Mdegela, R.H.; Mwakapeje, E.R.; Rubegwa, B.; Gebeyehu, D.T.; Niyigena, S.; Msambichaka, V.; Nonga, H.E.; Antoine-Moussiaux, N.; Fasina, F.O. Antimicrobial Use, Residues, Resistance and Governance in the Food and Agriculture Sectors, Tanzania. Antibiotics2021, 10, 454.
Mdegela, R.H.; Mwakapeje, E.R.; Rubegwa, B.; Gebeyehu, D.T.; Niyigena, S.; Msambichaka, V.; Nonga, H.E.; Antoine-Moussiaux, N.; Fasina, F.O. Antimicrobial Use, Residues, Resistance and Governance in the Food and Agriculture Sectors, Tanzania. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 454.
All infections are potentially curable as long as the etiological agents are susceptible to antimicrobials. The increased rate at which antimicrobials are becoming ineffective is a global health risk of increasing concern that threatens withdrawal of beneficial antimicrobials for disease control. Increased demand for food of animal origin, in particular eggs, meat and milk has led to intensification and commercial production systems where excessive use and misuse of antimicrobials may prevail. Antimicrobials, handled and used by farmers and animal attendants with no formal education may predispose to incorrect dosages, misuse, incorrect applications and non-adherence to withdrawal periods. A multimethod approach (desk review, field study and interviews) was used. Relevant establishments were also visited. High levels of resistance to penicillin G, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and oxytetracycline have been reported especially for Actinobacter pyogenes, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus from dairy cattle with mastitis and in humans. Similar trends were found in poultry where eggs and meat are contaminated with Escherichia coli strains resistant to amoxicillin + clavulanate, sulphamethoxazole and neomycin. An increasing trend of emerging multidrug resistant E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella was also found in food animals. An in-crease in methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in the livestock sector in Tanzania have been reported. Specific antimicrobials resistant to were ampicillin, augmentin, gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, tylosin, erythromycin, cefuroxime, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. An in-creased usage of antimicrobials for prophylaxis, anaphylaxis and therapeutics against pathogens and for growth promotion in livestock, aquaculture and crops production were observed. One Health strategic approach is advocated to combat AMR in the food and agriculture sectors in Tanzania. Practical recommendations include a) legislation review and implementation, b) AMU, AMR and AR awareness and advocacy among stakeholders along the value chain, c) strengthening of surveillance and monitoring programs for AMU, AMR and AR, d) enhance development and use of rapid and innovative diagnostic tests and promotion biosecurity principles and e) good husbandry practices. The utilization of this information to improve public health policies and reduce the burden of AMR will be beneficial.
antimicrobial use; antimicrobial residues; antimicrobial resistance; food and agriculture sectors; Tanzania
MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Allergology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.