Peng, T.; Pu, R.; Wang, B.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, K.; Wang, F.; Wei, W.; Liu, H.; Zhan, Q. The Spectroscopic Properties and Microscopic Imaging of Thulium-Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles Excited at Different NIR-II Light. Biosensors2021, 11, 148.
Peng, T.; Pu, R.; Wang, B.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, K.; Wang, F.; Wei, W.; Liu, H.; Zhan, Q. The Spectroscopic Properties and Microscopic Imaging of Thulium-Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles Excited at Different NIR-II Light. Biosensors 2021, 11, 148.
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising bioimaging nanoprobes due to their excellent photostability. As one of the most commonly-used lanthanide activators, Tm3+ ions have perfect ladder-type electron configuration and can be directly excited by bio-friendly near-infrared-II (NIR-II) wavelengths. Here, the emission characteristics of Tm3+-doped nanoparticles under laser excitations of different near-infrared-II wavelengths were systematically investigated. The 1064 nm, 1150 nm and 1208 nm lasers are proposed to be three excitation strategies with different response spectra of Tm3+ ions. Particularly we found that 1150 nm laser excitation enables intense three-photon 475 nm emission, which is nearly 100 times stronger than that excited by 1064 nm excitation. We further optimized the luminescence brightness after investigating the luminescence quenching mechanism of bare NaYF4:Tm (1.75%) core. After growing inert shell, ten-fold increase of emission intensity was achieved. Combining the advantages of NIR-II wavelength and the higher-order nonlinear excitation, a promising facile excitation strategy was developed for the application of thulium-doped upconversion nanoparticles in single nanoparticle imaging and cancer cell microscopic imaging.
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