REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0105.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: topical probiotics; skin microbiome; probiotics; biodiversity; microbiome; skin allergy; cosmetics
Online: 9 October 2022 (03:34:01 CEST)
In this paper we aim to help topical probiotics research and development achieve its potential as an incredible future solution for skin problems by investigating whether the current products on the market satisfy criteria for safe and effective use on the skin microbiome. As previously defined, this includes whether they use microbes known to be part of a healthy skin microbiome and in healthy amounts. In addition, we evaluate whether they contain live microbes, and therefore can be classified as probiotics according to the WHO’s definition. Using recent market analysis at least 84% of products do not contain live microbes. Of the products that appeared to use live microbes, they contained those used in research and development of probiotics for the gut. Due to the varying composition of each person’s microbiome, there is not a one size fits all probiotic solution. Personalisation of probiotics products is essential to satisfy the criteria for safe and effective use, but none of the products on the market, understandably, offer this. Upsetting the delicate ecosystem balance of the skin microbiome could have damaging effects and regulation could help to stop a loss of trust between consumers and cosmetics industry. Future work will perform an in-depth evaluation of the topical probiotics on the market in the EU, USA, and Canada. We will also investigate how to move the topic closer to achieving its potential by updating the criteria, including by discussing how to measure the success of a probiotic solution.
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:33:01 CEST)
The health status and feed conversion efficiency of farmed fish may vary according to management and production methods. Successful aquaculture requires safeguarding the health of the growing fish and optimizing the feed conversion and therefore achieving better FCE thus reducing the amount of feed required to produce farmed fish, reducing the environmental impact generated by fish feed production and reducing aquaculture wastes generated by feed wasted or poorly digested. The present review presents illustrative examples from freshwater aquaculture that suggests the potential dual benefits of focusing on the link between feed conversion and the environmental impact of fresh water fish farms. Apart from the need to support future research on new diets for farmed fish (which is mainly driven by limits in the supply of fish protein and the results price fluctuation of all ingredients used by the aquaculture, feed industry), major improvements can be expected by optimizing feeding regimes and the application of probiotics. Aside from the economic benefits and increased production of fish farms, improved feeding regimes and probiotics are expected to have a significant impact on the welfare of farmed fish as well as on digestion efficiency and the environmental impact of fresh water fish farms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: psychiatry; gut microbiome; probiotics
Online: 27 July 2018 (03:22:02 CEST)
The microbiome gut brain (MGB) axis involves bidirectional routes of communication and has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for multiple medical specialities including psychiatry. Significant numbers of preclinical trials have taken place with some transitioning to clinical studies in more recent years. Some positive results have been reported secondary to probiotic administration in both healthy populations and specific patient groups. This review aims to summarise the current understanding of the MGB axis and the preclinical and clinical findings relevant to psychiatry. The link between the gut microbiome and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is well established. Significant differences have been identified between the microbiome of patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder and healthy controls. Similar findings have occurred in patients diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder. A probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium bifidum produced clinically measurable symptom improvement in patients with depressive disorder. To date some promising results have suggested that probiotics could play a role in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disease. However, more well-controlled clinical trials are required to determine which clinical conditions are likely to benefit most significantly from this novel approach.
Online: 28 December 2020 (16:59:04 CET)
Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent intolerance to dietary protein, gluten, from wheat rye and barley. It occurs in about 1% worldwide population, in genetically predisposed individuals bearing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/DQ8. Gut epithelial cell stress and innate immune activation are responsible for breaking oral tolerance to gliadin, the gluten component. To date, the only treatment available for CD is a long-term gluten-free diet. Several evidences show that an altered composition of the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) could play a key role in the pathogenesis of CD, through the modulation of intestinal permeability and the regulation of the immune system. Here we show that gliadin induces a chronic ER stress condition in the small intestine of a CD mouse model and that the co-administration of probiotics efficiently attenuates both UPR and gut inflammation. Moreover, the composition of probiotics formulations might differ in their activity at molecular level, especially toward the three axes of the UPR. Therefore, rebalancing the gut microbiota composition by probiotics administration might rep-resent a new strategy to treat CD affected patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: probiotics; cancer; safety; clinical trials
Online: 5 August 2020 (09:27:01 CEST)
In recent years, the consumption of over-the-counter probiotics used to promote health has grown rapidly worldwide and become an industry. In medicine, various studies have proven that probiotics can help improve the immune system and intestinal health. They are usually safe, but in some rare cases, they may cause concerning adverse reactions. Although the use of probiotics has been widely popularized in the public, the results of many probiotics clinical trials are contradictory. Especially for the cancer patients, the feasibility of probiotics management to provide benefits by targeting cancer and lessening anti-cancer side effects requires further investigations. And this review summarizes the interactions between probiotics and the host and current pros and cons of applying probiotics in the cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Candida albicans; Lactobacillus species; biofilm; probiotics
Online: 27 September 2022 (12:34:41 CEST)
Antifungal agents are not always efficient in resolving vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), a common genital infection caused by overgrowth of Candida spp., including Candida albicans, or preventing recurrent infections. Although lactobacilli (which are dominant microorganisms constituting healthy human vaginal microbiota) are important barriers against VVC, the Lactobacillus metabolite concentration needed to suppress VVC is unknown. Therefore, we quantitatively evaluated Lactobacillus metabolite concentrations to determine their effect on Candida spp., including 27 vaginal strains of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, and Limosilactobacillus vaginalis, with inhibitory abilities against biofilms of Candida clinical isolates. Lactobacillus culture supernatants suppressed viable bacteria by approximately 24%-92% relative to preformed Candida biofilms, but their suppression differed between strains, not species. Lactate production was necessary to suppress preformed biofilms and hyphal elongation of C. albicans, whereas hydrogen peroxide was not always essential. Both lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide were required to suppress Candida planktonic cell growth. Lactobacillus strains that significantly inhibited biofilm formation in culture supernatant also inhibited Candida adhesion to epithelial cells in an actual live bacterial adhesion competition test. Healthy human microflora and their metabolites may play important roles in the development of new antifungal agent against VVC caused by C. albicans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; microbiota; probiotics; obesity
Online: 1 April 2021 (10:07:32 CEST)
Depression and metabolic diseases often coexist having several features in common, e.g., chronic low-grade inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Different microbiota interventions have been proposed to be used as a treatment for these disorders. In the paper we review the efficacy of probiotics in depressive disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome and its liver equivalent based on the published experimental studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses. Probiotics seem to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms when administered in addition to antidepressants. Additionally, probiotics intake may ameliorate some of the clinical components of metabolic diseases. However, standardized methodology regarding probiotics clinical trials has not been established yet. In this narrative review we discuss current knowledge on the recently used methodology with its strengths and limitations and propose criteria that may be implemented to create a new study of the effectiveness of probiotics in depressive disorders comorbid with metabolic abnormalities. We put across our choice on type of study population, probiotics genus, strains, dosages and formulations, intervention period, as well as primary and secondary outcome measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0137.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; Bifidobacterium bifidum; probiotics; enteropathogens
Online: 10 July 2019 (06:04:16 CEST)
Enteropathogenic microorganisms like Escherichia coli cause severe intestinal problems by disrupting the gut homeostasis. The live microorganisms, when given in adequate quantities provide several beneficial effects to the host are known as probiotics. One of the pronounced benefits conferred by probiotic is to antagonize the growth of enteropathogens competing for adherence to the intestinal epithelium. Bifidobacterium is the major genera of human especially infant are intestinal microbiota. In current study, Bifidobacterium bifidum was isolated from the infant stools and probiotic potential was assessed using prescribed tolerance tests against low pH, gastric juices and bile salts. Anti-infectious activity of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum against enteropathogenic E. coli was checked both in vitro and in vivo using agar well diffusion assay and mice model respectively. Mice feces were evaluated for both Bifidobacterium bifidum and E. coli counts in all groups and analyzed statistically. In vitro results showed Bifidobacterium bifidum possess marked antibacterial activity against E. coli. There was significant decrease in enteropathogenic E. coli burden in the mice group fed with Bifidobacterium bifidum before and after challenge. In conclusion, the endogenous Bifidobacterium bifidum have excellent probiotic potential and can be used prophylactic and treatment option against enteropathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0328.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Bifidobacterium breve; probiotics; pediatrics; therapeutic microbiology
Online: 15 October 2018 (17:03:26 CEST)
The human intestinal microbiota, establishing a symbiotic relationship with the host, plays a significant role for the human health. It is also well known that a disease status is frequently characterized by a dysbiotic condition of the gut. A probiotic treatment can represent an alternative therapy for enteric disorders and human pathologies not apparently linked to the gut environment. Among bifidobacteria, strains of the species Bifidobacterium breve are widely used in pediatrics. B. breve is the dominant species in the gut of breast-fed infants and it has also been isolated from human milk. It has antimicrobial activity against human pathogens, it does not possess transmissible antibiotic resistance traits, it is not cytotoxic and it has immuno-stimulating abilities. This review describes the applications of B. breve strains mainly for the prevention/treatment of pediatric pathologies. The target pathologies range from widespread gut diseases, including diarrhea and infant colics, to celiac disease, obesity, allergic and neurological disorders. Moreover, B. breve strains are used for the prevention of side infections in pre-term newborns and during antibiotic treatments or chemotherapy. With this documentation, we hope to increase knowledge on this species to boost the interest in the emerging discipline known as “therapeutic microbiology”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0437.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: functional food; whey; byproducts; beverages; probiotics
Online: 27 June 2018 (09:40:14 CEST)
Whey proteins have excellent nutritional characteristics due to their levels of essential amino acids with high bioavailability. However, it has a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and a considerable polluting potential, thus food manufacturers have opted to add whey to food formulations. The demand for beverages containing vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, minerals, and bioactive compounds (antioxidants) with health benefits has increased and driven market growth. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a probiotic functional carbonated beverage from cheese whey and evaluate its microbiological, and physicochemical characteristics soon after the production and during storage. The viability and stability of probiotic, the microbiological characteristics, titratable acidity and sedimentation of the beverage were monitored during refrigerated storage for a month. The probiotic to be added to the formulation was established in a preliminary step. The production of this beverage proved to be a simple technology and the product was suitable for incorporation of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. The probiotic showed good viability and stability during storage. The microbiological quality of the beverage met the Brazilian legal standards. The pH and titratable acidity of the probiotic carbonated beverage remained stable during storage, and slight sedimentation was observed after one week of refrigerated storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0239.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Probiotics; Canine; Lactobacilli; Feed supplementation; Infectious diseases
Online: 12 July 2021 (10:13:26 CEST)
Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infectious diseases. However, massive and inappropriate antibiotics usage cause many problems including the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To avoid this issue, in modern countries the interest of using probiotics in feed supplementation to promote health and prevent or treat intestinal infectious diseases in companion animals like dogs has been increasing. We evaluate the probiotic potential of Lactobacilli isolated from healthy dogs faeces. The isolated Lactobacilli were first confirmed by 16SrRNA sequencing, then in vitro tests were conducted to assess survival potential of Lactobacilli under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and adhesion ability to gut epithelia, effects on epithelial barrier function, anti-inflammatory activities, effects on defensin peptides (beta-defensin 3) and inhibitory effects on common pathogens. Lactobacilli showed considerable potential to survive in simulated gastrointestinal environmental conditions, low pH, high bile salt concentrations along with good adhesion properties with MODE-K cells. Pathogenic bacterial growth and their adhesion to MODE-K cells was significantly inhibited by Lactobacilli. Real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that L. acidophilus strain AR1 and AR3 inhibit Salmonella-induced proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, 1ꞵ) production and reinforce expression of tight junction protein (occludin). None of the strain induce mRNA expression of beta-defensin 3 in MODE-K cells. Based on in vitro results the L. acidophilus strain AR1 has potential to be supplemented in canine feed. However, further in vivo studies investigating health-promoting effects are awaited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Probiotics, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, alcohol, acetaldehyde, ALDH2 gene
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:04:39 CEST)
Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol is oxidized to toxic and carcinogenic acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and further oxidized to a non-toxic acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Emerging evidence shows that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species encode alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mediate alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism, respectively. This study involves supplementation of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotic mixture in humans and assessed their effects on alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Here, twenty-seven wild types (ALDH2*1/*1) and the same number ofheterozygotes (ALDH2*2/*1) were recruited for the study. The enrolled participants were randomly divided into either the probiotic (Duolac ProAP4) or the placebo group. Each group received a probiotic or placebo capsule for 15 days with subsequent crossover. Primary outcomes were measurement of alcohol and acetaldehyde in the blood after the alcohol intake. Blood levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in the ALDH2 heterozygote group were significantly downregulated in the probiotic-supplemented group with no changes in hangover score symptoms than the placebo group. No clinically significant changes were observed in safety parameters. These results suggest that probiotic has a potential to downregulate the alcohol and acetaldehyde concentrations, and their effects depend on the presence or absence of polymorphism on the ALDH2 gene.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Probiotics; food matrices; cell viability; model digestion
Online: 1 December 2020 (11:36:11 CET)
The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of various food and beverages on the viability of probiotic bacteria during passing through artificial digestion. As a model food, solutions with various concentrations of alcohol, sugar, salt, protein and acid were prepared. Different types of real foods and beverages were used as well. Viability in presence of food matrices was tested on monocultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCM4833 and Bifidobacterium breve CCM7825T and on mixed commercial culture with 9 different strains of probiotic microorganisms( Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus). The concentration and viability of probiotic bacteria was tested by cultivation assay and flow cytometry. In model foods, the best growth of was determined in the presence of 10% albumin and 10% ethanol. Survival of the probiotics delivered in different food matrices through a simulated gastrointestinal tract was quantitatively different. As the best food environment for probiotics complex food matrices such as pasta with cream sauce, chocolate spread and homemade beef broth were selected, followed by mixed vegetables, potato salad, salted chips, fruits and yoghurt. Among beverages the best option was milk, followed by black tea, coffee and Coca Cola. Probiotic microorganisms are more viable when consumed with meals than with beverages only. In general, the highest viability of probiotic cells has been observed in presence of foods containing high concentration of sugar and fat or their suitable combination. The increase of cell viability observed in such foods during model digestion may further contribute to the positive effect of probiotics on human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Probiotics, Upper Respiratory Infections, Network Meta-Analysis
Online: 1 October 2018 (10:22:49 CEST)
Background. Upper respiratory infections (URIs) remains as significant cause of morbidity in children. Evidence on efficacy of probiotics to prevent URIs in children is increasing. This systematic review was assembled to analyze evidence about the efficacy of probiotics to reduce duration of upper respiratory infections in ambulatory children. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics vs. placebo to prevent URIs, published between 2001 and 2016 were considered. Quality evaluation was evaluated using CONSORT. Standard mean difference (SMD) or risk ratio (RR) was calculated. Network Meta-Analysis (NMA), using a random effect model was assembled. Results. 31 RCTs were evaluated and 20 studies were included with 3,635 children randomized to probiotics and 3,433 to placebo. Lactobacillus reuteri [SMD -0.56 CI95% (-0.72 to -0.41), p 0.0001] and Lactobacillus acidophillus [SMD -0.33 CI95% (-0.60 to -0.06), p 0.01] were superior to placebo to reduce duration of URIs. L. rhamnosus GG showed tendency [SMD -0.14 CI95% (-0.28 to 0.0), p 0.048]. On the network forest plot L. reuteri showed preventive equivalence when was compared to L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei and BB12. Conclusions. Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium BB12 are evidence-based alternatives to be considered to prevent URIs in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0208.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: aging; intestinal microbiota; dysbiosis; probiotics; microbial co-occurrences
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:59:55 CET)
Age-related alterations in the gut microbiome composition and its impacts on the host’s health have been well described; however, detailed analyses of the gut microbial structure defining ecological microbe-microbe interactions is limited. One of the ways to determine these interactions is by understanding microbial co-occurrence patterns. We previously showed promising abilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 on the aging gut microbiome and immune system. However, the potential of the DDS-1 strain to modulate microbial co-occurrence patterns is unknown. Hence, we aimed to investigate the ability of L. acidophilus DDS-1 to modulate the fecal, mucosal and cecal-related microbial co-occurrence networks in young and aging C57BL/6J mice. Our Kendall’s tau correlation measures of co-occurrence revealed age-related changes in the gut microbiome, which were characterized by reduced number of nodes and associations across sample types when compared to younger mice. After four-week supplementation, L. acidophilus DDS-1 differentially modulated the overall microbial community structure in fecal and mucosal samples as compared to cecal samples. Beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Akkermansia acted as connectors in aging networks in response to L. acidophilus DDS-1 supplementation. Our findings provided the first evidence of the DDS-1-induced gut microbial ecological interactions revealing the complex structure of microbial ecosystems with age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis; probiotics; microbiome; nasal microbiota; microbiome therapy
Online: 21 October 2021 (23:00:15 CEST)
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a significant health problem. It affects 5%–12% of the general population. The causes that underlie the onset of CRS are not yet well known. However, many factors may contribute to its onset, such as environmental factors and the host’s condition. Medical treatment mainly uses local corticosteroids, nasal irrigation, and antibiotics. In recent years, a new therapeutic approach that employs the use of probiotics emerged. Probiotics have been extensively studied as a therapy for dysbiosis and inflammatory pathologies of various parts of the body . We aimed to examine the studies in the existing literature to update probiotics’ role in rhinosinusitis chronic medical treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0372.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Aging; Microbiome; Probiotics; Cellular senescence; SASP; Stress; Immunity
Online: 17 May 2021 (08:51:53 CEST)
The significance of diversity, composition, and functional attributes of the gut microbiota is recognized in human health and disease. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is related to human aging, and a causal relationship between gut microflora dysbiosis and chronic age-related disorders is also becoming apparent. Further, emerging evidence indicates that age-associated changes in the gut microbiome are predictors of human survival and longevity. Recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of biological aging have revealed a cellular senescence-centric view of the aging process. However, the association between gut microbiome and cellular senescence is only beginning to be understood. The present review provides an integrative view of the emerging relationship between the gut microbiome and cellular senescence in aging and disease. Evidence relating to microbiome-mediated modulation of senescent cells, as well as senescent cells-mediated changes in intestinal homeostasis have been discussed. Unanswered questions and future research directions have also been deliberated to truly ascertain the relationship of the gut microbiome and cellular senescence for developing microbiome-based age-delaying and longevity promoting therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vaginal probiotics; reproductive dysbiosis; bacterial vaginosis; VVC; IVF
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:28:32 CET)
The use of probiotics in reproductive-related dysbiosis is an area of continuous progress due to the growing interest from clinicians and patients suffering recurrent reproductive microbiota disorders. An imbalance in the natural colonization sites related to reproductive health: vaginal, cervicovaginal, endometrial and also pregnancy-related altered microbiota could play decisive role in reproductive outcomes. Oral and vaginal administrations are in continuous discussion regarding the clinical effect pursued, but probiotics as oral supplement therapy is the route administration better studied. To complement and summarise with qualitative and quantitative information of vaginal probiotics clinical studies, the main objective of this work was to retrieve the standardised protocols commonly used and their microbiota modulation capacities. The studies selected were related to treat bacterial vaginosis (BV) as the most commonly disorder, few studies on vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and also administration to stabilise microbiota before in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Probiotic doses administered were similar to oral probiotics protocols, ranging from ≥ 107 CFU/day to 2.5 x 1010 CFU/day, and variable regarding posology duration from 1 day to 12 weeks, being 1 week commonly applied. Moderate modulation was achieved regarding the relative abundance decrease of abnormal microbiota, coinciding with parallel increase in Lactobacillus species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: depression; metabolic syndrome; probiotics; microbiota; inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:20:26 CET)
There is a huge need to search for new treatment options and potential biomarkers of therapeutic response to antidepressant treatment. Depression and metabolic syndrome often coexist while pathophysiological overlap, including microbiota changes, may play a role. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of probiotic supplementation on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, metabolic parameters, inflammation and oxidative stress markers, and faecal microbiota in adult patients with depressive disorders depending on the co-occurance of MetS. The trial will be a four-arm, parallel group, prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled design that will include 200 participants and will last 20 weeks. The probiotic preparation will contain Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell®-52, Bifidobacterium longum Rosell®-175. We will assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress, quality of life, blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference, white blood cells count, serum levels of C-reactive protein, HDL cholesterol, triglicerides, fasting glucose, faecal microbiota composition and the level of some faecal microbiota metabolites, as well as inflammation markers and oxidative stress parameters in serum. The trial may establish a safe and easy-to-use treatment option as an adjunct in a subpopulation of depressive patients only partially responsive to pharmacologic treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: ).
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: chicken; coccidiosis; Eimeria; immunity; microbiome; phytogenics; probiotics; prebiotics
Online: 1 December 2020 (17:31:40 CET)
Coccidiosis remains a major disease and economic challenge for the global poultry industry. Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by seven Eimeria species that target specific regions of the gastrointestinal tract and cause malabsorptive or haemorrhagic disease. These Eimeria species infect segment-specific epithelial cells and thus need to navigate the host’s indigenous microbiome and intestinal defences to establish an infection and cause disease. Good husbandry practices, prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs and/or live parasite vaccination have been the primary control measures employed but there are challenges with vaccination and growing constraints on anticoccidial drug use. This review, therefore, considers available information on the key steps of the infection process, notable microbiome- or host-related changes occurring, and the (potential) influence of dietary ‘alternatives’ to anticoccidial drugs. There is good available evidence to indicate that some phytogenics, prebiotics, probiotics, betaine, n-3 fatty acids, as well as carbohydrase enzymes and anti-IL-10 antibodies, can (beneficially) modulate at least some of these features in coccidiosis-specific challenge studies. As a minimum, these anticoccidial drug ‘alternatives’ could support the establishment of a desirable host microbiome and optimum immune system development. It is important to better understand the potential of these ‘alternatives’ in commercial production and how they can complement, or reduce, the use of anticoccidial drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0347.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: L. plantarum subsp. plantarum; ETEC K88; antimicrobial; probiotics
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:50:52 CEST)
For screening excellent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to inhibit Escherichia (E.) coli (ETEC) K88, inhibitory activities of more than 1100 LAB strains isolated from different materials and kept in the lab were evaluated in this study. Nine strains with inhibition zone at least 22.00 mm (including that of hole puncher 10.00 mm) and good physiological and biochemical characteristics identified by 16S DNA gene sequencing and recA gene multiple detection, were assigned to Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (5), L. fermentum (1), L. reuteri (1), W. cibaria (1) and E. faecalis (1), respectively. As investigated for their tolerance abilities and safety, only strain ZA3 possessed high hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation abilities, had high survival rate in low pH, bile salt environment and GI fluids, sensitive to ampicillin, resistant to norfloxacin and amikacin, without hemolytic activity and didn’t carry antibiotic resistance genes, exhibited broad spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms, and antibacterial substance may attribute to organic acids, especially lactic acid and acetic acid. The results indicated that the selected strain L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ZA3 could be considered a potential probiotic to inhibit ETEC K88 for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0178.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: anti-oxidative properties; DPPH; grape marmalade; lactobacillus; probiotics
Online: 16 April 2019 (10:27:52 CEST)
Grape foods fermented with probiotics are sources of beneficial bacteria for the GI tract and also have a high antioxidant capacity. The addition of probiotics to ferment food has always been a traditional process; therefore, probiotic dairy and non-dairy products might contribute to a daily antioxidant diet to improve consumers’ life quality and health. This research was undertaken to determine the viability of 4 wild isolates of Lactobacillus for storage at 5 and 25ºC within 90 days in simulated synthetic grape media and a standard grape marmalade formulation. Changes in active culture numbers, pH level, glucose concentration, and antioxidant properties were evaluated. Most of the isolates demonstrated higher growth in the grape marmalade than the synthetic grape marmalade, which was greater than 7 Log cfu/g within 90 days of storage at 5ºC. In addition, most of the wild isolates grew beyond the critical count of 106 cfu/g in sampling between 60 and 90 days of storage. Moreover, fermented grape marmalade with probiotics showed a strong antioxidant capacity that failed to differ significantly with the synthetic medium. The study confirmed L. paraplantarum, L. plantarum, W. paramesenteroides, and E. feacalis were ideal probiotics for fermentation process of grape marmalade.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0062.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: microbiome; probiotics, dietary supplements; nutrition; HIV infection, inflammation
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:10:17 CEST)
Microbiota plays a key role in various body’s functions, physiological, metabolic and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that resides on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer participate in interactions with the host immune system, and a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotics has been proposed in several bowel disorders or in aging-related dysfunctions. In HIV infected patients, the intestinal immune system is affected and inflammation persists during ART therapy too. Several studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition and microbial translocation in HIV infection. This mini-review aims to suggest how the use of probiotics is beneficial not only in maintaining a healthy status but also to improve conditions in HIV subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0465.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Gut-bone axis; Gut-brain axis; Microbiome; Probiotics; Osteoporosis
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:16:35 CET)
The gut microbiome is a collection of microorganisms and parasites that reside in the gastrointestinal tract. There are many factors that can affect the composition of this community, such as age, sex, medications, and environmental triggers. The relationship between the human host and the gut microbiota is very important for both the survival and development of the organism. The disruption of this relationship can lead to the development of various inflammatory diseases. CBD and THC are used to treat muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. It is now clear these compounds also benefit patients with neuroinflammation. A study that investigated the role of gut microbiota in treating the inflammation and paralysis in a mouse model demonstrated that treatment with CBD and THC produced significant decrease in the inflammation levels. They also exhibited a significant increase in the number of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The presence of certain cannabinoids can suppress neuroinflammation and prevent microbial dysbiosis. Several studies have revealed the role of the gut microbiota in the development and maintenance of skeletal integrity and bone mineral density. The gut is a major source of nutrients, including vitamins B and K. It can also influence the development and maintenance of bone matrix. The presence of the gut microbiota can influence the actions of certain T regulatory cells, which can lead to the development of bone formation and proliferation. In addition, its metabolites can prevent bone loss. The gut microbiota can help maintain the bone's equilibrium and prevent the development of metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis. In this review, the dual functions gut microbiota plays in the regulation of gut-bone axis and gut-brain axis and the impact of CBD on these roles are discussed in detail.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0433.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Lactobacillus spp, Bacillus spp., Anti-cancer, Probiotics, Gastrointestinal, Dysbiosis.
Online: 27 December 2021 (14:50:58 CET)
Malignant neoplasm is one of the most incurable diseases among inflammatory diseases. Researchers have been studying for decades to win over this lethal disease and provide the light of hope to humankind. The gastrointestinal bacteria of human hold a complex ecosystem and maintain homeostasis. One hundred trillion microbes are residing in the gastrointestinal tract of human. Disturbances in the microbiota of human’s gastrointestinal tract can create immune response against inflammation and also can develop diseases , including cancer. The bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract of human, can secrete a variety of metabolites and bioproducts which aid in the preservation of homeostasis in the host and gut. During pathogenic dysbiosis, on the other hand, numerous microbiota subpopulations may increase and create excessive levels of toxins, which can cause inflammation and cancer. Furthermore, the immune system of host and the epithelium cell can be influenced by gut microbiota. Probiotics, which are bacteria that live in the gut, have been protected against tumor formation. Probiotics are now studied to see if they can help fight dysbiosis in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy because of their capacity to maintain gut homeostasis. Countless numbers of gut bacteria have demonstrated anti-cancer efficiency in cancer treatment, prevention, and boosting the efficiency of immunotherapy. The review article has briefly explained the anti-cancer immunity of gut microbes and their application in treating a variety of cancer. This review paper also highlights the pre-clinical studies of probiotics against cancer and the completed and ongoing clinical trials on cancers with the two most common and highly effective probiotics Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Probiotics; Gut microbiota; Obesity; Insulin resistance; Type 2 Diabetes
Online: 8 October 2021 (10:52:45 CEST)
Background: Obesity and diabetes are two metabolic disorders linked by an inflammatory process named insulin resistance (IR). Various research on the role of gut microbiota in developing obesity and its associated disorders has led to the growing interest in probiotic supplementation. Considering the life-threatening complications of diabesity this mini-review explored the effects of probiotic supplementation on IR in obesity-associated diabetes. Method: This review is based on recent articles from 2005-2020, studying the role of probiotic supplementation on glucose and insulin parameters in healthy and diabetic mouse models. Result: Probiotic supplementation altered the gut microbiota composition, increased short-chain fatty acid production, and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, they decreased intestinal permeability, circulating lipopolysaccharide, and metabolic endotoxemia hence improved insulin sensitivity and reduced obesity. Although multi-strain probiotic supplementation showed greater benefits than single strain interventions, variations in the concentration of probiotics used and the duration of treatment also influenced the results. Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation could manipulate the gut microbiota by reducing intestinal permeability, inflammation and ameliorate IR and obesity-associated diabetes in animal models which requires further long-term clinical studies in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0113.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Probiotics; food matrices; food stress; cell viability; model digestion
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:59:51 CEST)
The aim was to evaluate the influence of model (alcohol, sugar, salt, protein and acid) and real foods and beverages on the viability of probiotics during incubation and artificial digestion. Viability of monocultures Lactobacillus acidophilus CCM4833 and Bifidobacterium breve CCM7825T and commercial mixture of 9 probiotic bacterial strains were tested by cultivation assay and flow cytometry. In model foods, the best viability was determined in the presence of 0.2 g/L glucose, 10% albumin and 10% ethanol. As the most suitable real food for probiotic survival complex protein and carbohydrate substrates were found, such as beef broth, potato salad with pork, chicken with rice, chocolate spread, porridge and yoghurt. The best liquid was milk and meat broth, followed by coca-cola, beer and coffee. Viability of probiotics was higher when consumed with meals than with beverages only. Addition of prebiotics increased the viability of probiotics especially in presence of instant and fast foods. Generally, the highest viability of probiotics during artificial digestion was observed in mixed culture in presence of protein, sugar and fat or their combination. The increase of cell viability observed in such foods during model digestion may further contribute to the positive effect of probiotics on human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0239.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Microbiota; Immunity; Spermidine; Metabolic engineering; Probiotics; Live Biotherapeutic Product; Metabolomics
Online: 17 October 2022 (12:09:41 CEST)
Over the past decade, studies have demonstrated the importance of bioactive metabolites derived from the microbiota in the regulation of physiological processes essential for homeostasis and the maintenance of human health. Strategies to modulate the production of these metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract hold promise for combating dysbiosis or inflammatory bowel disease. Metabolic engineering of probiotics could be one of these solutions. In this work, we engineered Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) to overproduce spermidine, a metabolite known for its anti-immunosenescence and anti-inflammatory properties. Using a rational synthetic biology approach coupled with analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry, we designed in several steps and validated engineered probiotics overproducing and excreting spermidine. Based on our results, we first added the enzyme substrate putrescine and showed the overproduction of spermidine and decided to add a transporter limiting the production of the acetylated form of spermidine. Next, we used untargeted metabolomics to study the impact of engineering on the central metabolism of E. coli Nissle. Untargeted metabolomics appears to be a good strategy to optimize the metabolic engineering of probiotic strains and thus accelerate their development for personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Probiotics; Dysbiosis; Obesity; High Fat Diet; Lactobacillus plantarum; Enterococcus faecium
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:59:43 CET)
Fat reduction and anti-inflammation are commonly claimed properties of probiotics. Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium were tested in high fat-induced obesity mice and in vitro experiments. After 16 weeks of probiotics, L. plantarum outperforms E. faecium on the anti-obesity property as indicated by body weight, regional fat accumulation, serum cholesterol, inflammatory cytokines (in blood and colon tissue), and gut barrier defect (FITC-dextran assay). With fecal microbiome analysis, L. plantarum but not E. faecium reduced fecal abundance of pathogenic Proteobacteria without an alteration in total Gram-negative bacteria when compared with non-probiotics obese mice. With palmitic acid induction, the condition media from both probiotics similarly attenuated supernatant IL-8, improved enterocyte integrity and down-regulated cholesterol absorption-associated genes in Caco-2 cell (an enterocyte cell line) and reduced supernatant cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) with normalization of cell energy status (extracellular flux analysis) in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. Because the anti-inflammatory effect of the condition media of both probiotics on palmitic acid-activated enterocytes was neutralized by amylase, the active anti-inflammatory molecules might, partly, be exopolysaccharides. As L. plantarum out-performed E. faecium in anti-obesity property, possibly through the reduced fecal Proteobacteria, with a similar anti-inflammatory exopolysaccharide; L. plantarum is a potentially better option for anti-obesity than E. faecium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0075.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Probiotics; Bacillus subtilis; growth performance; immune-hematological parameters; stress resistance
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:06:52 CET)
Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing animal food-producing agricultural industries in the world and proper performance of fish in morphological, physiological and immunological aspects is important for fish production and sustainable expansion of aquaculture. But several inhibitors like disease, pathogen, and adverse environment can overpower these performances. At present, antibiotics in preventing these inhibitors have been seen as becoming favorable to those inhibitors. So, Bacillus, an important group of probiotic bacteria can be an alternative to these antibiotics in aquaculture. Bacillus has been seen used in different experiments, mainly as a supplement in feed at various concentrations. Bacillus showed effective results like improved growth with minimum cost, improvement in reproduction, hematology, improved immune response and disease, and stress resistance as well as better proximate composition in different fish species. Application of Bacillus strains has proven efficient in improving water quality by reducing ammonia and nitrite toxicity, harmful algal blooms and utilization of H+ ion. Larger application of probiotic Bacillus instead of the hazardous synthetic chemicals would promote eco-friendly low-input sustainable aquaculture for food and nutritional security of the increasing world population. So many more experiments should be conducted in commercially important fishes for better growth and health of fishes which will certainly increase fish
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0387.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ice cream; sheep's milk; probiotics; apple fiber; inulin; Bifidobacterium; Lactobacillus
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:19:50 CET)
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the addition of inulin and the replacement of part of inulin with apple fiber on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Moreover, the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied in sheep milk ice cream. There was no effect of apple fiber and the type of bacteria on the number of bacteria of the probiotics after fermentation. As a result of freezing, mixture containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12, there was a significant reduction in the bacterial from 0.39 log cfu g −1 to 0.46 log cfu g −1. In all ice cream on the 21st day of storage, it exceeded 10 log cfu g –1, which means that the ice cream retained the status of probiotic products. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus ice cream showed a lower yellow colour compared to the Bifidobacterium Bb-12 ice cream. The overrun of sheep's milk ice cream was within a range from 78.50% to 80.41%. The appearance of sheep's milk ice cream is influenced considerably by the addition of fiber and the type of bacteria and the interaction between the type of bacteria and the addition of fiber and storage time and fiber.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0276.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Vitamin D; VDR; inflammation; microbiome; metabolites; nuclear receptor; probiotics; tight junctions
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:55:13 CET)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal0 tract (GIT), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which differ in the location and lesion extensions. Both diseases are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, with a reduced population of butyrate-producing species, abnormal inflammatory response, and micronutrient deficiency (e. g. vitamin D hypovitaminosis). Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in immune cell differentiation, gut microbiota modulation, gene transcription, and barrier integrity. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD. VitD deficiency is correlated with disease activity and its administration targeting a concentration of 30 ng/mL may have the potential to reduce disease activity. Moreover, VDR regulates functions of T cells and Paneth cells and modulates release of antimicrobial peptides in gut microbiota-host interactions. Meanwhile, beneficial microbial metabolites, e.g. butyrate, upregulate the VDR signaling. In this review, we summarize the clinical progress and mechanism studies on VitD /VDR related to gut microbiota modulation in IBD. We also discuss epigenetics in IBD and the probiotic regulation of VDR. Furthermore, we discuss the existing challenges and future directions. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials exploring the appropriate dose and the influence of gender, age, ethnicity, genetics, microbiome, and metabolic disorders in IBD subtypes. To move forward, we need well-designed therapeutic studies to examine whether enhanced vitamin D will restore functions of VDR and microbiome in inhibiting chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; Probiotics; Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB12; Enterococcus faecium L3; children
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:47:51 CET)
BACKGROUND: Probiotics may prevent the allergic response’s development due to their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of this study is to determine if the prophylactic treatment with a mixture of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis BB12 and Enterococcus faecium L3, would reduce symptoms and need for drug use in children with allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: The study included 250 children aged from 6 to 17 years, affected by AR. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (117) or to the placebo group (86). Patients of the intervention group, in addition to conventional therapy (local corticosteroids and/or antihistamines), were treated, in the 3 months preceding the development of AR symptoms, with a daily oral administration of a probiotic mixture containing the Bifidobacterium animalis subsp Lactis BB12 DSM 15954 and the Enterococcus faecium L3 LMG P-27496 strain. Nasal Symptoms Score(NSS) was used to evaluate AR severity before and after the treatment with probiotics or placebo. RESULTS: 96% of the patients in the intervention group showed a significant decrease in their NSS after the probiotic treatment as well as a decrease in the intake of pharmacological therapy. GPower software was used to calculate the test power. Given the probability of error α = 0.05, the total sample size n = 117 and the effect size ρ = 2.0651316, the power of the test is 1 - β = 1. CONCLUSIONS: When administered as a prophylactic treatment the mixture of BB12 and L3 statistically decrease signs and symptoms of AR and reduces significantly the need of drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0354.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Lactobacillus helveticus; probiotics; whole genome sequencing; PacBio; probiotic genes; bacteriocins; gene expression
Online: 26 December 2019 (10:56:44 CET)
Whole-genome DNA sequencing of Lactobacillus D75 and D76 strains (Vitaflor, Russia) was performed using the PacBio RS II platform, followed by de novo assembly with SMRT Portal 2.3.0. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) test showed that both strains belong to the Lactobacillus helveticus, but not the L. acidophilus as previously assumed. 31 exopolysaccharide (EPS) production genes (nine of which form a single genetic cluster), 13 adhesion genes, 38 milk protein and 11 milk sugar utilization genes, 13 genes for and against specific antagonistic activity, aight antibiotic resistance genes, and also three CRISPR blocks and eight Cas I-B system genes were identified in the genomes of the both strains. The expression of some genes was confirmed. In fact, the presence of identified genes suggests that L. helveticus D75 and D76 are able to form biofilms on the outer mucin layer, inhibit the growth of pathogens and pathobionts, utilize milk substrates with the formation of digestible milk sugars and bioactive peptides, resist bacteriophages and show some genome-determined resistance to antibiotics, stimulate the host’s immune system. Pathogenicity genes have not been identified. The study results confirm the safety and high probiotic potential of the strains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Personalized Medicine; Precision Medicine; Probiotics; Vitamins; Covid; Dietary Supplements; Adverse Drug Effects
Online: 3 November 2022 (06:27:25 CET)
Nutraceuticals have taken the spotlight during the past two decades as evidenced by the exponential publications on them. Long a part of routine in Traditional Medicine Systems, the rise of their mainstream use globally raises both safety concerns and need for better understanding of efficacious dosing. We attempt to answer these questions in this preliminary scoping review by an analysis of current literature on nutraceutical use as a personalized or prescription medicine. Using Covidence, Rayyan, and manual searches of PubMed, 598 unique publications were selected. 32 are systematic reviews, of which we overview the scope. We also overview 30 papers that address adverse drug reactions. To obtain an unbiased landscape of the 598 papers, we analyzed keywords using multiple methods. Expectedly, the most frequent keywords were probiotics and vitamins. Unexpectedly and remarkably, among the highest keyword yield was ‘COVID’. Further exploring this aspect, we review 15 pertinent papers, that not only provide robust evidence for nutraceutical benefits as part of SARS-CoV-2 treatment, but also amplify the notion that nutraceuticals are protective. Overall, the strident note is that further robust targeted research is needed in order to reap the full benefits of nutraceuticals in a safe and efficacious manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0773.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ethnic beer; borde; shamita; keribo; korefe; indigenous drinks; fermented beverages; probiotics; Farsoo; moringa
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:50:33 CEST)
This study was designed to improve Ethiopian traditional beer – tella with the substitution of gesho by moringa leaves to enhance micronutrients. Substation of gesho by moringa from 50 – 100% against the biochemical dynamics, nutritional and sensorial profiles of tella was assessed. Incorporation of moringa suppressed the activities of yeast and favored that of lactic acid bacteria, which shifted the property of the product from mild alcoholic nature to low alcoholic and mild acidic nature, revealing the probiotic potential of tella. Moringa leaves at 100% substitution for gesho resulted in to the least yeast count compared to the other formulations. The storage of tella samples over periods of 10 days also strengthened the probiotic nature of tella by drastically reducing the yeast cell counts (from 5 logs to <1). This corresponded to the slow increase in the acidity (0.63 to 0.99%), indicating comparatively higher activities of lactic acid bacteria. The best nutritional contents (dietary minerals) and sensorial acceptance of the product was attained at the 50% substitution of gesho by moringa. The implication of the present study is that ethnic foods and beverages can be innovated to meet the nutritional needs of the community
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0541.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Bioremediation; gut microbiota; lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacterales; lead; cadmium; aluminum; Probiotics; ICP-MS
Online: 26 January 2021 (13:26:26 CET)
Hazardous toxic metals, such as lead and cadmium, and to a lesser extent aluminum, are extensively recognized as detrimental for health following ingestion within food and water, or following inhalation. Gut and food-derived microbes, by interacting with heavy metals, may actively or passively modulate their bioavailability inside the gut, either by adsorption or by sequestration. Such a bioremediation within the gut implies the selection of safe microbes, based on their specific capacities to immobilize metals. We investigated the metal removal ability of 225 bacteria toward the potential harmful trace elements lead, cadmium and aluminum in vitro, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis. Interspecies and intraspecies comparisons were addressed and discussed among bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes, which are mostly lactic acid bacteria, including Lactobacillus spp, with some Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Carnobacterium representatives, Actinobacteria as well as Proteobacteria. The effect on mixture of lead and cadmium was also investigated. Although the purpose of such a screening is so far not to elucidate each of the various strain specific- and metal dependent- mechanisms of heavy metal removal, we identified potential bacteria which are able to alleviate Pb(II) and Cd(II) concerns in order to propose performing candidate probiotics for metal xenobiotic bioremediation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: predictive preventive personalized medicine; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium; probiotics, gut microbiota; patient phenotype, individualized medicine; metabolic syndrome
Online: 11 September 2018 (06:00:03 CEST)
The modification the gut microbiota in metabolic syndrome and associated chronic diseases is among leading tasks of microbiome research and needs for clinical use of probiotics. Evidence lack for the implications for microbiome modification to improve metabolic health in particular when applied impersonalized. Probiotics have tremendous potential in personalized nutrition and medicine to develop healthy diets. The aim was to to conduct comprehensive overview of recent updates of role of microbiota on human health and development of metabolic syndrome and efficacy of microbiota modulation considering specific properties of probiotic strain and particular aspects of metabolic syndrome and patient`s phenotype to fill the gap between probiotic product and individual to facilitate development of individualized / personalized probiotic and prebiotic treatments. We discuss the relevance of using host phenotype-associated biomarkers, those based on imaging and molecular and patrient`s history, reliable and accessible to facilitate person-specific appication of probiotics and prebiotic substances. Microbiome phenotypes can be parameters of predictive medicine to recognize patient`s predispositions and evaluate treatment responses; the number of phenotype markers can be effectively involved to monitor microbiome modulation. The studied strain-dependent properties of probiotic strains are potentially relevant for individualized treatment for gut and distant sites microbiome modulation. The evidence regarding probiotic strains properties can be taken to account via pathophysiology-based approach for most effective individualized treatment via gut, oral and vaginal and other sites microbiome modulation according to phenotype of the patient providing individualized and personalized medical approaches. Preventive potential of probiotics is strong and well-documented. Recommendations for individualized clinical use of probiotics, and for probiotic studies design have been suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Probiotics; gut flora; gastrointestinal diseases; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacteria; placebo; Diarrhea; microbiota; composite; sin-gle-organisms; Ulcerative Colitis
Online: 17 November 2022 (08:53:58 CET)
Probiotics are namely yeast and bacteria which are regarded as dietary supplements and food. Many probiotics are being commonly used now, the most frequently used, lactic acid bacteria are called Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Many of the diseases associated with GIT are related to microbiota found in GIT, an imbalance of which causes gastrointestinal diseases. Probiotics, in light of scientific literature, are thought to play an important role in relieving symptoms of many diseases associated with GIT, i.e. beneficially regulating the microbiota composition. In the present review, we aimed to highlight the main considerations for main probiotic formulations to date. This study reviews the role of different probiotic formulations introduced so far in treating GI diseases in cohort ageing ≤18 years. We searched PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov without any restrictions. This study comprises the descriptive and comparative analysis between Single-organism and Composite probiotics. These GI diseases include NEC, FAP, AGE, Acute Diarrhea, Ulcerative Colitis and etc. The results have been categorized according to title and outcomes. The positive outcomes emphasize the drug’s effectiveness in improving health and the negative outcome elaborates on the adverse effects the drug may have shown. Conclusively, discussed practices will assist in reducing GI disorders and strengthening the gut. Further insight into the various gut microbes and microbiomes with specific demographic is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0211.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: HIV-1; CRISPR-Cas9; T-cells; lipid nanoparticles; gut-associated-lymphoid tissue; Co-receptors; Probiotics; GI Tract,; Gene Editing
Online: 13 April 2020 (10:57:52 CEST)
HIV-1 is a complicated and perplexing virus. It infects T cells, reverse transcribes its RNA into DNA, utilizes its host DNA machinery to replicate its HIV-DNA, translates the HIV-DNA into proteins, assembles itself for a budding escape from the T cell, and rapidly mutates its conformation. Partially, due to its complexity, there remains no cure for HIV or AIDs. However, recently with the discovery of TALENs, the use of zinc fingers, and most of all the applications of CRISPR-Cas9 technology, has given researchers new hope in finding alternative gene therapies and treatments for diseases. With more focus on CRISPR-Cas9, this new and novel technology uses a guiding RNA, sgRNA, to lead a Cas9 nuclease to its target for deletion or to change that DNA site. CRISPR-Cas9 can delete point mutations and multiple DNA sites. Because CRISPR can alter DNA sequences, several scientists have conducted research into CRISPR, possibly treating more diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and even HIV. HIV-1 drew the focus of a researcher named Dr. Ebina in 2013 when he was the first to design and apply CRISPR-Cas9 to genes found in the binding sites of HIV-1, inhibiting HIV-1 gene expression. Since 2013, several other researchers have blocked HIV replication and infection through CRISPR-Cas9 targeting the receptors of T cells called the CC chemokine receptor 5 or CCR5. HIV-1 binds to the CD4 receptor of T cells, which consists of co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. If CCR5 expression can be removed, the HIV virus cannot bind to T-cells, blocking the initial attachment stage, and discontinuing the infection. However, there remain obstacles and issues for the CRISPR deletion of CCR5 for treating HIV-1. The issues include: 1) finding new and safe methods of CRISPR-Cas9 delivery, 2) clearing the latent HIV reservoirs, 3) improving the sgRNA design to avoid off-target mutations or deletions, and 4) effectively analyze the viral escape of HIV from CRISPR-Cas9 modifications. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss possible techniques for removing the obstacles that can lessen the potential of CRISPR to delete CCR5, repressing HIV-1 into long-term remission or a functional cure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; food-producing animals; dairy products; health benefits; One health; antimicrobial resistance; probiotics; starter cultures; adjunct cultures; protective cultures.
Online: 7 August 2021 (00:17:15 CEST)
Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are natural, major sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Due to their antimicrobial properties, LAB are used in humans and in animals, with beneficial effects, as probiotics or in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In livestock production, LAB contribute to animal performance, health, and productivity. In the food industry, LAB are applied as bioprotective and biopreservation agents, contributing to improve food safety and quality. However, some studies have described resistance to relevant antibiotics in LAB, with the concomitant risks associated to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to foodborne pathogens, their potential dissemination throughout the food chain, and the environment. Here, we summarize the application of LAB in livestock and animal products, as well as the health impact of LAB in animal food products. In general, the beneficial effects of LAB on the human food chain seem to outweigh the potential risks associated with their consumption as part of animal and human diets. However, further studies and continuous monitorization efforts are needed to ensure their safe application in animal products and in the control of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing the possible risks associated with antibiotic resistance and, thus, protecting public health.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: ulcerative colitis; inflammatory bowel disease; pediatrics; FMT; probiotics; synbiotics; antibiotics; prebiotics; fecal microbiota transplant; colitis-associated cancer; colorectal cancer; CAC; CRC; dysbiosis
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:20:39 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the colonic mucosa. UC is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease along with Crohn’s disease and presents with varying extraintestinal manifestations. No single etiology for UC has been found, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors is suspected. Research has focused on the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of UC, including the effects of dysbiosis on the integrity of the colonic mucosal barrier, priming and regulation of the host immune system, chronic inflammation, and progression to tumorigenesis. Characterization of key microbial taxa and their implications in the pathogenesis of UC and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) may present opportunities for modulating intestinal inflammation through microbial-targeted therapies. In this review, we will discuss the microbiota-immune crosstalk in UC and CAC, as well as the evolution of microbiota-based therapies.