Preprint Review Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Ex-Situ vs. In-Situ Defluoridation of the Contaminated Aquifers: A State-of-the-Art Review

Version 1 : Received: 31 December 2016 / Approved: 2 January 2017 / Online: 2 January 2017 (13:57:12 CET)

How to cite: Arora, M.; Gupta, N. Ex-Situ vs. In-Situ Defluoridation of the Contaminated Aquifers: A State-of-the-Art Review. Preprints 2017, 2017010006 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201701.0006.v1). Arora, M.; Gupta, N. Ex-Situ vs. In-Situ Defluoridation of the Contaminated Aquifers: A State-of-the-Art Review. Preprints 2017, 2017010006 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201701.0006.v1).

Abstract

A wide variety of pump and treat methods like chemical precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange and reverse osmosis have been trialled for many decades for fluoride removal from groundwater, but the problem of fluoride contaminated water remains in many parts of the world largely because these processes require constant monitoring, are expensive to implement and maintain at decentralised scale due to lack of reticulation infrastructure, and possess sludge disposal problem. This paper presents an overview of various fluoride removal processes and the limitations associated with each process and the application of in-situ permeable reactive barrier for remediating fluoride contaminated groundwater is explored, which displays the potential to be a cost effective, low maintenance and energy intensive technology.

Subject Areas

Fluoride, groundwater, in-situ remediation, pump and treat

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