ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0086.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: antimicrobial multidrug resistance; foodborne pathogens; food safety
Online: 6 July 2022 (04:32:25 CEST)
Due to nutritional benefits and perceived humane ways of treating the animals, the demand for antibiotic-free pastured poultry chicken has continued to be on a steady rise. However, despite non-usage of antibiotics in pastured poultry broiler production, antibiotic resistance (AR) is reported in zoonotic poultry pathogens. However, actors that drive multidrug resistance (MDR) in pastured poultry are not known. In this study, we used machine learning and deep learning approaches to predict farm management practices, and physicochemical properties of feces and soil that drive MDR in zoonotic poultry pathogens. Antibiotic use in agroecosystems is known to contribute to resistance. Evaluation of the development of resistance in environments that are free of antibiotics such as the all-natural antibiotic-free, pastured poultry production systems described here is critical to understand the background AR. We analyzed 1,635 preharvest (feces and soil) samples collected from forty-two pastured poultry flocks and eleven farms in the Southeastern United States. CDC National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System guidelines were used to determine antimicrobial/multidrug resistance profiles of Salmonella, Listeria and Campylobacter. A combination of two traditional machine learning (RandomForest and XGBoost) and three deep learning (Multi-layer Perceptron, Generative Adversarial Network, and Auto-Encoder) approaches, identified critical farm/environmental variables that drive multidrug resistance in poultry pathogens, in broiler production systems that represents background resistance. This study enumerates management practices that contribute to AR and recommendations to potentially mitigate multidrug resistance and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in pastured poultry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: anti-infective; antimicrobial; antimicrobial resistance; behaviour change; healthcare workers; antimicrobial stewardship
Online: 18 July 2022 (05:42:12 CEST)
Background: Using the COM-B model as a framework, an EU-wide survey aimed to ascertain multidisciplinary healthcare workers’ (HCWs) knowledge, attitudes and behaviours on antibiotics, antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. The UK findings are presented. Methods: A 43-item questionnaire was developed through a two-round modified Delphi consensus process. The UK target quota was 1,315 respondents. Results: 2,404 participants responded. The highest proportion were nursing and midwifery professionals (42%), pharmacists (23%) and medical doctors (18%). HCWs correctly answered that antibiotics are not effective against viruses (97%), they have associated side effects (97%), unnecessary use makes antibiotics ineffective (97%) and healthy people can carry antibiotic resistant bacteria (90%). However, fewer than 80% correctly answered that using antibiotics increases a patient’s risk of antimicrobial resistant infection or that resistant bacteria can spread from person to person. Whilst the majority of HCWs (81%) agreed there is a connection between their antibiotic prescribing behaviour and the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, only 64% felt that they have a key role in controlling antibiotic resistance. The top three barriers to providing advice or resources were lack of resources (19%), insufficient time (11%) and the patient being uninterested in the information (7%). Approximately 35% of UK respondents who were prescribers prescribed an antibiotic at least once in the last week due to fear of patient deterioration or complications. Conclusion: These findings highlight that a multifaceted approach to tackling the barriers to prudent antibiotic use in the UK is required and provides evidence for guiding targeted policy, intervention development and future research. Education and training should focus on patient communication, information on spreading resistant bacteria and increased risk for individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0632.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antimicrobial use; antimicrobial residues; antimicrobial resistance; food and agriculture sectors; Tanzania
Online: 24 December 2020 (14:18:09 CET)
All infections are potentially curable as long as the etiological agents are susceptible to antimicrobials. The increased rate at which antimicrobials are becoming ineffective is a global health risk of increasing concern that threatens withdrawal of beneficial antimicrobials for disease control. Increased demand for food of animal origin, in particular eggs, meat and milk has led to intensification and commercial production systems where excessive use and misuse of antimicrobials may prevail. Antimicrobials, handled and used by farmers and animal attendants with no formal education may predispose to incorrect dosages, misuse, incorrect applications and non-adherence to withdrawal periods. A multimethod approach (desk review, field study and interviews) was used. Relevant establishments were also visited. High levels of resistance to penicillin G, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and oxytetracycline have been reported especially for Actinobacter pyogenes, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus from dairy cattle with mastitis and in humans. Similar trends were found in poultry where eggs and meat are contaminated with Escherichia coli strains resistant to amoxicillin + clavulanate, sulphamethoxazole and neomycin. An increasing trend of emerging multidrug resistant E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella was also found in food animals. An in-crease in methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in the livestock sector in Tanzania have been reported. Specific antimicrobials resistant to were ampicillin, augmentin, gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, tylosin, erythromycin, cefuroxime, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. An in-creased usage of antimicrobials for prophylaxis, anaphylaxis and therapeutics against pathogens and for growth promotion in livestock, aquaculture and crops production were observed. One Health strategic approach is advocated to combat AMR in the food and agriculture sectors in Tanzania. Practical recommendations include a) legislation review and implementation, b) AMU, AMR and AR awareness and advocacy among stakeholders along the value chain, c) strengthening of surveillance and monitoring programs for AMU, AMR and AR, d) enhance development and use of rapid and innovative diagnostic tests and promotion biosecurity principles and e) good husbandry practices. The utilization of this information to improve public health policies and reduce the burden of AMR will be beneficial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Antimicrobial Resistance; Community pharmacist; Qualitative research; Jordan
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:05:40 CET)
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization issued a practical approach and Global Action Plan to control the threatening emerging antibacterial resistance. One of the main basis of this plan is the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs). This study aimed to evaluate community pharmacists’ awareness and perception towards antimicrobial resistance and ASPs in Jordan. Thus, a qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with twenty community pharmacists. Convienience sampling was used in the study. Qualitative analysis of the data yielded four themes and eleven sub-themes. All the respondents showed good understanding about the causes of antimicrobial resistance. The most important causes reported by them was the non-restricted prescription of antimicrobials. Most of the pharmacists believed that they are competent to provide ASPs, however, they believed that there are several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Barriers demonstrated by the pharmacists, including organizational obstacles, resources obstacles, and personal obstacles. As a conclusion, this study revealed several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Incorporating ASPs in the community pharmacy settings requires proper pharmacist training, several academic disciplines team efforts, and good pharmacy practice of antimicrobial guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; barriers; perception; survey; veterinary practitioners
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:41:43 CEST)
Usage of antimicrobials in veterinary practices has always been under scrutiny due to the perceived risk of resulting in antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. This creates the necessity for understanding the role of the prescriber group. Hence, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among veterinary practitioners from August to November 2019 in the Chattogram district of Bangladesh, aiming to assess the practitioner’s perceptions regarding antimicrobial prescribing and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) issue. We collected responses from 100 veterinarians engaged in the treatment of the large animal, poultry, and pet animal through a self-administrated questionnaire. Proportions were calculated for categorical variables and the results are presented using visual aids. Our study revealed two key barriers - scarcity of enough information on antimicrobial used, and the lack of training in the proper prescription of antimicrobials. Participants recognized that prescribing too many varieties of antimicrobials and the use of an incomplete course of drugs as two very important causes for the development of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, prescription of inappropriate doses and incentives from pharmaceutical companies were dubbed as important causes. We also found that along with clinical features and types of organisms, the availability of drugs in the local market and the economic conditions of farmers have potential impacts on the antimicrobials prescribing decision of the veterinarians. However, all participants recognized the emerging threats of AMR. Results suggested that capacity building of veterinarians and the maintenance of strong coordination are crucial in ensuring the proper engagement of veterinarians as the front-line fighters for tackling the AMR issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0089.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Pasteurella multocida; antimicrobial resistance genes; antimicrobial susceptibility patterns; swine
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:47:26 CEST)
Forty-eight Pasteurella multocida isolates were recovered from porcine pneumonic lungs collected in Norwestern Spain (2017- 2019). These isolates were characterized for their minimal inhibition concentrations to twelve antimicrobial agents and for the appearance of eight resistance genes: tetA, tetB, blaROB1, blaTEM, ermA, ermC, mphE and msrE. Relevant resistance percentages were shown to teracyclines, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and tiamulin, thus suggesting that P. multocida isolates were mostly susceptible to amoxicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, marbofloxacin and macrolides. 29.2% of isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. The tetracycline resistance genes (tetA and tetB) were detected in 22.9% of the isolates, but none was positive to both simultaneously; blaROB1 and blaTEM genes were found in one third of isolates but both genes were detected simultaneously in only one isolate. ermC gene was observed in 41.7% of isolates, a percentage that decreased until 22.9% for msrE; finally, ermA was harboured by 16.7% and mphE was not found in any of them. Six clusters were established based on hierarchical clustering analysis on antimicrobial susceptibility for the twelve antimicrobials. Generally, it was unable to foresee the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for each family and the association of each particular isolate inside the clusters established from the presence or absence of the resistance genes analyzed.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; antiviral resistance; antibacterial resistance; antimalarial resistance; antifungal resistance; One Health; Uganda
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:57:40 CEST)
The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality in our communities. The spread of antimicrobial resistance in the environment and development of resistant microbes is a challenge to the control of antimicrobial resistance. Approaches, such as antimicrobial stewardship programmes, and enhanced surveillance, have been devised to curb its spread. However, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries, the overall extent of antimicrobial resistance, and knowledge on on-going surveillance, stewardship or investigation efforts, re often poorly understood. This study aimed to look at the efforts that have been undertaken to combat antimicrobial resistance in Uganda as a means of establishing an overview of the situation, to help inform future decisions. We conducted a systematic literature review of the PubMed database to assess the efforts that have been done in Uganda to investigate and combat antimicrobial resistance. A search combining keywords associated with antimicrobial resistance were used to look up relevant studies between 1995 and 2020 on surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Uganda, and susceptibility of microbes to different drugs. The search yielded 430 records, 163 of which met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The studies were categorized according to country and region, the type of antimicrobial resistance, context of the study, study design and outcome of the study. Antibacterial resistance and antimalarial resistance had the most published studies while antiviral and antifungal resistance each were represented by very few studies. Most studies were conducted in humans and hospital settings, with very few in veterinary and One Health contexts. The results from our work can inform public health policy on antimicrobial stewardship as it contributes to understanding the status of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Uganda, and can also help to guide future research efforts. Notably, a One Health approach needs to be followed with re-spect to surveillance of antimicrobial resistance to better understand the mechanisms of resistance transfer across the human-animal–environment interface, including additional investigation in antiviral and antifungal resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0033.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Campylobacter; Antimicrobial Resistance; Foodborne Pathogen; Animal Source
Online: 5 May 2021 (11:05:37 CEST)
Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens of concern in its growing trend of antimicrobial resistance. C. jejuni and C. coli are the major causative agents, with C. jejuni contributing to most of the cases in approximately 90% in the world. Infection is transmitted to humans due to consumption of contaminated food and water. Campylobacteriosis caused by C. jejuni is commonly presented with severe diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting with some extreme cases resulting in Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and acute flaccid paralysis. Symptoms are severe in cases of children below 5 years, elderly and individuals who are immunocompromised. The infection is usually sporadic, and self-limiting and thus does not require antibiotics for treatment. Still, the antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is a major concern because of the transmission of resistance from animal sources to humans. This review highlights the recent epidemiology, geographical impact, resistance mechanisms, spread of Campylobacter spp. and the strategies to control the transmission of Campylobacter from veterinary sources and its antimicrobial resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0522.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Commensal bacteria; Neisseria; antimicrobial resistance; multidrug resistance
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:37:13 CET)
Pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually-transmitted infection gonorrhea. N. gonorrhoeae has evolved high levels of antimicrobial resistance (AR) leading to therapeutic failures even in dual-therapy treatment with azithromycin and ceftriaxone. AR mechanisms can be acquired by genetic transfer from closely related species, such as naturally-competent commensal Neisseria species. At present, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance profiles of commensal Neisseria. Here, we characterized the phenotypic resistance profile of four commensal Neisseria species (N. lactamica, N. cinerea, N. mucosa, and N. elongata) against 10 commonly used antibiotics, and compared their profiles to 4 N. gonorrhoeae strains, using disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration assays. Overall, we observed that 3 of the 4 commensals were more resistant to several antibiotics than pathogenic N. gonorrhoeae strains. Next, we compared the penicillin-binding-protein 2 (PBP2) sequences between commensal and N. gonorrhoeae strains. We found mutations in PBP2 known to confer resistance in N. gonorrhoeae also present in commensal Neisseria sequences. Our results suggest that commensal Neisseria have unexplored antibiotic resistance gene pools that may be exchanged with pathogenic N. gonorrhoeae, possibly impairing drug development and clinical treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0635.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Beta-lactamase gene; Nigeria; Review
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:28:20 CEST)
This review was carried out to identify different beta-lactamase resistance genes reported in published literature from Nigeria and to determine the proportion estimates of the important beta-lactamase resistance genes in Nigeria. Sixty-three (63) articles were included in this review based on the eligibility criteria. All the beta-lactamases reported were detected from the Gram-negative bacteria, most especially from Enterobacteriaceae (n=53). Thirty-six different beta-lactamase genes have been reported from Nigeria. These genes belong to the narrow-spectrum, AmpC, extended-spectrum, and carbapenemase beta-lactamase resistance genes. Eight (8) genes (blaDHA, blaCTXM-1, blaCTXM-14, blaGES-1, blaVEB-1, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-2, and blaTEM-1) were shared between animals and humans, 5 genes (blaSHV-1, blaSHV-2, blaSHV-11, blaSHV-12, and blaNDM-1) were common to both humans and environment while none of the genes was unique to both animals and environment. Four genes including blaCMY, blaTEM-1, blaAmpC, and internationally pandemic blaCTXM-15 gene were unique to animals, humans, and the environment. No carbapenemase gene was reported from animals yet. The pooled proportion estimate of ESBL genes in Nigeria was 31% (95% CI: 26-36%, P<0.0001), while the estimate of blaCTXM-15 gene in Nigeria was 46% (95% CI: 36-57%, P<0.0001). The proportion estimate of AmpC genes was 32% (95% CI: 11-52%, P<0.001), while the estimate for carbapenemases was 8% (95% CI: 5-12%, P<0.001). This study has provided information on the beta-lactamases distribution in Nigeria. This is necessary for a better understanding of molecular epidemiology of clinically important beta-lactamases especially the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cross-sectional survey; antibiotic use; antimicrobial resistance; knowledge; brunei
Online: 23 May 2020 (05:54:43 CEST)
Background: Public misconception and demand for the indication of antibiotics could lead to inappropriate prescribing and consumption. Successful treatment can only be achieved when the public and industrial users have knowledge on antibiotic use and resistance. This survey is aimed to assess antibiotic usage and knowledge regarding antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among undergraduate students of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), public university located in Brunei Darussalam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) Antibiotic Resistance, Multi-country public awareness survey distributed online. Students at UBD were invited to participate in the online survey through internal email. The questionnaire consisted of 5 sections: demographic information, antibiotic usage, knowledge on antibiotics, antibiotic resistance (AMR) and use of antibiotics in agriculture. Data were analyzed descriptively and appropriate inferential statistics was used accordingly. Cronbach’s alpha was also done to determine the internal consistency. The section on antibiotic use and knowledge showed good internal consistency of Cronbach’s alpha 0.66 and 0.86 respectively. Research ethics approval was obtained from the PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD). Results: A total of 145 students returned the complete questionnaire. The result of the study found that 50% of the students had good level of knowledge of antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance with a mean total knowledge score of 11.4 out of 14. Respondents reported the use of antibiotic in the past (69%). Many of the students could identify the use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection. However, there were also students who incorrectly thought that antibiotics can be used for cold and flu (43%) and fever (41%). Moreover, 76% of the respondents mistakenly believed that antibiotic resistance is the result of the body becoming resistant to antibiotics. Only 12% of the respondents were found to have poor knowledge in the study. Conclusions: Misconceptions in regards to the use of antibiotics for conditions related to viral illnesses was noticed among the respondents in our study. Thus, improving knowledge on antibiotics is crucial to address those beliefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Urinary tract infection; antimicrobial agents; antibiotic resistance; E. coli; uropathogens; aminoglycosides
Online: 6 July 2020 (10:30:47 CEST)
Around the world, there is no population clear from urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among women. UTI is considered the most predominant bacterial infection. This study aimed to detect the incidence of the most common major uropathogens in patients severe from urinary tract infection with antibiotic sensitivity tests that assist urologist doctors for appropriate antimicrobial empirical therapy.Methods: This study was carried in a private laboratory in Babil city, Iraq from May 2019 to May 2020. Totally 70 individuals suffering from clear symptoms of UTI, as well as, 20 healthy persons participated in this study as a control group. Then, the standard microbiological methods carried out to isolate and identify bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using different antimicrobial discs by applying the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: Totally, 90 specimens were obtained from them 20 control group, 19 with no growth, and 51 patients with bacterial growth distributed as 43 (83%) females and 8 (17%) males. E. coli were the most common predominant organisms. All isolates were showed a high rate of resistance to evaluated cephalosporins 100% and 82% to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone respectively, while very low resistance recorded in Aminoglycosides 20% and 13% to Gentamicin and amikacin respectively. Most age group infected with UTI was 21-40 years old.Conclusion: The current study showed an increasing burden of urinary tract infection caused by various bacteria implicated in UTI that causes changeable sensitivity to various antimicrobial agents. Therefore, in clinical use appropriate medications should be selected based on the data obtained from antimicrobial susceptibility tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: reactive selenium species; arylmethyl selenocyanate; cellular thiolstat; antimicrobial; anticancer; ESKAPE; multidrug resistance
Online: 22 February 2018 (11:34:22 CET)
Selenocyanates form an interesting class of organic selenium compounds as they serve as multifunctional agents (being the precursors of seleninic acids and diselenides in synthetic chemistry and as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agent in biology) and, due to their similarity with better known thiocyanates promise high biological activity. Yet whilst selenocyanates are common in synthetic chemistry, they are rarely considered in pharmaceutical design. Arylmethyl selenocyanates (1-13) have been synthesized and an insight into their structural properties using X-ray crystallography has been obtained. The compounds subsequently have been evaluated for their potential antimicrobial, nematicidal and cytotoxic activity. ADMET properties in vitro, using mutagenicity (AMES) and permeability (PAMPA) tests, have been determined. The compounds exhibit pronounced activity against various strains of bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and yeasts. Among them, benzylselenocyanate (1) represents the most active anti-ESKAPE agent, with potent antibacterial activity, especially against multidrug resistant MRSA strains (HEMSA 5). Our results demonstrate that the arylmethyl selenocyantes are not only non-mutagenic but also possess moderate cytotoxic activity against cancer cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0222.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; biocuration; microbial nomenclature; molecular epidemiology
Online: 19 July 2019 (08:23:38 CEST)
With the increasing use of genome sequencing as a surveillance tool for molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance, we are seeing an increased intersection of genomics, microbiology, and clinical epidemiology. Clear nomenclature for AMR gene families and pathogens is critical for communication. For CARD release version 3.0.3 (July 2019), we updated the entire CARD database to reflect the latest pathogen names. In total, we detected 48 name changes or updates, some of which reflect major changes in familiar names.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0153.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; antimicrobial resistance; ESBL; MDR; frozen chicken meat; Bangladesh
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:31:20 CEST)
Escherichia coli is known as one of the most important foodborne pathogens in humans, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of foodborne infection with this bacterium. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli (ESBL-Ec), in particular, in chicken meat is considered a global health problem. This study aimed to determine the magnitude of E. coli, with special emphasis on ESBL-Ec, along with their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern in frozen chicken meat. The study also focused on the determination of ESBL-encoding genes in E. coli. A total of 113 frozen chicken meat samples were purchased from 40 outlets of nine branded supershops in five megacities in Bangladesh. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done based on cultural and biochemical properties, as well as PCR assay. The resistance pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method. ESBL-encoding genes were determined by multiplex PCR. The results showed that 76.1% of samples were positive for E. coli, of which 86% were ESBL producers. All the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Resistance to 9–11 and 12–13 antimicrobial classes was observed in 38.4% and 17.4% isolates, respectively, while only 11.6% were resistant to 3–5 classes. Possible extensive drug resistance (pXDR) was found in 2.3% of isolates. High single resistance was observed for oxytetracycline (93%) and amoxicillin (91.9%), followed by ampicillin (89.5%), trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and pefloxacin (88.4%), and tetracycline (84.9%). Most importantly, 89.6% of isolates were resistant to carbapenems. All the isolates were positive for the blaTEM gene. However, the blaSHV and blaCTX-M-2 genes were identified in two ESBL-non producer isolates. None of the isolates carried the blaCTX-M-1 gene. This study provided evidence of the existence of MDR and pXDR ESBL-Ec in frozen chicken meat in Bangladesh, which may pose a risk to human health if the meat is not properly cooked or pickled raw only. This emphasizes the importance of the implementation of good slaughtering and processing practices by the processors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0181.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: One Health Strategies; Antimicrobial Resistance; Salmonella isolates; Poultry Farms, Turkey Poults
Online: 12 January 2022 (18:12:21 CET)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing hazard to human and animal health that necessitates an international response. Surveillance methods in high-income nations aided in the development of measures to combat AMR in animals. Demand for meat is increasing in countries making it critical to implement anti-AMR initiatives. Surveillance of AMR, on the other hand, is at best in its infancy, and the current evidence base for informing policymakers is geographically disparate. All of the isolates had high rates of AMR to medicines that are critical/highly important in human and animal medicine. A higher incidence of AMR was found in poultry farms. Our findings show that AMR, including MDR, is common in coli, Salmonella spp., commonly found in poultry. The study promotes the development of national policies, programs, and additional research based on a "One Health" approach that helps humans and animals, as well as the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; bacterial vaginosis; refractory; recurrent; treatment
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:11:03 CET)
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common cause of vaginal discharge, is characterized by a shift in the vaginal microbiota from lactobacillus dominance to a diverse array of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria which form a multi-species biofilm on vaginal epithelial cells. The rate of recurrence after therapy is high, often >60%. While the BV biofilm itself likely contributes to recurrent and/or refractory disease after treatment by reducing antimicrobial penetration, antimicrobial resistance in BV-associated bacteria including those, both within the biofilm and the vaginal canal, may be the result of independent, unrelated bacterial properties which are discussed in this paper. Our current recommendations for the treatment of refractory and recurrent BV are also provided.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0374.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; CTX-M-1; Enterobactericeae,; Escherichia coli; extended-spectrum β-lactamase; food safety; IncI1; next-generation sequencing; One Health; virulence
Online: 28 June 2022 (04:18:22 CEST)
Studies have previously described the occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli in human and veterinary medical settings, livestock, and, to a lesser extent, in the environment and food. While they mostly analyzed foodborne E. coli regarding phenotypic and sometimes genotypic antibiotic resistance and basic phylogenetic classification, we have limited understanding of the in vitro and in vivo virulence characteristics and global phylogenetic contexts of these bacteria. Here, we investigated an E. coli strain (PBIO3502) isolated from a pork sausage in Germany in 2021 in-depth. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed sequence type (ST)58, which is an emerging international high-risk clonal lineage. In addition to its MDR phenotype that mostly matched the genotype, PBIO3502 demonstrated pronounced virulence features, including in vitro biofilm formation, siderophore secretion, serum resilience, and in vivo mortality in Galleria mellonella larvae. Along with the genomic analysis indicating close phylogenetic relatedness of our strain with publicly available, clinically relevant representatives of the same ST, these results suggest the zoonotic and pathogenic character of PBIO3502 with the potential to cause infection in humans and animals. Also, our study highlights the necessity of the One Health approach while integrating human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the role of meat products and food chains in the putative transmission of MDR pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0309.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; foodborne illness; food safety; food security; sustainable development
Online: 23 February 2020 (02:21:34 CET)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens to reverse the essential benefits of antibiotics not only in humans, where decades of advancements in healthcare outcomes are endangered but also in the food production industry. The emergence of AMR in the pre- and post-harvest systems presents a serious risk of contamination or infection directly by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and genes (ARGs) for farmers, agricultural practitioners, abattoir workers, food handlers and their associated contacts as well as consumers at the end of the food chain. Any breach in the food safety barrier leading to the emergence and spread of ARB and ARGs has severe multi-sectorial implications and threatens to reverse decades of human and animal health improvements globally. As the world moves towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), food safety is a critical element to improve and strengthen global health, security and ensure sustainable development. This paper presents the challenge of AMR through the lens of food safety, by highlighting its multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional implications not only the SDG on food safety but also on food security, public health, animal health and welfare, the environment and climate and socio-economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0474.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: probiotic; Enterococcus faecium; antimicrobial resistance; environmental change
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:49:29 CET)
In two sequential replicates (n=90 and n=96 feedlot finisher cattle, respectively) we measured the impact of an Enterococcus faecium-based probiotic (DFM) and an altered feedlot pen environment on antimicrobial resistance among fecal enterococci in cattle fed (or, not fed) the macrolide tylosin. Diluted fecal samples were spiral-plated on plain and antibiotic-supplemented m-Enterococcus agar. In the first replicate, tylosin significantly (p<0.05) increased the relative quantity of erythromycin-resistant enterococci. This effect was diminished in cattle fed the DFM in conjunction with tylosin. A similar observed effect was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) in the second replicate. Isolates were speciated and resistance phenotypes were obtained for E. faecium and E. hirae. E. faecium isolates were whole-genome sequenced, which yielded sequence types (ST), resistance genes and phylogeny. Samples of the DFM were sequenced and found to contain E. faecium ST296, which was not present on Day 0 of either replicate. This DFM sequence type was found in fecal samples after Day 0, the majority of which were isolated from cattle in one of the DFM-fed pens. Increased prevalence of ST296 occurred with a concomitant decrease in ST240; of importance, the latter typically harbored both ermB and tet(M) genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0405.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Sheep; E. coli; shiga-toxin; antimicrobial resistance genes
Online: 19 July 2021 (11:12:01 CEST)
Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment can pose a risk for developing resistance against antimi-crobial drugs in bacteria. Close human contact might have a higher chance of being transmitted to humans from sheep if the sheep population is a potential reservoir of zoonotic pathogens such as shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) (STEC). Therefore, this study aimed to exam-ine the sheep population in rural Bangladesh for antimicrobial resistant STEC. We screened 200 faecal samples collected from sheep in three Upazila from the Chattogram district. Phenotypical-ly positive E. coli isolates were examined for two shiga toxin-producing genes – stx1 and stx2. PCR positive STEC isolates were investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes- blaTEM, sul1 and sul2. In total, 123 of the 200 tested samples were confirmed positive E. coli by cul-tured based methods. PCR results show 17(13.8%) E. coli isolates harboured ≥ one virulent gene (stx1 or/and stx2) of STEC. Six of the tested STEC isolates exhibited blaTEM gene; eight STEC isolates had sul1 gene, and sul2 gene was detected in ten STEC isolates. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal a significant proportion of STEC isolated from sheep in rural Bangla-desh harbouring antimicrobial resistance genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Antimicrobial; Prescribing; Drug Resistance; Knowledge; Perception; Medical Students; Malaysia
Online: 16 March 2022 (14:44:53 CET)
Background: Worldwide, microbes are becoming more dangerous by acquiring virulent skills to adapt and develop antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This is a concern as this increases morbidity, mortality, and costs. Consequently, physicians need to be trained inappropriate prescribing, starting with medical students. Objective: Evaluate medical students' confidence in antimicrobial agent prescribing and drug resistance Methods: Cross-sectional study assessing medical students' knowledge, perception, and confidence in prescribing antimicrobial agents and drug resistance in a Malaysian University. A universal sampling method was used. Results: Most respondents believe that educational input regarding overall prescribing was sufficient. Regarding the principle of appropriate and accurate prescriptions, female medical students had less knowledge [Odds Ratio (OR)=0.51; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.25-0.99; p=0.050]. Year-IV and Year-V students had more excellent knowledge than Year-III students regarding confidence in antibiotic prescribing. Year-V students also showed appreciably higher confidence in the broad principles of prescribing, including infectious diseases, compared to those in other years. Conclusion: Overall, medical students, gain more excellent knowledge and confidence regarding prescribing, including antimicrobials, as their academic careers progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0679.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Salmonella species; E.coli; Broiler chickens; Malaysia
Online: 28 December 2020 (10:49:17 CET)
Abstract:Salmonella species (spp) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are the most common infectious pathogens in poultry. Antimicrobials were given either for the treatment or growth promoters that can increase the possibility of emergence of bacterial resistance towards antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Salmonella spp and E. coli isolated from a sample of broiler farms in East Coast Malaysia from 2018-2019. A total of 384 cloacal swabs were collected from broilers farms in Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang. The bacteria were isolated and confirmed by bacteriological and serological methods. Following that, confirmed isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test. Salmonella spp and E. coli were recovered from the cloacal swabs samples with the overall prevalence of 6.5% and 51.8% respectively. In Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang, the prevalence of Salmonella spp were 7%, 6.5% and 5.8% respectively, while the prevalence for E. coli were 50%, 48.3% and 58% respectively. Salmonella spp and E. coli displayed resistance towards the following antimicrobials: erythromycin (100% for both pathogens), chloramphenicol (76.2%, 84.5%), tetracycline (62%, 94.6%), ampicillin (47.7%, 87%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (42.9%, 83.3%), ciprofloxacin (4.8%, 23.8%), nalidixic acid (9.6%, 60.7%), streptomycin (19%,66%), and kanamycin (28.6%,57%), cephalotin (0%, 11%), gentamicin (0%, 20.2%) respectively. No resistance were recorded towards colistin for both pathogens. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was recorded in 82% of Salmonella spp and 100% of E. coli. These findings demonstrate the high prevalence of MDR Salmonella spp. and E. coli in broiler farms in East coast Malaysia. This could be attributed to the excessive use of antimicrobial agents by the poultry farm owners. Enhanced control measures and a strong monitoring system should be urgently implemented to reduce the emergence of antimicrobial resistance that is harmful to public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; AMR; Infections; antibiotics; inappropriate prescribing; healthcare pro-fessionals; education; training; antimicrobial stewardship programs; continuous professional development
Online: 2 June 2021 (09:58:36 CEST)
(1) Background: Factors reported in literature associated with inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials, such as physicians with less experience, uncertain diagnosis, and patient caregiver influences on physicians' decisions. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance is critical for identifying emerging resistance patterns, developing, and assessing the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Improvement in prescribing `antimicrobials would minimize the risk of resistance and, consequently, improve patients' clinical and health outcomes. The purpose of the study is to delineate factors associated with antimicrobial resistance, describe the factors influencing prescriber’s choice during prescribing of antimicrobial, and examine factors related to consequences of inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobial. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted among healthcare providers (190) in six tertiary hospitals in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The research panel has developed validated and piloted survey specific with closed-ended questions. A value of P <0.05 was considered for statistical significance. All data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS version 23.0). (3) Results: 72.7% of the respondents have agreed that poor skills and knowledge are key factors that contribute to the inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials. All the respondents acknowledged effectiveness and previous experience with the antimicrobial, and reading scientific materials (such as books, articles, and the internet) were key factors influencing physicians’ choice during antimicrobial prescribing. (4) Conclusion: The current study has identified comprehensive education and training needs for healthcare providers about antimicrobial resistance. Using antimicrobials unnecessarily, insufficient duration of antimicrobial use, and using broad spectrum antimicrobials, were reported to be common practices. Further, poor skills and knowledge were a key factor that contributed to the inappropriate use and overuse of antimicrobials and using antimicrobials without physician prescription (self-medication) were the key factors which contribute to AMR from participants’ perspectives. Furthermore, internal policy and guidelines are needed to ensure that the antimicrobials are prescribed in accordance with standard protocols and clinical guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0157.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chitosan hydrogels, silver nanowires, controlled release, antimicrobial activity, bone regeneration
Online: 18 February 2019 (10:38:46 CET)
One-dimensional nanostructures such as silver nanowires (AgNWs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their outstanding electrical, thermal and antimicrobial properties; however, their application in the prevention of infections linked to bone tissue regeneration interventions has not yet been explored. Here we report on the development of an innovative scaffold prepared from chitosan, composite hydroxyapatite and AgNWs (CS-HACS-AgNWs) having both bioactive and antibacterial properties. In vitro results highlighted the antibacterial potential of AgNWs against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The CS-HACS-AgNWs composite scaffold demonstrated suitable Ca/P deposition, improved gel strength, reduced gelation time, and sustained Ag+ release within therapeutic concentrations. Antibacterial studies showed that the composite formulation was capable of inhibiting bacterial growth in suspension and of completely preventing biofilm formation on the scaffold in the presence of resistant strains. The hydrogels were also shown to be biocompatible, allowing cell proliferation. In summary, the developed CS-HACS-AgNWs composite hydrogels demonstrated significant potential as a scaffold material to be employed in bone regenerative medicine, as it presents enhanced mechanical strength combined with the ability to allow calcium salts deposition, while efficiently decreasing the risk of infections. The results presented justify further investigations into potential clinical applications of these materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0161.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; horizontal gene transfer; mathematical modelling; epidemiology; microbiology
Online: 6 May 2019 (10:59:05 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the greatest public health challenges we are currently facing. To develop effective interventions against this, it is essential to understand the processes behind the spread of AMR. These are partly dependent on the dynamics of horizontal transfer of resistance genes between bacteria, which can occur by conjugation (direct contact), transformation (uptake from the environment) or transduction (mediated by bacteriophages). Mathematical modelling is a powerful tool to investigate the dynamics of AMR, however its application to study the horizontal transfer of AMR genes is currently unclear. In this systematic review, we searched for mathematical modelling studies which focused on horizontal transfer of AMR genes. We compared their aims and methods using a list of predetermined criteria, and utilized our results to assess the current state of this research field. Of the 43 studies we identified, most focused on the transfer of single genes by conjugation in Escherichia coli in culture, and its impact on the bacterial evolutionary dynamics. Our findings highlight the existence of an important research gap on the dynamics of transformation and transduction, and the overall public health implications of horizontal transfer of AMR genes. To further develop this field and improve our ability to control AMR, it is essential that we clarify the structural complexity required to study the dynamics of horizontal gene transfer, which will require cooperation between microbiologists and modellers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0255.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; biofilm; efflux pump inhibitors; antibiotic potentiation; eskapee pathogens; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:22:56 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance represents a significant threat to the modern healthcare provision. The ESKAPEE pathogens, in particular, have proven to be especially challenging to treat, due to their intrinsic and acquired ability to rapidly develop resistance mechanisms in response to environmental threats. The development of biofilm has been characterised as an essential contributing factor towards antimicrobial-resistance and tolerance. Several studies have implicated the involvement of efflux pumps in antibiotic resistance, both directly, via drug extrusion and indirectly, through the formation of biofilm. As a result, the underlying mechanism of these pumps has attracted considerable interest due to the potential of targeting these protein structures and developing novel adjunct therapies. Subsequent investigations have revealed the ability of efflux pump-inhibitors (EPIs) to block drug-extrusion and disrupt biofilm formation, thereby, potentiating antibiotics and reversing resistance of pathogen towards them. This review will discuss the potential of EPIs as a possible solution to antimicrobial resistance, examining different challenges to the design of these compounds, with an emphasis on Gram-negative ESKAPEE pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Rivers; one-health; E. coli; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial resistance; AMR
Online: 24 February 2022 (10:03:48 CET)
Extremely low concentrations of ciprofloxacin may select for antimicrobial resistance. A recent global survey found that ciprofloxacin concentrations exceded safe levels at 64 sites. We assessed if national median ciprofloxacin concentrations in rivers were associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. Methods Spearman’s regression was used to assess the country-level association between the national prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and the median ciprofloxacin concentration in the countries rivers. Results The prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli was positively correlated with the concentration of ciprofloxacin in rivers (ρ=0.36; P=0.011; N=48). Conclusions Steps to reducing the concentrations of fluoroquinolones in rivers may help prevent the emergence of resistance in E. coli and other bacterial species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0672.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Wastewater; Pharmaceutical residues; Antimicrobial Resistance; Wastewater treatment plants; Occurrence; Removal; Environmental Risk Assessment; Classification
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:53:01 CEST)
In recent years, there is a growing concern about the alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in different environments. Increasingly, many species of bacteria, fungi and viruses are becoming immune to the most commonly used pharmaceuticals. One of the causes of the development of the resistance is the persistence of these drugs, excreted by humans, in municipal and hospital wastewater (WW). Consequently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a primary source of antimicrobial resistance genes as novel pollutants. This systematic review sought to examine the relevant literature on pharmaceutical residues (PRs) responsible for AMR in municipal and hospital WW in order to propose a classification of the PRs of greatest concern and provide an updated source for AMR management in WWTPs. Among 546 studies collected from four databases, 18 were included in the present review. The internal and external validity of each study was assessed, and the risk of bias was evaluated on a 20-parameter basis. Results were combined in a narrative synthesis discussing influents and effluents PR concentrations at 88 WWTPs, seasonal variations, differences between hospital and municipal WW, environmental risk assessment values of antimicrobial substances and treatment facilities removal efficiencies. Among the 45 PRs responsible for AMR evaluated in this study, the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, metronidazole, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim constitute a considerable risk in terms of ubiquitous distribution, worrying concentrations, risk quotients values, and resistance to removal treatments. Gaps in knowledge, data and information reported in this review provide a valuable source for managing AMR in WWTPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0171.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: combination; antimicrobial resistance; selection index; collateral sensitivity; mutant prevention concentration; minimal inhibitory concentration; fractional inhibitory concentration index; stress factor
Online: 13 September 2022 (07:53:32 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been a serious threat to human health, and combination therapy is proved to be an economic and effective strategy to fight the resistance. However, the abuse of drug combinations would conversely accelerate the spread of AMR. In our previous work, it had been concluded that the mutant selection indexes (SIs) of one agent against a specific bacterial strain are closely related to the proportions of two agents in a drug combination. To discover probable correlations, predictors and laws for further proposing feasible principles and schemes guiding the AMR-preventing practice, here three aspects were further explored. First, the power function (y=axb, a > 0) correlation between the SI (y) of one agent and the ratio value (x) of two agents in a drug combination was further established based on the mathematical and statistical analyses for those experimental data, and two rules a1 × MIC1 = a2 × MIC2 and b1 + b2 = -1 were discovered from both equations of y=a1xb1 and y=a2xb2 respectively for two agents in drug combinations. Simultaneously, it was found that one agent with larger MPC alone for drug combinations show greater potency for narrowing itself MSW and preventing the resistance. Second, a new concept as mutation-preventing selection index (MPSI) was proposed and used for evaluating the mutation-preventing potency difference of two agents in drug combinations, and the positive correlation between the MPSI and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) or minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was subsequently established. Inspired by this, the significantly positive correlation, contrary to previous reports, between the MIC and the corresponding MPC of antimicrobial agents against pathogenic bacteria was established using one hundred and eighty-one of data pairs reported. These results together of above three aspects indicate that the MPCs in alone and combination are very important indexes for drug combinations to predict the mutation-preventing effects and the trajectories of collateral sensitivity, and while the MPC of an agent can be roughly calculated from its corresponding MIC. Subsequently, the former conclusion was further verified and improved by the antibiotic exposure to forty-three groups designed as different drug concentrations and various proportions. The results further proposed that the C/MPC for the agent with larger proportion in drug combinations can be considered as a predictor and is the key to judge whether the resistance and the collateral sensitivity occur to two agents. Based on these above correlations, laws, and their verification experiments, some principles were proposed, and a diagram of the mutation-preventing effects and the resistant trajectories for drug combinations with different concentrations and ratios of two agents was presented. Simultaneously, the reciprocal of MPC alone (1/MPC), proposed as the stress factors of two agents in drug combinations, together with their SI in combination, is the key to predict the mutation-preventing potency and control the trajectories of collateral sensitivity. Finally, a preliminary scheme for antimicrobial combinations preventing the AMR was further proposed for subsequent improvement research and clinic popularization, based on the above analyses and discussion. Moreover, some similar conclusions were speculated for triple or multiple drug combinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0560.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, stewardship, community, school, students, e-bug, education, pharmacists, India
Online: 23 November 2018 (11:33:55 CET)
Abstract Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recognised public health threat today globally. Though many active and passive stewardship strategies are employed to counter AMR clinically, educating school going children on AMR could be a futuristic cost-effective measure to minimize AMR development. We hypothesised NICE’s e-bug module to class VII school students on AMR determinants. Methodology: A prospective non-randomized intervention study on 327 students belonging to 9 schools of class VII around Manipal town, Udupi district, Karnataka state, India were included for the study. 10 questions on AMR determinants extracted from NICE’s e-bug program were quizzed in written as pre-test followed by an education intervention on the same questions followed by a post-test to end the session. Descriptive statistics to estimate epidemiological characteristics, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to analyse statistical significance of pre/post-test performance scores for the 10 questions and between schools respectively Results: Students had inadequate knowledge on 7 AMR determinants (antimicrobial indication, its course, hand hygiene, fermentation, spread of infection, microbial multiplication and characteristics of microbe) when analysed for post-test performance (p<0.05). Comparison of post-test performance of 9 participating schools revealed statistical significance (p<0.05) for 3 questions (definition on antimicrobial, cover while cough/sneezing and microbial characteristics) Conclusion: Although students exhibited sub-optimal knowledge on few AMR determinants, they showed keenness to learn exhibited by their performance. Our findings and previous similar studies from Europe are suggestive of early pedagogic interventions on AMR through inclusion of such education modules in the curriculum could be potential tool for AMR prevention for future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; E. coli; K. pneumoniae; Acinetobacter; P. aeruginosa; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial resistance; stewardship; antibiotic consumption; bystander selection
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:32:27 CEST)
It is unclear how important it is to reduce fluoroquinolone consumption in the general population to prevent the spread of fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (bystander selection). Methods We assessed bystander selection by using Spearman’s correlation to assess if the country-level prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae was correlated with the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in four other gram-negative species - Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results Fluoroquinolone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae was positively associated with homologous resistance in all 4 species - A. baumanii. (ρ=0.61, P=0.0003, E. coli (ρ=0.67, P<0.0001), K. pneumoniae (ρ=0.52, P=0.0004) and P. aeruginosa (ρ=0.40, P=0.0206). Positive associations were also found between the national prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance and fluoroquinolone consumption in the general population in the preceding year for 4 of the 5 species. Conclusions Gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance can be productively viewed as being part of a syndemic of fluoroquinolone resistance. Strengthening antimicrobial stewardship programs may help retard the spread of fluoroquinolone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial; antimicrobial use; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotic utilization; Tanzania; defined daily dose, Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical Classification
Online: 11 August 2021 (14:42:57 CEST)
Antimicrobial use (AMU) is one of the major drivers of emerging antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Surveillance of AMU, a pillar of AMR stewardship (AMS), helps devise strategies to mitigate AMR. This descriptive, longitudinal retrospective study quantified the trends in human antibiotic utilization between 2010 and 2016 using data on all antibiotics imported for systemic human use into Tanzania's mainland. Regression and time series analyses were used to establish trends in antibiotics use. A total of 12,073 records for antibiotics were retrieved, totaling 154.51Daily Defined Doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) with a mean (± standard deviation) of 22.07 (±48.85) DID. The private sector contributed 93.76%% of utilized antibiotics. The top-ranking antibiotics were amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and cefalexin. The DDIs and percentage contribution of these antibiotics were 53.78 (34.81%), 23.86 (15.44), 20.53 (13.29), 9.27 (6.0) and 6.94 (4.49), respectively. The time series model predicted significant increase in utilization(p-value =0.002). The model forecasted that by 2022, the total antibiotics consumed would reach 89.6 DIDs, corresponding to a 13-fold increase compared to 2010. Government intervention to curb inappropriate antibiotic utilization to mitigate the rising threat of antibiotic resistance should focus on implementing AMS programs in pharmacies and hospitals in Tanzania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: One-health; food-animals; E. coli; K. pneumoniae; Acinetobacter; P. aeruginosa; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotic consumption
Online: 13 September 2021 (09:55:56 CEST)
BackgroundIt is unclear what underpins the large global variations in the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in gram-negative bacteria. We tested the hypothesis that different intensities in the use of quinolones for food-animals plays a role. MethodsWe used Spearman’s correlation to assess if the country-level prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in human infections with Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was correlated with the use of quinolones for food producing animals. Linear regression was used to assess the relative contributions of country-level quinolone consumption for food-animals and humans on fluoroquinolone resistance in these 4 species. ResultsThe prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in each species was positively associated with quinolone use for food-producing animals (E. coli [ρ=0.55; P<0.001], K. pneumoniae [ρ=0.58; P<0.001]; A. baumanii [ρ=0.54; P=0.004]; P. aeruginosa [ρ=0.48; P=0.008]). Linear regression revealed that both quinolone consumption in humans and food animals were independently associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and A. baumanii. ConclusionsReducing quinolone use in food-producing animals may help retard the spread of fluoroquinolone resistance in various gram negative bacterial species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; AWaRe; Pharmacovigilance; Lareb; adverse drug reactions
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:27:02 CEST)
(1) Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires urgent multidisciplinary solutions, and Pharmacovigilance (PV) has the potential to strengthen current antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies. This study aimed to characterise AMR-relevant adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports submitted to The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre (Lareb); (2) Methods: We carried out a descriptive analysis of ADR reports submitted to Lareb, coded with AMR-relevant MedDRA Preferred Terms (PTs).; (3) Results: Between 1998 and Jan 2019, 252 AMR-relevant ADR reports were submitted to Lareb. The most frequent antibiotics were tobramycin (n=89; 35%), colistin (n=30; 11,9%), ciprofloxacin (n=16; 6,35%), doxycycline (n=14; 5,5%) and aztreonam (n=12; 4,76%). The most frequently used PTs were drug ineffective (n=71; 28%), pathogen resistance (n=14; 5%) and drug resistance (n=13; 13%). A total of 119 reports (74%) suggested use-related issues. Watch antibiotics were in 54% of the reports and Reserve antibiotics were in 19%. In the Watch group, “Off label use” and “Product use in unapproved indication” were the most frequent PTs and majority of reports on Reserve antibiotics were coded as “Off label”. (4) Conclusions: Addressing AMR using the PV methods will provide an opportunity for PV expansion and could encourage further investment in both in AMS programs and PV systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0296.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: melanin; antimicrobial; antioxidant; photoprotection
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:32:55 CEST)
Melanins are phenolic polymers synthesized by most of the living organisms. This pigment is mainly attributed to provide photoprotection to the organism while it was found that pigment have immense bioactivities which could be utilized in day-to-day life ranging from sun screens lotions to solar cells. This pigment produced mainly via DOPA or homogentisate in bacteria. Melanin production is usually triggered by stress condition in bacteria. Marine bacteria have been reported as good melanin producers. In this study marine bacteria capable of melanin production were isolated from sea water of Kutch region, Gujarat using tyrosine basal media. The bacteria were identified using microscopic, biochemical and molecular techniques. Melanin produced by the bacteria is extracted and purified and further characterized using physicochemical techniques. Cosmetic properties of melanin like photoprotection, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties are evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0215.v1
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:29:09 CET)
Klebsiella pneumoniae, a major cause of both hospital and community-acquired infections, is listed by the World Health Organization as a critical priority antibiotic- resistant bacterial pathogen. With the appearance of sequencing techniques such as Next-generation Sequencing (NGS), there is the possibility to obtain the whole genome of the bacteria, getting to know all antimicrobial resistance determinants. The purpose of this study has been to apply this new technology to clinical microbiology, in order to characterize the resistome present in carbapenem-resistant K.pneumoniae strains isolated in a tertiary hospital in Valencia, Spain. A total of 234 isolates were prepared for whole-genome sequencing with Ilumina MiSeq, and sequences were later studied for antimicrobial resistance genes, sequence-typing and plasmids. Sequence-typing showed four major circulating clones in our hospital settings: ST11, ST307, ST101 and ST147, carrying different plasmids and different resistance determinants such as OXA-48 and NDM-1 carbapenemase. Application of new technologies such as whole-genome sequencing in clinical microbiology gives advantages when it comes to rapid therapy adjustment, consequently improving the patient’s clinical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0231.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid); oligomer; polyethylene glycol; antimicrobial agent; synergistic antimicrobial effect
Online: 12 October 2020 (11:41:21 CEST)
We reported previously that poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) oligomer is an effective antimicrobial agent against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi and multi-drug resistant bacteria. In this work, it was further found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can promote the antimicrobial effect of PHB oligomer synergistically. Three hypothetic mechanisms were proposed, that is, generation of new antimicrobial components, degradation of PHB macromolecules and dissolution/dispersion of PHB oligomer by PEG. With a series of systematic experiments and characterizations of HPLC-MS, it was deducted that dissolution/dispersion of PHB oligomer dominated the synergistic antimicrobial effect between PHB oligomer and PEG. This work demonstrates a way for promoting antimicrobial effect of PHB oligomer and other antimicrobial agents through improving hydrophilicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0156.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: beta-lactamase; carbapenemase; antimicrobial resistance
Online: 12 January 2022 (00:10:49 CET)
Antibiotic resistance, particularly beta-lactam resistance, is a major problem worldwide. Imipenemase or IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) has become a more prominent enzyme, especially in Asia, since it was discovered in the 1990s in Japan. There are currently more than 91 variants of IMP-type enzymes. The most commonly identified variant of IMP-type enzymes is IMP-1 variant. IMP-type MBLs have been identified in more than 10 species in Enterobacterales. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent carrier of IMP-type enzymes worldwide. In Asia, IMP-type MBLs have been distributed in many countries in the region. This work investigated a variety of currently available IMP-type MBLs in both global level and regional level. Out of 88 variants of IMP-type MBLs reported worldwide, only 32 variants were found to have susceptibility profiles. Most of the IMP-type MBLs were resistant to Carbapenems, especially Imipenem and Meropenem, followed by the 3rd generation cephalosporins, and interestingly, monobactams. Our results comprehensively indicated the distribution of IMP-type MBLs in Asia and raised the awareness of the situation of antimicrobial resistance in the region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0358.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: multidrug-resistant (MDR); Nanotechnology; Antimicrobial
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:31:33 CET)
The global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbial infections is currently one of the most severe risks to global public health, with 10 million fatalities expected by 2050 unless action is taken. Nanotechnology has revolutionized science and medicine. The reliance on nanotechnology is growing. Nanoparticles have distinct properties that improve biological, chemical, and physical properties studied for various uses. A significant area of attention in the synthesis of nanoscale modulators is the utilization of crude formulations, retro-synthesized, and pure chemicals, mainly from herbal sources, with fewer adverse effects. Green chemistry has devised a tangential technique for synthesizing metals and metal oxides to produce nanoparticles. Plant extracts (leaves, stems, and shoots) and microorganisms (bacteria, fungus, and yeast) are used as reducing intermediates to make nanoparticles. Studies in microbiology have shown that nanoparticles kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa. These green nanoparticles contain antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory effects. Most nanoparticles have high antibacterial properties, indicating they may be used to combat diseases and biological contaminants. These nanoparticles have antibacterial action against pathogenic microorganisms that cause serious illnesses, including multidrug-resistant pathogens. The current research will pave the way for future applications and improved methods for producing nanoparticles, paving the way for an innovative route in nano-life sciences with widespread recognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; veterinary; complex intervention
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:49:09 CET)
Antimicrobial use in agriculture has been identified as an area of focus for reducing overall antimicrobial use and improving stewardship. In this paper, we outline the design of a complex antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) intervention aimed at developing a national Veterinary Prescribing Champion programme for Welsh farm animal veterinary practices. We describe the process by which participants were encouraged to design and deliver bespoke individualised AMS activities at practice level by forging participant ‘champion’ identities and Communities of Practice through participatory and educational online activities. We describe the key phases identified as important when designing this complex intervention, namely (i) involving key collaborators in government and industry to stimulate project engagement; (ii) grounding the design in the literature, the results of stakeholder engagement, expert panel input and veterinary clinician feedback to promote contextual relevance and appropriateness; and (iii) taking a theoretical approach to implementing intervention design to foster critical psychological needs for participant motivation and scheme involvement. With recruitment of over 80% of all farm animal practices in Wales to the programme, we also describe demographic data of the participating Welsh Veterinary Prescribing Champions in order to inform recruitment and design of future AMS programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0307.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: molecular docking; fluoroquinolones; antimicrobial activity
Online: 30 January 2019 (09:31:52 CET)
An important parameter in the development of a new drug is the drug's affinity to the identified target (protein/enzyme). Predicting the ligand binding to the target (protein/enzyme) by molecular simulation would allow the synthesis to be restricted to the most promising compounds.A restricted hybrid HF-DFT calculation was performed in order to obtain the most stable conformer of each ligand and a series of DFT calculations using the B3LYP levels with 6-31G* basis set has been conducted. The docking studies of the quinolone compounds will be performed with the CLC Drug Discovery Workbench to identify and visualize the ligand-receptor interaction mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0417.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: nanoparticles; biological; stability; antimicrobial activity
Online: 19 November 2018 (05:10:11 CET)
Previously the nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical methods which were costly and toxic to bio-systems. Plant extracts provides simpler, eco-friendly and cost efficient method for synthesizing nanoparticles. Lemon peel extract (LPE) was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects after optimizing the pH of extract and concentration of both extract and synthesized AgNPs. The characterization of synthesized AgNPs was carried out using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Well diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities of synthesized AgNPs. The presence of phenols and proteins was assumed to reduce the Ag+ ion into silver nanoparticles. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance frequency was observed at 405–425 nm for all varying condition of silver nanoparticles synthesis. Furthermore, results revealed that the synthesized AgNPs remains stable upto 75 days. The average particle size was 2–5 nm, calculated with the help of scherrer’s equation by using XRD data. LPE mediated AgNPs (200 µg/mL) showed significant antimicrobial activity, compared to commercially available nanoparticles while LPE (50 mg/ml) showed no effect. LPE mediated AgNPs might get attention of pharmacists in order to design medicines against different diseases including the infections of bacteria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0174.v1
Online: 9 August 2018 (00:20:24 CEST)
The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microbial species that are present either as planktonic cells, or incorporated into biofilms. The majority of the oral microbes are commensal organisms. Those that are pathogenic microbes can result in oral infections, and at times initiate systemic diseases. Biofilms that contain pathogens have been challenging to control. Many conventional antimicrobials have proven to be ineffective. Recent advances in science and technology are providing new approaches for pathogen control and containment and methods to characterize biofilms. This perspective provides: 1) A general understanding of biofilm development; 2) A description of emerging chemical and biological methods to control oral biofilms; 3) An overview of high-throughput analytical approaches to analyze biofilms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0249.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: cationic polymers; blends; surfaces; antimicrobial
Online: 26 January 2018 (05:31:49 CET)
The aim of this work is the preparation of contact active antimicrobial films by blending copolymers with quaternary ammonium salts and polyacrylonitrile as matrix material. A series of copolymers based on acrylonitrile and methacrylic monomers with quaternizable groups were designed with the purpose of investigating the influence of their chemical and structural characteristics on the antimicrobial activity of these surfaces. The biocide activity of these systems was studied against different microorganisms, such as the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomona aeruginosa and the yeast Candida parapsilosis. The results confirmed that parameters such as flexibility and polarity of the antimicrobial polymers immobilized on the surfaces strongly affect the efficiency against microorganisms. In contrast to the behavior of copolymers in water solutions, when they are tethered to the surface, the active cationic groups are less accessible and then the mobility of the side chain is critical for a good contact with the microorganism. Blend films composed of copolymers with high positive charge density and chain mobility present up to a more than 99.999% killing efficiency against the studied microorganisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0047.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: azo-compound; antimicrobial; synthesis; QSAR.
Online: 5 May 2017 (13:38:51 CEST)
Some novel (phenyl-diazenyl)phenols (3a–g) were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. A previously synthesized molecule, active against bacteria and fungi, was used as lead for modifications and optimization of the structure, by introduction/removal or displacement of hydroxyl groups on the azobenzene rings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the consequent changes of the antimicrobial activity and to validate the hypothesis that, for these compounds, a plausible mechanism could involve an interaction with protein receptors, rather than an interaction with membrane. All newly synthesized compounds were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), DSC thermal analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each compound was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Compounds 3b and 3g showed the highest activity against S. aureus and C. albicans, with remarkable MIC values of 10 µg/mL and 3 µg/mL, respectively. Structure- activity relationship studies were capable to rationalize the effect of different substitutions on the phenyl ring of the azobenzene on antimicrobial activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0141.v1
Online: 13 August 2016 (11:05:38 CEST)
The mechanism of ciprofloxacin action involves interference with transcription and replication of bacterial DNA, which results in elevated oxidative stress, and bacterial cell death. Vorinostat was shown to induce oxidative DNA damage. In the current work, the possibility for interactive effect of vorinotat on ciprofloxacin-induced cytotoxicity against a number of reference bacteria was investigated. Standard bacterial strains were Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12459, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43300), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 25923). The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin with or without pretreatment of bacterial cells by vorinostat was examined using disc diffusion procedure and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and zones of inhibition of bacterial growth. All tested bacterial strains showed sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. When pretreated with vorinostat, significantly larger zones of inhibition and smaller MIC values were observed in all bacterial strains compared ciprofloxacin alone. As a conclusion, current results showed the possible agonistic properties for vorinostat when it is used together with ciprofloxacin. Future research will be focus on molecular mechanisms possible for such interactive effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0197.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Natural product; bioactive compounds; antimicrobial; antioxidant
Online: 16 May 2022 (05:07:30 CEST)
Natural compounds have diverse structures and are present in different forms of life. Metabolites such as tannins, anthocyanins, and alkaloids, among others, serve as a defense mechanism in live organisms and are undoubtedly compounds of interest for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Plants, bacteria, and insects represent a source of biomolecules with diverse activities, poorly studied in many cases. To use these molecules for different applications, it is essential to know their structure, concentrations, and biological activity potential. In vitro techniques that evaluate the biological activity of the molecules of interest have been developed since the 1950s. Currently, different methodologies have emerged to overcome some of the limitations of these traditional techniques, mainly the reduction of time and costs. However, emerging technologies continue to appear due to the urgent need to expand the analysis capacity of a growing number of reported biomolecules and the lack of therapeutic options to treat various diseases. This review presents an updated summary of the conventional and current methods to evaluate natural compounds' biological activity, including a diagram that summarizes the minimum techniques essential for correctly assessing molecules with biological potential.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0237.v1
Online: 12 July 2021 (09:38:48 CEST)
Microorganisms including actinomycetes, archaea, bacteria, fungi, yeast, and micro algae are the auspicious source of vital bioactive compounds. In this review, the existing state of the art re-garding antimicrobial molecules from microorganisms has been summarized. The potential an-timicrobial compounds from actinomycetes, particularly Streptomyces sp.; archaea; fungi including endophytic and marine-derived fungi, mushroom; yeast, and microalgae were briefly described. Furthermore, this review briefly summarized the activity and mode of action of bacteriocins, a ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides product of Eurotium sp., Streptomyces parvulus, S. thermophiles, Lactococcus lactis, etc. Bacteriocins have inherent properties such as targeting multi-ple-drug resistant pathogens, which allows them to be considered next-generation antibiotics. Similarly, Glarea lozoyensis derived antifungal lipohexpeptides i.e., pneumocandins, inhibits 1,3-β-glucan synthase of the fungal cell wall and acts as a precursor for the synthesis of caspo-fungin, is also elaborated. In conclusion, this review highlights the possibility of using microor-ganisms as an antimicrobial resource for biotechnological, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical ap-plications. However, more investigations are still required to separate, purify, and characterize these bioactive compounds and transfer these primary drugs into clinically approved antibiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0478.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: biopolymers; paper packaging; antimicrobial activity; nanoparticles
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:30:46 CEST)
Here, we designed the composition of the coating of the paper sheets composed of chitosan, bacterial cellulose (nanofibres), and ZnO with boosted antibacterial and mechanical activity. We investigated the compositions with ZnO exhibiting two different sizes/shapes: (1) rods and (2) irregular sphere-like particles. The proposed processing of bacterial cellulose resulted in the formation of nanofibers. Antimicrobial behavior was tested using E. coli ATCC® 25922™ following ASTM E2149-13a standard. Mechanical properties of the paper sheets were measured by comparison of tearing resistance, tensile strength, and bursting strength according to ISO 5270 standard. The increased antibacterial response is assigned to the combination of chitosan and ZnO (independently of its shape and size), while the boosted mechanical behavior is due to bacterial cellulose nanofibers. Therefore, the proposed composition is an interesting multifunctional mixture for coatings in food packaging applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19 impacts; Antimicrobial resistance; Africa
Online: 7 May 2021 (16:21:37 CEST)
Objective In this study, we aim to synthesize some evidence on the impacts that COVID-19 is having on the epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in Africa since it was declared global pandemic by WHO in March 2020. Methodology A scoping review was undertaken by collecting and curating relevant resources from peer-reviewed articles and also from the gray literature. Mixed approaches of extracting data (qualitative and quantitative) were employed in synthesizing evidence, as suggested by Health Evidence Network (HEN). Findings A model constructed based on the synthesis of early evidences available on the effects of factors linked to COVID-19 in impacting the evolution of AMR in Africa predicted that, in cumulative terms, those factors favoring the evolution of AMR outpace those disfavoring it by no less than three folds. Conclusion COVID-19 is fueling the evolution of AMR almost unhindered in Africa. Due recognition of this crisis, concerted efforts for resource mobilization and global cooperation are needed to tackle it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0623.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Antimicrobial; berries; cytotoxic; cyanidine; elderberry; lyophilization
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:26:39 CET)
Natural phytochemicals in foods, including anthocyanins, can play an important role in human health. Anthocyanins have been reported to cause many various useful effects, such as reducing cancer cell proliferation, regulating blood pressure, preventing tumour formation, improving eyesight, and preventing diabetes. In this study, we aimed to reveal the qualitative anthocyanin content, antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of different extracts derived from Vaccinium myrtillus, V. corymbosum, Sambucus nigra and Aronia melanocarpa. The anthocyanin content of the plants mentioned in the study was characterized after the freeze-drying process. MTT assay was used to determine the antiproliferative effect of extracts on cancer cells. Antimicrobial effects of extracts were studied on typical and clinical strains of 5 different bacteria. As a result, the anthocyanin content in the extracts obtained was determined to be quite good with the freeze-drying method, and it was also determined that the extracts had various levels of antiproliferative and antibacterial effects.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0134.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bacterial cellulose; Nisin; Antimicrobial activity; Stability
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:52:11 CEST)
Nisin is a 3.4 kDa antimicrobial peptide, produced by Lactococcus lactis (ATCC 11454). This bacteriocin can inhibit spores gemination and gram-positive bacteria development and has gained visibility in therapeutic use. The bacterial cellulose (CB) has been considered an ideal material and with high quality applied in food and medical-pharmaceutical inputs. Because of all this benefits, it is important to know the system proceeding of CB with nisin. Therefore, it was realize nisin release profile analysis of CBs was performed; analysis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa ATCC 9721 and Staphylococus aureus ATCC 10390; antimicrobial stability test, for 100 days at different temperatures of 4º, 25º and 37 ° C against microorganisms: S. aureus e L. sakei. The results show that nisin is released by the CB in 4 hours of contact with medium and the MIC of nisin is 78 µg/mL for S. aureus, doesn’t have gram-negative inhibition. It had stability until 100 days against L. sakei and 60 days for S. aureus. The system proved to be efficient and CB potentiated the antimicrobial action of nisin, acting as a selective barrier for other compounds present in the standard solution, serving as protection of the peptide at different temperatures. The CB loading system can be an ideal antimicrobial stability system for nisin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Antibiotic prescription; Outpatients; AWaRe classification; Ghana; SORT IT; Antimicrobial stewardship; Electronic Medical Records; Operational research; Antimicrobial resistance
Online: 26 July 2022 (07:47:52 CEST)
Background: Monitoring of antibiotic prescription practices in hospitals is essential to assess and facilitate appropriate use. This is relevant to halt the progression of antimicrobial resistance. Methods: Assessment of antibiotic prescribing patterns and completeness of antibiotic prescriptions among out-patients in 2021 was conducted at the University Hospital of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in the Ashanti region of Ghana. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 49,660 patients who had 110,280 encounters in the year. Results: The patient encounters yielded 350,149 prescriptions. Every month, 33-36% of patient encounters resulted in antibiotic prescription, higher than the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended optimum of 27%. Almost half of the antibiotics prescribed belonged to WHO’s Watch group. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (50%), azithromycin (29%), ciprofloxacin (28%), metronidazole (21%), and cefuroxime (20%) were the most prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotic prescribing parameters (indication, name of drug, duration, dose, route and frequency) were documented in almost all prescriptions. Conclusions: Extending antimicrobial stewardship to the out-patient settings by developing standard treatment guidelines, an out-patient specific drug formulary and antibiograms can promote rational antibiotic use at the hospital. The EMR system of the hospital is a valuable tool for monitoring prescriptions that can be leveraged for future audits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: ESKAPE; heteroaryl-ethylenes; clinical strains; antimicrobial activity
Online: 13 May 2022 (03:30:57 CEST)
The World Health Organization has identified antimicrobial resistance as a public health emergency and developed a global priority pathogens list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can be summarized in the acronym ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales species), reminding us of their ability to escape the effect of antibacterial drugs. We previously tested new heteroaryl-ethylene compounds in order to define their spectrum of activity and antibacterial capability. Now, we focus our attention on PB4, a compound with promising MIC and MBC values in all conditions tested. In the present study, we evaluate the activity of PB4 on selected samples of ESKAPE isolates from nosocomial infections: 14 S. aureus, 6 E. faecalis, 7 E. faecium, 12 E. coli and 14 A. baumanii. Furthermore, an ATCC control strain was selected for all species tested. MICs were performed according to the standard method, with some modifications. PB4 MIC values were within very low ranges regardless of bacterial species and resistance profiles: from 0,12 to 2 mg/L for S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. faecium and A. baumannii. For E. coli, the MIC values obtained were slightly higher (4-64 mg/L), butstill promising. The PB4 heteroaryl-ethylenic compound was able to counteract the bacterial growth of both high-priority Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical strains. In the future, it would be interesting to evaluate the activity of PB4 in animal models to test for its toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: antimicrobial peptide prediction; sequence analysis; random forest
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:57:01 CET)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in order to overcome the growing problems of antibiotic resistance. Computational prediction approaches receive an increasing interest to identify and design the best candidate AMPs prior to the in-vitro tests. In this study, we focused on the linear cationic peptides with non-hemolytic activity, which are downloaded from the Database of Antimicrobial Activity and Structure of Peptides (DBAASP). Referring to the MIC (Minimum inhibition concentration) values, we have assigned a positive label to a peptide if it shows antimicrobial activity; otherwise the peptide is labeled as negative. Here, we focused on the peptides showing antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and against Gram-positive bacteria separately, and we created two datasets accordingly. Ten different physico-chemical properties of the peptides are calculated and used as features in our study. Following data exploration and data preprocessing steps, a variety of classification algorithms are used with 100-fold Monte Carlo Cross Validation to build models and to predict the antimicrobial activity of the peptides. Among the generated models, Random Forest has resulted in the best performance metrics for both Gram-negative dataset (Accuracy: 0.98, Recall: 0.99, Specificity: 0.97, Precision: 0.97, AUC: 0.99, F1: 0.98) and Gram-positive dataset (Accuracy: 0.95, Recall: 0.95, Specificity: 0.95, Precision: 0.90, AUC: 0.97, F1: 0.92) after outlier elimination is applied. This prediction approach might be useful to evaluate the antibacterial potential of a candidate peptide sequence before moving to the experimental studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0109.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: magnetization; photoluminescence; carbon dots; magnetic nanoparticles; antimicrobial
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:21:24 CET)
We present a simple strategy to generate a family of carbon dot/iron oxide nanoparticles (C/Fe-NPs) that relies on the thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in the presence of a highly fluorescent carbon-rich precursor, while polyethylene glycol serves as the passivation agent. By varying the molar ratio of the reactants, a series of C/Fe-NPs have been synthesized with tuneable elemental composition in terms of C, H, O, N, Fe. The quantum yield is enhanced from 6% to 9% as the carbon content increases from 27% to 36%, while the room temperature saturation magnetization is improved from 4.1 emu/g to 17.7 emu/g as the iron content is enriched from 17 to 31%. In addition, the C/Fe-NPs show excellent antimicrobial properties, minimal cytotoxicity and demonstrate promising bioimaging capabilities, thus showing great potential for the development of advanced diagnostic tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Antimicrobial activities; Medicinal plants; Herbal medicines; WHO
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:40:36 CET)
Medicinal plants have antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. More or less all plants have medicinal properties. In this research article, we have selected four economically important plants (three fruit plants and an economically important plant), Malus domestica Borkh., Prunus persica L., Ricinus communis L., and Carica papaya L. found in several areas of Indian state Uttarakhand. Using the methanolic extract of leaves, we have screened those four plants against four human pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. For our experiment we have screened the methanolic leaf extracts of four plants against the above-mentioned bacteria. Statistical analysis was also performed for validation. Result revealed the said bacteria have potential antibacterial activities. So, these leaves can be used for clinical trial. These plants can also be used for making herbal medicines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: antimicrobial coating; photodynamic inactivation; public transportation; AMC
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:26:24 CET)
Millions of people use public transportation daily worldwide and frequently touch surfaces, thereby producing a reservoir of microorganisms on surfaces increasing the risk of transmission. Constant occupation makes sufficient cleaning difficult to achieve. Thus, an autonomous, perma-nent antimicrobial coating (AMC) could keep down the microbial burden on such surfaces. A photodynamic AMC was applied to frequently touched surfaces in buses. The microbial burden (colony forming units, cfu) was determined weekly and compared to equivalent surfaces in buses without AMC (references). The microbial burden ranged from 0 – 209 cfu/cm² on references and from 0 – 54 cfu/cm² on AMC. The means were 13.4 ± 29.6 cfu/cm² on references and 4.5 ± 8.4 cfu/cm² on AMC (p<0.001). The difference of microbial burden on AMC and references was al-most constant throughout the study. Considering a hygiene benchmark of 5 cfu/cm², the data yield an absolute risk reduction of 22.6 % and a relative risk reduction of 50.7 %. In conclusion, photo-dynamic AMC kept down the microbial burden, reducing the risk of transmission of microor-ganisms. AMC permanently and autonomously contributes to hygienic conditions on surfaces in public transportation. Photodynamic AMC therefore are suitable for reducing the microbial load and closing hygiene gaps in public transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0248.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bacteriophage therapy; antimicrobial resistance; Salmonella; antibiotic synergy
Online: 15 November 2021 (10:44:07 CET)
The prevalence of multidrug resistant bacterial diseases is a major global health risk. Multidrug resistant bacterial diseases are prevalent, and the need for novel methods of treatment is essential to the preservation of public health. Annually foodborne pathogens cause 1.35 million infections and 26,500 hospitalizations in the United States alone. Foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. are a major threat to public health. Bacteriophages offer a unique method for the treatment of these multidrug resistant bacteria. We studied the infection dynamics of a potential mono-phage therapy of Salmonella typhimurium under various pathophysiological conditions. Furthermore, we determined the resistance dynamics of Salmonella typhimurium against P22 phage treatment. We also determined synergy with antibiotics such as ampicillin and kanamycin. This research helps to further define and show the versatility of bacteriophages as potential novel treatment methods.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0055.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: hosue fly,; falling,; dipping,; antimicrobial,; milk,; water
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:48:42 CET)
Background: The study describes the comparison of different microbial load results of natural falling and dipping of the house fly (Musca domestica) in water and milk to investigate the possibilities of preventing the effect of the transferred pathogens from the house fly to our sources by pointing out the existence of antimicrobial factors within the house fly. Methods: Samples of house fly were collected from Jeddah and Makkah (Makkah region) and were directly transferred to the laboratory. Each house fly was packed in sterile test tubes. Each tube was opened oppositely to a larger test tube containing 10 ml of sterile tap water, and sterile water at pH 4.0 in other similar series of treatments to represent the reactions of stomach fluids. Later, the house flies were left for 20 seconds after reaching the water surface, and then cultured on different microbial media to evaluate the microbial load of the natural falling of the house fly. To evaluate the complete dipping of house flies in the water, two methods were tested by one complete dip for the flies for 20 seconds, and three times complete dipping for 20 seconds in water before evaluating the microbial load. The same methods were achieved on milk in a series of experiments and the microbial load was evaluated after the incubation at room temperature for three hours. Results: It was found that dipping treatments of house flies gave lower microbial contamination in water at pH 4.0 than neutral pH. The lower microbial load was also observed when dipping the house flies three times in water as compared to once dipping and natural falling treatments. It was also found that the complete dipping of house flies’ treatments in milk will reduce the microbial contamination as compared to natural falling treatments. Conclusion: The observed results support the presence of antimicrobial factors on the house fly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0069.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance; Biosecurity; Egg; Nigeria; Poultry; Salmonella
Online: 5 May 2021 (15:04:41 CEST)
Salmonella remains one of the notable food-borne bacterial pathogens. It is associated with poultry and poultry products including eggs. This study investigated Salmonella distribution in eggshell and content, their antimicrobial resistance pattern, and the possible risk factors driving contamination in Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 500 eggs (5 eggs pooled into one sample) were collected and culturally examined for the presence of Salmonella serovars. Isolates were further characterized biochemically using Microbact 20E (Oxoid) and Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. A total of 14 Salmonella isolates spread across 10 serovars were recovered from the 100 pooled egg samples; 10 (10%) from the market and 4 (4%) farms, 13(13%) eggshell, and 1(1%) egg content. All tested serovars were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, and kanamycin. Resistance was mostly observed in sulfamethoxazole 8 (80%), followed by ciprofloxacin 5 (50%) and tetracycline 3 (30%). Sales of eggs in the market appears to be a strong factor encouraging contamination in addition to poor biosecurity and unhygienic handling of eggs on the farm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0419.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Biofilm; Silver Gel; Betadine; Providone-Iodine; Antimicrobial
Online: 28 February 2020 (11:45:13 CET)
Betadine (Providone-Iodine) solution is a topically applied antiseptic, which has been used for wound care and surgery for decades for the prevention and treatment of skin and wound infections. However, several studies have documented the ineffectiveness of Betadine solution. Other topical antimicrobial dressings, including those that contain silver, have been used in the management of infected wounds. The present study was undertaken to determine if the combination of 5% Betadine solutions and silver colloidal gel (Ag-gel), is more effective than the individual materials in inhibiting the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. These determinations were carried out by both the colony forming unit (CFU) assay, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Ag-gel showed complete inhibition on all the bacteria, except Klebsiella pneumoniae CI strain while 5% Betadine concentrations did not completely kill any of the tested bacteria. However, K. pneumoniae was completely eliminated in the presence of the combination of 5% Betadine solution plus Ag-gel. Confocal laser microscopy confirmed the CFU results. Thus this study demonstrated that while the individual treatments are not effective in killing all the bacteria tested, the combination of 5% Betadine solution and Ag-gel completely kill all bacteria tested, including K. penumoniae CI.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: antimicrobial; antioxidant; bioprospecting; lapachol; Tabebuia aurea; toxicity
Online: 22 January 2020 (02:41:05 CET)
Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. & Hook. f. The ex S.Moore (yellow ipe), belonging to the Bignoniaceae family, used in the popular for fever, inflammation and healing of skin wounds. The extract was prepared by maceration, using 70% ethanol. Through HPLC analysis, it was possible to identify substances, mainly phenolic, such as lapachol, present in Bignoniaceae. The phenolic content was 21.36 mg / Eag in the antioxidant activity, the effective concentration of 50% was 53.03 ± 1.14 µg / mL. The antimicrobial activity against S.aureus, E. coli and C. albicans was evaluated by microdilution in broth, which verified action against the tested microorganisms. Cell viability has been inhibited for tumor cells, although this has not been observed for normal cells. The LD50 against A.aegypti mosquito larvae was 3504.6 mg / L and there was no mortality in the concentration tested for the snail B.glabrata. Nontoxic or low toxicity for A. salina and T. molitor, respectively, and did not exhibit hemolytic action at concentrations of antibacterial effect. Given the above, it was concluded that the bark extract of the studied species has bioprospecting potential for the future development of antimicrobial products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0010.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Pinus; needle; Himalayas; phenolics; flavonoids; antimicrobial; antioxidant
Online: 1 September 2019 (10:41:37 CEST)
Environmental interventions and ecological adaptations harbor millions of valued substances and metabolites in plants which can be employed and commercialized for human benefits. Present study encompasses the untapped potential of pine needles of Indo-Himalayan region for the production of different metabolites and their pharmacological significance in terms of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid content from the needles of ten pine species was quantified using three different solvent systems. Results revealed that out of 10 different selected Pinus species, Pinus taeda showed highest concentration of total phenolics, soluble-F phenolics and flavonoids content (approx.147.02 mg/g, 141.08 mg/g and 21.91mg/g respectively) as compared to other species. On the other hand P. greggii showed highest Bound-W phenolic content (approx.3.62mg/g). Among all the selected plant species, the needles of P.echinata exhibited the highest and P.thunbergii had the lowest ratio of total flavonoids to total phenolics. Most of these compounds were found to have effective antioxidant activities as well as antimicrobial activity, as estimated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and disk diffusion test respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0012.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: antimicrobial activity; essential oils; Salvia officinalis; Sudan
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:15:06 CEST)
This study aimed to screen the antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts (leave and stem) of Salvia officinalis against some Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria using agar disc diffusion test, then the extracts were prepared by hydro distillation to extract the essential oils. Maceration and hexane extraction by Soxhlet were used to obtain crude extracts from the leave and stem. Essential oils from the leaves and the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves showed higher antimicrobial activity, while hexane extract of leaves and stems showed moderate antibacterial activity. In contrast the essential oil from the stems showed very low antibacterial activity. It was observed that the results gram positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus) was more sensitive than Gram negative (Echerichia coli).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0066.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; antimicrobial resistance; infection; molecular epidemiology
Online: 7 February 2019 (09:15:44 CET)
Background: Infections caused by E. coli cause considerable disease burden and range from frequently occurring and relatively innocent urinary tract infection (UTI) to severe bloodstream infection (BSI). The incidence of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-PEc) is increasing, justifying surveillance and development of preventive strategies in several domains. Faecal carriage is universal and believed to be the most important reservoir for E. coli from which infections can originate. It is currently unknown to what extent Dutch E. coli carriage strains in the community reflect isolates causing disease. In this study, we will perform comparative genomics to infer the population structures of human-derived ESBL-PEc from community- and hospital-acquired infections and from community-based faecal carriage samples in the Netherlands. Furthermore, we will describe the molecular epidemiology of E. coli isolates causing invasive disease (BSI). Methods: This study uses four different microbiological data sources: 1) ESBL-PEc from patients with community-acquired UTI tested in primary care between May and November 2017, 2) ESBL-PEc from urine cultures obtained from patients hospitalized between January 2014 and December 2016, 3) E. coli from blood cultures obtained from patients hospitalized between January 2014 and December 2016, and 4) ESBL-PEc from faecal samples collected in a national population- prevalence study performed between January 2014 and January 2017. Clinical epidemiological data was collected from all patients and all isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Discussion: The EPIGENEC study (EPIdemiology and GENetics of E. coli) will describe the molecular epidemiology of E. coli BSI and assess the genomic population structure of ESBL-PEc strains from community-acquired and nosocomial infections, and of ESBL-PEc reflecting community-based faecal carriage. Information from these studies may assist in optimizing surveillance strategies and determining targets and potential impact of future new preventive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR); Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS); delayed/back-up prescribing; upper respiratory tract infections; developing countries; LMICs; Ghana
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:29:47 CEST)
This service improvement project was carried out at LEKMA Hospital, Ghana. Ghana has high levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). There is an urgent need to introduce models of care that optimize antibiotic prescribing. Methods Delayed / back-up prescribing is a strategy that could reduce antibiotic use in suspected upper respiratory tract infections. Four different models of delayed / back-up prescribing [no prescription; post-dated prescription (given to patient); post-dated prescription (forwarded to pharmacy); and follow-up appointment for reassessment after 3 days] were implemented in discussion between clinician and patient. Patients were contacted 10 days after their appointment to record compliance, check on their wellbeing, and rate their experience. Results Over a 3-month period (12/2019-02/2020), 142 patients were eligible for delayed / back-up prescribing. The most common clinical diagnoses were sore throat (102/140, 73%), common cold (22/140, 16%) and sinusitis (10/140, 7%). In total, 12 (9%) patients remained symptomatic at day 10, and only one individual in the entire cohort took antibiotics. Most patients (95%) rated their experience as good or very good. Conclusions Delayed / back-up prescribing models can lead to substantial reduction in antibiotic consumption amongst outpatient department patients with suspected upper respiratory tract infections. Delayed / back-up prescribing can be implemented safely in low and middle-income countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: bacterial infection; non-healing wounds; antimicrobial resistance; multidrug resistance; antimicrobial peptides (AMPs); AMP conjugates; AMP carriers and delivery systems
Online: 17 July 2020 (09:26:21 CEST)
Bacterial infections occur when wound healing fails to reach the final stage of healing, usually hindered by the presence of different pathogens. Different topical antimicrobial agents are used to inhibit bacterial growth due to antibiotic failure in reaching the infected site accompanied very often by an increased drug resistance and other side effects. In this review, we focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), especially those with a high potential of efficacy against multidrug-resistant and biofilm-forming bacteria and fungi present in wound infections. Currently, different AMPs undergo preclinical and clinical phase to combat infection-related diseases. AMP dendrimers (AMPDs) have been mentioned as potent microbial agents. Various AMP delivery strategies, such as polymers, scaffolds, films and wound dressings, organic and inorganic nanoparticles, to combat infection and modulate the healing rate have been discussed as well. New technologies such as CRISPR-Cas are taken into consideration as potential future tools for AMP delivery in skin therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: infectious keratitis; corneal infection; antibiotic susceptibility; antimicrobial resistance
Online: 4 July 2022 (09:41:43 CEST)
Infectious keratitis (IK) represents a major cause of corneal blindness. This study aims to investigate the demographics, risk factors, microbiological characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of IK in Taiwan over the past 15 years. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the Chang Gung Research Database. Patients with IK were identified by diagnostic codes for corneal ulcer from 2004 to 2019. Of 7807 included subjects, 45.2% of patients had positive corneal cultures. The proportion of contact lens-related IK declined, while that of IK related to systemic diseases grew. The percentage of isolated gram-positive bacteria surpassed that of gram-negative bacteria in the 15-year period. The prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a decreasing trend (p = 0.004), whereas coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) and Propionibacterium species were increasingly detected (p < 0.001). Overall, the trend of antibiotic susceptibility of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria did not change throughout the study period. The susceptibility to the test antibiotics maintained over 90% in gram-negative isolates during 15 years. Vancomycin preserved 100% susceptibility to all gram-positive isolates. Since most tested antibiotics exhibited stable susceptibility over decades, this study reinforced that fluoroquinolones and fortified vancomycin continue to be good empiric therapies for treating bacterial keratitis in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0140.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Streptococcus uberis; mastitis; typing; antimicrobial susceptibility; resistance genes
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:12:44 CET)
Intrammary infections are a major problem for dairy sheep farms, and Streptococcus uberis is one of the main etiological agents of ovine mastitis. Surveys on antimicrobial resistance are still limited in sheep and characterization of isolates is important for acquiring information on resistance and for optimizing therapy. In this study, a sampling of 124 S. uberis isolates collected in Sardinia (Italy) from sheep milk was analysed by multilocus-sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for genetic relatedness. All isolates were also subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility analysis by the disk diffusion test using a panel of 14 antimicrobials. Resistance genes were detected by PCR assays. MLST analysis revealed that the isolates were grouped into 86 sequence types (STs), of which 73 were new genotypes, indicating a highly diverse population of S. uberis. The most frequently detected lineage was the clonal complex (CC)143, although representing only 13.7% of all characterized isolates. A high level of heterogeneity was also observed among the SmaI PFGE profiles, with 121 unique patterns. Almost all (96.8%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, while all exhibited phenotypic susceptibility to oxacillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ceftiofur. Of the antimicrobials tested, the highest resistance rate was found against streptomycin (93.5%), kanamycin (79.8%) and gentamicin (64.5%), followed by novobiocin (25%) and tetracycline-TE (19.3%). Seventy-four (59.7%) isolates were simultaneously resistant to all aminoglycosides tested. Seventeen isolates (13.7%) exhibited multidrug resistance. All aminoglycosides-resistant isolates were PCR negative for aad-6 and aphA-3’ genes. Among the TE-resistant isolates, the tetM gene was predominant, indicating that the resistance mechanism is mainly mediated by the protection of ribosomes and not through the efflux pump. Three isolates were resistant to erythromycin, and two of them harboured the ermB gene. This is the first study reporting a detailed characterization of the S. uberis strains circulating in Sardinian sheep. Further investigations will be needed to understand the relationships between S. uberis genotypes, mastitis severity, and intra-mammary infection dynamics in the flock, as well as to monitor the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0588.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Antimicrobial use; knowledge; farmer-attitude; dairy-farmer; sheep
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:26:05 CEST)
This work examines dairy and sheep farmer attitudes toward antimicrobial use (AMU) in New Zealand. There is increasing public demand on livestock producers to reduce AMU in livestock. The demand stems from concerns about potential antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that could originate from food animals. There is limited practical data on farmer knowledge of AMU. An electronic survey was sent to dairy (n= 378) and sheep farmers (n= 551). Seventy-six dairy farmers (20%, n=76/378) returned the survey. Dairy farmers (69%) showed low levels of concern about antimicrobial resistance and awareness of the need to reduce AMU. Additionally, 76% of dairy farmers didn’t think it was possible to reduce AMU. Thirty-nine sheep farmers (7%, 39/551) returned the survey. 76% of sheep farmers were supportive of restricted use of AMU. The dairy and sheep farmers sourced most of the advice from veterinarians (>90%), the livestock industry (>80%) and their colleagues (>70%). This study shows that farmers showed varied concerns about AMR and AMU. Moreover, sheep farmers were more amenable to increased restriction on AMU than dairy farmers. This study suggests that knowledge gaps in farmers may best be filled by veterinarian input.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: intramammary infection; spa typing; antimicrobial susceptibility; dairy cow
Online: 5 September 2020 (04:51:45 CEST)
In the present study, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance and genetic structure of a population of S. aureus recovered from transient and persistent intramammary infections and nares/muzzles. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance of 189 S. aureus strains using a broad antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Furthermore, 107 S. aureus isolates were strain-typed using staphylococcal protein-A (spa) typing. Here, a great proportion of strains exhibited multidrug resistance to antimicrobials, including resistance to critically important antimicrobials, although no methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were found. Our study did not strengthen the idea that extramammary niches (i.e., nares/muzzles) are an important source for S. aureus. A discrepancy in the antimicrobial resistance between S. aureus strains isolated from nasal/muzzles and milk samples was observed. Furthermore, S. aureus isolates from transient and persistent IMIs did not differ by spa typing, suggesting that the persistence of bovine IMIs was determined by cow factors. Thus, the high level of multidrug-resistant S. aureus found in the two herds studied together with the predominance of a well udder-adapted S. aureus strain may contribute to the history of the high prevalence of mastitis caused by S. aureus, leading to great animal and public health concerns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0347.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: L. plantarum subsp. plantarum; ETEC K88; antimicrobial; probiotics
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:50:52 CEST)
For screening excellent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to inhibit Escherichia (E.) coli (ETEC) K88, inhibitory activities of more than 1100 LAB strains isolated from different materials and kept in the lab were evaluated in this study. Nine strains with inhibition zone at least 22.00 mm (including that of hole puncher 10.00 mm) and good physiological and biochemical characteristics identified by 16S DNA gene sequencing and recA gene multiple detection, were assigned to Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (5), L. fermentum (1), L. reuteri (1), W. cibaria (1) and E. faecalis (1), respectively. As investigated for their tolerance abilities and safety, only strain ZA3 possessed high hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation abilities, had high survival rate in low pH, bile salt environment and GI fluids, sensitive to ampicillin, resistant to norfloxacin and amikacin, without hemolytic activity and didn’t carry antibiotic resistance genes, exhibited broad spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms, and antibacterial substance may attribute to organic acids, especially lactic acid and acetic acid. The results indicated that the selected strain L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ZA3 could be considered a potential probiotic to inhibit ETEC K88 for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0137.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolatereductases, antimicrobial resistance, biocuration, nomenclature, phylogeny
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:14:41 CEST)
With the increasing use of genome sequencing as a surveillance tool for molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), databases and clear nomenclature for AMR gene families are critical. Due to the convoluted nomenclatural history of the integron-associated trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolatereductase (dfr) gene family, we decided to conduct a literature review, comparative sequence analysis, and phylogenetic investigation of the dfr family, the results of which are presented here and available at the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). Overall, literature review and phylogenetic analysis resolved gene name synonyms based on sequence. We recommend adoption of phylogenetic methods to help guide AMR gene naming efforts and relegation of misleading names to synonyms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0225.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gelatin; nanofibers; cinnamaldehyde; solution blow spinning; antimicrobial activity
Online: 24 January 2018 (09:03:09 CET)
Cinnamaldehyde, a natural preservative that can non-specifically deactivate foodborne pathogens, was successfully incorporated into fish skin gelatin (FSG) solutions and blow spun into uniform nanofibers. The effects of cinnamaldehyde ratios (5-30%, w/w FSG) on physicochemical properties of fiber-forming emulsions (FFEs) and their nanofibers were investigated. Higher ratios resulted in higher values in particle size and viscosity of FFEs, as well as higher values in diameter of nanofibers. Loss of cinnamaldehyde was observed during solution blow spinning (SBS) process and cinnamaldehyde was mainly located on the surface of resultant nanofibers. Nanofibers all showed antibacterial activity by direct diffusion and vapor release against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Inhibition zones increased as cinnamaldehyde ratio increased. Nanofibers showed larger inhibition effects than films prepared by casting method when S. typhimurium was exposed to the released cinnamaldehyde vapor, although films had higher remaining cinnamaldehyde than nanofibers after preparation. Lower temperature was favorable for cinnamaldehyde retention, and nanofibers added with 10% cinnamaldehyde ratio showed the highest retention over eight-weeks of storage. Results suggest that FSG nanofibers can be prepared by SBS as carriers for antimicrobials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0189.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biocomposite films; gelatin; oleoresins; antimicrobial compounds; food quality
Online: 29 November 2017 (10:23:11 CET)
This study developed gelatin-based films with incorporation of microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement material. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) oleoresins containing antimicrobial compounds of natural origin were incorporated into films. The mechanical, thermal, optical, and structural properties, as well as color, resistance to sealing and permeability to water vapor, light, and oil of the films were determined. Adding oleoresins to the gelatin matrix increased elongation of the material and significantly diminished its permeability to water vapor and oil. Evaluation of the potential use of films containing different oleoresins as bread packaging material was influenced by the film properties. The biocomposite film containing oleoresin from black pepper was the most effective packaging material for maintaining the bread’s quality characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; implementation model; GP-pharmacist collaboration; primary care
Online: 15 August 2022 (10:29:33 CEST)
Interprofessional collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) is central to implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs in primary care. This study aimed to design a GP-pharmacist antimicrobial stewardship (GPPAS) model in Australian primary care. A seven-component exploratory study was conducted since 2017 to 2021 to inform a GPPAS model. We generated both secondary and primary evidence through a systematic review, a scoping review, a rapid review, nationwide surveys of Australian GPs and CPs including qualitative components and a pilot study of a GPPAS model. All study evidence was synthesised, reviewed, merged and triangulated to design a prototype GPPAS model using a Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety theoretical framework. Secondary evidence informed effective GPPAS interventions, and primary evidence captured interprofessional issues, challenges and future needs to implement GPPAS interventions by GPs and CPs. A GPPAS model framework involving GP-pharmacist team-based five GPPAS sub-models were successfully designed to foster AMS education, antimicrobial audits, diagnostic stewardship, delayed prescribing, and routine review of antimicrobial prescription by improved GP-CP collaboration. A GPPAS model could be used as a guide to collaboratively optimise antimicrobial use by GPs and CPs. Implementation studies on GPPAS model and sub-models are required to integrate GPPAS model into GP-pharmacist interprofessional care models in Australia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0091.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant extracts; VEG’LYS; antimicrobial effects; curative and preventive treatment
Online: 6 January 2022 (14:06:53 CET)
The objective of this work was to determine the antimicrobial properties of an allium-based antimicrobial formulation named VEG’LYS (https://phytoauxilium.com/) on the growth of plant pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi, oomycetes, and bacteria. Two anthracnose-related species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum, C. gloeosporioides, and C. fragariae, the oomycete Phytophthora cactorum and the bacterium Xanthomonas fragariae associated with strawberry plants and two fungi Alternaria dauci and Botrytis cinerea, associated with carrot plants were tested in vitro. In in planta experiments, A. dauci and B. cinerea were used.. VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of all plant pathogens tested. We found that both curative and preventive in planta treatments with VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of A. dauci and B. cinerea in carrot. Furthermore, after spraying VEG’LYS on carrot plants the expression of the Pathogenesis-related (PR) 10 gene correlated with the magnitude of infection both in treated and untreated plants. Additionally, it has been shown, that the field application of VEG’LYS on strawberry plants results in a reduction of bacterial and fungal pathogens of strawberry fruits stored in refrigerator. In summary, VEG’LYS is a potential resistance inducer that seems to be suitable for use in both curative and preventive treatments to reduce the diseases and rotting of fruits and vegetables caused by different plant pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0129.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: HOCl; hypochlorous; antimicrobial; antiinflammatory; SARS-CoV-2; infections; sanitisation
Online: 3 December 2021 (10:13:20 CET)
Sanitisation has become a major component of everyday life, with emphasis on the hands and surfaces. The face remains unsanitised due to the lack of an acceptable sanitiser. The use of masks has been mandated to reduce the spread of the pathogens by covering the face, however, there remain issues with the use of personal protective equipment. The face remains a harbour for upper respiratory tract infections, with constant deposition of microbes. By reducing microbial load, the risk of both infection and severity are reduced. HOCl has proven antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, including efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. A facial sanitiser, alongside hand sanitisers and masks, improves protection against SARS-CoV-2. The advantages of regular sanitising of the face and mask include reduced level of microbial contamination, risk of biofilm formation, and respiratory tract and skin infections. HOCl was reviewed as a face and mask sanitiser, concluding that it was an ideal product.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0500.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: anticancer; antimicrobial; antioxidants; cancer signalling; citral; Cymbopogon; essential oil
Online: 21 June 2021 (10:31:35 CEST)
The prominent cultivation of lemongrass relies on the pharmacological incentives of its essential oil. The lemongrass essential oil (LEO) has a significant amount of citral (mixture of geranial and neral), isoneral, isogeranial, geraniol, geranyl acetate, citronellal, citronellol, germacrene-D, and elemol in addition to numerous other bioactive compounds. These components confer various medicinal activities to LEO including antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. These attributes are commercially exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food preservations industries. Furthermore, the employment of LEO in the treatment of cancer opens a new vista in the field of therapeutics. Although different LEO components have shown promising anticancer activities in vitro, these effects have not been assessed yet in humans. Further studies on the anticancer mechanisms exerted by lemongrass components are required. The present review intends to provide a timely discussion on the relevance of lemongrass extracts in cancer and health treatment, and in food industry applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Prosthodontics; Edentulism; Elderly; Complete Denture; Candida Albicans; Antimicrobial activity
Online: 8 February 2021 (21:38:48 CET)
To assess the clinical efficacy of a novel organic olive oil-based denture adhesive and its effect on Candida Albicans growth in maxillary edentulous individuals wearing complete dentures. Individuals were selected from two Dental Schools in Portugal and Spain. Twenty-eight complete dentures were relined, following a standardized protocol. The novel product (Test) was compared with a commercialized adhesive (Control) and Vaseline (Placebo) randomly assigned in a cross-study design. The retention resistance was measured with a Gnathometer and a dynamometer, the patient related outcome evaluations with a 5-points questionnaire and the Candida albicans growth in a Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium in order to evaluate differences between the placebo and experimental product. Twenty-three participants were included. Dynamometer evaluation showed significant differences between not using a denture adhesive and using either (experimental, p = .03; control, p = .04), no significant differences between the two adhesives (p > .05). In the subjective analysis, the experimental adhesive showed a significantly longer effectiveness (p = .001); the control reported better results at taste (p = .03) in chewing (p = .001). The test adhesive showed better (p < .001) Candida albicans growth inhibition. The experimental adhesive showed longer effectiveness than the control and placebo with a better inhibition capacity for the growth of Candida albicans, patients reported better abilities for speech, chewing, taste and retirement in the control adhesive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Antimicrobial peptide; BP100; Model membranes; Spectroscopy; Calorimetry; Biological activity
Online: 2 February 2021 (19:14:58 CET)
In a large variety of organisms, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are primary defences against pathogens. BP100 (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2), a short, synthetic, and cationic AMP, is active against bacteria and displays low toxicity towards eukaryotic cells. BP100 acquires an α-helical conformation upon interaction with membranes and increases membrane permeability. Despite the volume of information available, the mechanism of action of BP100, the selectivity of its biological effects, and its applications are far from consensual. In this work, we synthesized a fluorescent BP100 analog containing naphthalimide linked to its N-terminal end, Napht-BP100 (Napht-AAKKLFKKILKYL-NH2). The fluorescence properties of naphthalimides, especially their spectral sensitivity to microenvironment changes, are well established, and their biological activities against different types of cells are known. A wide variety of techniques were used to demonstrate that a-helical Napht-BP100 was bound and permeabilized POPC and POPG LUV. Napht-BP100, different from that observed for BP100, was bound to, and permeabilized POPC LUV. With zwitterionic (POPC) and negatively charged (POPG) containing LUVs, membrane surface high peptide/lipid ratios triggered complete disruption of the liposomes in a detergent-like manner. This disruption was driven by charge neutralization, lipid aggregation, and membrane destabilization. Napht-BP100 also interacted with double-stranded DNA, indicating that this peptide could also affect other cellular processes in addition to membrane destabilization. Napht-BP100 showed superior antibacterial activity, increased hemolytic activity compared to BP100, and may constitute an efficient antimicrobial agent for dermatological use. By conjugating BP100 and naphthalimide antimicrobial properties, Napht-BP100 was bound more efficiently to the bacterial membrane and could destabilize the membrane and enter the cell by interacting with its cytoplasm- exposed DNA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0196.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Antimicrobial polymers; dental materials; cranio-maxilifacial regeneration; tissue engineering
Online: 4 November 2020 (12:47:55 CET)
Cranio-maxillofacial structure is a region of particular interest in the field of regenerative medicine due to both its anatomical complexity and the numerous abnormalities affecting this area. However, this anatomical complexity is what makes possible the coexistence of different microbial ecosystems in the oral cavity and the maxillofacial region, contributing to the increased risk of bacterial infections. In this regard, different materials have been used for their application in this field. These materials can be obtained from natural and renewable feedstocks or by synthetic routes with desired mechanical properties, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity. Hence, in this review, we have focused on bio-based polymers, which by their own nature, by chemical modifications of their structure, or by their combination with other elements, provide a useful antibacterial activity as well as the suitable conditions for cranio-maxillofacial tissue regeneration. This approach has not been reviewed previously, and we have specifically arranged the content of this article according to the resulting material and its corresponding application, reviewing guided bone regeneration membranes; bone cements; and devices and scaffolds for both soft and hard maxillofacial tissue regeneration, including hybrid scaffolds, dental implants, hydrogels and composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0077.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antibiotics; antibiotics resistance; antimicrobial resistance; dispensing; pharmacist; prescription; Tanzania
Online: 7 November 2019 (15:03:56 CET)
Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics has been reported to contribute to the emergence and increase of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the world. Antibiotics are prescription-only medicines to be dispensed to a person with a legal prescription inscribed by a qualified medical practitioner. Enforcing the dispensing of antibiotics with prescription is a way to promote the rational use of antibiotics and preventing the development and spread of AMR. It is, therefore, the responsibility of a pharmacist to dispense or supervise the dispensing of antibiotics in pharmacies and ensure its rational use. This study aimed to assess pharmacists’ knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the dispensing of antibiotics without prescription in Tanzania. Methods: An online semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and shared with licensed pharmacists in Tanzania through an invitation link sent in their official WhatsApp groups. A list of names, contacts and emails of licensed pharmacists obtained from the Pharmacy Council was used to directly contact and request pharmacist to fill the questionnaire, in case the pharmacist contact was not on WhatsApp, a text SMS invitation was sent. Study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data were then downloaded and exported into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 for data analysis; Chi-square test was used to test association for categorical data, where a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: More than 75% of pharmacists had excellent knowledge about the legal requirements for dispensing antibiotics and of the AMR challenge. Of the interviewed pharmacists, seventy-four percent admitted to dispensing antibiotics without prescription in their daily practice. The main reasons for administering antibiotics without prescription were the profitability nature of pharmacy business, a failure of the patient to get a prescription and lack of stringent regulatory authorities. Penicillins, macrolides and floroquinolones were the classes of antibiotics mostly dispensed without a prescription. Conclusion: The study shows that the dispensing of antibiotics without prescription is a common practice in Tanzania. The regulatory authorities should make regular inspections in pharmacies to detect this malpractice. The community should be trained on the importance of taking laboratory tests before getting medications for their sickness by a qualified medical practitioner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: essential oils; Bartonella henselae; persisters; stationary phase; antimicrobial activity
Online: 16 October 2019 (05:18:55 CEST)
Bartonella henselae is a fastidious Gram-negative intracellular bacterium which can cause cat scratch disease, endocarditis in humans and animals as well as other complications, leading to acute or chronic infections. The current treatment for Bartonella infections is not very effective due to antibiotic resistance and also persistence. To develop better therapies for persistent and chronic Bartonella infections, in this study, with the help of SYBR Green I/PI viability assay, we performed a high-throughput screening of an essential oil library against stationary phase B. henselae. We successfully identified 32 essential oils that had high activity, including four essential oils extracted from Citrus plants, three from Origanum, three from Cinnamomum, two from Pelargonium and two from Melaleuca, as well as frankincense, ylang ylang, fir needle, mountain savory (winter), citronella, spearmint, elemi, vetiver, clove bud, allspice and cedarwood essential oils. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination of these 32 top hits indicated they were not only active against stationary phase non-growing B. henselae but also had good activity against log phase growing B. henselae. The time-kill curve by drug exposure assay showed 13 active hits, including essential oils of oregano, cinnamon bark, mountain savory (winter), cinnamon leaf, geranium, clove bud, allspice, geranium bourbon, ylang ylang, citronella, elemi and vetiver, could eradicate all stationary phase B. henselae cells within 7 days at the concentration of 0.032% (v/v). Two active ingredients, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, of oregano and cinnamon bark essential oils, respectively, were shown to be very active against stationary phase B. henselae such that they were able to eradicate all the bacterial cells even at the concentration ≤ 0.01% (v/v). Our finding of active essential oils may help to develop more effective treatments for persistent Bartonella infections.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0166.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi; benznidazole; nifurtimox; antimicrobial susceptibility test
Online: 15 October 2019 (08:26:29 CEST)
We ascertain the in vitro Benznidazole (BZN) and Nifurtimox (NFX) susceptibility pattern of epimastigotes, trypomastigotes, and amastigotes of 21 T. cruzi strains, from patients, reservoir and triatomine bugs of various geographic origin. Using this panel of isolates, we compute the Epidemiological cut off value (COwt). Then, the frequency of the susceptible phenotype (Wild type) towards BZN and nifurtimox (NFX) within this set of strains belonging to 3 discrete typing units (DTUs), TcI, TcII, and TcV was deduced. We have observed that the susceptibility status of individual T. cruzi isolates toward BZN and NFX is related to the genetic background and to underlying factors probably related to the individual life trait history of each strain. Analyzing drug susceptibility in this conceptual framework would offers the possibility to evidence a link between isolates expressing a low susceptibility level (not wild-type) as define by the COwt value and none-curative treatment. It will also permit to tract drug-resistant parasites in T. cruzi population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0037.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Bos taurus; skin; bovine dermcidin; RT-PCR; antimicrobial activity
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:35:59 CEST)
Description of a novel bovine antimicrobial peptide and its antimicrobial spectrum. RNA isolation and RT-PCR were done from various tissues. DCD peptide was synthesized, and antimicrobial activity was analyzed. Bovine dermcidin gene contains five exons intermittent by 4 introns. Bovine DCD-mRNA was 398 bp with ORF 336 bp. Bovine DCD was expressed in skin and blood. Analysis of the amino acid compositions revealed that cysteine was repeated 6 times indicating the presence of 3 disulfide bonds that play role in the peptide stability. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus bovis, and Enterococcus faecalis were affected by Bovine DCD peptide. Highest antimicrobial effect was at 50 and 100 µg/ml. The effect on Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was slightly low. In all bacteria, Bovine DCD peptide activity did not affect by varying pH values, but in Staphylococcus aureus, the activity was affected greatly at pH 4.5 and 5.5. The optimum salt concentrations were 100 and 50 mM NaCl with all bacterial strains and E. coli, respectively. In case of C. albicans, the antimicrobial activity of Bovine DCD peptide decreased with increasing the pH value regardless the NaCl concentration. The pH 6.5 of the sweat buffer was the optimum for the Bovine DCD peptide activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; resistance; infections; antibiotic utilization; peer-reviewed literature
Online: 14 March 2019 (06:57:30 CET)
Antimicrobial stewardship efforts are an emphasis among many institutions around the world to combat inappropriate antimicrobial utilization, rising healthcare costs and emerging antimicrobial resistance. Implementation of new innovative strategies may be challenging for many institutions with limited or constrained resources. Using proven effective methods as evidenced by other institutions in the peer-reviewed literature may offer an opportunity to evaluate institution-specific practices, which may be implemented locally. A structured examination and survey of the peer-reviewed, stewardship literature by an expert group of clinicians, scholars and educators determined the most influential publications from 2016. Herein, the top thirteen manuscripts are reviewed to aid clinicians identify potential stewardship opportunities and serve as an educational tool for trainees and others.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0408.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Salvia pachyphylla; plant extracts; antioxidant; antimicrobial; antiproliferative; enzyme inhibitory
Online: 18 October 2018 (09:56:26 CEST)
The antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and enzyme inhibitory properties of five extracts from aerial parts of Salvia pachyphylla were examined to assess the prospective of this plant as a source of natural products with therapeutic potential. Those properties were analyzed performing a set of standard assays. The extract obtained with dichloromethane showed the most variety of components, as yielded promising results in all completed assays. Furthermore, the extract obtained with ethyl acetate exhibited that greatest antioxidant activity as well as the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Remarkably, both extracts obtained with n-hexane or dichloromethane revealed significant antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria; also, they showed greater antiproliferative activity against three representative cell lines of the most common types of cancers in women worldwide, and against a cell line that exemplifies cancers that typically develop drug resistance. Despite that other extracts were less active, such as the methanolic or aqueous, their results are promising for the isolation and identification of novel bioactive molecules.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0090.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; infection control practices; antibiotic resistance; pathogens; coevolution
Online: 5 August 2018 (10:18:40 CEST)
The antibiotic or antimicrobial resistance is rapidly spreading in microbes relevant to human health. Two visible major contributory factors have been the indiscriminate overuse of antimicrobials for preventing diseases in human and to enhance the productivity in agriculture sector. To mitigate the potential threat posed by post-antibiotic era, the global health stakeholders have been making extra efforts at a war footing to formulate and implement global and national plans of action. In the current article, an endeavour is made to provide a perspective to look beyond the current focus on just use of the antimicrobials. Attention has been drawn towards various obvious and not-so-obvious self-preservation infection-prevention practices in vogue from the pre-antibiotic era whose usage has been on decline in the antibiotic era for various reasons. Particularly, the practices with a clear potential to effectively decrease the spread of pathogens through contact, curtail the evolution and dissemination of the antimicrobial resistance in local environment and its introduction into the global community, should be Identified and strengthened to make them part of comprehensive hygiene and quarantine practices. Broadly, the suggestions pertaining to the personal and community hygiene including bereavement practices, isolation and quarantine of suspected pathogen carriers, and water and environment security have been made to invoke a constructive debate and discussion among various stakeholders for their evaluation and implementation to effectively delay the development of antimicrobial resistance wherever possible and disrupt its spread to pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0402.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; One Health; poultry; poultry farmers; antibiotic use; Pakistan
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:33:42 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to community carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is highly prevalent in the WHO South-East Asia region. One of the major reasons is the misuse of antibiotics in animal farming practices and at community level, which threatens both human and animal health. However, this multifaceted One Health (OH) problem of antibiotic use (ABU) in poultry farms and respective farmers is not well studied in countries like Pakistan. Therefore, we conducted n OH cross-sectional study in rural Punjab to explore the current practices of ABU in poultry and poultry farmers, associated factors, their healthcare-seeking behaviour and biosecurity practices. We found all the participating farmers using antibiotics for poultry, 60% of which were Colistin sulphate and Amoxicillin trihydrate. The significant consumption of antibiotics in poultry farms (60%) and poultry farmers (50%) was without prescription. Most of the farms (85%) had no wastewater drainage system, causing direct shedding of poultry waste and antibiotic residue in the surrounding environment. Lack of farmers’ education, professional farm training and duration of farming experience were the significantly associated factors with ABU and knowledge of AMR. Our study implies the necessity of an integrated OH-AMR policy with the inclusion of farmers’ education, mass awareness, and strict antibiotic usage guidelines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0151.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions; Antimicrobial Discovery; Antibiotic Resistance; Public Health
Online: 18 April 2022 (03:38:08 CEST)
Multicomponent reactions (MCR) have been used to synthesis a wide range of analogs from several classes of heterocyclic compounds, with multifaceted medicinal uses. The synthesis of highly functionalized molecules in a single pot is a unique property of MCR, allowing researchers to quickly assemble libraries of compounds of biological interest and uncover novel leads as possible therapeutic agents. Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions have proven to be extremely effective at swiftly specifying members of compound libraries, particularly in discovery of drug . The understanding of structure-activity correlations that drive the development of new goods and technology, requires structural variety in these libraries. In current world, antibiotic resistance is a major ongoing problem which is developing a problematic scenario in public health. The implementation of isocyanide based multicomponent reactions uphold a significant potential in this regard. By utilizing such reactions, new antimicrobial compounds can be discovered and fight against such concerns. This study discusses recent developments in antimicrobial medication discovery using isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs). Furthermore, the article emphasizes the potential of IMCRs in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0003.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: ozone; detrimental effect; pathogenic bacteria; antimicrobial resistance; SEM; ESKAPE pathogens
Online: 1 February 2022 (11:02:26 CET)
(1) Background: Health Care-Associated Infections (HAIs)are a significant public health problem worldwide favoring multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms. The SARS-CoV-2 infection had a negative association with the increase in antimicrobial resistance, and the ESKAPE group had the most significant impact on HAIs. The study aimed to evaluate the bactericidal effect of high concentration O3 gas on some reference and ESKAPE bacteria. (2) Material and Methods: Four standard strains and four clinical or environmental MDR strains were exposed to high ozone doses at different concentrations and times. Bacterial inactivation (growth and cultivability) was investigated using colony counts and resazurin as a metabolic indicator. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. (3) Results: The culture exposure to a high level of O3 inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains tested with a statistically significant reduction in colony count compared to the control group. The cell viability of S. aureus (MRSA) (99,6%) and P. aeruginosa (XDR) (29,2%) was reduced considerably, and SEM showed damage on bacteria after O3 treatment (4) Conclusion: High doses of ozone were able to interfere in the growth of all strains studied, evidencing that ozone-based decontamination approaches may represent the future of hospital cleaning methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0558.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: chitosan; chitin; biological activit; drug delivery; antioxidant; antimicrobial; biocatalysis; nanoparticles
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:07:28 CEST)
Chitosan arouses large interest due to its properties and possible applications. Every year the number of publications and patents based on this polymer increases. Chitosan exhibits poor solubility in neutral and basic media limiting its use in such conditions. Another serious obstacle is directly related to its natural origin. Chitosan is not a single polymer with a defined structure but a family of molecules with differences in their composition, size, and monomer distribution. These properties have a fundamental effect on the biological and technological performance of the polymer. Moreover, some of the biological properties claimed are discrete. In this review, we discuss how chitosan chemistry can solve the problems related to its poor solubility and can boost the polymer properties. We focus on some of the main biological properties of chitosan and the relationship with the physicochemical properties of the polymer. Then, we visit two polymer applications related to green processes: the use of chitosan in the green synthesis of metallic na-noparticles and its use as support in biocatalyst. Finally, we briefly describe how making use of the technological properties of chitosan it is possible to develop a variety of systems for drug delivery
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0451.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; antibiotic resistance; biofilms; antimicrobial peptides; ciprofloxacin; combined effect
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:21:08 CEST)
Staphylococcus aureus can develop resistance by mutation, tranfection or biofilm formation. Resistance was induced in S. aureus by growth in sub-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin for 30 days. The ability of the antimicrobials to disrupt biofilms was determined using crystal violet and live/dead staining. Effects on the cell membranes of biofilm cells was evaluated by measuring release of dyes and ATP and nucleic acids. S. aureus did not develop resistance to the AMPs but resistance increased to ciprofloxacin by 128 times after 30 passages. Only peptides reduced biofilms of ciprofloxacin resistant cells. The antibiofilm effect of melimine with ciprofloxacin was more (27%) than with melimine alone at 1X MIC (p < 0.001). Similarly, at 1X MIC the combination of Mel4 and ciprofloxacin produced more (48%) biofilm disruption than Mel4 alone (p < 0.001). Combinations of either of the peptides with ciprofloxacin at 2X MIC released 66 nM ATP, more than either peptide alone (p 0.005). At 2X MIC, only melimine in combination with ciprofloxacin released DNA/RNA which was 3 times more than released by melimine alone (p = 0.043). These results suggest the potential use of melimine and Mel4 with conventional antibiotics for the treatments of S. aureus biofilms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0340.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; Antimicrobial resistance; Food samples; Phylogenetic group; Genetic diversity
Online: 16 August 2021 (13:35:58 CEST)
The emergence of multi-drug resistant E. coli is an important matter of increasing considerable concern to global public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, antibiotic resistance pattern, phylogroups and genetic variation of E. coli isolates from raw milk, vegetable salad and ground meat samples. Methods: Culture-based techniques, Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility testing, PCR and RAPD assays were used to determine the incidence rate, antimicrobial resistance pattern, phylogenetic groups and genetic diversity of the E. coli isolates. Results: E. coli isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin (79.16%), trime-thoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70.83%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (62.50%), tetracycline (54.16%), chloramphenicol (54.16%), nitrofurantoin (54.16%), ampicillin (45.83%), streptomycin (45.83%), and kanamycin (33.33%); and completely susceptible to norfloxacin and azithromycin. 70.83% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. Most E. coli isolates (46%) belonged to phylogroup A. RAPD with UBC245 primer categorized the isolates into 11 clusters. A high level of genetic di-versity was found among the isolates; however, 33.3% of the isolates were grouped in a major cluster (R5). Conclusions: Antibiotic resistance patterns are randomly distributed among the ge-netic clusters. Novel, practical, efficient food safety control and surveillance systems of multi-drug resistant foodborne pathogens are required to control the foodborne pathogen contamina-tion.
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 3,4-dimethoxy-β-nitrostyrene derivatives; antimicrobial agent; PTP1B; molecular docking
Online: 20 July 2020 (11:31:48 CEST)
A derivative series of 3,4-dimethoxy-β-nitrostyrene were synthesized and identified including new compound 6. The effect of antimicrobial activity of 3,4-alkyloxy modification of β-nitrostyrene was investigated. A molecular docking was also performed to obtain information about their interactions with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). PTP1B containing cysteine 215 and arginine 221 as essential active residues plays a key role in signaling pathways that regulate various cell functions of microorganisms, which also act as negative regulator in signaling pathways of insulin that are involved in type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Compound 5 and 6 were the most potent as fragment of PTP1B inhibitor based on molecular docking, but compound 5 was more effective against Candida albicans. These compounds interact with serine 216 and arginine 221 residues. However, further research is needed to investigate their potential medicinal use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0166.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: antimicrobial peptides; cellular defense; insect pathology; phenoloxidae; phospholipase A2; protease
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:45:11 CEST)
Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens are entomopathogenic symbionts that produce several toxic proteins that can interfere with the immune system of insects. Here, we showed that outer membrane proteins (OMPs) could be involved as virulence factors during bacterial symbiont pathogenesis. Purified OMPs from bacterial culture were injected fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hübner. Larvae were surveyed for fluctuations in total haemocyte counts (THC), granulocyte percentage (cellular defence), protease, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and phenoloxidase (PO) activities (humoral defence) at specific time intervals. Changes in the expression of the three antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin, attacin, and spodoptericin, were also measured. Larvae treated with both types of OMPs had more haemocytes than did the negative controls. OMPs of X. nematophila caused more haemocyte destruction than did the OMPs of P. luminescens. The OMPs of both bacterial species initially activated insect defensive enzymes post-injection, their activating fluctuated in different ways. Attacin, cecropin and spodoptericin were up-regulated by OMP injections more than in normal larvae. The expression of these three AMPs was maximal at four hpi with P. luminescens OMPs treatment. Expression of the three AMPs in X. nematophila treatment was irregular and lower than in the P. luminescens OMPs treatment. These findings provide insights into the role of OMPs of entomopathogenic nematode bacterial symbionts in countering the physiological defenses of insects.
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: antimicrobial activity; antiradical activity; chitosan; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; lignin; pathogenic microorganisms; organosolv
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:40:11 CET)
The antiradical and antimicrobial activity of lignin and lignin-based films are both of great interest for applications such as food packaging additives. The polyphenol structure of lignin in addition to the presence of O-containing functional groups is potentially responsible for these activities. This study used DPPH assays to discuss the antiradical activity of HPMC/lignin and HPMC/lignin/chitosan films. The scavenging activity (SA) of both binary (HPMC/lignin) and ternary (HPMC/lignin/chitosan) systems was affected by the percentage of the added lignin: the 5% addition showed the highest activity and the 30% addition had the lowest. Both, scavenging activity and antimicrobial activity are depending on the biomass source showing the following trend: organosolv of softwood > Kraft of softwood > organosolv of grass. Testing the antimicrobial activities of lignins and lignin-containing films showed high antimicrobial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at 35 °C and at low temperatures (0-7 °C). Purification of kraft lignin has a negative effect on the antimicrobial activity while storage has positive effect. The lignin release in the produced films affected the activity positively and the chitosan addition enhances the activity even more for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Testing the films against spoilage bacteria that grow at low temperatures revealed the activity of the 30% addition on HPMC/L1 film against both B. thermosphacta and P. fluorescens while L5 was active only against B. thermosphacta. In HPMC/lignin/chitosan films the 5% addition exhibited activity against both B. thermosphacta and P. fluorescens.