Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Interest of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Reducing the Occurrence of COVID-19: A Case-Control Study

Version 1 : Received: 28 April 2020 / Approved: 2 May 2020 / Online: 2 May 2020 (15:48:33 CEST)

How to cite: Blanc, F.; Waechter, C.; Vogel, T.; Schorr, B.; Demuynck, C.; Martin-Hunyadi, C.; Meyer, M.; Mutelica, D.; Bougaa, N.; Fafi-Kremer, S.; Calabrese, L.; Schmitt, E.; Imperiale, D.; Jehl, C.; Boussuge, A.; Suna, C.; Weill, F.; Matzinger, A.; Muller, C.; Karcher, P.; Kaltenbach, G.; Sauleau, E. Interest of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Reducing the Occurrence of COVID-19: A Case-Control Study. Preprints 2020, 2020050016 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202005.0016.v1). Blanc, F.; Waechter, C.; Vogel, T.; Schorr, B.; Demuynck, C.; Martin-Hunyadi, C.; Meyer, M.; Mutelica, D.; Bougaa, N.; Fafi-Kremer, S.; Calabrese, L.; Schmitt, E.; Imperiale, D.; Jehl, C.; Boussuge, A.; Suna, C.; Weill, F.; Matzinger, A.; Muller, C.; Karcher, P.; Kaltenbach, G.; Sauleau, E. Interest of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Reducing the Occurrence of COVID-19: A Case-Control Study. Preprints 2020, 2020050016 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202005.0016.v1).

Abstract

Background: COVID-19 is a disease of the elderly as 95% of deaths related to COVID-19 occur in people over 60 years of age. Despite the urgent need for a preventive treatment there are currently no serious leads, other than the vaccination. Objective: To find a preventive treatment of COVID-19 in elderly patients. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Robertsau Geriatric Hospital of the University Hospitals of Strasbourg, France. Patients: 179 elderly patients who had been in contact with the SARS-CoV-2, of whom 89 had tested RT-PCR-positive (COVID-pos) for the virus and 90 had tested RT-PCR-negative (COVID-neg). Measurements: Treatments within 15 days prior to RT-PCR (including antihypertensive drugs, antipsychotics, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), paracetamol, anticoagulant, oral antidiabetics (OADs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressants), comorbidities, symptoms, laboratory values, and clinical outcome were all collected using the electronic patient record. Results: COVID-pos patients more frequently had a history of diabetes (P=.016) and alcoholism (P=.023), a lower leukocyte count (P=.014) and a higher mortality rate– 29.2% versus 14.4% – (P=.014) when compared to COVID-neg patients. Patients on PPIs were 2.3 times less likely (odds ratio [OR] = 0.4381, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.2331, 0.8175], P=.0053) to develop COVID-19 infection, compared to those not on PPIs. No other treatment decreased or increased this risk. COVID-19 patients on antipsychotics (P=.0013) and OADs (P=.0166) were less likely to die. Limitations: retrospective study. Conclusion: PPIs treatment lowered the risk of development of COVID-19 infection, and antipsychotics and OADs decreased the risk of mortality in geriatric patients. If further studies confirm this finding, PPIs could be used preventatively in the elderly in this pandemic context. Moreover, OADS and antipsychotics should be tested in clinical trials.

Subject Areas

COVID-19; elderly; proton pump inhibitors; antipsychotics; metformin; oral antidiabetics

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