitive function via the frontoparietal network. Future work needs to combine fNIRS with EEG for multi-modal imaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0261.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: ellipsometry; quantum cascade laser; in-line monitoring; polymer films; polymer processing; real-time; mid-infrared spectroscopy
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:07:04 CET)
Recent developments in mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic ellipsometry enabled by quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) resulted in a drastic improvement in signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional thermal emitter based instrumentation. Thus, it was possible to reduce the acquisition time for high-resolution broadband ellipsometric spectra from multiple hours to less than 1 second. This opens up new possibilities for real-time in-situ ellipsometry in polymer processing. To highlight these evolving capabilities we demonstrate the benefits of a QCL based MIR ellipsometer by investigating single and multilayered polymer films. The molecular structure and reorientation of a 2.5m thin biaxially oriented polyethylene terephtalate film is monitored during a stretching process lasting 24.5 s to illustrate the perspective of ellipsometric measurements in dynamic processes. In addition, a polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol/polyethylene multilayer film is investigated at continuously varying angle of incidence ( 0∘ – 50∘) in 17.2 s, highlighting an unprecedented sample throughput for the technique of varying angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the MIR spectral range. The obtained results underline the superior spectral and temporal resolution of QCL ellipsometry and qualify this technique as suitable method for advanced in-situ monitoring in polymer processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; Continuous positive airways pressure therapy; Near-infrared spectroscopy; Oxygen desaturation; Arm; Pulse oximeter
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:52:45 CET)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder, and continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) is the most effective treatment. Poor adherence is one of the major challenges in CPAP therapy. The recent boom of wearable optical sensors measuring oxygen saturation makes the at-home multiple-night CPAP titrations possible, which may essentially improve the adherence of CPAP therapy by optimizing its pressure in a real-life setting economically. We tested whether the oxygen desaturations (OD) measured in the arm muscle (arm_OD) by gold-standard frequency-domain multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (FDMD-NIRS) changes with titrated CPAP pressures in OSA patients together with polysomnography. We found that the arm_OD (2.08 ± 1.23%, mean ± standard deviation) was significantly smaller (P-value <0.0001) than the fingertip OD (finger_OD) (4.46 ± 2.37%) measured by polysomnography pulse oximeter. Linear mixed-effects models suggested that CPAP pressure was a significant predictor for finger_OD but not for arm_OD. Since FDMD-NIRS measures a mixture of arterial and venous OD, whereas fingertip pulse oximeter measures arterial OD, our results of no association between arm_OD and finger_OD indicate that the arm_OD mainly represented venous desaturation. Arm_OD measured by near-infrared optical sensors may be not a suitable indicator of the effectiveness of CPAP titration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0187.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: historic pigments; colorants; nitrocellulose; X-ray radiography; X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy; infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy
Online: 13 May 2022 (09:44:35 CEST)
This study applied multiple scientific approaches to establish the significance of an old work of art, Red Guitar, by examining its historical origin and the color materials used in its creation. Furthremore, the study provides thus far unknown pieces of Olga Picasso's family history to be added to her biography. Scientific approaches included digital X-ray radiography, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and elemental thermal conductivity analysis. This combination of techniques provided broad confirmation about the time when the painting was created. The work includes colors (white, black, blue, yellow, green, red, and brown/red) and prevalent use of lead-and iron-based historic pigments Chrome Yellow, Yellow Ochre and Red Ochre. It also documents the use of unconventional materials, the colorant Pigment red 4 and nitrocellulose. This investigation led to the conclusion that the art, Red Guitar, is genuine and in accord with Picasso’s work during the first two decades of the 20th century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Unobtrusive Sensing; Data Fusion; Data Mining; Radar Sensing; Thermal Sensing; Sprained Ankle; Infrared Thermopile Array; Home Environment.
Online: 13 August 2021 (15:12:24 CEST)
The ability to monitor Sprained Ankle Rehabilitation Exercises (SPAREs) in home environments can help therapists to ascertain if exercises have been performed as prescribed. Whilst wearable devices have been shown to provide advantages such as high accuracy and precision during monitoring activities, disadvantages such as limited battery life, users' inability to remember to charge and wear the devices are often the challenges for their usage. Also, video cameras, which are notable for high frame rates and granularity, are not privacy-friendly. This paper, therefore, proposes the use and fusion of unobtrusive and privacy-friendly sensing solutions for data collection and processing during SPAREs in home environments. Two Infrared Thermopile Array (ITA-32) thermal sensors and two Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar sensors were used to simultaneously monitor 15 healthy participants during SPAREs which involved twisting their ankle in 4-fundamental movement patterns namely (i) extension, (ii) flexion, (iii) eversion and (iv) inversion. Experimental results indicated the ability to identify thermal blobs of participants performing the 4 fundamental movement patterns of the human ankle. Cluster-based analysis of data gleaned from the ITA-32 sensors and the FMCW Radar sensors indicated average classification accuracy of 96.9% with K-Nearest Neighbours, Neural Network, AdaBoost, Decision Tree, Stochastic Gradient Descent and Support Vector Machine, amongst others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Working memory performance; workload stress; affective states; functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS); haemodynamic activity; prefrontal cortex (PFC)
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:18:34 CEST)
The effect of stress on task performance is complex, too much or too little negatively affects performance; and there exists an optimal level of stress to drive optimal performance. Task difficulty and external affective factors are distinct stressors that impact cognitive performance. Neuroimaging studies showed that mood affects working memory performance and the correlates are changes in haemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We investigate the interactive effects of affective states and working memory load (WML) on working memory task performance and haemodynamic activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging on the PFC of healthy participants. We seek to understand if haemodynamic responses could tell apart workload related stress from situational stress arising from external affective distraction. We found that the haemodynamic changes towards affective stressor and workload related stress were more dominant in the medial and lateral PFC respectively. Our study reveals distinct affective state-dependent modulations of haemodynamic activity with increasing WML in n-back tasks, which correlate with decreasing performance. The influence of negative affect on performance is greater at higher WML, and haemodynamic activity showed evident changes in temporal, and both spatial and strength of activation differently with WML.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0312.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Infrared spectroscopy; Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy; saponite, synthesis; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Online: 10 November 2020 (13:00:59 CET)
Saponite is a trioctahedral 2:1 smectite with the ideal composition MxMg3AlxSi4-xO10(OH,F)2.nH2O (M = interlayer cation). Both the success of the saponite synthesis and the determination of its applications depends on robust knowledge of the structure and composition of saponite. Among the routine characterization techniques spectroscopic methods are the most common. This review, thus, provides an overview of various spectroscopic methods to characterize natural and synthetic saponite with focus on the extensive work by one of the authors (JTK). The IR and Raman spectra of natural and synthetic saponites are discussed in detail including the assignment of the observed bands. The crystallization of saponite is discussed based on the changes in the IR and Raman spectra and a possible crystallization model is provided. Infrared emission spectroscopy has been used to study the thermal changes of saponite in-situ including the dehydration and (partial) dehydroxylation up to 750˚C. 27Al and 29Si Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is discussed (as well as 11B and 71Ga for B- and Ga-Si substitution) with respect to, in particular, Al(IV)/Al(VI) and Si/Al(IV) ratios. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy provides besides chemical information also some information related to the local environments of the different elements in the saponite structure as reflected by their binding energies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0397.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: dual frequency comb spectroscopy; mid-infrared absorption and dispersion spectroscopy; electrical discharge plasma; time-resolved plasma kinetics
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:03:42 CEST)
Conventional mechanical Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) are able to simultaneously measure absorption and dispersion spectra of gas-phase samples. However, they usually need very long measurement times to achieve time-resolved spectra with a good spectral and temporal resolution. Here, we present a mid-infrared dual-comb-based FTS in an asymmetric configuration, providing broadband absorption and dispersion spectra with a spectral resolution of 5 GHz, a temporal resolution of 20 μs, and a total measurement time of a few minutes. We used the dual-comb spectrometer to monitor the reaction dynamics of methane and ethane in an electrical plasma discharge. We observed ethane/methane formation as a recombination reaction of hydrocarbon radicals in the discharge in various static and dynamic conditions. The results demonstrate a new analytical approach for measuring fast molecular absorption and dispersion changes and monitoring fast dynamics of chemical reactions, which can be interesting for chemical kinetic research and particularly for the combustion and plasma analysis community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: silk fibroin; nanoparticles; drug loading content; quantification; infrared spectroscopy; FTIR spectroscopy.; nanotechnology; nanomedicine; drug delivery; controlled release
Online: 3 September 2020 (03:56:19 CEST)
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of novel therapeutic strategies such as targeted nanodrug delivery systems, control and stimulus-responsive release mechanisms, and the production of theranostic agents. As a prerequisite for the use of nanoparticles as drug delivery systems, the amount of loaded drug must be precisely quantified, a task for which two approaches are currently used. However, both approaches suffer from the inefficiencies of drug extraction and of the solid-liquid separation process, as well as from dilution errors. This work describes a new, reliable, and simple method for direct drug quantification in polymeric nanoparticles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which can be adapted for a wide variety of drug delivery systems. Silk fibroin nanoparticles and naringenin were used as model polymeric nanoparticle carrier and drug, respectively. The specificity, linearity, detection limit, precision and accuracy of the spectroscopic approach were determined in order to validate the method. A good linear relation was observed within 0.00 to 7.89 % of naringenin relative mass with an R2 of 0.973. The accuracy was determined by the spike and recovery method. Results showed an average 104% recovery. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the drug loading content were determined to be 0.3 and 1.0 %, respectively. The method's robustness is demonstrated by the notable similarities between the calibrations carried out in two different equipment and institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0314.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: the Chang’e-4 lunar rover; phase-locked; signal-to-noise ratio; spectral resolution; infrared focal plane components
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:01:44 CEST)
The Chang’e-4 (CE-4) lunar rover, equipped with The Visible and Near-IR Imaging Spectrometer(VNIS) which based on acousto-optic tunable filter spectroscopy, was launched to the far side of the moon on December 8, 2018. The detection band of VNIS ranges from 0.45 to 2.4μm. Because of the weak reflection of infrared radiation from the lunar surface, a static electronic phase-locked acquisition method is adopted in the infrared channel for signal amplification. In this paper, full-link simulations and modeling are conducted of the infrared channel information flow of the instrument. The signal/noise characteristics of VNIS are analyzed in depth, and the signal-to-noise(SNR) ratio prediction and laboratory verification are presented. On January 4, 2019, the VNIS started working successfully and acquired high-resolution spectrum data of the far side of the moon for the first time. Through analysis, the SNR ratio is in line with predictions, and the data obtained by VNIS in orbit are consistent with the information model proposed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0458.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Bacillus; Bioremediation; Enzymes; Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); Physicochemicals; Textile wastewater.
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:19:08 CET)
The present study evaluates the bioremediation potential of indigenous bacterial species isolated from dye-contaminated soil samples from small dyeing outlet located in Ilorin. The water pollution index was estimated based on the physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations of the raw (Day 0) and treated textile wastewater such as pH, biochemical oxygen demand-5, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and total dissolved solid with mean values of 8.85±0.45 mg/L, 1200±21.3 mg/L, 2440±31.3 mg/L, 1660±17.2 mg/L and 2650±28.1 mg/L respectively, similarly, Lead was the most abundant heavy metal detected in the sample while Cadmium concentration was the lowest with the mean values of 3.52±0.00 mg/L and 2.18±0.00 mg/L respectively. The bacterial strain with highest dye decolorization capacity was screened and identified as Bacillus licheniformis ZUL012.The isolate was consequently used for the bioremediation of the wastewater over a period of 10 days. The results showed an incredible reduction in the physiochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations of the textile wastewater in the following ranges (8.85-6.55), (1200-300) mg/L, (2440-518) mg/L, (1660-666) mg/L and (2650-920) mg/L with the highest removal efficiency of 75 %, 78 %, 60%, 65%, recorded for biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, total dissolved solid, respectively while that of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were 80 %, 60 %, 67 %, 72 % reduction, respectively. Laccase and Azoreductase activities tend to decrease as the pH gradually moved towards acidic condition during the bioremediation process. Toxicity of the treated effluent was assessed using Maize and Bean seed germination test. Conclusively, these research findings can serve as a framework for the outlet design of wastewater treatment plant for local textile outlets.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0428.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: aggregation; Fourier transform infrared spectrometer; particle electrophoresis; risk assessment; Taguchi orthogonal array; UV-Vis spectrophotometer; zinc oxide nanoparticles
Online: 19 June 2018 (16:03:32 CEST)
The extensive use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) such as zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in various commercial fields has spurred significant concern about its possible toxicological effects of ZnO NPs on human health and eco-system. Therefore, it is substantial to understand the aggregation phenomena which could attenuate this effect. This data article provides information on aggregation of ZnO NPs under the influence of various parameters of water chemistry. Moreover, Taguchi orthogonal array L27(313) design matrix was used to evaluate the effect of multiple parameters in aqueous solution. The data were obtained from single beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Optizen 2120 UV, Mecasys, Korea) using Optizenview 4.2.5 PC interference software, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT/IR-4700, spectroscopy, JASCO Analytical Instruments, Easton, USA) and particle electrophoresis (NanoZS, Zetasizer, Malvern Instruments Ltd, Worcestershire, UK). The dataset draws attention on dominant parameters influencing aggregation of ZnO NPs in water. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) data revealed that electrolyte concentration, type and natural organic matter (NOM) concentration were the most significant parameters. Furthermore, FT-IR data presents a possible mechanism of ZnO NPs stabilization in the presence of different NOM. This data will be helpful for the development of environmental risk assessment strategies and prediction of fate and mobility of other ENPs in the aquatic environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0440.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; drought; water deficit index; infrared observations; satellite; remote sensing; surface temperature; air temperature; humidity; dew point temperature
Online: 29 July 2022 (02:36:22 CEST)
The boreal Hemisphere has been experiencing increasing extreme hot and dry conditions over the past few decades, consistent with anthropogenic climate change expectations. The continental extension of the phenomenon calls for tools and techniques capable of monitoring the global to regional scales. In this context, the satellite is the only system that can satisfy the need for global coverage. The main objective we have addressed in the present paper is the capability of infrared satellite observations helping to monitor the vegetation stress due to increasing drought and heatwaves in summer. We have designed and implemented a new water deficit index (wdi) that exploits satellite observations in the infrared to retrieve humidity, air temperature, and surface temperature simultaneously. These three parameters are combined to provide the water deficit index. The index has been developed based on the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer or IASI, which covers the infrared spectral range 645 to 2760 cm-1 with a sampling of 0.25 cm-1. The index has been used to study the 2017 heatwave, which hit Continental Europe from May to October. In particular, we have examined Southern Italy, where Mediterranean forests suffer from climate change. We have computed the index's time series and show that it can be used to indicate the atmospheric background conditions associated with meteorological drought. We have also found a good agreement with soil moisture, which suggests that the persistence of anomalously high water deficit index was an essential driver of the rapid development and evolution of the exceptionally severe 2017 droughts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0480.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Myrothecium verrucaria; lignocelluloses; Scanning electron microscope (SEM); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); pretreatment; degradation; co-composting; corn stover; cow manure
Online: 18 June 2021 (13:06:31 CEST)
In China, the production of crop straw has been estimated to be approximately 800 Million tons yearly of which about 40% was burned. Corn stover is one of the main agricultural wastes in China. It has shown that lignin in corn stover could be effectively removed byMyrothecium verrucaria. The effects of the pretreatment of corn strover by Myrothecium verrucaria on compost were studied. The results showed that corn stover pretreatment by Myrothecium verrucaria, the Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and lignin were degraded and the results were 33.43%, 11.53% and 18.70% respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the surface structure of corn stover was changed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that the degradation products of lignin were increased. The exposed area of cellulose and hemicellulose was increased. Compared with the control group, the pH value was stable and the temperature was higher. The content of nitrogen in the material decreased, while the contents of total phosphorus and total potassium increased.The C/N ratio of materials decreased after composting.The results showed that the pretreatment of Myrothecium verrucaria improve the degradation of lignocelluloses, a great contribution was made to reduce the causes loss of plant nutrient and to fight against environmental pollution.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: consciousness 1; subjective experience 2; will 3; agency 4; self 5; psychopathology 6; treatment 7; transcranial near infrared light 8; biophotomodulation 9
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:44:47 CEST)
In this paper I will address Dr. Sonne’s questions about will, agency, choice, consciousness, relevant brain regions, impacts of disorders and their therapeutics, and I will do this by referring to my theory, Dual-brain Psychology, which posits that within most of us there exist two mental agencies with different experiences, wills, choices, and behaviors. Each of these agencies is associated as a trait with one brain hemisphere (either left or right) and its composite regions. One of these agencies is more adversely affected by past traumas and is more immature and more symptomatic while the other is more mature and healthier. The theory has extensive experimental support through 17 peer-reviewed publications with clinical and non-clinical research. I will discuss how this theory relates to the questions that Dr. Sonne presented and will discuss also my published theory on the physical nature of subjective experience and its relation to the brain and how that theory interacts with DBP, and how the 2 theories relate to subjective experience, will, behavior, psychopathology and its treatment.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: loess-palaeosol sequences, luminescence signal sensitivity, quartz, feldspar, Schwalbenberg, sediment provenance, sediment history, optically stimulated luminescence, infrared stimulated luminescence, Central Europe, Rhine valley
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:11:18 CEST)
Loess provides a valuable terrestrial record of past environmental conditions, including the dynamics of air mass circulation responsible for dust transport. Here we explore variations in the luminescence characteristics of sedimentary quartz and feldspar – dominant minerals in loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) - as possible tools for identifying changes in source. We investigate luminescence sensitivity, a rapidly measurable index which is the product of interplay between source lithology and the history of the mineral in question. Variations in sensitivity down profile may therefore reflect, among other factors such as pedogenesis and reworking, changes in sediment provenance. We undertake an empirical investigation of the luminescence sensitivity of quartz and feldspar from different grain-size fractions from the climatically sensitive Schwalbenberg LPS in the German Rhine valley, comparing samples from a 30 m core spanning the last full glacial cycle with samples of oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 3-2 age exposed within a c. 6 m profile downslope. The temporal overlap enables comparison of luminescence characteristics with respect to possible provenance change during that timeframe. We find an overall inverse relationship between quartz and feldspar sensitivity, as well as variability in sensitivity between different quartz grain sizes. There is some indication that feldspar sensitivity increases during periods of soil formation down the core. In particular, measurements of IR50 sensitivity on unprocessed sediments show correlation with down-profile trends in more established indicators of provenance. This suggests it may be used to provide a reliable, rapid scan of sensitivity changes, and may suggest source variability over millennial timescales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Digital Lock-in Amplifier (DLIA); Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA); Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS); Hardware Description Language (HDL); Light Emitting Diode (LED); Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM); Microprocessors
Online: 14 February 2017 (09:11:38 CET)
Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) systems for e-health applications usually suffer of poor signal detection mainly due to a low end-to-end signal to noise ratio of the electronics chain. Lock-In Amplifiers (LIA) historically represent a powerful technique helping to improve performances in such circumstances. In this work it has been designed and implemented a digital LIA system, based on a Zynq® Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), trying to explore if this technique might improve fNIRS system performances. More broadly, FPGA based solution flexibility has been investigated, with particular emphasis applied to digital filter parameters, needed in the digital LIA, and it has been evaluated its impact on the final signal detection and noise rejection capability. The realized architecture was a mixed solution between VHDL hardware modules and software ones, running within a softcore microprocessor. Experimental results have shown the goodness of the proposed solutions and comparative details among different implementation will be detailed. Finally a key aspect taken into account throughout the design was its modularity, allowing an ease increase of the input channels while avoiding the growth of the design cost of the electronics system.