REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0057.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: chalcogenide glasses; pump-probe; photodarkening; photobleaching; transient absorption, network rigidity
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:33:44 CET)
Amorphous chalcogenide (ChGs) glasses are intrinsically metastable, highly photosensitive, and therefore exhibit numerous lightinduced effects upon bandgap and sub-bandgap illumination. Depending on the pulse duration of the excitation laser, ChGs exhibit a series of lightinduced effects spanning over femtosecond to seconds time domain. For continuous wave illumination, the effects are dominantly metastable in terms of photodarkening (PD) and photobleaching (PB) that takes place via homopolar to heteropolar bond conversion. On the other hand, under nanosecond and ultrafast pulsed illumination, ChGs exhibit transient absorption (TA) that is instigated from the transient bonding rearrangements through self-trapped exciton recombination. In the first part of the review, we pay special attention to continuous wave lightinduced PD and PB, while in the second part we will focus on the TA and controlling such effects via internal and external parameters e.g., chemical composition, temperature, sample history etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0035.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Layered transition metal dichalcogenides; NbTe2 flake; ultrafast carrier dynamics; pump-probe spectroscopy
Online: 6 April 2022 (08:31:57 CEST)
As one of the representatives of emerging metallic transition metal dichalcogenides, niobium ditelluride (NbTe2) has attracted intensive interest recently due to its distorted lattice structure and unique physical properties. Here, we report on the ultrafast carrier dynamics in NbTe2 measured using time-resolved pump-probe transient reflection spectroscopy. A thickness-dependent carrier relaxation time is observed, exhibiting a clear increase in the fast and slow carrier decay rates for thin NbTe2 flakes. In addition, pump power dependent measurements indicate that the carrier relaxation rates are power-independent, with the peak amplitude of the transient reflectivity increasing linearly with pump power. Isotropic relaxation dynamics in NbTe2 is also verified by performing polarization-resolved pump-probe measurements. These results provide an insight into the light-matter interactions and charge carrier dynamics in NbTe2 and will pave the way for its applications to photonic and optoelectronic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0416.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: X-rays; free electron laser (FEL); ultra-short phenomena; pump-probe; warm-dense matter; astrophotonics; co-axial volumetric interaction diagnostics
Online: 26 May 2020 (03:53:19 CEST)
We put forward a co-axial pump(optical)-probe(X-rays) experimental concept and show performance of the optical component. A Bessel beam generator with a central 100 micrometers-diameter hole (on the optical axis) was fabricated using femtosecond (fs) laser structuring inside a silica plate. This flat-axicon optical element produces a needle-like axial intensity distribution which can be used for the optical pump pulse. The fs-X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) beam of sub-1 micrometer diameter can be introduced through the central hole along the optical axis onto a target as a probe. Different realisations of optical pump are discussed. Such optical elements facilitate alignment of ultra-short fs-pulses in space and time and can be used in light-matter interaction experiments at extreme energy densities on the surface and in the volume of targets. Full advantage of ultra-short 10 fs X-FEL probe pulses with fs-pump(optical) opens an unexplored temporal dimension of phase transitions and the fastest laser-induced rates of material heating and quenching. A wider field of applications of fs-laser-enabled structuring of materials and design of specific optical elements for astrophotonics is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0463.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: nonlinear refractive index; noncolinear degenerate phase modulation; femtosecond pulses; quantum dots; inline digital holograms; pump-probe digital holography; diffraction patterns; digital holography; phase shift
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:23:58 CET)
We report on the application of time-resolved inline digital holography to study the nonlinear optical properties of quantum dots deposited onto the sample glass. Fresnel diffraction patterns of the probe pulse due to noncollinear degenerate phase modulation induced by the femtosecond pump pulse were extracted from the set of inline digital holograms and analyzed. Absolute values of the nonlinear refractive index of both sample glass substrate and the deposited layer of quantum dots were evaluated using the proposed technique. To characterize the inhomogeneous distribution of samples’ nonlinear optical properties we proposed to plot an optical nonlinearity map calculated as a local standard deviation of diffraction patterns intensity induced by noncollinear degenerate phase modulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0031.v1
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:17:48 CEST)
pH value almost affects the function of cells and organisms in all aspects, so in biology, biochemical and many other research fields, it is necessary to apply simple, intuitive, sensitive, stable detection of pH and base characteristics inside and outside the cell. Therefore, many research groups have explored the design and application of pH probes based on surface enhanced Raman scattering（SERS）. In this review article, we discussed the basic theoretical background of explaining the working mechanism of pH SERS sensors, and also briefly described the significance of cell pH measurement, and simply classified and summarized the factors that affected the performance of pH SERS probes. Some applications of pH probes based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in intracellular and extracellular pH imaging and the combination of other analytical detection techniques are described. And finally, the development prospect of this field is prospected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0037.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: tumor microenvironment; nanoparticle; nanotheronostics; probe; imaging
Online: 13 February 2017 (09:33:16 CET)
Long gone was the time when tumors were thought to be insular masses of cells, residing independently at specific sites in an organ. Now, researchers gradually realize that tumors interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM), blood vessels, connective tissues and immune cells in their environment, which is now known as the tumor microenvironment (TME). It is found that the interactions between tumors and their surrounding promote tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The dynamics and diversity of TME cause the tumors to be heterogeneous and thus pose a challenge for cancer diagnosis, drug design and therapy. As TME is significant in enhancing tumor progression, it is vital to identify the different components in the TME. This review explores how different factors in the TME supply tumors with the required growth factors and signaling molecules to proliferate, invade and metastasis. We also examine the development of TME-targeted nanotheranostics over the recent years for cancer therapy, diagnosis and anticancer drug delivery system. This review further discusses the limitations and future perspective of nanoparticle based theranostics when used in combination with current imaging modalities like Optical Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear Imaging (PET and SPECT).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0067.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Rotor Dimensions; Complex Networks; Crossing Centrality; Rotor; Pump Sizing; Progressive Cavity Pump
Online: 6 October 2022 (14:45:22 CEST)
Pump Sizing is the process of dimensional matching an impeller and stator to provide a satisfactory performance test result and good service life during the operation of progressive cavity pumps. In this process, historical data analysis and dimensional monitoring are done manually, consuming a large amount of man-hours and requiring a deep knowledge of progressive cavity pump behavior. This work presents the use of complex networks in the construction of a prototype to recommend interference during the Pump Sizing process in a Progressive Cavity Pump. For this, data from different expert applications were used in addition to individual control Excel spreadsheets to build the database used in the prototype. From the pre-processed data, complex network techniques and the Betweenness Centrality metric were used to calculate the degree of importance of each order confirmation, as well as to calculate the dimensionality of the rotors. The model was evaluated using the mean squared error (MSE), obtaining a MSE of 0.28 for the cases where there were recommendations for order confirmations. Based on the results obtained, it was realized that there is a similarity with the dimensional defined by design engineers during the Pump Sizing process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0159.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Firebrat; Friction; AFM; Colloidal probe; Scale; Microstructure34
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:22:12 CEST)
Friction is an important subject for sustainability due to problems associated with energy loss. Recent years, surface micro- and nanostructures have attracted much attention to reduce friction; however, suitable structures are still under consideration. Many functional surfaces are present in nature, such as the friction reduction surfaces of snake skins. In this study, we focused on firebrats, Thermobia domestica, living in narrow spaces such as under bark, so their surface frequently contacts with surrounding surfaces. We speculate that their body surface would be adapted to reduce friction. To investigate the firebrat surface functions, firebrat surfaces were observed by using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a colloidal probe atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. Results of surface observations by the FE-SEM revealed that firebrats are entirely covered with scales, whose surfaces have micro groove structures. Scale groove periods around the firebrat's head are almost uniform within a scale but vary between scales. AFM friction force measurements revealed that firebrat scale reduces friction by decreasing contact area between scales and a colloidal probe. The heterogeneity of groove periods of the scales suggest that it is difficult to fix the whole body in particular rough surfaces and that lead to be "fail-safe".
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0141.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: heat pump; dynamic test method; seasonal performance factor; variable frequency drive; field approximation; energy label; air source heat pump; ground source heat pump
Online: 15 March 2019 (04:40:11 CET)
The growing market penetration of heat pumps indicates the need for a performance test method which better reflects the dynamic behavior of heat pumps. In this contribution, we developed and implemented a dynamic test method for the evaluation of the seasonal performance of heat pumps by means of laboratory testing. Current standards force the heat pump control inactive by fixing the compressor speed. In contrast, during dynamic testing, the compressor runs unfixed while the heat pump is subjected to a temperature profile. The profile consists of the different outdoor temperatures of a typical heating season based on the average European climate and also includes temperature changes to reflect the dynamic behavior of the heat pump. The seasonal performance can be directly obtained from the measured heating energy and electricity consumption making subsequent data interpolation and recalculation with correction factors obsolete. The method delivers results with high precision and high reproducibility and could be an appropriate method for a fair rating of heat pumps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0035.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: irrigation management, fertigation, TDR probe, ceramic extractors, salinity.
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:25:12 CET)
In precision agriculture in fertigated crops it is necessary to optimize the use of water and chemicals, and enable efficient application of fertilizers in order to ensure the best yield and avoid risks of soil salinization and contamination. In this study, an intelligent system was developed with the objective of monitoring, in real-time, moisture and solute concentrations in soil cultivated with lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum, var. Casablanca) fertigated under a protected environment. During one crop cycle, moisture was monitored in soil solution using TDR100 reflectometer and solute concentrations were monitored with ceramic cup extractors. Plants were fertigated with a solution containing five potassium concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg dm-3) applied when the soil reached moisture limits of 0.20, 0.15, 0.13, 0.11, and 0.09 cm3 cm-3. Experimental plots were arranged in a randomized block design in a 5 x 5 factorial scheme (moisture limits x potassium concentrations in soil solution), with four replicates. The proposed intelligent system enabled precise monitoring of moisture and electrical conductivity by TDR, and potassium, and other solute concentrations with extractors, being indicated for the management of lisianthus fertigation under greenhouse conditions with greater environmental safety and reduction of water consumption and risk of salinization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: antennas; wideband antennas; probe-fed antennas; circular patch
Online: 24 June 2020 (09:53:44 CEST)
In this paper, a new probe-fed wideband antenna with a circular patch and a coupled stacked ring is proposed. This antenna can be implemented by using suspended microstrip technique with total thickness of about 0.09 of center frequency wavelength. By using a novel feeding technique, in this antenna about 40 % reduction in area compared to similar works can be achieved. The obtained bandwidth in this antenna according to simulation results satisfying VSWR<2 is about 27.5 % from 5 to 6.6 GHz using two resonant frequencies. Also a comprehensive theoretical and parametric study is done in order to facilitate its designing in various frequency bands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0323.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: optical emission spectroscopy; Lissajous figures; triple Langmuir probe
Online: 31 January 2019 (07:36:09 CET)
This work aimed to characterize a DBD plasma equipment through optical and electrical measurements, seeking to obtain a greater knowledge of the plasma production process and how it behaves through the adopted parameters, such as frequency and voltage applied between electrodes, at a fixed distance of 1.7 mm. In order to measure them, three different characterization techniques were applied. The first method was the Lissajous figures, a technique quite effective for a complete electrical characterization of DBD equipment. The second technique used was the Optical Emission Spectroscopy, a tool used for the diagnosis of plasma, being it possible to identify the excited species produced in filamentary and diffuse discharge in the plasma. And finally, the triple Langmuir probe technique was used to obtain the electron temperature and electron density. Based on this study, it was possible to identify the equipment efficiency in different regimes. The electron temperature measurement for both systems analyzed were 27.96 eV and 20.69 eV to the filamentary and diffuse regimes, respectively. The density of electrons number to these regimes were 1.09 × 1021 m−3 and 1.56 × 1021 m−3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0221.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Laser triangulation displacement probe; Laser beam pointing; Prism
Online: 30 March 2017 (17:34:55 CEST)
Directional dithering of a laser beam potentially limits the detection accuracy of a laser triangulation displacement probe. A theoretical analysis indicates that the measurement accuracy will linearly decrease as the laser dithering angle increases. To suppress laser dithering, a laser triangulation displacement probe with laser beam pointing control, which consists of a collimated red laser, a laser beam pointing control setup, a receiver lens, and a charge-coupled device, is proposed in this paper. The laser beam pointing control setup is inserted into the source laser beam and the measured object and can separate the source laser beam into two symmetrical laser beams. Hence, at the angle at which the source laser beam dithers, the positional averages of the two laser spots are equal and opposite. Moreover, a laser dithering compensation algorithm is used to maintain a stable average of the positions of the two spots on the imaging side. Experimental results indicate that with laser beam pointing control, the standard variance of the fitting error decreases from 0.3531 to 0.0100, the repeatability accuracy can be decreased from ±7mm to ±5 μm, and the nonlinear error can be reduced from ±6 %FS to ±0.16 %FS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: zinc sensor; 8-amidoquinoline; fluorescent probe; chemosensor; systematic review
Online: 6 October 2020 (14:55:13 CEST)
Abundant of preparatory works have recognized that fluorescent sensors based on 8-aminoquinoline are popular tools to detect Zn2+ ions in environmental and biological applications. Along with these studies, researchers started to introduce a variety of carboxamido group into an 8-aminoquinoline molecule in forming 8-amidoquinoline derivatives. Therefore, this systematic review aims to introduce a general overview of the fluorophore 8-aminoquinoline as Zn2+ receptors and to provide comparisons of collected studies that related to 8-amidoquinoline derivatives as fluorophore probe of the sensor. According to PRISMA systematic searches strategy, 13 articles were analyzed for trends, research designs, results and discussion, subject samples, and remarks or conclusions. We found cross-sectional studies with four aspects in zinc sensing that have been targeted; binding studies via titration, detection's limit, interferences studies, and validation of the study. Hence, this paper also included assessments of those criteria and the trends of development of 8-amidoquinoline derivatives based-zinc fluorescent chemosensor. It also showed that most of the researches conducted in China. In conclusion, this study identified various research designs of fluorescent chemosensors based on 8-amidoquinoline prolong with the effectiveness and potential as a recognition probe to assist the detection of zinc. Hence, elucidation of those derivatives essential to be explored because more studies are needed to improve the sensing criteria of the zinc sensor
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0281.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: algorithm; heat-pump; drying; food; design; optimization
Online: 17 September 2019 (15:27:08 CEST)
Drying food involves complex physical atmospheric mechanisms with non-linear relations from the air-food interactions and those relations are strongly dependent on the moisture contents and the type of food. Such dependence makes it complex to design suitable dryers dedicated to a single drying process. To streamline the design of a novel compact food-drying machine, a heat pump dryer component design optimization algorithm was developed as a subprogram of a Computer Aided Engineering tool. The algorithm requires inputting food and air properties, the volume of the drying container and the technical specifications of the heat-pump off-the shelf components. The heat required to dehumidify the food supplied by the heat exchange process from condenser to evaporator, and the compressor’s requirements (refrigerant mass flow rate and operating pressures) are then calculated. Compressors can then be selected based in the volume and type of food to be dried. The algorithm is shown via a flow chart to guide the user through 3 different stages: Changes in drying air properties, Heat flow within dryer and Product moisture content. Example results of how different compressors are selected for different type of produces and quantities (Agaricus Blazei mushroom with 3 different moisture contents or fish from Thunnini tribe) conclude this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0632.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Modelica; heat pump; HiL; model validation; testbed
Online: 26 October 2018 (12:11:57 CEST)
Heating systems such as heat pump and combined heat and power cycle systems (CHP) are representing a key component in the future smart grid. Their capability to couple the electricity and heat sector promises a massive potential to the energy transition. Hence, these systems are continuously studied numerical and experimental to quantify their potential and develop optimal control methods. Although numerical simulations provide time and cost-effective solution for system development and optimization, they are exposed to several uncertainties. Hardware in the loop (HiL) system enables system validation and evaluation under different real-life dynamic constraints and boundary conditions. In this paper, a HiL system of heat pump testbed is presented. This system is used to present two case studies. In the first case, the conventional heat pump testbed operation method is compared to the HiL operation method. Energetic and dynamic analyses are performed to quantify the added value of the HiL and its necessity for dynamics analysis. The second case, the HiL testbed is used to validate the heat pump operation in a single family house participating in a local energy market. It enables not only the dynamics of the heat pump and the space heating circuit to be validated but also the building room temperature. The energetic analysis indicated a deviation of 2% and 5% for heat generation and electricity consumption of the heat pump, respectively. The model dynamics emphasized the model capability to present the dynamics of a real system with a temporal distortion of 3%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0381.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: 13C-labeling; Metabolic flux analysis; Metabolic flux probe; Isotope mapping
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:49:34 CEST)
Novel cultivation technologies demand the adaptation of existing analytical concepts. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) requires stable-isotope labeling of biomass-bound protein as the primary information source. Obtaining the required protein in cultivation set-ups where biomass is scarce or inaccessible due to low cell densities and cell immobilization is difficult to date. We developed a non-disruptive analytical concept for 13C-based metabolic flux analysis based on secreted protein as an information carrier for isotope mapping in the protein-bound amino acids. This "metabolic flux probe" (MFP) concept was investigated in different cultivation set-ups with a recombinant, protein-secreting yeast strain. The obtained results grant insight into intracellular protein turnover dynamics. Experiments under metabolic but isotopically nonstationary conditions in continuous glucose-limited chemostats at high dilution rates demonstrated faster incorporation of isotope information from labeled glucose into the recombinant reporter protein than in biomass-bound protein. Our results suggest that the reporter protein was polymerized from intracellular amino acid pools with higher turnover rates than biomass-bound protein. The latter aspect might be vital for 13C-flux analyses under isotopically nonstationary conditions for analyzing fast metabolic dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: meprin α; meprin β; zinc metalloproteinase; medicinal chemistry; probe development
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:56:31 CET)
Meprin α is a zinc metalloproteinase (metzincin) that has been implicated in multiple diseases, including fibrosis and cancers. It has proven difficult to find small molecules that are capable of selectively inhibiting meprin α, or its close relative meprin β, over numerous other metzincins which, if inhibited, would elicit unwanted effects. We recently identified possible molecular starting points for meprin α-specific inhibition through an HTS effort (see part I, preceding paper). In part II we report the optimization of a potent and selective hydroxamic acid meprin α inhibitor probe which may help define the therapeutic potential for small molecule meprin α inhibition and spur further drug discovery efforts in the area of zinc metalloproteinase inhibition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0160.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; diffusion; Biophysics; Biology
Online: 11 February 2022 (10:27:36 CET)
The generation and maintenance of membrane potential is a fundamental part of Membrane Pump Theory. One of the key points of this hypothesis is based on a natural or facilitated molecular diffusion through several types of ion channels and pumps like the Na/K ATPase. Chemistry, physics and especially electrochemistry, however, bring strong contradictions to this theoretical assumption. By respecting the principles of chemistry and electrostatics, it becomes obvious that this theoretical hypothesis cannot work. The ionic diffusion that would be at the origin of this potential cannot take place. Indeed, the topology and the forces involved definitively exclude the current model, which must absolutely be revised according to the current state of our knowledge and allow an advance in the understanding of the phenomena and open new research perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: drug resistance; ABC transporter; efflux pump; cryptococcosis; aging
Online: 18 January 2022 (15:56:02 CET)
Cryptococcus neoformans causes meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, which is treated with Fluconazole (FLC) monotherapy when resources are limited. This can lead to azole resistance, which can be mediated by overexpression of ABC transporters, a class of efflux pumps. ABC pump-mediated efflux of FLC is also augmented in 10-generation old C. neoformans cells. Here, we describe a new ABC transporter Afr3 (CNAG_06909), which is overexpressed in C. neoformans cells of advanced generational age, that accumulate during chronic infection. The delta-afr3 mutant strain showed higher FLC susceptibility by FLC E-Test strip testing and also by a killing test that measured survival after 3 h FLC exposure. Furthermore, delta-afr3 cells exhibited lower Rhodamine 6G efflux compared to the H99 wild type cells. Afr3 was expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AD-delta strain, which lacks several drug transporters, thus reducing background transport. The AD-delta + Afr3 strain demonstrated a higher efflux with both Rhodamine 6G and Nile Red, even though the FLC MICs were not changed. Characterization of the delta-afr3 mutant revealed unattenuated growth but a prolongation (22%) of the replicative life span. In addition, delta-afr3 exhibited decreased resistance to macrophage killing and attenuated virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. In summary, our data indicate that a novel ABC pump Afr3p, which is upregulated in C. neoformans cells of advanced age may contribute to their enhanced FLC tolerance, by promoting drug efflux. Lastly, its role in macrophage resistance may also contribute to the selection of older C. neoformans cells during chronic infection.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: reciprocating pump; oil station; pipeline; vibration; pressure pulsation
Online: 7 December 2017 (14:46:23 CET)
Due to the periodic movement of the piston in the reciprocating pump, the fluid will cause pressure pulsation, and the vibration of the pipeline will lead to instrument distortion, pipe failure and equipment damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the vibration phenomena of the reciprocating pump pipeline based on the pressure pulsation theory. This paper starts from the reciprocating pump pipe pressure pulsation caused by fluid, pressure pulsation in the pipeline and the excited force is calculated under the action of the reciprocating pump. Then, the numerical simulation model is established based on the pipe beam model, and the rationality of the numerical simulation method is verified by the indoor experiment. Finally, a case study is taken as an example to analyze the vibration law of the pipeline system, and proposed the stress reduction and vibration reduction measures. The main conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1) Excited force is produced in the bend or tee joint, and it can also influence the straight pipe in different levels; (2) In this pipeline system, the pump discharge pipe has a larger vibration amplitude and lower natural frequency; (3) The vibration amplitude increases with the pipe thermal stress, and when the oil temperature is higher than 85°C, it had a greater influence on the vertical vibration amplitude of the pipe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Fluoride, groundwater, in-situ remediation, pump and treat
Online: 2 January 2017 (13:57:12 CET)
A wide variety of pump and treat methods like chemical precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange and reverse osmosis have been trialled for many decades for fluoride removal from groundwater, but the problem of fluoride contaminated water remains in many parts of the world largely because these processes require constant monitoring, are expensive to implement and maintain at decentralised scale due to lack of reticulation infrastructure, and possess sludge disposal problem. This paper presents an overview of various fluoride removal processes and the limitations associated with each process and the application of in-situ permeable reactive barrier for remediating fluoride contaminated groundwater is explored, which displays the potential to be a cost effective, low maintenance and energy intensive technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0007.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pump turbine; hump characteristic; hysteresis characteristic; experimental investigation
Online: 3 August 2016 (11:49:29 CEST)
The hump feature is one of the major instabilities in pump-turbines. When pump-turbines operate in the hump region, strong noise and serious fluctuations can be observed, which are harmful to their safe and stable operation and can even destroy the whole unit as well as water conveyance system. In this paper, a low specific speed (nq = 36.1 min−1) pump-turbine model was experimentally investigated. Firstly, the hump characteristic was obtained under 19 mm guide vane opening conditions. More interestingly, when the hump characteristic was measured in two directions (increasing and decreasing the discharge), characteristic hysteresis was found in the hump region. The analysis of performance characteristics reveals that the hump instability is the result of Euler momentum and hydraulic losses, and different Euler momentum and hydraulic losses in the two development processes lead to the hysteresis phenomenon. Then, 12 pressure sensors were mounted in the different parts of the pump-turbine model to obtain the time and frequency characteristics. The analysis of the corresponding fast Fourier transform confirms that the hump characteristic is related to low-frequency (0.04–0.15 times rotational frequency) vortices. The occurrence and cessation of vortices depend on the operating condition and measurement direction, which contribute to the hysteresis feature. Finally, the type of the low-frequency vortices was analyzed through the cross power spectrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0003.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Drug resistance; Efflux pump; TetR transcriptional regulator; Mycobacteria; MmpL
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:32:52 CEST)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a leading cause of human mortality worldwide and the emergence of drug-resistantstrains, demands the discovery of new classes of antimycobacterials that can be employed in the therapeutic pipeline. Previously, a secondary metabolite Chrysomycin A, isolated from Streptomyces sp. OA161 was shown to have potent bactericidal activity against drug-resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and different species of mycobacteria. The antibiotic inhibits the mycobacterial topoisomerase I and DNA gyrase leading to bacterial death, but the mechanisms that could cause resistance are currently unknown. To further understand the resistance mechanism, spontaneous resistance mutants were isolated and subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Mutation in a TetR family transcriptional regulator MSMEG_1380 was identified in the resistant isolates and was close to an operon encoding membrane protein MSMEG_1381 and MSMEG_1382. Sequence analysis and modeling studies indicated that they are components of the Mmp family of efflux pumps and over-expression of either the operon or individual genes conferred resistance to chrysomycin A, isoniazid, and ethambutol that are in TB therapy. Our study highlights the role of membrane transporter proteins in conferring multiple drug resistance and the utility of recombinant strains overexpressing membrane transporters in the drug screening pipeline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0173.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: heat conduction; thermal properties; geothermal heat pump; damping depth
Online: 14 March 2022 (03:34:10 CET)
Undisturbed ground temperature (UGT), thermal conductivity (TC) and heat capacity (HC) are essential parameters for the design of borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and borehole thermal energy storage systems. However, field methods to assess the thermal state and properties of the sub-surface are costly and time consuming. Moreover, HC is often not evaluated but arbitrarily selected from literature considering the geological materials intercepted by boreholes. Therefore, this work aims at proposing a field heat tracing method to infer the thermal diffusivity (TD) and HC with assumption of natural transient heat conduction in the subsurface. Empirical equations were developed to reproduce a UGT profile measured along a BHE. Experimental coefficients are found with a non-linear least square solver optimization and used to calculate the damping depth and TD. Subsequently, the TD is used to evaluate HC considering TC obtained from a thermal response test (TRT). Results from this proposed heat tracing method were verified and validated against a set of TRT results and oscillatory TRT analysis using a field dual probe concept to infer HC. The example here described highlights the advantages and novelty of this fast and simple field method relying only on a single UGT profile measured before a TRT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pump-turbine; support bracket; runner axial force; stress; deformation
Online: 24 December 2021 (08:11:22 CET)
During operation, the support bracket is the main part to withstand the axial loads of the pumped storage unit. Moreover, the effects of axial loads including the hydraulic thrust of runner flow and the weight of runner body may cause the support bracket deformation and fatigue damage. For the safe and stable operation, the simulation of the axial force and the structural analysis of the support bracket of a pumped storage unit was carried out in this paper. The CFD simulation result has revealed the variation rule of the axial force in different operating conditions. Using ANSYS Mechanical, the static stresses and deformation of support bracket with axial loads were calculated. The results release the location and variations of maximum stress and maximum deformation caused by the axial loads. By comparing the predicted maximum axial force with the admission force calculated by the structural analysis, it is found that the axial force of the researched machine is within the safe range. This study provides the reference for the safety and stable operation of the pumped storage unit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0001.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pump station, Sump, Anti-vortex device, Flow pattern, Vortex
Online: 3 October 2016 (11:15:07 CEST)
A pump station is a very important flood control facility for mitigating inundation of urban lowland areas. It is not easy to secure a site to increase the capacity of a pump station in an urban area because of various limitations or to maximize the discharge capacity of the pump sump. Adding a facility to improve the pump capacity of a pump station may affect the flow characteristics, such as unexpected increases in the flow velocity and vorticity, and cause severe problems with operating the pump station. To solve those problems, anti-vortex devices (AVDs) have been developed and adopted for appropriate design standards. The Korean design criteria for AVDs are based on experience and foreign standards because not enough data on the AVD are available. In this study, the flow in the sump was numerically simulated at various AVD heights to collect information on improving the design and efficiency of a pump station. Consequently, an appropriate height for the AVD and changes in the flow pattern and vortex in the pump sump were determined and compared with 12 cases of inflow conditions with respect to the vertical location.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: neutrino mass; KATRIN experiment; GERDA experiment; cosmological probe; Beyond the Standard Model
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:55:31 CET)
The crucial phenomenological and experimental predictions for new physics are outlined, where the number of problems of the Standard Model (neutrino masses and oscillations, dark matter, baryon asymmetry of the Universe, leptonic CP-violation) could find their solutions. The analogies between the cosmological neutrino mass scale from the early universe data and laboratory probes are discussed and the search for new physics and phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0504.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Water-soluble MoS2 quantum dots; , Fluorescent probe; Fe3+ ion sensor; Living cells
Online: 21 September 2020 (14:49:23 CEST)
Uniform water soluble MoS2 quantum dots (WS-MSQDs) are synthesized via a sequential combination of sintering/etching/exfoliation method and solvothermal route. The obtained WS-MSQDs with average size of approximately 3.4 nm exhibit sufficient water solubility and remarkable fluorescence properties. The WS-MSQDs have been utilized as a probe for detection of Fe3+ ions with high selectivity and specificity. Furthermore, the WS-MSQDs exhibit high fluorescence stability under different conditions. Finally, the WS-MSQDs are successfully applied for the fluorescence imaging of Fe3+ in living cells, which exhibited practical potential for biomedical applications.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0127.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: persistent organic pollutants, bioavailability, Diffusive Gradient Thin film (DGT), passive probe, degradation
Online: 25 November 2016 (09:59:08 CET)
The present study describes the activities performed to test a new method for measuring the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the solid phase of sediments within the context of environmental pollution risk assessment. The method is based on the design of a new configuration (new materials) of the commercial passive sampler Chemcatcher as probe for predicting the bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in marine sediments (or in water saturated soils).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: centrifugal pump; impeller; erosion; particle track; particle concentration; flow rate
Online: 1 July 2021 (15:09:10 CEST)
Double suction centrifugal pump installed along the Yellow River faces the serious sediment erosion due to the high sediment content which cause the poor operation efficiency of pump unit. The particle motion characteristics and erosion characteristics in the pump under different flow rates and different particle concentrations were numerically simulated based on the particle track model of solid-liquid two-phase flow. The results show that the flow rate has a significant effect on the particle tracks and the erosion caused by the particles in the impeller. The total erosion rate is positively correlated with the flow rate, and increases with the increase of flow rate. The vortex and secondary flow in the impeller have obvious influence on the particle trajectory, which increases the particle concentration at the trailing edge of the pressure surface and intensifies the impact erosion in this area. The particles carried by the vortex intensifies the local erosion. The particle concentration mainly affects the erosion rate, but has little effect on the erosion position. The in-fluence of flow rate on the pump erosion is greater than that of the particle properties. These results provide a reference for optimization of the design of anti-erosion blades of the double-suction pump and regulation-operation of pumping station.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; elderly; proton pump inhibitors; antipsychotics; metformin; oral antidiabetics
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:48:33 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 is a disease of the elderly as 95% of deaths related to COVID-19 occur in people over 60 years of age. Despite the urgent need for a preventive treatment there are currently no serious leads, other than the vaccination. Objective: To find a preventive treatment of COVID-19 in elderly patients. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Robertsau Geriatric Hospital of the University Hospitals of Strasbourg, France. Patients: 179 elderly patients who had been in contact with the SARS-CoV-2, of whom 89 had tested RT-PCR-positive (COVID-pos) for the virus and 90 had tested RT-PCR-negative (COVID-neg). Measurements: Treatments within 15 days prior to RT-PCR (including antihypertensive drugs, antipsychotics, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), paracetamol, anticoagulant, oral antidiabetics (OADs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressants), comorbidities, symptoms, laboratory values, and clinical outcome were all collected using the electronic patient record. Results: COVID-pos patients more frequently had a history of diabetes (P=.016) and alcoholism (P=.023), a lower leukocyte count (P=.014) and a higher mortality rate– 29.2% versus 14.4% – (P=.014) when compared to COVID-neg patients. Patients on PPIs were 2.3 times less likely (odds ratio [OR] = 0.4381, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.2331, 0.8175], P=.0053) to develop COVID-19 infection, compared to those not on PPIs. No other treatment decreased or increased this risk. COVID-19 patients on antipsychotics (P=.0013) and OADs (P=.0166) were less likely to die. Limitations: retrospective study. Conclusion: PPIs treatment lowered the risk of development of COVID-19 infection, and antipsychotics and OADs decreased the risk of mortality in geriatric patients. If further studies confirm this finding, PPIs could be used preventatively in the elderly in this pandemic context. Moreover, OADS and antipsychotics should be tested in clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0251.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: gastric acid suppressant; chemotherapy; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; proton pump inhibitors
Online: 31 March 2020 (03:40:46 CEST)
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of gastric acid suppressant use on outcomes of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and oral chemotherapy. We identified all researches evaluating the effect of GAS use on patients receiving oral chemotherapy or TKIs for solid tumors. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated with fixed-effects or random-effects model. The study population included n=16 retrospective studies and 372,418 patients. Series concerned gastrointestinal tract tumors (n=5 studies), renal cell carcinomas (RCC, n=3 studies), non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC, n=5 studies), and soft tissue sarcomas or mixed histologies solid tumors in n=3 studies. The pooled HRs for OS and PFS were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.20–1.43; P<01) and 1.3 (95%CI 1.07-1.57; P<0.01) for GAS and no GAS users, respectively. Only studies of EGFR mutated NSCLC patients receiving TKIs and those with colorectal cancer receiving oral chemotherapy showed a significant correlation between GAS and poor survival. Our study supports the evidence of a possible negative impact of concomitant GAS therapy on survival outcomes of patients receiving oral anti-cancer drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0258.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: air-acetic acid system; gas holdup; differential pressure transmitter; ERT; optical fiber probe
Online: 8 November 2020 (14:50:39 CET)
The hydrodynamic behavior of the air-acetic acid system in a bubble column is studied using a differential pressure transmitter, double probe optical fiber probe, and the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) technique. The superficial gas velocity ranges from 0.016 to 0.094 m/s under ambient temperature and pressure. The influences of viscosity and surface tension on gas holdup, bubble rising velocity, and bubble chord distribution in the column are discussed with different mass fractions of an acetic acid solution. The results show that as the mass fraction of acetic acid increases, the surface tension of the liquid phase decreases, and the viscosity first increases and then decreases. This causes the gas holdup in the column to first increase and then decrease, and reaches the maximum value at an acetic acid mass fraction of 55% to 60%. The rising velocity of the bubbles in the column is high in the central region and has a low-value distribution near the wall. The bubble chord length distribution is concentrated, and the distribution of the bubble chord length in the column becomes narrow with any decrease in surface tension. Studying the hydrodynamic behavior of a bubble column with the air-acid system is of great significance considering the absence of data on air-organic acid systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0364.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: CIGS solar cell; Cascade; current conduction; thin film; two and four-point probe
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:37:53 CET)
The characterization of thin-film solar cells is of huge importance for obtaining high open-circuit voltage and low recombination rates from the interfaces or within the bulk of the main materials. Among the many electrical characterization techniques, the two- and four-wire probe using the Cascade instrument is of interest since the resistance of the wires, and the electrical contacts can be excluded by the additional two wires in 4-wire probe configuration. In this paper, both two and four-point probes configuration are employed to characterize the CIGS chalcogenide thin-film solar cells. The two-wire probe has been used to measure the current-voltage characteristics of the cell which results in a huge internal resistance. Therefore, the four-wire connection is also used to eliminate the lead resistance to enhance the characterization’s accuracy. The load resistance in the two-wire probe diminishes the photogenerated current density at smaller voltage ranges. In contrast, the proposed four-wire probe collects more current at higher voltages due to enhanced carrier collection efficiency from contact electrodes. The current conduction mechanism is also identified at every voltage region represented by the value of the ideality factor of that voltage region. It is observed that a long time given to the charge collection results in increased current density at a higher voltage. According to the results and device characteristics, a novel double-diode model is suggested to extract the saturation current density, shunt and series resistances and the ideality factor of the cells. These cells are shown to be efficient in terms of low recombination at the interfaces and with lower series resistance as the quality of the materials is in its most possible conductive form. The measured internal resistance and saturation current density and ideality factor of the two measurement configuration is measured and compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0016.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: olive tree, drought and re-watering, soil water balance, irrigation, root, neutron probe
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:28:25 CET)
This paper presents a study of a field trial experiment at olive orchard irrigated by runoff harvesting system under a dry climate which was carried out on 5-year-old olive trees (Olea europaea. L, cv. Barnea) in the middle of Negev desert, starting right after the floods, onwards during the summer growing season. The beginning of the experiment occurred after 2 years with little rain and no run-off events. The olive trees were under severe drought stress when we first initiated controlled flooding in 2017. In the second research year (2018), a massive natural flood had occurred at the end of April. Results show that the water distribution within the soil was highly inhomogeneous even under flood conditions. Soil water loss rate, due to transpiration was mainly correlated with the total amount of soil water and not atmospheric conditions. The relative root water uptake from shallow soil layers (0.3-1.5m) gradually reduced along the season, while the relative water uptake from the deeper layers (1.5-4m) became more pronounced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0354.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: multi-stage double-suction centrifugal pump; non-hierarchical RSM; MIGA; optimization
Online: 25 July 2022 (07:33:26 CEST)
In order to improve the operation performance of the multi-stage double-suction centrifugal pump and reduce the internal energy loss of the pump, this paper proposes a single-objective optimization design method based on non-hierarchical response surface model (RSM) and the multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA). Nine parameters, such as the blade outlet width and blade wrap angle, were used as design variables, and the optimization objective was the efficiency under design conditions. In total, 149 sets of valid data were obtained under the latin hypercube sampling method (LHS), the corresponding thresholds were set for efficiency and head, and 99 sets of valid data were obtained. A cross-validation analysis of the sieved data was carried out based on non-hierarchical RSM, global optimization of the efficiency was carried out using MIGA, and numerical verification was carried out via CFD. The research results show that compared with hierarchical RSM, non-hierarchical RSM can approximate the nonlinear relationship between the objective function and the design variables with higher accuracy, and the model fitting R2 value was 0.919. The efficiency was improved by 3.717% after optimization. The overall prewhirl of the impeller inlet after optimization decreased, the internal speed of the volute significantly improved, the large-area vortex at the volute and the outlet pipe was eliminated, the impact loss at the volute separating tongue disappeared, and the overall hydraulic performance of the pump was improved. The total entropy output value of the optimized pump was reduced by 4.79 (W/K), mainly concentrated in the reduction in the entropy output value of the double volute, and the overall energy dissipation of the pump was reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0288.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: ZEMAX; Thermoelectric coolers; Flyback transformer; High tension pump source; Penetration depth
Online: 19 July 2022 (13:28:19 CEST)
A low-cost medium power carbon dioxide (CO2) laser system is designed, constructed, and characterized to produce coherent, monochromatic laser radiation in the Infrared region. The laser cavity is simulated and designed by using ZEMAX optic studio. A switch-mode high tension pump source is designed and constructed using a flyback transformer and simulated using NI Multisim to study the voltage behavior at different node points. A prototype cooling system/chiller is designed and built using the Thermo-Electric Coolers (TEC) to remove the excess heat produced during laser action. Various parameters, like pumping mechanism, chiller stability, efficiency, output power, and current at different applied voltages, are studied. The chiller efficiency at different output powers of the laser is analyzed, which clearly shows that the chiller's cooling rate is good enough to compensate for the heat generated by the laser system. The center wavelength of the carbon dioxide laser is 10.6μm with FWHM of 1.2nm simulated in the ZEMAX optic studio. The output beam penetration through salt rock (NaCl), wood, and acrylic sheet at various output powers is analyzed to measure the penetration depth rate of the CO2 laser.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0047.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Pump scheduling optimization; Bayesian optimization; Optimal sensor placement; Wasserstein distance; Robustness
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:26:55 CET)
The main goal of this paper is to show that Bayesian optimization could be regarded as a general framework for the data driven modelling and solution of problems arising in water distribution systems. Hydraulic simulation, both scenario based, and Monte Carlo is a key tool in modelling in water distribution systems. The related optimization problems fall in a simulation/optimization framework in which objectives and constraints are often black-box. Bayesian Optimization (BO) is characterized by a surrogate model, usually a Gaussian process, but also a random forest and increasingly neural networks and an acquisition function which drives the search for new evaluation points. These modelling options make BO nonparametric, robust, flexible and sample efficient particularly suitable for simulation/optimization problems. A defining characteristic of BO is its versatility and flexibility, given for instance by different probabilistic models, in particular different kernels, different acquisition functions. These characteristics of the Bayesian optimization approach are exemplified by the two problems: cost/energy optimization in pump scheduling and optimal sensor placement for early detection on contaminant intrusion. Different surrogate models have been used both in explicit and implicit control schemes. Showing that BO can drive the process of learning control rules directly from operational data. BO can also be extended to multi-objective optimization. Two algorithms have been proposed for multi-objective detection problem using two different acquisition functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Pump as Turbine; Flow Unsteadiness; Pressure Pulsation; Blade Angle; Numerical Simulation
Online: 5 May 2021 (08:57:28 CEST)
The adoption of Pump as Turbines (PATs) both in small scale hydroelectric plants and water supply systems has brought different advantages, the most recognized being cost-effectiveness as compared to other hydroturbines. However, due to their lack of flow control ability, their intolerance to off-design operations constitutes one tough shortfall. Moreover, this technology’s newness leads to PAT flow dynamics still being ununderstood even to date. Therefore, this study intends to numerically investigate the mixed flow PAT’s pump mode flow dynamics for five operating conditions expanding from optimum (1QBEP) to deep part-load (0.41 QBEP) conditions. Moreover the effect of runner blade angle on the same has been investigated where three angles namely -2°, 0°, and 2° have been considered. PAT flow stability was found to deteriorate as the flow decreased, where associated pressure pulsation level worsened at different flow zones. In addition, the blade angle increase led correspondingly increasing flow unsteadiness and pressure pulsation levels, where the pulsation frequencies from rotor-stator interactions were dominant for most of flow zones. This study’s findings are of a crucial importance to both scientific and engineering communities as they contribute to thorough understanding of PAT flow dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Shallow geothermal, Borehole heat exchanger, Heat pump, Renewable energy, Applied thermogeology
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:58:26 CET)
When considering implementation of shallow geothermal energy as a renewable source for heating and cooling of the building, special care should be taken in hydraulic design of borehole heat exchanger system. Laminar flow can occur in pipes due to usage of glycol mixture at low temperature or inadequate flow rate. This can lead to lower heat extraction and rejection rates of the exchanger because of higher thermal resistances. Furthermore, by increasing flow rate to achieve turbulent flow and satisfactory heat transfer rate can lead to increase the pressure drop of the system and oversizing of circulation pump which leads to impairment of seasonal coefficient of performance at the heat pump. Most frequently used borehole heat exchanger system in Europe is double-loop pipe system with smooth inner wall. Lately, development is focused on implementation of different configuration as well as with ribbed inner wall which ensures turbulent flow in the system, even at lower flow rates. At a location in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test was conducted on three different heat exchanger configurations in the same geological environment. With classic TRT test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined for each smooth or turbulator pipe configuration. Extended Steady-State Thermal Response Step Test (TRST) was implemented, which incorporate series of power steps to determine borehole extraction rate at the define steady-state heat transfer conditions of 0/-3°C. Results show that heat exchangers with ribbed inner pipe wall have advantages over classic double-loop smooth pipe design, in terms of greater steady state heat extraction rate and more favorable hydraulic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pump hydraulic performance; optimization design; response surface method; parameterization; meridional plane
Online: 5 February 2018 (16:05:10 CET)
This paper studies the optimization method of pump hydraulic performance based on the response surface method. A parametric model of impeller and diffuser is established. Three-dimensional optimization is carried out on the basis of the initial model obtained by one-dimensional design method. We select the pump hydraulic efficiency and the head as objective function and constraint function. Response surface models are constructed to analyze the relationship between the objectives and the design variables, and the global optimization of hydraulic performance is realized. According to the internal flow characteristics of pump, this paper proposes the strategy of two steps optimization, which aims at meridional plane and blade shape, respectively, to solve the problem of large numbers of design parameters and computational cost. The optimization results show that the hydraulic efficiency of pump increased by 3.7%, and the head is nearly the same.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: : thermal storage; heat pump; heating; performance analysis; control method; dynamic programming
Online: 3 November 2017 (07:23:35 CET)
A heat pump with thermal storage system is a system that operates a heat pump during night-time using inexpensive electricity; during this time, the generated thermal energy is stored in a thermal storage tank. The stored thermal energy is used by the heat pump during daytime. Based on a model of a dual latent heat storage tank and a heat pump, this study conducts control simulations using both conventional and advanced methods for heating in a building. Conventional methods include the thermal storage priority method and the heat pump priority method, while advanced approaches include the region control method and the dynamic programming method. The heating load required for an office building is identified using TRNSYS, used for simulations of various control methods. The thermal storage priority method shows a low coefficient of performance (COP), while the heat pump priority method leads to high electricity costs due to the low use of thermal storage. In contrast, electricity costs are lower for the region control method, which operates using the optimal part load ratio of the heat pump, and for dynamic programming, which operates the system by following the minimum cost path. According to simulation results for the winter season, the electricity costs using the dynamic programming method are 17% and 9% lower than those of the heat pump priority and thermal storage priority methods, respectively. The region control method shows results similar to the dynamic programming method with respect to electricity costs. In conclusion, advanced control methods are proven to have advantages over conventional methods in terms of power consumption and electricity costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0263.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: large coaxial probe; thin planar materials; low-loss materials; relative permittivity; reflection coefficient; calibration
Online: 12 October 2018 (08:19:52 CEST)
This paper focuses on the non-destructive dielectric measurement for low-loss planar materials with a thickness of less than 3 mm using a large coaxial probe with an outer diameter of 48 mm. The aperture probe calibration procedure required only to make a measurement of the half-space air and three offset shorts. The reflection coefficient for the thin material is measured using a Keysight E5071C network analyzer from 0.3 MHz to 650 MHz and then converted to a relative dielectric constant and tangent loss via closed form capacitance model and lift-off calibration process. Measurement error of dielectric constant, Δεr is less than 2.5 % from 1 MHz to 400 MHz and the resolution of loss tangent, tan δ measurement is capable of achieving 3×10-3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0096.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: long noncoding RNA; MALAT1; UCA1; NRON; Z probe; colorectal cancer; pancreatic cancer; breast cancer
Online: 6 June 2018 (13:05:30 CEST)
Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) tissues are a valuable resource in studying different markers and mechanistic molecules (protein, DNA and RNA) in order to understand the etiology of different cancers as well as many other diseases. Degradation and modification of RNA is the major challenge in utilizing FFPE tissue samples in medical research. Recently, non-protein coding transcripts long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), have gained significant attention due to their important biological actions and potential involvement in cancer. There is no validated method except qRTPCR or RNAseq to evaluate and study lncRNA expression. We have standardized and are reporting a sensitive Z probe based in situ hybridization method to identify, localize and quantitate lncRNA in FFPE tissues. This assay is sensitive to single transcript and localizes lncRNA in individual cells within tumor. We have characterized a tumor suppressor lncRNA-NRON (non coding repressor of NFAT), which is scarcely expressed, a moderately expressed oncogeneic lncRNA UCA1 (urothelial cancer associated 1), and a highly studied and expressed lncRNA MALAT1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript1) in different cancers. High MALAT1 staining was found in colorectal, breast and pancreatic cancer. MALAT1 expression increased with the progression of the stage in colorectal cancer and invasiveness in breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: autonomous aerial refueling; computer vision; probe and drogue; target detection and tracking; ellipse fitting
Online: 16 May 2017 (05:56:11 CEST)
Autonomous aerial refueling technology is an effective solution to extend flight duration of unmanned aerial vehicles, and also a great challenge due to its high risk. For autonomous probe-and-drogue refueling tasks, relative navigation to provide relative position between the receiver aircraft and the refueling drogue is the first and essential step, and vision-based method is the most frequently used. A new monocular vision navigation sensor with image processing strategy consisting of the drogue detection method and the tracking method is developed for autonomous aerial refueling in this paper. In the drogue detection method, thresholding and mathematical morphology method are adopted to eliminate image interference, and contours extraction method is applied to obtain all contours, which are then subsequently checked to achieve target contour of drogue. In the tracking method, a rectangle of interest (ROI) of current frame image is determined by positioning results of last frame, and then processed by the previous drogue detection method. Finally, the proposed image processing strategy in monocular vision navigation sensor is validated using real flight images, which are captured from an autonomous aerial refueling testbed using a micro six-rotor aircraft as receiver aircraft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0230.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; ion channel; Na/K ATPase; thermodynamics; elecrtromagnetism
Online: 26 April 2022 (06:11:34 CEST)
The membrane potential or resting potential of the neuron has been the subject of many studies. Although this theory explains the generation and maintenance of the membrane potential by direct or even facilitated diffusion, there are too many contradictions to doubt that these forces are sufficient or even at work in a process whose initial conditions are of rare complexity. The aim of this article is to show that already in the past, a competing theory has been developed whose hypothesis seems more scientifically sound. To confirm this last theory, Hirohisa Tamagawa carried out an experiment of great simplicity which makes it possible to invalidate the current theory and to question the teaching and the knowledge in Biology and Biophysics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0182.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; ion channel; NA/K ATPase; Biophysics; Biology
Online: 20 April 2022 (03:42:28 CEST)
The generation and maintenance of membrane potential is a fundamental part of Membrane Pump Theory. One of the key points of this hypothesis is based on a natural or facilitated molecular diffusion through several types of ion channels and pumps like the Na/K ATPase. Following the principles of chemistry, electrostatics and geometry, it becomes clear that ion channels cannot function in this way. The ions channels cannot by their location have both a filter function and be ion concentrators, and the Na/K pump by its position in the membrane and by the proposed assumptions is not able to perform its regulatory function. The current model must absolutely be revised according to the current state of our knowledge and allow an advance in the understanding of the phenomena opening new research perspectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0218.v1
Subject: Keywords: arabinogalactan proteins; proton pump; auxin; calcium signaling; Hechtian oscillator; PIN proteins; morphogenesis.
Online: 9 July 2021 (12:52:11 CEST)
Novel molecular pinball machines of the plasma membrane control cytosolic Ca2+ levels that regulate plant metabolism. [https://youtu.be/zABg7LiBk88] Essential components involve: 1. an auxin-activated proton pump; 2. arabinogalactan glycoproteins (AGPs); 3. Ca2+ channels; 4. auxin-efflux “PIN” proteins. Typical pinball machines release pinballs that trigger various sound and visual effects. However, in plants “proton pinballs” eject Ca2+ bound by paired glucuronic acid residues of numerous glycomodules in periplasmic AGP-Ca2+. Freed Ca2+ ions flow down the electrostatic gradient through open Ca2+ channels into the cytosol thus activating numerous Ca2+-dependent activities.Clearly cytosolic Ca2+ levels depend on activity of the proton pump, the state of Ca2+ channels and size of the periplasmic AGP-Ca2+ capacitor: Proton pump activation is a major regulatory focal point tightly controlled by the supply of auxin: auxin efflux carriers conveniently known as “PIN” proteins [null mutants are pin-shaped!] pump auxin from cell to cell. Mechanosensitive Ca2+ channels and their activation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are yet another factor regulating cytosolic Ca2+.Cell expansion also triggers proton pump/pinball activity by mechanotransduction of wall stress via Hechtian adhesion thus forming a Hechtian oscillator that underlies cycles of wall plasticity and oscillatory growth.Finally, Ca2+ homeostasis of plants depends on cell surface external storage as source of dynamic Ca2+, unlike the internal ER storage source of animals where the added regulatory complexities ranging from vitamin D to parathormone contrast with the elegant simplicity of plant life. This paper summarises a sixty year Odyssey.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electrical generator; steam-power; air/ground-source heat pump; ambient temperature; parthenogenerator
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:00:59 CEST)
We describe a novel machine that uses the greater-than-100% efficiency of air/ground-source heat pumps to recursively generate electricity via steam-powered generators, taking thermal energy from the ambient environment to convert into electrical power. The invention of a machines that generate clean power at low costs will be fundamental to the future of electricity. We estimate efficiency and calculate minimum efficiencies for unknown parts to consider the applicability of this machine to the real world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy Efficiency Ratio; Economic Impact, heat engine; heat pump; Coefficient of Performance
Online: 22 October 2018 (14:03:54 CEST)
Three-temperature heating systems consist of a heat engine and a heat pump, enabling thus maximum usage of the primary thermal source for the heating of buildings. This analysis has revealed obvious advantages and disadvantages that the combining of thermodynamic systems has in future development, also with respect to environmental and economic issues. It appears that the combination of a Stirling engine or a similar heat drive with a heat pump is especially suitable. In order to analyze the effectiveness of such a system, a comprehensive calculation procedure is used: its basis lies in accounting for all types of energy and their relationship to the original natural resource. The present paper aims to point out that the combination of Stirling engine and a heat pump is a useful solution thanks to the most favorable resultant economic impact if compared to the usage of a diesel, four-stroke gas, or, most commonly used, electric drive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0269.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Niobium-titanium microalloyed steel; Electrical resistivity; Atom probe tomography; Solute niobium; Scanning transmission electron microscopy
Online: 23 January 2020 (16:15:44 CET)
Microalloying of low carbon steel with niobium (Nb) and titanium (Ti) is standardly applied in high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels enabling austenite conditioning during thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP), which results in pronounced grain refinement in the finished steel. The metallurgical effects of microalloying elements are related solute drag and precipitate particle pinning, both acting on the austenite grain boundary thereby delaying or suppressing recrystallization of the deformed grain. In that respect it is important to better understand the precipitation kinetics as well as the precipitation sequence in a typical Nb-Ti-microalloyed steel. Various characterization methods have been utilized in this study for tracing microalloy precipitation after simulating different austenite TMCP conditions in a Gleeble apparatus. Atom probe tomography (APT), scanning transmission electron microscopy in a focused ion beam equipped scanning electron microscope (STEM-on-FIB) and electrical resistivity measurements provide complementary information on the precipitation status and are correlated with each other. It will be demonstrated that accurate electrical resistivity measurements can monitor the general consumption of solute microalloys (Nb) during hot working which was complemented by APT measurements of the steel matrix. On the other hand, STEM revealed that a large part of Nb-containing particles during hot working are co-precipitated with titanium during cooling from the austenitizing temperature. Precipitates that form during cooling or isothermal holding can be distinguished from strain-induced precipitates by corroborating STEM measurements with APT results. APT specifically allows obtaining detailed information about the chemical composition of precipitates as well as the distribution of elements inside the particle. Electrical resistivity measurement, on the contrary, provides macroscopic information on the progress of precipitation and can be calibrated by APT. The current paper highlights the complementarity of these methods and shows first results within the framework of a larger study on strain-induced precipitation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: tea leaves; microcontroller-based RF reflectometer; large open-ended coaxial probe; reflected voltage; moisture content
Online: 14 August 2018 (04:13:50 CEST)
This paper presents tea leaves moisture monitoring system based on RF reflectometry techniques. The system was divided into two parts which are the sensor and reflectometer parts. The large coaxial probe was used as a sensor of the system. The reflectometer part plays a role as signal generator and also data acquisition. The reflectometer-sensor system was operated with a graphical user interface at 1.529 GHz at room temperature. The system was able to measure the moisture content of tea leaves ranging 0% m.c to 50% m.c on a wet basis. In this study, up to five kinds of tea leaves bulk were tested. The mean of absolute errors in the moisture measurement for tea leaves was ±2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Isobaric expansion engines; heat driven pump; compressors; low-grade heat; mixed working fluids
Online: 1 July 2022 (03:59:26 CEST)
Economic expedience of waste heat recovery systems (WHRS), especially for low temperature difference applications, is often questionable due to high capital investments and long pay-back periods. By its simple design isobaric expansion (IE) machines could provide a viable pathway to utilize otherwise unprofitable waste heat streams for power generation and particularly for pumping liquids and compression of gases. Different engine configurations are presented and discussed. A new method of modelling and calculation of the IE process and efficiency is used on IE cycles with various pure and mixtures as a working fluid. Some interesting cases are presented. It is shown in this paper, that the simplest non-regenerative IE engines are efficient at low temperature differences between a heat source and heat sink. Efficiency of non-regenerative IE process with pure working fluid can be very high approaching Carnot efficiency at low pressure and heat source/heat sink temperature differences. Regeneration permits to increase efficiency of the IE-cycle to some extent. Application of mixed working fluids in combination with regeneration permits to significantly increase the range of high efficiencies to much larger temperature and pressure differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: tomatoes; drip irrigation; mulching; solar pump; photovoltaic panel; economic indices; irrigation water indices
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:39:44 CET)
Tomatoes, one of the most appreciated vegetables consumed, are crops well adapted for cultivation in arid and semi-arid conditions, the success of large yields is guaranteed by covering water consumption through irrigation. Solar Pumps - SP are driven by Photovoltaic Panels - PV (SPAPV), eliminating the dependence on electricity or diesel; they are environmentally friendly because they generate carbon-free electricity and the cost of operation and maintenance is lower. In order to preserve the water administered by drip to the tomato crop grown in solariums, mulching is used. In Husasău de Tinca, in the Crișurilor Plain, cultivation of tomato varieties without mulching (WM) and with mulching with black foil (MBF) were studied. To answer the question "How effective are water conservation measures in terms of energy independence?", two variants of SPAPVs, direct pumping (ADP) and storage tank (AST) were simulated. Considering the conditions in the solariums, tomato crops do not benefit from the contribution of precipitation, therefore it is proposed to determine the water consumption of tomatoes (ETRo), using the temperatures inside the solarium. In 2016, the average temperatures during the vegetation period were observed with an insurance of over 20 %, the irrigation norms were 6945.7 m3 ha-1, for the WM variant and 6594.0 m3 ha-1 for the MBF variant, respectively. Specific Investment (SI) is 214,795 Euro ha-1 in case of ADP and respectively 202,990 Euro ha-1 in case of ATS. The payback period (IPT) is between 2.68 years and 2.53 years for the ADP variant and between 1.63 years and 1.54 years for the ATS variant, respectively. The indications for water use and irrigation water use show that in the MBF variant the water administered by localized irrigation is better utilized than in the WM variant. In the conditions of Crișurilor Plain, the best solution for the distribution of water in solariums, with the help of SPAPVs is the mulching system of tomatoes grown in solariums (MBF) and the arrangement of the drip irrigation system with a water storage tank (ATS).
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hydraulic pump; micro-dosing; peristaltic; hyper-elasticity; viscoelasticity; holistic design methodology; elastomer compound
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:12:28 CEST)
Low pressure fluid transport (1) applications often require low and precise volumetric flow rates (2) including low leakage to reduce additional costly and complex sensors. A peristaltic pump de-sign (3) was realized, with the fluid’s flexible transport channel formed by a solid cavity and the wobbling plate comprising a rigid and a soft layer (4). In operation, the wobbling plate is driven externally by an electric motor, hence, the soft layer is contracted and unloaded (5) during pump-cycles transporting fluid from low to high pressure sides. A thorough characterization of the pump system is required to design and dimension the components of the peristaltic pump. To capture all these parameters and their dependencies on various operation-states, often complex and long-lasting dynamic 3D FE-simulations are required. We present, here, a holistic design methodology (6) including analytical as well as numerical calculations, and experimental valida-tions for a peristaltic pump with certain specifications of flow-rate range, maximum pressures, and temperatures. An experimental material selection process is established and material data of candidate materials (7) (liquid silicone rubber, acrylonitrile rubber, thermoplastic-elastomer) are directly applied to predict the required drive torque. For the prediction, a semi-physical, analyti-cal model was derived and validated by characterizing the pump prototype.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaics; solar energy; Father Verspieren; solar energy in Africa; rainwater harvesting; solar pump
Online: 3 April 2020 (03:38:43 CEST)
Almost fifty years after the first installations, I identify the main lessons learned from fighting drought and poverty in Africa with direct solar-powered pumps thanks to Father Bernard Verspieren and Mali Aqua Viva. Six main findings and three main recommendations emerge from the present analysis. They are of direct relevance to all Africa’s countries whose population has gone from 438 million in 1977 to 1,308 million in 2019, with about 600 million still having no access to electricity. In place of “awareness campaigns” and extraordinary courses held by international organizations, I recommend to establish national solar energy institutes whose task will include the education of solar energy professionals giving practice-oriented workshops on solar-powered drip irrigation and rainwater harvesting throughout each Africa’s country. Said education will critically include the economic and social aspects of distributed “generation” of energy and water from sunlight and rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: aero-fuel centrifugal pump; combination impeller; flow loss; flow characteristics; head and efficiency
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:22:18 CET)
Aero-fuel centrifugal pumps are important power plants in aero-engines. Unlike most of the existing centrifugal pumps, a combination impeller is integrated with the pump to improve its performance. First, the critical geometrical parameters of combination impeller and volute are given. Then, the effects of combination impeller on flow characteristics inside the impeller and volute are clarified by comparing simulation results with that of the conventional impeller, where the effectiveness of selected numerical method is validated by an acceptable agreement between simulation and experiment. Finally, the experiment is performed to test the external performance of studied pump. A significant feature of this study is that the flow characteristics are significantly ameliorated by reducing the flow losses emerged in impeller inlet, impeller outlet and volute tongue. Correspondingly, the head and efficiency of combination impeller are higher with comparison to conventional impeller. Consequently, it is a promising approach in ameliorating flow field and improving external performance by applying a combination impeller to an aero-fuel centrifugal pump.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0255.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; biofilm; efflux pump inhibitors; antibiotic potentiation; eskapee pathogens; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:22:56 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance represents a significant threat to the modern healthcare provision. The ESKAPEE pathogens, in particular, have proven to be especially challenging to treat, due to their intrinsic and acquired ability to rapidly develop resistance mechanisms in response to environmental threats. The development of biofilm has been characterised as an essential contributing factor towards antimicrobial-resistance and tolerance. Several studies have implicated the involvement of efflux pumps in antibiotic resistance, both directly, via drug extrusion and indirectly, through the formation of biofilm. As a result, the underlying mechanism of these pumps has attracted considerable interest due to the potential of targeting these protein structures and developing novel adjunct therapies. Subsequent investigations have revealed the ability of efflux pump-inhibitors (EPIs) to block drug-extrusion and disrupt biofilm formation, thereby, potentiating antibiotics and reversing resistance of pathogen towards them. This review will discuss the potential of EPIs as a possible solution to antimicrobial resistance, examining different challenges to the design of these compounds, with an emphasis on Gram-negative ESKAPEE pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0362.v1
Subject: Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, efflux pump inhibitors, Escherichia coli, efflux pumps, multidrug resistance, Staphylococcus aureus
Online: 31 December 2018 (09:55:32 CET)
Bacterial antibiotic resistance has become a major global health concern. One of the main reasons for the development of multi-drug resistance properties in bacteria is due to the bacterial efflux pump systems. They are important transport proteins, mainly involved in the removal of toxic substrates like antibiotics from inner cell environment. These pumps are responsible for the intrinsic ability of bacteria to get resistant to the antibiotic. Various types of efflux pumps are present in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Plant-derived products like Capsaicin, Olympicin A, and Indirubicin were found to be inhibitors of an efflux pump in Staphylococcus aureus similarly Ursolic acid derivatives; Daidzein and Lanatoside C were plant-derived inhibitors of an efflux pump in Escherichia coli. In this review detail information have been provided about efflux pump inhibitors that have been found to be effective in the Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this review is to focus on the role of plant-derived compounds as effective efflux pumps inhibitors with reference to mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Capacity; Cooling and heating; CO2; Cycle performance; , EEV; Heat pump; Internal heat exchanger
Online: 11 December 2017 (12:30:52 CET)
Developing high performance HVAC system using natural refrigerants including carbon dioxide (CO2) has been important in respect of environmental preservation and associated technologies. Thus studies to optimize the HVAC (heating ventilation air conditioner) system using natural refrigerants through clarifying the cycle performance characteristics are necessary. The CO2 heat pump system using air and water sources was consisted to examine its performance characteristics, and by varying conditions of several factors that affect or characterize the system performance like the amount of refrigerant charge, EEV (electronic expansion valve) opening, and internal heat exchanger under cooling mode. The performance characteristics of CO2 heat pump system were tested by using an air enthalpy calorimeter. In the case of the CO2 heat pump system without internal heat exchanger, the opening of #3 EEV and #4 EEV was 60% and refrigerant charge amount was 5,600g. However, in the case of that with internal heat exchanger, the best performance was obtained when the opening of #2 EEV is 20%. From the present studies, it was observed that the performance variation and operational characteristics of the CO2 heat pump system were affected by design factors like refrigerant charge amount, EEV opening, and internal heat exchanger and thereby, the configuration on an optimal operation conditions of the system was enabled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0157.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: tortuous pore diffusion model (TPD model); scanning probe microscopy (SPM); capillary; hollow fiber membrane; three-dimensional tortuous pore
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:49:29 CEST)
Hemoconcentration membranes used in cardiopulmonary bypass require a pore structure design with high pure water permeability, and which does not allow protein adsorption and useful protein loss. However, studies on hemoconcentration membranes have not been conducted yet. The purpose of this study was to analyze three-dimensional pore structures and protein fouling before and after blood contact with capillary membranes using the tortuous pore diffusion model and a scanning probe microscope system. We examined two commercially available capillary membranes of similar polymer composition that are successfully used in hemoconcentration clinically. Assuming the conditions of actual use in cardiopulmonary bypass, we perfused these membranes with bovine blood. Pure water permeability before and after bovine blood perfusion was measured using the dead-end filtration. The scanning probe microscopy system was used for analysis. High-resolution three-dimensional pore structures on the inner surface of the membranes were observed before blood contact. On the other hand, pore structures after blood contact could not be observed due to protein fouling. The pore diameters calculated by the tortuous pore diffusion model and scanning probe microscopy were mostly similar and could be validated reciprocally. Achievable pure water permeabilities showed no difference despite protein fouling, leading to low values of albumin SC. This is due to the mechanism that protein fouling occurs on the membrane surface, while there is little internal pore blocking. Therefore, controlling the fouling is essential for membranes in medical use. These characteristics of the hemoconcentration membranes examined in this study are suitable for clinical use.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0387.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: revised reversed Carnot cycle; reversed Carnot cycle; heat pump; heating; close energy flow; electric heater
Online: 25 January 2022 (16:13:24 CET)
A revised reversed Carnot cycle without external heat source and temperature gap is proposed to challenge the classic reversed Carnot cycle, heat pumps based on the proposed cycle with super energy efficiency works just like electric heater fitted for any climate including extreme cold weather, the application of these new heat pumps is discussed with conclusion that little real obstacles exist for scale application to address the heating related climate change, also a demonstration case shows a remarkable results to encourage the applications of these new heat pumps.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0108.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; antimicrobial resistance; circular dichroism spectroscopy; efflux protein; efflux pump; foodborne pathogen; hospital-acquired infection; polyamine
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:19:07 CET)
The aim of this work was to test polyamines as potential natural substrates of the Acinetobacter baumannii chlorhexidine efflux protein AceI using near-UV synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The Gram-negative bacterium A. Baumannii is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and an important foodborne pathogen. A. Baumannii strains are becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents, including the synthetic antiseptic chlorhexidine. AceI was the founding member of the recently recognised PACE family of bacterial multidrug efflux proteins. Using the plasmid construct pTTQ18-aceI(His6) containing the A. Baumannii aceI gene directly upstream from a His6-tag coding sequence, expression of AceI(His6) was amplified in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. Near-UV (250-340 nm) SRCD measurements were performed on detergent-solubilised and purified AceI(His6) at 20 °C. Sample and SRCD experimental conditions were identified that detected binding of the triamine spermidine to AceI(His6). In a titration with spermidine (0-10 mM) this binding was saturable and fitting of the curve for the change in signal intensity produced an apparent binding affinity (KD) of 3.97 +/- 0.45 mM. These SRCD results were the first experimental evidence obtained for polyamines as natural substrates of PACE proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Laboratory Automation; Radiochemistry; Synthera; FASTlab; TRACERlab; iPhase; Synthra; Synthesis Module; Radiation Safety; Vacuum; Diaphragm Pump; Laboport; Arduino; LabVIEW
Online: 20 December 2022 (02:21:39 CET)
Vacuum pump wear is the most prevalent failure mode of the IBA Synthera® automated radiochemistry system. Rebuilding or replacing the pump causes equipment downtime and increases the radiation exposure of the service personnel. We built a dedicated test device to assess new or rebuilt pumps prior to installation, thus reducing downtime and radiation exposure during repairs. The Testbed incorporates a microprocessor that actuates the pump, valves, pressure sensor, and communicates with the user through lights, buttons, and an alphanumeric screen. The Testbed increases productivity and safety in the radiochemistry laboratory.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0270.v1
Subject: Keywords: Cell division; Intracellular osmotic pressure; Tolerance limit of cell membrane; Carcinogenesis; Aneuploidy; Na+/K+ pump; Cytoskeleton; Oncogene; Tumor suppressor
Online: 21 June 2020 (13:41:21 CEST)
At present more than 9 million people die of cancer every year. Simple and broad-spectrum drugs are still an urgent need for cancer patients. Recently, we proposed a new hypothesis that intracellular osmotic pressure (IOP) is the driving force of cell division, and abnormal tumor proliferation is the result of uncontrolled IOP in cells. On the one hand, aneuploidy and abnormal function of Na+/K+ pump lead to a faster rise of IOP in tumor cell than normal cells, on the other hand, abnormality of cytoskeleton assembly leads to the decrease of tolerance limit of cell membrane (TLCM) of tumor cells for resisting IOP. This hypothesis predicts: 1)Tumor cells were more intolerant to hypotonic stress than normal cells. 2) Maligancies may be sellectively killed by a suddenn increase of IOP and combined with decrease of the TLCM of tumors. Na+/K+ pump inhibitors can promotely increase the IOP of tumor cells and cytoskeleton inhibitors can dramatically lower the TLCM of tumor cells. Therefore, Na+/K+ pump and cytoskeleton inhibitors may have a synergetic effect to kill tumor cells. 3) Molecules regulating cell osmolality may be new targets for cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0444.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: snow-darkening, light-absorbing aerosols, dust and black carbon, elevated-heat- pump effect, snow cover–monsoon relationship, Blanford hypothesis
Online: 22 September 2018 (23:18:38 CEST)
The impact of snow darkening by deposition of light absorbing aerosols (LAAs) on snow cover over the Himalaya-Tibetan-Plateau (HTP) and influence on the Asian monsoon are investigated using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model Version 5 (GEOS-5). We find that during April-May-June, deposition of LAAs on snow leads to a reduction in surface albedo, initiating a sequence of feedback processes, starting with increased surface solar radiation, rapid snowmelt in HTP and warming of the surface and upper troposphere, followed by enhanced low-level southwesterlies and increased dust loading over the Himalayas-Indo-Gangetic Plain. The warming is amplified by increased dust aerosol heating, and subsequently amplified by latent heating from enhanced precipitation over the Himalaya foothills and northern India, via the Elevated Heat Pump (EHP) effect during June-July-August. The reduced snow cover in the HTP anchors the enhanced heating over the Tibetan Plateau and its southern slopes, in conjunction with an enhancement of the Tibetan Anticyclone, and the development of an anomalous Rossby wavetrain over East Asia, leading to weakening of the subtropical westerly jet, and northward displacement and intensification of the Mei-Yu rainbelt. Our results suggest that atmosphere-land heating by LAAs, particularly desert dust play a fundamental role in physical processes underpinning the snow-monsoon relationship proposed by Blandford more than a century ago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: six-port circuits; complex-ratio-measuring circuits; open-ended coaxial probe; breast tumors; RF reflectometer; relative complex permittivity; one-port calibration; graphical user interface
Online: 20 October 2021 (12:50:17 CEST)
A developed six-port reflectometry (SPR) system was integrated to measure the relative permittivity of tumor and normal breast tissue for medical diagnostic purpose. In order to obtain an accurate and precise measurement, the calibration process was done to the SPR using the well-known three-standard technique. Next, the studied dielectric probe was connected to the calibrated measurement-port of the SPR. The open end of the probe aperture was dibbed into the normal and tumor synthetic breast tissue samples to measure the synthetic breast tissues dielectric constant, ɛrʹ, and loss factor, ɛrʺ in the frequency range of 1.5 GHz to 3.3 GHz. Finally, the comparative studies were conducted between commercial VNA with Keysight 85070E dielectric probe and the studied SPR-probe system based on the measured magnitude of the reflection coefficient, phase shift, dielectric constant, and loss factor of the synthetic breast samples. The maximum absolute errors of the measured reflection coefficient magnitude, phase shift, dielectric constant, and loss factor were found to be 0.01, 1.07°, 1.12, and 0.75, respectively. It was ascertained that the predicted dielectric constant, ɛrʹ, is able to differentiate between normal, (ɛrʹ < 50) and tumor, (ɛrʹ > 50) breast tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0694.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Congenital hypothyroidism; FOXE1; Mexican population; multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA); NKX2-1; NKX2-5; PAX8; polyalanine tract; protein modeling; thyroid dysgenesis; TSH receptor
Online: 28 May 2021 (11:15:14 CEST)
Mexico shows a high birth prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) due to thyroid dysgenesis (TD). PAX8 defects underlie only 1% of these cases and NKX2-1 does not seem to be involved. Here, we analyzed other TD-related genes in 128 non-related Mexican patients (females 77.3%; 6 months to 16.6 years) with non-syndromic CH-TD diagnosis established by clinical evaluation, thyroid hormone serum profiling, and scintigraphy (74%) or ultrasonography (26%). We performed Sanger sequencing of FOXE1, NKX2-5, and TSHR and evaluated copy number variations (CNVs) in TSHR, FOXE1, PAX8, and NKX2-1 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Odds ratios for TD risk were explored for FOXE1 polyalanine stretches [polyAla-rs71369530] in cases and controls (N=116). Five rare missense changes cataloged as benign (NKX2-5:p.(Ala119Ser)-rs137852684), of unknown significance (FOXE1:p.(Ala335Gly)-rs543372757; TSHR:p.(Asp118Asn)-rs1414102266), and likely pathogenic (FOXE1:p.(Gly124Arg)-rs774035532; TSHR:p.(Trp422Arg)-rs746029360) accounted for 1.5% (N=2/128) of clinically relevant genotypes (supported in part by protein modeling) in CH-TD. No CNVs were identified, nor did polyAla >14 alanines in FOXE1 significantly protect against TD. The present and previously published data collectively show that small clinically relevant germline variants in PAX8, FOXE1, and TSHR are found in only a very small proportion (2.5%) of isolated CH-TD Mexican patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrothermal energy; river-water heat pump; water temperature recovery distance; heat transfer equation; Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC); Han river basin
Online: 26 February 2020 (02:58:42 CET)
Temperature differences between the atmosphere and river water allow rivers to be used as a hydrothermal energy source. The river-water heat pump system is a relatively non-invasive renewable energy source; however, effluent discharged from the heat pump can cause downstream temperature changes which may impact sensitive fluvial ecosystems. In this study, the water temperature recovery distance of the effluent was estimated for a river section in the Han River Basin, Korea, using the heat transfer equation and the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) model. Results showed that, compared to the EFDC model, the heat transfer equation tended to overestimate the water temperature recovery distance due to its simplified assumptions. The water temperature recovery distance could also be used as an objective indicator to decide the reuse of downstream river water. Furthermore, as the river system was found to support an endangered fish species that is sensitive to water environment changes, care should be taken to exclude the habitats of protected species affected by water temperatures within water temperature recovery distance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Human serum albumin; COVID-19 vulnerabilities; fluid therapy; albumin binding deficiency; lymphatic nutrient pump; colloid pressure; interstitial spaces; albumin infusion; hepatic portal vein
Online: 8 September 2022 (13:40:16 CEST)
COVID-19 and long COVID-19 vulnerabilities may be caused indirectly by albumin binding deficiency (ABD) which can be corrected by the correct administration of human serum albumin (HSA). The liver is the primary site of nutrient regulation and fluid volume maintenance, control of both is by changes to albumin concentration. In healthy subjects the HSA lymphatic nutrient pump (HSALNP) ensures continual pumping of nutrients from the liver are appropriately distributed to organs. Nutrients are delivered to cells according to the availability of binding to HSA. The HSALNP therefore maintains the correct nutrients and colloidal pressure balance in all tissues independently. In unhealthy tissues, following COVID-19 infection, the passage of HSA/nutrients through the interstitial spaces and lymph will be impeded. Fluid therapy into the periphery leads to dilution of essential nutrients attached to the protein-carriers such as albumin. The levels of albumin being charged by the liver with nutrients is critical in maintaining immune stability by maintaining nutrient support and colloidal pressure of cellular structures. The site of HSA binding by the liver is of great importance and direct infusion of albumin into the Hepatic Portal Vein is the most appropriate method of maintaining colloid pressure and cellular nutrient levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: plate-fin and tube heat exchanger; air-side Nusselt number; different heat transfer coefficient in particular tube row; numerical simulation; CFD simulation; air heat pump
Online: 6 July 2022 (08:49:27 CEST)
The object of this work is to determine the correlation on the Nusselt number on the individual rows of a four-row tubular finned heat exchanger with continuous fins with a staggered tube arrangement using CFD modelling. Correlations for calculating Darcy-Weisbach friction factors on individual tube rows were also determined. Relationships for the Nusselt number and friction factor derived for the entire exchanger based on CFD modelling were compared with those available in the literature determined using experimental data. The maximum relative differences between the Nusselt number for a four-row exchanger determined experimentally and by CFD modelling are in the range from 22% for a Reynolds number based on a tube's outside diameter of 1,000 to 30% for a Reynolds number of 13,000. The maximum relative differences between the friction factor for a four-row exchanger determined experimentally and by CFD modelling are in the range of 50% for a Reynolds number based on a tube outer diameter of 1,000 to 10% for a Reynolds number of 13,000. The CFD modeling performed shows that in the range of Reynolds numbers based on hydraulic diameters from 150 to 1,400, the Nusselt number for the first row in a four-row finned heat exchanger is about 22% to 15% higher than the average Nusselt number for the entire exchanger. In the range of Reynolds number changes based on hydraulic diameter from 2,800 to 6,000, the Nusselt numbers on the first and second rows of tubes are close to each other. Correlations on Nusselt numbers and friction factors derived for individual tube rows can be used in the design of plate-fin and tube heat exchangers used in equipment such as air-source heat pumps, automotive radiators, air-conditioning systems and in air hot-liquid coolers. In particular, the correlations can be used to select the optimum number of tube rows in the exchanger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy geostructure; ground source heat pump (GSHP); sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS); sector integration; 5th generation district heating and cooling; permeable asphalt; rainwater retardation; full-scale demonstration; numerical modelling; analytical modelling
Online: 13 May 2022 (08:06:39 CEST)
This paper proposes and demonstrates, in full scale, a novel type of energy geostructure (“the Climate Road”) that combines a ground source heat pump (GSHP) with a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) by utilizing the gravel roadbed simultaneously as energy source and rainwater retarding basin. The Climate Road measures 50m x 8m x 1m (length, width, depth) and has 800 m of geothermal piping embedded in the roadbed, serving as the heat collector for a GSHP that supplies a nearby kindergarten with domestic hot water and space heating. Model analysis of operational data from 2018-2021 indicates sustainable annual heat production levels around 0.6 MWh per meter road, with a COP of 2.9-3.1. The continued infiltration of rainwater to the roadbed increases the amount of extractable heat by an estimated 17% compared to the case of zero infiltration. Using the developed model for scenario analysis we find that draining rainwater from three single family houses and storing 30% of the annual heating consumption in the roadbed, increases the predicted extractable energy by 56% compared to zero infiltration with no seasonal energy storage. The Climate Road is capable of supplying three single family houses with heating, cooling and rainwater management year-round.