REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: saponin-containing plants; cleansing plants; bio-surfactant
Online: 12 November 2018 (09:07:26 CET)
The natural forests of Northern Thailand are the mother source of many utilisable natural products because of their diverse flora and fauna. Among many plant species found within Northern Thai forests, detergent plants are known for its distinctive cleansing properties. Several local species of detergent plants in Thailand are traditionally used by the locals and indigenous people. However, these plants may become extinct because their habitats have been replaced by industrial agriculture, and their uses have been replaced by chemically synthesised detergents. Researchers need to study and communicate the biology, phytochemistry, and the importance of these plants to conserve natural biodiversity of Northern Thailand. Of many utilisable detergent phytochemicals, natural saponins are known as bio-surfactant and foaming agents. Their physiochemical and biological properties feature structural diversity, which leads to many industrial applications. In this review, we explained the term “detergent” from the physiological mechanism perspective and the detergent effects of saponin. We also compiled a list of Thai local plants with cleansing properties focusing on the saponin-containing plants. Future studies should investigate information relative to plant environment, ethnobotanical data and bioactive compound content of these plants. The knowledge acquired from this study will promote the maintenance of the local biodiversity and the conservation of the detergent plant species found in Thailand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0432.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Flora; Vascular plants; Reserve forest; Threatened plants; Kaptai
Online: 18 September 2020 (11:22:12 CEST)
A botnical survey was conducted in Kaptai reserve forests under Rangamati district in Bangladesh to study the flora of Karnaphuli range from May 2015 to October 2018. The survey was accompanied by a collection of voucher specimens enumerates 464 plant species belonging to 334 genera under 117 families from the forest range. The survey has confirmed 31 threatened forest species from this area along with many near threatened plant species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: flora; vascular plants; reserve forest; threatened plants; Kaptai
Online: 18 September 2020 (03:58:13 CEST)
A botnical survey was conducted in Kaptai reserve forests under Rangamati district in Bangladesh to study the flora of Karnaphuli range from May 2015 to October 2018. The survey was accompanied by a collection of voucher specimens enumerates 464 plant species belonging to 334 genera under 117 families from the forest range. The survey has confirmed 31 threatened forest species from this area along with many near threatened plant species.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: medicinal plants; traditional knowledge; Himalayas; mountain plants; ethnobotany
Online: 29 November 2016 (06:35:45 CET)
The Himalaya is well known for high diversity and ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants. However, not all areas of the Himalayas are well studied. In particular, studies on ethnobotanical uses of plants from the Eastern Himalayas are rare and lacking for many tribes. Past studies primarily focused on listing plants name and their traditional medicinal uses. However, studies on traditional ethnopharmacological practices on medicine preparation had not yet been reported in published literature from the Eastern Himalaya. In this study, we are reporting the first time ethnopharmacological used 24 medicines, their procedures of preparation and listed 53 plant species used for those medicines for Monpa tribe. Such documentations had not yet been done for other tribes in India. Our research demonstrates the urgent need to documents traditional medicine preparation procedures from the local healers before rapid cultural modernization forgets them in transforming country like India. This study should motivate national and international researchers to do more works on ethnopharmacology and bioprospecting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0639.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Plants; polyamines; abiotic stresses; biotic stresses; transgenic plants; Plant-pathogen interaction; Plants-fungal interaction
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:10:51 CET)
The biotic and abiotic stresses are the main causes of the loss of agricultural crops productivity, their normal growth and development in the environment. It has been calculated that two-thirds of the major crops are frequently lost due to adverse environmental conditions. The productivity of crops under unfavorable environmental stresses is apparently the main challenge to the breeders and farmers where polyamines (PAs) play diverse roles in environmental stimuli. PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are low molecular weight positively charge compounds have the active potential power to negative charge molecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) is widely distributed in all living organisms. Evidence showed that PAs contribute a lot of different physiological and biological functions, such as cell growth and development, controlling the cell cycle, involve in gene expression, cell signaling, replication, transcription, translation, and membrane stabilization. Naturally occurring polyamines activity acuminated to their involvement with different biotic and abiotic stresses and contribute to the survival of the plant in the environment. Here, we have described the potential mechanisms, synthesis, and various roles of PAs during stresses tolerant and disease resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0584.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: miRNA156; micropropagation; tree breeding; recalcitrant; woody plants; perennial plants
Online: 30 December 2022 (10:18:33 CET)
In plants, phase change from the juvenile stage to maturity is a tightly controlled process at the physiological and genetic level, which is controlled by evolutionary highly conserved microRNAs. These phase changes are more pronounced in woody plant species, but the majority of molecular genetic studies on the regulation of this transition has been done in annual model or crop species. This process is of particular significance for the in vitro propagation of woody plant species, as individuals or tissues that have undergone the transition to vegetative maturity are recalcitrant to propagation. Development of effective methodologies for silver birch vegetative propagation are required to increase the efficiency of breeding programs. Conserved miRNAs that were differentially expressed between juvenile and mature silver birch tissues were identified using high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries. These differentially expressed miRNAs could potentially be utilized to develop markers indicating the juvenility or maturity of silver birch explants and in vitro cultures. In addition, the obtained results will provide an insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating vegetative phase change in silver birch and other perennial woody plant species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: medieval gardening; horticulture; monastery garden; herb; relict plants; medicinal plants
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:47:51 CEST)
Gardening was an important part of the daily duties within several of the religious orders in Europe during the Middle Ages. The rule of Saint Benedict specified that the monastery should, if possible, contain a garden within itself, and before and above all things, special care should be taken of the sick, so that they may be served in very deed, as Christ himself. The cultivation of medicinal and utility plants was important to meet the material needs of the monastic institutions, but no physical garden has yet been found and excavated in either Scandinavia or Iceland. Especially the Cistercians were well known for being pioneer gardeners, but also other orders like the Benedictines and Augustinians practised gardening. The monasteries and nunneries operating in Iceland during medieval times are assumed to have belonged to either the Augustinian or the Benedictine orders. In Norway in addition other orders included the Dominicans, Fransiscans, Premonstratensians and Knights Hospitallers. Based on botanical investigations at all the Icelandic and Norwegian monastery sites, it is concluded that many of the plants found may have a medieval past as medicinal and utility plants, and with all the evidence combined, most probably were cultivated in monastery gardens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1545.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: alternative methods; fungal disease management; plants; alternative methods; fungal disease management; plants
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:22:05 CEST)
Fungal pathogens pose a major threat to food production worldwide. Traditionally, chemical fungicides have been the primary means of controlling these pathogens, but many of these fungicides have recently come under increased scrutiny due to their negative effects on the health of humans, animals, and the environment. However, the use of fungicides with less of an environmental impact tends to result in the development of resistance in populations of phytopathogenic fungi. Therefore, new environmentally friendly alternatives that provide adequate levels of disease control are needed to replace chemical fungicides—if not completely, at least partially. A number of alternatives to conventional chemical fungicides have been developed, including plant defence elicitors (PDEs), biological control agents (fungi, bacteria and mycoviruses), biofungicides, RNA interference (RNAi) methods, and resistance breeding. This article reviews the conventional and alternative methods available to manage fungal pathogens, discusses their strengths and weaknesses, and identifies potential areas for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0340.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: dietary plants; medicinal plants; extraction; solvent; phytoconstituents; antioxidants; anti-nutrients; radical scavenging
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:16:10 CEST)
Sesamum indicum is considered an underutilized oil-bearing seed in the semi-arid regions of Ghana. Nonetheless, it is a promising source of food with both nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties S. indicum seeds using different extraction solvents. The seeds were obtained from the local farmers and prepared for analysis. The bioactive compounds present in the seeds were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water and their yields quantified. Total phenolic content (TPC), Condensed tannin content (TTC) and Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) , and DPPH radical scaveging assay were analyzed using standard methods. Antinutrients such as saponins, alkaloids, phytates and oxalates were also analyzed from the powdered seeds. Two chemometric methods; hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson correlation were employed to evaluate the interdependence of the various parameters to result in their antioxidant properties. The re-sults revealed that the solvents utilized had a significant impact on the extraction yield, phyto-chemical component concentration, and antioxidant activities. Hexane extracts of S. indicum seeds significantly exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05). It was marked with the highest TAC value of 232.6 ± 6.267 mg/g AAE and a strong DPPH scavenging activity with an IC50 of 52.81 ± 2.30 µg/mL. Correlations (p < 0.05) was established between TPC,CTC, TAC and DPPH radical scavenging activity) of the extracts. Antinutrients such as; phytate, oxalate, saponins and alkaloids were found to be 7.691 ± 0.8576, 1.501 ± 0.1375, 21.33 ± 4.619 and 317.33 ± 30.29 mg/g respectively. Data obtained suggest that S. indicum possess rich bioactive compounds that can be used in neutraceuticals and food products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant behavior; root-to-shoot-signaling; plants movement; kinematics; climbing plants; circumnutation
Online: 8 November 2021 (11:53:30 CET)
Plants characterized by a soft or weak steam, such as climbing plants, need to find a potential support (e.g., wooden trunk) to reach greater light exposure. Since Darwin’s research on climbing plants, several studies on their searching and attachment behaviors have demonstrated their unique ability to process different support features to modulate their movements accordingly. Nevertheless, the strategies underlying this ability are yet to be uncovered. The present research tries to fill this gap by investigating how the interaction between above- (i.e., stem, tendril, …) and belowground (i.e., the root system) plant organs influence the kinematics of the approach-to-grasp movement. With three-dimensional (3D) kinematical analysis, we characterized the movement of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) towards a support with different thicknesses above and belowground (i.e., thin below, thick aboveground, or the opposite). As a control condition, the plants were presented to supports with the same thickness below- and aboveground (i.e., either entirely thin or thick). The results suggest an integration between the information from below- and aboveground for driving the reach-to-grasp behavior of the aerial plant organs. Information about the support conveyed by the root system seems particularly important to fulfil the end-goal of the movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1209.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Conservation; hygrophilous plants; plants diversity; saltmarsh; psammophilous vegetation vascular flora; landscape fragmentation; Mediterranean
Online: 20 November 2023 (05:36:50 CET)
The coastal wetlands of the Mediterranean area are among the most vulnerable and threatened environments due to human pressure and activities. Fragmentation is generally considered as one of the most driving factors in habitats loss. In this paper, we investigated the floristic composition, structure, conservation status, and trends of the habitat types sensu 92/43EEC Directive of a coastal wetland area in south-eastern Sicily (“Saline di Priolo” SAC). Based on 128 phytosociological surveys and several plant collections, a total of 304 taxa, 28 plant communities and 16 habitats have been identified. Furthermore, three new plant associations were described, including two in the wetland and one on the rocky coasts. For the classification of plant communities and habitats, a hierarchical clustering was performed by using Euclidean coefficient and beta-flexible algorithm. The life form spectrum of the current ﬂora highlights the dominance of therophytes and hemicryptophytes. The Mediterranean species are largely prevailing with 123 taxa. The cartographic analysis performed with ArcGis 10.3 shows a radical reduction of the wetland habitats in the last 70 years, and a strong alteration of the ecological succession of the psammophilous-hygrophilous vegetation. Moreover, landscape configuration of the coastal vegetation and habitat types was well highlighted by a set of specific landscape metrics. In particular, our outcomes identify three habitats (2110, 2210, and 5220* EU code) with bad conservation status, among which one of priority conservation (Zyziphus arborescent matorral), that requires urgent restoration measures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1931.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plants; reproduction; evolution; ovules; flowers
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:55:44 CET)
Land plants have undergone their great diversification and evolution in the past 400 million years. Although appearing complex and hard to grasp, the evolution of plants centers around an invariable core development process, SRC (Sexual Reproductive Cycle). Various modifications have been added sequentially to this core process, and thus creating various novel organs and distinguishing their bearers one from another. Reproductive organs of all land plants, including sporangium, megasporangium, metamegasporangium (= ovule), and various metamegasporangium complexes, are derived from terminal sporangia in the earliest land plants. Throughout the million-year-long evolution, plants sequentially recruit associating accessories to protect their vulnerable core parts (spore and gamete). The occurrence of every single of these novelties is a stair marking land plant reproduction evolution and leads to enhanced offspring development conditioning (ODC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0608.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Pectobacterium; collection; taxonomy; host plants
Online: 27 August 2020 (09:43:59 CEST)
Bacterial collections are invaluable tools for microbiologists. However, their practical use is compromised by imprecise taxonomical assignation of bacterial strains. This is particularly true for soft rotting plant pathogens of the Pectobacterium genus. To solve this difficulty, we analyzed the taxonomic status of 265 Pectobacterium strains deposited at CIRM-CFBP collection from 1944 to 2020. This collection gathered Pectobacterium strains isolated in 27 countries from 32 plant species representing 17 botanical families or from non-host environments. MLSA approach completed by genomic analysis of 15 strains was performed to update the taxonomic status of these 265 strains. Results showed that the CIRM-CFBP Pectobacterium collection harboured at least one strain of each species to the exception of P. polonicum. Yet, 6 strains could not be assigned to any of the described species and may represent at least two new species. Surprisingly, the P. versatile species, recently described in 2019, is the most prevalent species among CIRM-CFBP strains. Analysis of P. versatile strains revealed that this species is endemic all over the world on various host plants and environments. At the opposite, other species gathered strains isolated from only one botanical family or exclusively from fresh water environment. Our work also revealed new host plants for several Pectobacterium spp.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0195.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: phytotherapy; hyperglycemia; diabetes; medicinal plants
Online: 31 December 2017 (03:36:25 CET)
Phytotherapy has long been a source of medicinal products and many attempts to use herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes has been done over the years. Several medicinal plants and their preparations demonstrated to act in key points of glucidic metabolism. The most common mechanisms of action found include the inhibition of α-glucosidase and of AGE formation, the increase of GLUT-4 and PPARs expression and the antioxidant activity.Despite the large amount of literature available, the actual clinical effectiveness of medicinal plants in controlling diabetes related symptoms is still controversial and there is a crucial need for stronger evidence-based data. In this review, an overview of the medicinal plants, which use in the management of diabetes is supported by authoritative monograph, is provided. References to some species which are currently under growing clinical investigation are also reported.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: TLC screening of plants; TLC screening of psychoactive plants; TLC-direct bioautography; effect directed detection; chemotaxonomy of plants; quality control of medicinal plants; quality control of alimentary products; quality control of cosmetic products
Online: 25 July 2022 (07:50:57 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview of the main aims and scopes in screening of botanicals, a task which thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is on an everyday basis confronted with and engaged in. Stunning omnipresence of this modest analytical technique (both in its standard format (TLC) and the high-performance one (HPTLC), either hyphenated or not) for many analysts might at a first glance appear chaotic and random, with an auxiliary rather than leading role in research, and not capable of issuing meaningful final statements. Based on these reflections, our purpose is not to present a general review paper on TLC in screening of botanicals, but a blueprint rather (illustrated with a selection of practical examples), which highlights a sovereign and important role of TLC in accomplishing the following analytical tasks: (i) solving puzzles related to chemotaxonomy of plants, (ii) screening a wide spectrum of biological properties of plants, (iii) providing quality control of herbal medicines and alimentary and cosmetic products of biological origin, and (iv) tracing psychoactive plants under forensic surveillance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1674.v1
Online: 27 November 2023 (07:56:01 CET)
The study of angiosperm flora, endemic plants in the literature, and investigations of ‘POWO Build a checklist’ were used to compile an updated list of Bangladesh's endemic plants. According to the study, at least 49 (1.24%) of Bangladesh's 3,956 plant species are endemic to the country including 5 varieties, belonging to 41 genera in 26 families. Magnoliopsida account for thirty of them, Liliopsida for the remaining sixteen, and Pteridohpytes for the final three. The four families Zingiberaceae (9 taxa), Araceae (6 taxa), Rubiaceae (4 taxa), and Euphorbiaceae (3 taxa), include the most endemic taxa. The five most numerous endemic taxa belong to the Curcuma genus. The endemic flora, which is mostly found in the districts of Chattogram, Moulvibazar, and Rangamati, consists of 13 tree species, 4 shrubs, 5 climbers, and 27 herbaceous plant species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plants; Molecular Biology; Genomic; Transcriptomic; Epigenetic
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:11:14 CET)
The methods used to introduce CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas-mediated genome editing into fruit species, as well as the impacts of the application of this technology to activate and knock out of target genes in different fruit trees species including tree development, yield, fruit quality, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses have been firstly described in this review. The application of this gene editing technology could allow the development of new generations of fruit crops with improved traits by targeting different genetic segments or even could facilitate the introduction of traits in elite cultivars without changing other traits. However, at this moment, the scarcity of efficient regeneration and transformation protocols in some species, the fact that many of those procedures are the genotype-dependent or the convenience of segregating the transgenic parts of the CRISPR system represent the main handicaps limiting the potential of genetic editing techniques for fruit trees. Finally, latest news on the legislation and regulations about the use of plants modified through CRISPR/Cas systems has been also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0655.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Bangladeshi medicinal plants; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory
Online: 11 October 2023 (06:30:43 CEST)
Bangladeshi medicinal plants (BMP) have been used as traditional medicinal plants to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, but the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the bark of BMP are not yet known. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities using methanolic extracts of bark obtained from 15 medicinal spices of Bangladesh plants. The bark methanol extracts of BMP evaluated the total antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the 15 bark extracts of BMP, Albizia odoratissima (A. odoratissima), Engelhardia spicata (E. spicata), and Shorea robusta (S. robusta) showed the highest total phenolic contents and total antioxidant capacity by reducing free radicals scavenging activity. In particular, the three bark extracts significantly reduced the mRNA expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-inducible enzymes in macrophages. Also, the mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase 2 was significantly suppressed by three bark extracts in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results suggest that among the 15 bark extracts obtained from medicinal plant in Bangladesh, three bark extracts of A. odoratissima, E. spicata, and S. robusta exert total antioxidant capacity by reducing free radicals scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on LPS-stimulated inflammation in macrophages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1851.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: medicinal plants; endophyte; biocontrol; medicinal components
Online: 27 June 2023 (05:37:48 CEST)
With the increasing demand for medicinal plants and the increasing shortage of resources, improving the quality and yield of medicinal plants and making more effective use of medicinal plants has become an urgent problem to be solved. In the process of growth and development of medicinal plants, due to the threat of various adversity, there are problems such as nutrient loss and yield decline. Using traditional chemical pesticides to control the stress resistance of plants will cause serious pollution to the environment and even endanger human health. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable pesticide substitutes from natural ingredients. As an important part of the microecology of medicinal plants, endophytes can promote the growth of medicinal plants, improve the stress resistance of hosts, and promote the accumulation of active components of hosts. Because it has a more positive and direct impact on the host, and can metabolize rich medicinal ingredients, so researchers pay attention to it. This paper reviews the research in recent five years, aiming to provide ideas for improving the quality of medicinal plants, developing more microbial resources, exploring more medicinal natural products, and providing help for the development of the research on medicinal plants and endophytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0787.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: entomophilous plants; phenophases; honeybee; climate change
Online: 11 May 2023 (04:47:30 CEST)
Changes in the dates of phenological phases of plants and insects reflect changes in climate. The aim of the study was to determine the phenological patterns and interrelationships of spring-flowering entomophilous plants (Corylus avellana L., Alnus incana Moench., Tussilago farfara L., Salix caprea L., Acer platanoides L., Taraxacum officinale L., Prunus L., Malus domestica Mill.) and the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in response to climate change. The research was carried out at Vokė Branch of the Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, using data from phenological observations during 1961–2020. The results of the studies showed that over a 60-year period, a trend towards earlier dates of all phenological events studied was observed. Significant and larger-scale changes occurred starting from the decade 1981–1990. Throughout the entire study period, with the exception of one decade, the dates of honeybee emergence on flowers correlated reliably with the dates of entomophilous plant phenophases. Due to the advance of plants phenophase dates the synchrony with honeybee emergence dates changes however, these changes had a positive effect on the foraging conditions of overwintering honeybees.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Leishmaniasis; drugs; parasites; ; herbal plants; treatments
Online: 10 November 2022 (06:44:40 CET)
Leishmaniasis is considered one of the different neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization. Over the past few decades to tackle leishmaniasis, effective and novel drugs have progressed. But few are expensive some other medication shows poor effects and few drugs with long treatment lead to cause resistance. But it is very important to start a better medication against leishmania so researchers came to the front of the utilization of natural products which are considered a better option. Finding active compounds in medicinal plants is another alternative to currently accessible medications. Materials and methods: This study examined and reported the far more potential natural products used to treat disease caused by Leishmania spp. Leishmaniasis, plant metabolites, in vivo, in vitro, and treatment against leishmaniasis have been used as search terms in the Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct databases, and only papers published between 2015 and 2021 have been chosen for further analysis. Results: The use of novel natural compounds with leishmanicidal action as well as the leishmanicidal activity of natural compounds against promastigote, axenic, and intracellular amastigote forms were included in roughly 20 research papers that were reviewed.Conclusion: Due to their capacity to selectively target parasites without harming host cell viability, herbal plants are a possible source of new anti-leishmanial medication. Future leishmaniasis treatments will draw on the isolated compounds as a source, completing those already offered in clinics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: abiotic stress; strawberry; companion plants; phytoremediation
Online: 11 February 2021 (19:00:26 CET)
Strawberry is a saline sensitive plant adversely affected under slightly or moderately saline conditions. Growth and biochemical parameters of strawberry plants grown under NaCl (0-, 30-, 60-, and 90 mmol L-1) conditions with or without a halophytic companion plant (Portulaca oleracea L.) were investigated in a pot experiment. Salt stress negatively affected the growth, physiological (stomatal conductance, electrolyte leakage, total soluble solids) and biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll contents (chl-a and chl-b), proline, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, catalase, and peroxidase enzyme activities, lycopene, vitamin C contents along with the mineral uptake of strawberry plants. The companionship of P. oleacea increased fresh weight, dry weight, and fruit average weight and total fruit yield of strawberry plants along with the improvement of physiological and biochemical parameters. This study showed that cultivating of P. oleracea with strawberry plants under salt stress conditions effectively increased strawberry fruit yield and quality. We, therefore, that approaches towards the use of P. oleracea could be an environmentally friendly method that should be commonly practised where salinity is of great concern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0249.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: spontaneous plants; metabolites; insecticidal; identification; quantification
Online: 10 February 2021 (10:12:15 CET)
Spontaneous plants metabolites are more widespread for their properties and biological functions. Also, natural products have reminded diverse scientists to take a delight in their medical and insecticidal applications linked to the environmental. A variety of metabolites have a defensive function for the plants. Thus, three spontaneous plants: Caroxylon imbricatum, Tetraena alba and Cotula cinerea collected from two ecotypes and analyzed by two known conventional methods:Gas Chromatography‐Mass Spectrometry GC QTOF(quadrupole time of flight )_MS and Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry LCQTOF(quadrupole time of flight )_MS. The investigation conducted out on the identification and quantification of metabolites revealed the main metabolites which have biological activities as a part of an alternative to synthetic insecticides. The chemical study showed the presence of N-Butylbenzensulfonamide and Sulfoxycaprylicacid in the three plants. N-Carboxy-methionineresidue, Butanoicacid and Valine were found in those of Cotula cinerea and Caroxylon imbricatum (Forssk.). Artomunoxanthentrione, Glycoaldehyde, Indoline, ,Benzensulfonamide and Oxoproline were detected in extracts of Caroxylon imbricatum (Forssk.) and Tetraena alba (L.f.) In addition, Pyrroline is the only compound common in Cotula cinerea and Tetraena alba (L.f.).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: coronaviruses; plants metabolites; polyphenols; antiviral-effect
Online: 18 May 2020 (04:09:48 CEST)
Coronaviruses such as SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome), and newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV and COVID 19, have caused worldwide outbreaks in different time periods. There are many studies about chemical and natural drugs to treat these coronaviruses by inhibiting their proteases or their protein receptors through binding to amino acid residues. Plants secondary and primary metabolites are considered as potential drugs to inhibit various types of coronaviruses. IC50 value (the concentration in which there is 50% loss in enzyme activity) and molecular docking score and binding energy are parameters to understand the metabolites ability to inhibit the specific virus. In this study we did review on more than 110 papers on plant metabolites effect on different coronaviruses. Secondary plant metabolites such as polyphenols (flavonoids, coumarins, stilbenes), alkaloids, terpenoids, organosulfur compounds saponins, saikosaponins, lectins, essential oils, nicotianamine and primary metabolites such as vitamins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: medicinal plants; flavonoids; hypoglycemic; hypolipidemic; antiatherogenic
Online: 27 April 2017 (04:13:10 CEST)
Celtis iguanaea is popularly used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, thorough chemical and pharmacological investigations regarding its activity are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from C. iguanaea (CI) on markers of cardiovascular diseases and the glucose metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. Therefore, hypercholesterolemic rats (1% cholesterol) were orally treated with CI (150, 300, or 600 mg/kg) or simvastatin (4 mg/kg) (n = 6) once a day for 30 days along with a hypercholesterolemic diet. A control group (C) was given saline solution. CI showed significant decreases in serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HMG-CoA-reductase, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ when compared to group C (p ˂ 0.05). Hypoglycemic effects were observed along with a decrease of the activity of sucrase (CI 600), maltase (CI 150, CI 300), and an increase in muscle glycogen levels (CI 300). Antioxidant effects were observed in plasma, and the histopathological analysis showed a significant decrease in the liver fat area for CI compared to group C (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that the biological effects of CI could be related to the presence of flavonoids that possibly exert antioxidant, enzymatic inhibitory, and insulin-mimetic effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; medicinal plants; herbs
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:56:32 CET)
Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and an efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even many of them have been proved effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarise the available scientific information on these joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been already tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswelliaspp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytumprocumbens, Salix spp., Sesamumindicum, Symphytumofficinalis, Zingiberofficinalis, Panaxnotoginseng, Whitaniasomnifera.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: protein sources; insects; plants; microorganisms; dry lands
Online: 3 October 2023 (09:47:44 CEST)
Protein malnutrition is present in developing countries but also in developed ones, due by the actual eating habits with insufficient protein intake, in addition to this it is estimated by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations an increase of world population of 9.1 billion people in less those 30 years, posing the challenge of nourish the mankind. There are different strategies to afford this challenge, one of the most promising ones is to approach novel protein sources like plants, microorganisms, and insects from dry lands.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1221.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Abiotic Stress; Epigenetic memory; Ecophysiological behavior; Plants
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:38:04 CEST)
Unlike animals, persistent dynamic environmental perturbations threaten plants, as they are sessile. Plants keep an inbuilt database of all epigenetic episodes during their lifetime. Present knowledge for exploiting information about how the gene network of plants contributes to epigenetic memory needs to be improved, and extensive in-depth studies are needed. Data from epigenetic memories imparts intelligent behaviour to plants, and these memories can be decoded further to investigate how these plants respond when the same abiotic stress recurs. The epigenetic phenomenon refers to gene expression patterns, including vital factors such as nucleic acids (small ribonucleic acids), histones modelling and methylation of DNA. These changes are cell cycle-associated events that may be transmitted to successive generations. Epigenetic memories due to abiotic stress are necessary for maintaining healthy ecophysiological behaviour of plants and impart the tendency to resist and adapt to challenging environmental conditions. These intelligent memories can be stored and interpreted to prepare for future challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: plants; cannabinoids; CBD; pharmacology; dental medicine; patents
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:00:26 CEST)
The medical use of Cannabis has a very long history. Although many principles are present in cannabis, called cannabinoids, Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and can-nabinol (CBN) are the three main cannabinoids most present and described. CBD itself is not re-sponsible for psychotropic effects of cannabis since does not produce the typical behavioral effects associated to the consumption of this drug. Cannabidiol (CBD) has recently gained growing at-tention in modern society and seems to be more and more explored in dentistry. Several subjective findings suggest some therapeutic effects of CBD, which are strongly supported by research evi-dence. However, there is a plethora of data regarding CBD’s mechanism of action and therapeutic potential, which are in many cases contradictory. We will first provide an overview of scientific evidence on the molecular mechanism of CBD’s action. Furthermore, we will map the recent de-velopments regarding possible oral benefits of CBD. In summary, we will highlight CBD’s prom-ising biological features for dentistry application, despite exiting patents suggest current the compositions for oral care as the main interest for industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0118.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: iVikodak; Balsas Basin; tomate milpero; native plants
Online: 8 June 2022 (06:02:31 CEST)
Michoacan state has a long history in plant domestication’s. Physalis ixocarpa is a native plant that growth associated to corn crops from this region. Such plants have similar fruits to Physalis philadelphica (husk tomate). Due to the domestication process includes the adaptation to environmental factors, we ask if 1) Does P. ixocarpa has the capacity of association with bacterial communities of the zone where it was domesticated?, and 2) Does the rhizobiome of this plant can increase the potential functions in the soil?. An experiment was established in a traditional milpa system. Samples of rhizobiome from corn, P. ixocarpa, P. philadelphica, and soil were sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing in the region 16S. The potential function, metabolic pathway reconstruction and participation of each bacteria genus was inferred using iVikodak platform. A total of 34 Phyla and 795 genera were identified. Purine metabolism's was the principal function, where all rizhobiomes showed similar metabolic pathways. However, the difference among plant species is the participation of the distinct genera in the purine metabolism. We conclude that rhizobiome of P. ixocarpa shows complementarity for the soil functions, and their utilization can be helpful in zones where the agricultural practices have degraded microbiological soil conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Antimicrobial activities; Medicinal plants; Herbal medicines; WHO
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:40:36 CET)
Medicinal plants have antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. More or less all plants have medicinal properties. In this research article, we have selected four economically important plants (three fruit plants and an economically important plant), Malus domestica Borkh., Prunus persica L., Ricinus communis L., and Carica papaya L. found in several areas of Indian state Uttarakhand. Using the methanolic extract of leaves, we have screened those four plants against four human pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. For our experiment we have screened the methanolic leaf extracts of four plants against the above-mentioned bacteria. Statistical analysis was also performed for validation. Result revealed the said bacteria have potential antibacterial activities. So, these leaves can be used for clinical trial. These plants can also be used for making herbal medicines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0761.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: conservatio; , biodiversity; medicinal plants; smallholder farmer; strategy
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:26:11 CET)
South Africa has an abundant heritage of valuable indigenous plants with recognized medicinal value. The reported critical over-harvesting of wild populations is considered an urgent issue for biodiversity conservation. Growing demand for therapeutic products from indigenous medicinal plants have led to increased interest in its cultivation. Cultivation of these indigenous medicinal plants represent a viable option for improving smallholder farmers’ livelihoods, as well as sustaining the availability of these resources for future generations. Serious bottlenecks however exists for subsistent farmers in the cultivation of these valuable plants. It was pertinent to probe whether the cultivation of medicinal plants provide feasible solutions to rural poverty, while effectively conserving threatened indigenous biodiversity. The paper employed a comprehensive review of existing literature to explore relevant issues constraining smallholder farmers from involvement in a potentially lucrative medicinal plants value-chain. Findings indicate challenges such as inadequate domestication of valuable plants species, continued over-harvesting from wild populations, poor knowledge of required agronomic practices, low efficacy perception regarding derivatives from cultivated plants, among a multitude of others. These constraints exists alongside the conservation-oriented strategy driven by international conservation agencies and wholly adopted by the South African government. Recommendations to improve smallholder involvement in the cultivation of medicinal plants include support to research and extension, targeted inducement to smallholders, contracting and off-take agreements, aimed at promoting an alternative poverty-alleviation-focused economic development strategy. The review adds to the conceptual discourse related to plant diversity, resource conservation, poverty alleviation and economic development within the medicinal plants value-chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: hybrid vigor; flowering plants; apomixis; CRISPR/Cas9
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:30:45 CET)
The hybrid seeds of several important crops with supreme qualities, including yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, have been cultivated from decades. Thus far, a major challenge with hybrid seed, it does not hold ability to produce plants with same qualities over subsequent generations. Apomixis exist naturally an asexual mode of reproduction in flowering plants via avoiding meiosis and ultimately leads to seed production. Apomixis possess potential to preserve hybrid vigor for multiple generations for economically important plant genotypes. The evolution and genetics of asexual seed production is unclear and need much more efforts to find its genetic architecture. To fix hybrid vigor synthetic apomixis has been suggested an alternative. The development of MiMe (Mitosis instead of Meiosis) genotypes are utilized further for clonal gametes production. However, the identification and parental origin of genes responsible for synthetic apomixis are less known and need further understanding. Genome modifications utilizing genome editing technologies (GETs) like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (cas9) a reverse genetics tool has paved way to utilize emerging technologies in plant molecular biology. From the last decade, several genes in important crops have been successfully edited. The vast availability of GETs has made the functional genomics studies easy to conduct in crops important for food security. The disruption of expression of genes specific to egg cell MATRILINEAL (MTL) or BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) through CRISPR/Cas genome editing system can promote haploid plants. The establishment of synthetic apomixis by engineering MiMe genotype by genome editing BBM1 expression or disruption of MTL leads toward clonal seed production. In present review, we discussed the current development in plants by utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its possibility of promoting apomixis in crops to preserve hybrid vigour. In addition to this, genetics, evolution, epigenetic modifications and strategy for MiMe genotype development has been discussed in detail.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0367.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: nor-lignans; occurrence in plants; biological activities
Online: 29 November 2019 (03:27:12 CET)
In this review article, the occurrence of nor-lignans and their biological activities are explored and described. Nor-lignans have proven to be present in several different families also belonging to chemosystematically distant orders as well as to have many different beneficial pharmacological activities. This review article represents the first one on this argument and is thought to give a first overview on these compounds with the hope that their study may continue if not raise after this.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ornamental flowering plants; constructed wetlands; wastewater; pollutants
Online: 9 October 2018 (06:22:39 CEST)
The vegetation in constructed wetlands (CWs) plays an important role in wastewater treatment. Popularly, the common emergent plants in CWs have been vegetation of natural wetlands. However, there are ornamental flowering plants that have some physiological characteristics similar to the plants of natural wetlands that can stimulate the removal of pollutants in wastewater treatments; such importance in CWs is described here. A literature survey of 87 CWs from 21 countries showed that the four most commonly used flowering ornamental vegetation genera were Canna, Iris, Heliconia and Zantedeschia. In terms of geographical location, Canna spp. is commonly found in Asia, Zantedeschia spp. is frequent in Mexico (a country in North America), Iris is most commonly used in Asia, Europe and North America, and species of the Heliconia genus are commonly used in Asia and parts of the Americas (Mexico, Central and South America). This review also compares the use of ornamental plants versus natural wetland plants and systems without plants for removing pollutants (COD, BOD, nitrogen and phosphorous compounds). The removal efficiency was similar between flowering ornamental and natural wetland plants. However, pollutant removal was better when using ornamental plants than in unplanted CWs. The use of ornamental flowering plants in CWs is an excellent option, and efforts should be made to increase the adoption of these system types and use them in domiciliary, rural and urban areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: essential oils; water extracts; ethanol extracts; periodontal bacteria; Candida; natural antimicrobials; natural anti-inflammatory; Sardinian plants; pharmaceutical plants
Online: 22 February 2021 (10:53:13 CET)
There is an increasing interest in revisiting plants for drug discovery proving scientifically their role as remedies. Pistacia lentiscus (PL) is a wild-growing shrub rich in terpenoids, which are pharmacological appealing. The more recurrent components in the oil are represented by α-pinene, terpinene, caryophyllene, limonene, and myrcene. High concentration of polyphenols enriches the extracts. PL-extracts showed in vitro and in animal model strong anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. The anti-inflammatory activity mainly occurs due to inhibition of NF-kB pathway or directly toward the proinflammatory cytokines, or arachidonic acid cascade against COX-2 and LOX. The antimicrobial activity of PL essential oil and extracts includes among others Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, periodontal bacteria and Candida sp.. In conclusion, the biological properties, and particularly the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial capacity, propose PL as a new safe pharmaceutical agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: invasion ecology; biotic resistance; exotic plants; heterospecific pollen; reproductive interference; alien plants; indirect plant-plant interactions; Darwin's naturalization hypothesis
Online: 9 February 2020 (16:32:53 CET)
1. Heterospecific pollen interference has recently been proposed as a mechanism contributing to the success of alien invaders, as heterospecific pollen of alien plants interferes with the reproduction of natives by reducing fruit and seed set. However, no study has looked at the opposite interaction. Moreover, few studies have considered the roles of phylogenetic and trait distances between pollen donors and recipients. 2. We did a large multi-species experiment in which we used alien and native species both as pollen recipients and as pollen donors, and included phylogenetic as well as trait distance as explanatory variables. 3. We found that both alien and native recipients suffered from heterospecific pollen from donors of the opposite status in terms of seed and fruit set. Phylogenetic distance and trait distance both affected heterospecific pollen interference, but the effect depended on recipient and donor statuses. 4. We conclude that heterospecific pollen interference affects both native and alien recipients, thus indirectly altering community composition and increasing biotic resistance against invaders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biopesticides; Formulations; Fungicidal; Pesticidal plants; Plant extracts; Regulations
Online: 22 August 2023 (14:51:19 CEST)
Before the green revolution, crude plant materials and plant-extracts were used for crop protection. However, their use was swiftly replaced by synthetic pesticides after World War II due to increased demand for more effective pesticides in intensified farming systems. The 20th century saw a steady increase in the use of synthetic pesticides until the mid-21st century when the world started to realize the negative impact of synthetic pesticides. The increased environmental awareness and the need for safe human food led to increased research and development of biopesticides as crop protection options in modern agriculture. This paper brings into perspective the global history of the application and use of botanical biopesticides in crop production. It also highlights the research progress, product development and registration challenges, and opportunities for business and adoption at the farm level in Kenya.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: medicinal plants-based foods; pharmacology; diabetes; insulin; phytoconstituents
Online: 30 June 2023 (03:52:42 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) comprises a range of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by defects in insulin release, insulin action, or both. DM is a widespread condition that affects a substantial portion of the global population, causing high morbidity and mortality rates. The prevalence of this major public health crisis is predicted to increase in the forthcoming years. Although, several drugs are available to manage DM, these are associated with adverse side effects, which limits their use. In underdeveloped countries, where such drugs are often costly and not widely available, many people continue to rely on alternative traditional medicine, including medicinal plants. The latter serve as a source of primary healthcare and plant-based foods in many low and middle-income countries. Interestingly, many of the phytochemicals they contain have been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic activity such as lowering blood glucose levels, stimulating insulin secretion and alleviating diabetic complications. Therefore, such plants may provide protective effects that could be used in the management of DM. The purpose of this article was to review the medicinal plant-based foods traditionally used for the management of DM, including their therapeutic effects, pharmacologically-active phytoconstituents and antidiabetic mode of action at the molecular level. It also presents future avenues for research in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0152.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Natural surfactants; plants; saponins; eco-friendly; synthetic surfactants
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:15:01 CEST)
Increasing environmental concern and consumer demand for natural, sustainable and eco-friendly products have prompted the replacement of synthetic surfactants with their natural plant-based alternatives. Saponins are the plant based natural surfactants characterized by their foam forming properties in aqueous solution. Their natural origin makes them eco-friendly, bio-degradable and non-toxic. Further, they possess better physicochemical properties than the syn-thetic ones. They are also reported to exhibit a lot of useful biological activities such as anti-cancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cholesterol-lowering properties. Because of their excellent surface activity, biological activities and wide distribution in nature, saponin rich plants deserve deeper insight as a sustainable source of natural surfactants as they possess the potential to replace toxic synthetic surfactants abundant today. This review article is intended to provide a brief overview on the saponins with a special notion on their surface-active properties. It encourages further studies on development of commercial formulations based on saponins for the complete replacement of the synthetic counter parts, making better use of plants sources thereby contributing to global agenda of green environment.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: fibrosis; medicinal plants; Cannabis sativa; cannabinoids; anti-fibrotic
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:41:30 CEST)
Fibrosis is a condition characterized by thickening or/and scarring of various tissues. Fibrosis may develop in almost all tissues and organs, and it may be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. It provokes excessive scarring that excels the usual wound healing response to trauma in numerous organs. Currently, very little can be done to prevent tissue fibrosis, and it is almost impossible to reverse it. Therefore, fibrosis is frequently associated with premature aging. In turn, aging is associated with more frequent incidences of fibrosis. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs are among the few treatments that may be efficient in preventing fibrosis. Numerous publications suggest that cannabinoids and extracts of Cannabis sativa have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic properties. In this review, we describe the types and mechanisms of fibrosis in various tissues and discuss various strategies for prevention and dealing with tissue fibrosis. We further introduce cannabinoids and their potential for the prevention and treatment of fibrosis, and therefore for extending healthy lifespan.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.3390/sci2020030
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: PWR nuclear power plants; point kinetics; singular perturbation
Online: 26 April 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
This short communication makes use of the principle of singular perturbation to approximate the ordinary differential equation (ODE) of prompt neutron (in the point kinetics model) as an algebraic equation. This approximation is shown to yield a large gain in computational efficiency without compromising any significant accuracy in the numerical simulation of primary coolant system dynamics in a PWR nuclear power plant. The approximate (i.e., singularly perturbed) model has been validated with a numerical solution of the original set of neutron point-kinetic and thermal–hydraulic equations. Both models use variable-step Runge–Kutta numerical integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: power plants; supervisory control; dynamic simulation; dynamic optimization
Online: 5 June 2018 (08:13:42 CEST)
The increasing variability in power plant load, in response to a wildly uncertain electricity market and the need to to mitigate CO2 emissions, lead power plant operators to explore advanced options for efficiency optimization. Model-based, system-scale dynamic simulation and optimization are useful tools in this effort, and the subject of the work presented here. In prior work, a dynamic model validated against steady-state data from a 605 MW subcritical power plant was presented. This power plant model is used as a test-bed for dynamic simulations, in which the coal load is regulated to satisfy a varying power demand. Plant-level control regulates plant load to match an anticipated trajectory of the power demand. The efficiency of the power plant operating at varying load is optimized through a supervisory control architecture that performs set point optimization on the regulatory controllers. Dynamic optimization problems are formulated to search for optimal time-varying input trajectories that satisfy operability and safety constraints during the transition between plant states. An improvement in time-averaged efficiency of up to 1.8% points is shown feasible with corresponding savings in coal consumption of 184.8 tons/day and carbon footprint decrease of 0.035 kg/kWh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0194.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: aromatic plants; HPLC; antioxidant capacity; DPPH; Rancimat test
Online: 27 March 2017 (09:57:43 CEST)
The antioxidant properties and polyphenol content of some selected aromatic plants grown in Greece were studied. Plants were refluxed with 60% methanol after acid hydrolysis. The phenolic substances were quantified by HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined with the Rancimat test using sunflower oil as substrate. Free radical scavenging activity was measured using the stable free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results were compared with standard BHT and ascorbic acid. Total phenol concentration of the extracts was estimated with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent using gallic acid as standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0232.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Brassica yellows virus (BrYV); Myzus persicae; transgenic plants with BrYV full length genome; frozen BrYV infected plants; acquisition and transmission
Online: 10 August 2020 (03:34:00 CEST)
Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is a tentative species of the genus Polerovirus, which occurs widely and mostly damage Brassicaceae plants in East Asia. Since BrYV could not be transmitted mechanically, an insect transmission method is required for further virus research. Here, a reliable and unrestricted method was described, in which non-viruliferous aphids (Myzus persicae) acquired BrYV from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with virus full length genome germinated from seeds and frozen infected leaves were used to transmit the virus to healthy plants, and there was no significant difference in acquisition rate though transmission rate from frozen infected leaves was somehow lower compared to fresh infected leaves. This novel simple method could be applied to preservation of virus inocula, evaluation of variety resistance to BrYV, biological research on interaction among BrYV, aphid and host, which also provide a new idea on establishing a basic method using virus genomic transgenic plants or frozen infected leaves for other poleroviruses research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0559.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Sakha; traditional medicine; plant names; healing; medicinal plants; Arctic
Online: 10 October 2023 (13:22:32 CEST)
The Sakha people have a long history of use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine and healing practices. This article explores the use and naming practices found with 10 plants that grow in far northeastern Russia, in the Arctic and Subarctic zones of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). A field survey of 2500 participants was used to identify the most widely used medicinal plants, their names, and uses. Findings were double-checked with published resources. A small set of criteria are used in naming practices. These practices are based on the plant’s appearance, its habit, or in some way are related to their use, indexing the disease, or the diseased organ, or the result of healing. We find robust knowledge and practice of traditional medicine across the Sakha population, and deep knowledge of plants among Sakha herbalists, healers and shamans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1436.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Cobalt; toxicity; plants; detoxification; micronutrient; macronutrients; anti-oxidative enzymes
Online: 21 September 2023 (09:53:29 CEST)
Cobalt (Co) is a transition metal and is classified as a beneficial metal for plants, but its benefits for plants remain obscure. Cobalt has been reported to negatively affect plant physiochemical processes both at higher (toxic) and lower (deficient) applied levels. High concentrations of cobalt in plant organs cause irreversible changes to the plant cells, mainly via enhanced production of reactive radicals. Moreover, Co and its compound play an essential role in humans as they are the central atoms of cobalamin, a co-enzyme precursor whose absence causes anemia. Hence, the optimum Co supply to plants is critical for customary plant metabolic workings. Henceforth, monitoring Co behavior in the soil-plant-human system is highly imperative. This review highlighted the latest literature on (i) Co in soil and plants; (ii) its mobility and phyto-availability in soil; (iii) phytouptake and translocation towards shoot tissues; (iv) toxic and deficient effects of Co on plants; (v) plant detoxification mechanisms under increased Co levels inside plants; and (v) its role in the human body. For this purpose, 1026 plant observations from literature data were analyzed related to Co biogeochemical behavior in the soil-plant system. The data analysis revealed an overall increase in 567 observations and a decrease in 381 observations. However, these general trends in plant responses vary significantly for different types of plant species and physiological attributes. Overall, the current review delineates an updated and critical representation of the biogeochemical behavior of Co in the soil-plant-human system, supported by up-to-date 9 main tables, 14 supporting tables, and 3 figures. The authors believe that the literature presented here can be of great interest to scientists, researchers, policymakers, and graduate-level students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0593.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Phytoremediation; Aromatic Plants; Ocimum Sanctum (Tulsi); Heavy Metals (HMs)
Online: 8 August 2023 (09:26:43 CEST)
Plants have the ability to decrease the pollution level from the environment by absorbing inorganic/organic pollutants through their roots. After that, these pollutants are translocated or accumulated in less toxic forms in various parts of plants. This ability of plants is known as phytoremediation. It is an eco-friendly, and cost-effective approach for controlling environmental pollution. It can provide a sustainable way to improve the economics of developing countries. However, the biomass formed during this process can re-contaminate the environment through secondary pollutants. The contamination due to heavy metals (HMs) has become an environmental challenge globally. Metals such as cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), etc. can enter the water and soil largely through anthropogenic activities as well as other natural processes. After that, these metals pose a severe threat to living organisms. Due to their non-biodegradable nature, these metals can remain as such for a long time. These metals can initiate oxidative pressure in plants as a result affects agricultural production and yield. To mitigate this problem, phytoremediation has come forward as a safe, affordable, and ecologically sustainable solution than conventional physicochemical decontamination methods. Initially, several edible crops had been identified for the remediation. But at the present time, scientists are focusing on non-edible crops like aromatic/medicinal plants. There is no risk of food contamination by using these plants. This chapter describes the classification & uses of Tulsi and the phytoremediation mechanism of plants in detail.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: fodder plants seed; dormancy; seed germination increase; pathogens; storage
Online: 17 July 2023 (14:32:12 CEST)
The manuscript presents the review of the impact of dormancy, seed storage, and pathogens on seed quality of perennial grasses and forage legumes. The outcomes of earlier studies to enhance the germination of seeds from these species are listed. Numerous studies around the world show that seed dormancy, environmental conditions, storage time after seed harvest, and the presence of pathogens on seeds, affecting the reduction of seed quality of these two groups of plants. This article discusses the possibility to partially or fully controlling impact of different factors on seed quality. Tests and experience of the presence of pathogens (especially Fusarium spp.) indicates a small percentage of infected seed of perennial grasses and legumes, which would not justify the cost of fungicides during seed processing. By applying the optimal concentration of acid in the seed, in combination with the time of exposure, it is possible to improve seed germination for more than 25% in forage grasses and legumes. Similar effects on the increase seed germination of both groups of plants can be achieving by optimal temperature treatments. Mechanical damage to the seed coat on the seeds of these crops can potentially increase germination, but new approaches are also being investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1887.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: CRISPR/Cas; TALEN; ZFN; Fruit Plants; Genome Editing Systems
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:09:07 CEST)
Fruit production is an important part of the gross domestic product for many countries around the world especially to those who have a strong focus on agriculture. However, long-term maintenance and yield stability of fruit production may be threatened by the ongoing climate change and its consequences like extended drought periods, heavy rain events, and floodings. Genome editing, with its progressive technological developments, offers opportunities to adapt relevant fruit plant species to new climatic conditions. Among modern genome editing techniques, CRISPR/Cas, in particular, has the potential to support breeding for those fruit plant species with extended breeding cycles, e.g., perennial fruits. In this review, we discuss CRISPR/Cas and other genome editing techniques in detail and how these techniques can be applied to support the breeding of fruit plant species for adaptation to changing climates. The chronological history of CRISPR/Cas9 systems, their associated computational tools, genomic data sources, transformation methods along with their delivery vehicles, quality improvement, environmental-stress resiliency, limitations, and future perspectives will also be discussed with respect to securing future global fruit production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Lead; Field trial; Phytostabilization; Phytomanagement; Aromatic plants; Bacterial community
Online: 5 October 2022 (17:51:14 CEST)
This field study aimed to assess the base line conditions of a long-term polluted shooting range in Argentina polluted with 428 mg kg-1 lead (Pb), to evaluate the establishment and development of Helianthus petiolaris plants and address the efficacy of the phytomanagement strategy through: i) element accumulation in plant tissues; ii) rhizosphere bacterial diversity changes by Illumina Miseq™ and iii) floral water and essential oil yield, composition and element concentration by GC-MS and ICP. After one life cycle growing in the polluted sites, in the roots of Helianthus petiolaris plants Pb concentration was between 195 and 304 mg kg-1 Pb. Only a limited fraction of the Pb was translocated to the aerial parts. The predominance of the genus Serratia in the rhizosphere of Helianthus petiolaris plants cultivated in the polluted sites and the decrees of the essential oil yield were some effects significantly associated with soil Pb concentration. No detectable Pb concentration was found in the floral water and essential oil obtained. Extractable Pb concentration in the soil reduced between 28-45 % after the harvest.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0305.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Leucosceptoside A; Leucosceptoside B; occurrence in plants; biological activities
Online: 20 September 2022 (10:34:18 CEST)
In this review paper, the occurrence in the plant kingdom and the biological activities associated to two specific phenyl-ethanoid glycosides i.e., leucosceptoside A and leucosceptoside B, were shown and discussed. This is the first work ever done on such subject. Analysis of the literature data clearly indicates that leucosceptoside A is much more common in plants and exerts many more biological activities than leucosceptoside B even if this also presents some important elements. All of this was widely discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Poisonous plants; soil microbial communities; Stellera chamaejasme; Elymus nutans
Online: 7 September 2021 (12:17:21 CEST)
Stellera chamaejasme L. is a fast-spreading unpalatable poisonous plant that grows in the alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The impacts of unpalatable plant species spread on animal health and plant community have been well studied, but studies into their effects on belowground organisms and processes are rare. We carried out a soil metabarcoding study using Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate whether the soil bacteria and fungi communities of Stellera are different to the soil microbiome of neighboring palatable grass Elymus nutans Griseb. Total carbon and nitrogen, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and microbial biomass carbon were all significantly greater in Stellera soil compared to Elymus soil, while no significant differences were observed for gravimetric soil moisture, pH or nitrate nitrogen. There were no significant differences in bacterial and fungal abundance between Stellera and Elymus soil. The bacterial species richness was significantly lower in Stellera soil but no significant difference was observed for fungal species richness. The beta diversity and community composition of bacteria and fungi were markedly different between soils. The presence of bacterial phyla Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, and fungal phyla, Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota, were significantly greater under Stellera soil. This study demonstrated that the spread of undesirable unpalatable plants can potentially disrupt existing plant-soil-microbe associations with potential consequences for grassland soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0133.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: economic sustainability; mini hydroelectric plants; tariff; incentive; climate change
Online: 19 March 2021 (14:41:06 CET)
The feasibility of hydroelectric plants depends on a variety of factors: water resource regime, geo-graphical, geological and environmental context, available technology, construction cost and eco-nomic value of produced energy. Choices about the building or renewal of hydroelectric plants should be based on the forecast of the future trend of these factors at least during the project life of the system. Focusing on the economic value of the produced energy this paper examines its influ-ence on the feasibility of hydroelectric plants. Analysis, referred to Italian case, were based on three different phases: i) the economic sustainability of small-scale hydroelectric plants under a minimum price guaranteed to the hydroelectric operator; ii) the estimate of the incentives to reach the thresholds of "acceptability" and "bankability" of the investment; iii) the analysis of results ob-tained in the previous phases using a model of the evolution of the electricity price in the period 2014-2100.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0556.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Covid-19; indigenous people; Amazon; medicinal plants; vulnerability; resilience
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:40:54 CET)
There has been very widespread contagion of covid-19 in Kichwa indigenous communities in Ecuadorian Amazonia, but the peak of contagion has already passed, and total mortality has been remarkably low. The Kichwa people themselves typically attribute this to the widespread use of medicinal plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: birch; chlorophyll; leaves’ damage; plants’ pathogens; roots; secondary metabolites
Online: 2 August 2020 (08:47:32 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to better understand the interactive impact of two soil-borne pathogens, Phytophthora cactorum (as the primary pathogen) and Armillaria gallica (as secondary), on two-year-old seedlings of silver birch (Betula pendula) subjected to stress caused by mechanical defoliation simulating primary insect feeding. One year after treatments, the chlorophyll fluorescence measurement and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the photosynthetic activity in leaves, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by birch leaves and chemical compounds from roots. Only the infection of roots by P. cactorum increased photosynthetic rates in the leaves, which may suggest its cryptic development in contrast to fungi. The birch leaves in seedlings exposed to 50% defoliation, inoculation with P. cactorum and A. gallica emitted more aromatic carbonyls and alcohols, as well as half as much aliphatic esters, compared to untreated controls. In infected birch roots, the production of phenols, triterpenes and fatty alcohols increased, but fatty acids decreased. This was the first experimental confirmation of the pathogenicity of P. cactorum on silver birch seedlings in Poland. The most severe damage to roots took place only in the case of two-way or three-way interactions. Higher levels of aromatic carbonyls and alcohols in leaves, as well as phenolic compounds in roots of stressed birches (compared to control) suggest an activation of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: 2019 Novel Coronavirus; plants; antiviral compounds; plant recombinant vaccines
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:15:18 CEST)
The proposal of novel drugs and approaches for effective treatment of the novel coronavirus is a necessity after the quick outbreak of the disease. Since the commencement of the coronavirus spread, enormous efforts have been made to protect, alleviate and cure the disease, though no specific treatment has been approved. While there have been convincing results in the use of chemical drugs and interferon therapy, such therapeutic approaches have various drawbacks and lack the required performance for the treatment of the new coronavirus. Medicinal plant species can provide a solution as a source of natural antiviral compounds by the accumulation of secondary metabolites and lectins as well as acting as a platform to express the viral immunogenic proteins. This study reviews the advantages and the results of previous research for the treatment of the novel coronavirus disease and previous generations of similar coronaviruses. Several plant-derived anti coronavirus compounds have been nominated that could be targeted for further research due to the similarity of the coronavirus disease in 2003 and the current coronavirus. This review regards plant species such as Scutellaria baicalensis (Baikal skullcap), and Utrica dioica (Stinging nettle) as suitable candidates for the new coronavirus antiviral research. Furthermore, the use of plants such as Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco) for the expression of the coronavirus viral antigens can be a target for the future vaccinal research of the new coronavirus due to the efficiency of expression and intrinsic antiviral properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0522.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: DAMPs; alarmins; innate immune response; plants; phylogeny; in silico
Online: 26 July 2018 (16:08:54 CEST)
In plants and animals, endogenous biological molecules, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or alarmins, are released by damaged, stressed or dying cells following abiotic stress such as radiation and drought stress. In turn, a cascade of downstream signaling events is initiated leading to the up-regulation of defense-related genes. In the present study, in an effort to investigate the conservation status of the molecular mechanisms implicated in the danger signaling, thorough in silico phylogenetic and structural analyses of the effector biomolecules were performed in taxonomically diverse plant species. On the basis of our results, the defense mechanisms appear to be largely conserved within the plant kingdom. Of note is our finding that the sequence and/or function of several components of these mechanisms were found to be conserved in animals, as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: GH3 family; sequencing plants; potato; jasmonic acids; tissues; biotic
Online: 17 May 2018 (12:01:00 CEST)
Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3) is a phytohormone-responsive family of genes that has been found in many plant species. It is implicated in the biological activity of indolacetic (IAA) and jasmonic acids (JA), and also affects plant growth and developmental processes and some stresses. In this study, GH3 genes were identified in 48 plants, which belong to algae, moss, fern, gymnosperm and angiosperm. No GH3 representative gene has been found in algae, and our research identified 4 genes in mosses, 19 in ferns, 7 in gymnosperms, and numerous in Angiosperms. The results showed that GH3 genes mainly occur in seed plants. Phylogenetic analysis of all GH3 genes showed three separate clades. Group I was related to JA adenylation, group II was related to IAA adenylation, and group III was separated from group II but the function was not clear. The structure of GH3 protein indicated highly conserved sequence in the plant kingdom. The analysis of JA-adenylation related to gene expression of GH3 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) showed that StGH3.12 highly responded to Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Expression levels of StGH3.1, StGH3.11, and StGH3.12 were high in flower and StGH3.11 expression was also high in stolon. Our research revealed the evolution of the GH3 family, which is useful for studying the precise function about JA-adenylation GH3 genes in S. tuberosum under development and biotic stresses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: anti-malaria activity; plants; natural products; ethnopharmacology; Plasmodium parasites
Online: 16 April 2018 (05:55:07 CEST)
Malaria, as a major global health problem, continues to affect a large number of people each year, especially those in the developing countries. Effective drug discovery is still one of the main efforts to control malaria. As natural products are still considered as a key source for discovery and development of therapeutic agents, we have evaluated more than 2000 plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. As a result, we discovered dozens of plant leads that displayed antimalarial activity. Our phytochemical study of some of these plant extracts led to identification of several potent antimalarial compounds. The prior comprehensive review article entitled “Antimalarial activity of plant metabolites” by Schwikkard and Van Heerden (2002) reported structures of plant-derived compounds with antiplasmodial activity and covered literature up to the year 2000. As a continuation of this effort, the present review covers the antimalarial compounds isolated from plants, including marine plants, reported in the literatures from 2001 to the end of 2017. During the span of the last 17 years, 175 antiplasmodial compounds were discovered from plants. These active compounds are organized in our review article according to their plant families. In addition, we also include ethnobotanical information of the antimalarial plants discussed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1331.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: medicinal plants; tyrosinase inhibition; melanin inhibition; hypermelanosis; cosmetics; skin lightening
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:31:58 CET)
There is a growing demand and use of herbal cosmetics for skin purposes due to their perceived safety when applied to the skin. Three Cassipourea species commonly known as “ummemezi” are used interchangeable by women in rural areas of Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces to treat hypermelanosis as well as sun protection. We conducted a phytochemical comparison of three Cassipourea species; C. flanaganii, C. gummiflua and C. malosana by LC-MS/MS analysis in negative mode. The results obtained from the LC-MS/MS yielded a total number of twenty-four compounds of different chemical classes, including fatty acids, steroids, di- and tri-terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids were detected, and eighteen among them were tentatively identified. Despite the recent popularity of modern cosmetic products, it is clear that plants continue to play an important role in the local cosmetics industry in South Africa's Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal community provinces. The findings of this study suggest that an alternative treatment for hyper-melanosis disorders should be developed further. The residual wild plant stocks are insufficient to meet commercial needs, thus, encouraging their sustainable use is a means of harnessing the conservation of these plants. Indigenous communities should be supported in the commercialization which could be linked to the rural economic development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1822.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Medicinal and aromatic plants; sustainability; circular economy; waste management; valorisation
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:13:06 CEST)
Due to the growing demand for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (PAMs), environmental risks associated with overexploitation and inadequate waste management are increasing. Since MAPs residues have a notable potential to be valorised, the implementation of Circular Economy solutions can play a central role in transforming waste management problems into economic opportunities and in responding to the growing demand for MAPs. Circular economy is viewed as a solution for fostering a sustainable system planet and positively contributes to the economy and society. A systematic review was conducted aiming to identify potential applications for the valorisation of MAP, under a sustainable waste management and circular economy approach. A total number of 47 studies were analysed and it was verified that MAPs residues can be valorised for energy purposes, crop management and applications in chemical, food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic industries, among others. Despite the wide range of possible applications, to promote a progressive implementation of circular economy strategies by the industry, further investigation is needed regarding the development of more efficient techniques and technology to develop value-added products and the assessment of sustainable performance in empirical investigations, considering both economic and environmental indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0021.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Gastrodia elata; industrial production; gastrodin; parishin; edible plants; processing procedure
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:31:59 CEST)
Gastrodia elata Bl., one of the well-known edible plants in China, belongs to the family of Orchidaceae. In recent years, the consumption rate of this plant as food supplements or health products is gradually rising in China. However, the traditional industrialization processing procedures (TP) for this plant was found to be too complicated and not friendly to the environment with time and energy consuming. Hence, we investigated whether the processing procedures could be simplified without affecting its overall chemical profile and anti-oxidation activity. In this experiment, a new processing procedure (NP) was designed for processing this plant, and the chemical compositions of the extract for Gastrodia elata produced by two different processing procedures were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. It was found that phenols and parisins were the most abundant chemical components for this extract. Among all the identified components, the contents of gastrodin and its citric acid derivatives were obviously higher than that of other components. Therefore, the contents of six gastrodin derivatives and ethanol soluble extract rate for Gastrodia elata produced by two different processing procedures, traditional and newly designed processing procedures, were further comparatively investigated for the validation of the applicability. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of the extract from Gastrodia elata produced by two different processing procedures were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the contents of gastrodin and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol in all samples were slightly decreased in NP samples compared with that of TP samples (except batches of S3 and S6 samples), but no significant difference was observed between these two groups (p = 0.8273 for gastrodin and p= 0.2320 for p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol). Additionally, the total contents of parisins were also in a decreased trend in NP samples but with no significant difference when comparing with that in TP samples (p = 0.1721). The results for ethanol soluble extract rate also had the same situation (p = 0.1094). Taken together, it was suggested that the chemical profiles and contents of gastrodin derivatives and ethanol soluble extract rate for NP samples was not significant different to that of TP samples. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract of Gastrodia elata produced with NP method was not significant different from that of TP samples. As a result, the industrial processing procedures for the preservation of this material plant could be simplified to a more time and energy saving procedure without changing the quality of the products, which is also consistent with the concept of green and sustainable industrial production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0272.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Apiaceae plants; traditional use; phytochemistry; bolting and flowering; controlling approaches
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:47:46 CEST)
Apiaceae plants have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for the treatment of removing dampness, relieving superficies, and dispelling cold, etc. In order to exploit the potential application and improve the yield and quality of Apiaceae medicinal plants (AMPs), The traditional use, phytochemistry, modern pharmacological use, effect of bolting and flowering (BF), and approaches for controlling the BF were summarized. Currently, about 228 AMPs have been recorded as TCMs with 6 medicinal parts, 72 traditional uses, 62 modern pharmacological uses, and 5 main kinds of metabolites. Three effect degrees (i.e., significantly affected, affected to some extent, and no significantly affected) could be classed based on the yield and quality. The BF of individual plants (e.g., Angelica sinensis) could be effectively controlled by the standard cultivation techniques, while the mechanism of BF has not been systemically revealed. This review will provide useful references for the reasonable exploration and high-quality production of AMPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Bone healing; , bone fracture; bone graft; herbal medicine; osteogenesis; plants
Online: 26 January 2023 (02:58:19 CET)
Objectives Bone fractures are very common diseases, which can be caused by impact injuries or physiological disorders. Thus, the present review aimed to study the use of medicinal plants in the healing mechanism of bone fractures. Evidence acquisition Through research in the PubMed, Google Academic, and Scielo databases, this article reviews 11 ethnopharmacological studies and 34 preclinical studies on the biological actions of different plants in bone fracture healing mechanism. Results Indian tribes have highlighted in the plants ethnopharmacological study for various diseases, including bone fractures. However, despite the large citations of traditional use, technical-scientific studies are still scarce in the literature. Chenopodium ambrosioides, Piper sarmentosum, quadrangular Cissus, Ricinus communis and Radix salvia miltiorrhiza plants were the most studied in the literature regarding their osteogenic, angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and remodeling effects, acting on bone receptors, stimulating bone metabolism, increasing minerals uptake, and assisting in free radicals breakdown. Conclusion Thus, the medicinal plants use is promising in the field of bone regeneration, as well as being alternative when conventional therapies are unfeasible, increasing herbal medicines demand and popularity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0614.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Triple-negative breast cancer; cannabinoid; marijuana; cell signalling; medicinal plants
Online: 28 July 2021 (08:56:32 CEST)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer characterized by the lack of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors, and HER-2 receptors. Thus, TNBC tumours do not benefit from the current therapies targeting ER or HER-2. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel treatment for this subtype of breast cancer. Marijuana is a common name given to Cannabis plants, a group of plants in the Cannabis genus of the Cannabaceae family. Cannabis plants are among the oldest cultivated crops, traced back at least 12,000 years and are well known for their multi-purpose usage, including medicinal purposes. The main active compounds extracted from Cannabis plants are 21-carbon-containing terpenophenolics, which are referred to as phytocannabinoids. Of these, the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) group contains highly potent cannabinoids, including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) and delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆8-THC), which are the most abundant THCs and are largely responsible for psychological and physiological effects of marijuana. The use of Cannabis plants for medicinal purposes was first recorded in 2337 BC in China, where Cannabis plants were used to treat pains, rheumatism, and gout. Recently, several cannabinoids have been approved for a number of treatments, one of which is the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Furthermore, increasing evidence shows that cannabinoids not only attenuate side effects due to cancer treatment, but might also potentially possess direct antitumor effects in several cancer types, including breast cancer. However, anti-tumour activity of marijuana has been variable in different studies and even promoted tumour growth in some cases. In addition, the mechanisms of cannabinoid action in cancer remain unclear. This review summarizes evidence about the mixed actions of cannabinoids in cancer in general and triple-negative breast cancer in particular.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Rice-husk; power plants; CO2 emission reductions; Clean Development Mechanism
Online: 8 April 2021 (17:33:39 CEST)
The research is designed for developing the pilot small-scale clean development mechanism bundled project activities in Vietnam electricity/ energy sector. Its overall purpose is to assess the potential of rice husk - fuelled bio-power development projects in Mekong delta. Based on estimating the electricity potential of a bundle of rice husk-fuelled bio-power development projects in Mekong delta with the capacity of 11 MW per project, assessing their CO2 emission reductions (CERs) and CER credits, calculating and comparing their financial indices (NPV, B/C, IRR) in two cases: W/O CDM and W/CDM, the research expects to establish a rice husk energy balance flowchart for the whole Mekong delta in the year 2021 and recommend policies to use for bio-power generation the unused rice husk that is dumped and discharged from local paddy milling centers into rivers and canals, as well as, to put forward a safe and environmentally friendly solution to minimize thoroughly the current serious pollution of rivers and canals in Mekong delta with the increasing unused rice husk quantity in the context is where the sea level rise phenomenon is the strongest in the world .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0380.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nanoparticle; transition-metal; transition-metal oxides; plants; green synthesis; factors
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:49:49 CET)
In recent years, many researchers have begun to shift their focus onto the synthesis of nanomaterials as this field possesses immense potential that may provide incredible technological advances in the near future. The downside of conventional synthesis techniques, such as co-precipitation, sol-gel and hydrothermal methods, is that they necessitate the use of toxic chemicals, produce harmful by-products and require a considerable amount of energy; therefore, more sustainable fabrication routes are sought after. Biological molecules have been previously utilised as precursors to nanoparticle synthesis, thus eliminating the negative factors involved in traditional methods. In addition, transition-metal nanoparticles possess a wide scope of applications due to their multiple oxidation states and large surface areas; thereby allowing for a higher reactivity when compared to their bulk counterpart and rendering them an interesting research topic. However, this field is still relatively unknown and unpredictable. Therefore, this review aims to obtain a better understanding on the plant-mediated synthesis process of the major transition-metal and transition-metal oxide nanoparticles, and how different parameters affect their unique properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0379.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: hormone; quorum sensing; receptor; bacteria; fungi; metazoa; plants; microbiota; evolution
Online: 25 September 2020 (10:40:10 CEST)
Cellular communications play pivotal roles in multi-cellular species, but they do so also in uni-cellular species. Moreover, cells communicate with each other not only within the same individual but also with cells in other individuals belonging to the same or other species. These communications occur between two unicellular species, two multicellular species, or between unicellular and multicellular species. The molecular mechanisms involved exhibit diversity and specificity, but they share common basic features which allow common pathways of communication between different, and sometimes very different species. These interactions have been made possible by the high degree of conservation of the basic molecular mechanisms of interaction of many ligand-receptor pairs in evolutionary remote species. These inter-species cellular communications played crucial roles during Evolution and must have been positively selected, particularly when collectively beneficial in hostile environments. We think that communications between cells did not arise after their emergence but was part of the very nature of first cells. Synchronization of populations of non-living protocells through chemical communications may have been a mandatory step towards their emergence as populations of living cells and explain the large commonality of cell communication mechanisms among microorganisms, plants, and animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0125.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: vegetation health monitoring; leaf water content; terahertz; sensing; plants health
Online: 9 July 2019 (03:25:11 CEST)
An increasing global aridification due to climate change has made the health monitoring of vegetation indispensable to maintaining the food supply chain. Cost-effective and smart irrigation systems are required not only to ensure the efficient distribution of water, but also to track the moisture of plant leaves, which is an important marker of the overall health of the plant. This paper presents a novel electromagnetic method to monitor the water content (WC) and characterization in plant leaves utilizing the absorption spectra of water molecules in the terahertz (THz) frequency for four consecutive days. We extracted the material properties of leaves of eight types of pot herbs from the scattering parameters, measured using a material characterization kit in the frequency range of 0.75 to 1.1 THz. From the computed permittivity, it is deduced that the leaf specimens increasingly become transparent to the THz waves as they dry out with the passage of days. Moreover, the loss in weight and thickness of leaves were observed due to the natural evaporation of leaf moisture cells and change occurred in the morphology of fresh and water-stressed leaves. It is also illustrated that loss observed in WC on day 1 was in the range of 5\% to 22\%, and increased from 83.12\% to 99.33\% on day 4. Furthermore, we observed an exponential decaying trend in the peaks of the real part of the permittivity from day 1 to 4, which was reminiscent of the trend observed in the weight of all leaves. Thus, results in paper demonstrated that timely detection of water stress in leaves can help to take proactive action in relation to plants health monitoring, and for precision agriculture applications, which is of high importance to improve the overall productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0292.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: African medicinal plants; Leishmaniasis; natural products; protozoal diseases; Schistosomiasis; Trypanosomiasis
Online: 31 January 2018 (05:28:15 CET)
Parasitic diseases continue represent a threat on a global scale, particularly among the poorest countries in the world. This is particularly because of the absence of vaccines, and in some cases, resistance against available drugs, currently being used for their treatment. In this review emphasis is laid on natural products and scaffolds from African medicinal plants (AMPs) for lead drug discovery and possible further development of drugs for the treatment of parasitic diseases. In the discussion, emphasis has been laid on alkaloids, terpenoids, quinones, flavonoids and narrower compound classes of compounds with micromolar range activities against Schistosoma, Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Suggestions for future drug development from African medicinal plants have also been provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: harmonic distortion; active power filter; resonance; damping; wind power plants
Online: 16 March 2017 (06:56:42 CET)
The interaction between the grid network and the offshore wind power plant (WPP) network can lead to the amplification of certain harmonics and potentially resonant conditions. Offshore WPP should limit the increment of harmonic voltage distortion at the point of connection to the grid network as well as within their internal network. The harmonic distortion should be limited within the planning level limits using harmonic compensation, which is usually achieved by using static filters. In this paper an active damping compensation strategy with a STATCOM using emulation of resistance at the harmonic frequencies of concern is analysed. Such a compensation is effective for the local bus, though the performance is not guaranteed at the remote bus. This paper investigates the challenges associated with remote harmonic compensation in the offshore WPP, which is connected to the onshore grid through long high-voltage cables and transformers. First, the harmonic distortion and the compensating effects of the filter are theoretically assessed. Afterwards, they are demonstrated using harmonic propagation studies and time domain simulations in PSCAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0306.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Whitefly; photosynthetic parameters; gas exchange; insect pest; plants resistance; Glycine max.
Online: 6 October 2023 (05:06:57 CEST)
The whitefly leads extensive damage to plants through direct feeding, honeydew secretion, plant physiological disorders, and vectoring plant viruses. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological characteristics of susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars to B. tabaci. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Eleven soybean cultivars were selected and infested with 100 adults of B. tabaci at the V3 stage. The evaluation of photosynthetic parameters, such as photosynthetic rate, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and internal CO2 concentration, revealed that B. tabaci infestation influenced gas exchange in soybean plants. The photosynthetic rate was higher in cultivars AS3810 and M8349 during the V6 stage. Infestations led to alterations in photosynthetic parameters, suggesting increased energy demand to maintain photosynthetic activity. However, the response to infestation varied among different cultivars, indicating varying levels of resistance and tolerance to the whitefly's damage. Additionally, the impact of infestation was more significant during the vegetative phenological. In conclusion, B. tabaci infestation affects soybean plants' physiology, leading to changes in gas exchange parameters and water use efficiency. The response to infestation varied among soybean cultivars, suggesting potential differences in resistance to the pest. The study highlights the importance of evaluating the physiological impact of whitefly infestations on soybean.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1464.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: nuclear fusion; female gametogenesis; fertilization; membrane fusion; flowering plants; budding yeast
Online: 21 September 2023 (10:57:58 CEST)
Nuclear fusion is essential for the sexual reproduction of various organisms, including plants, animals, and fungi. During the life cycle of flowering plants, nuclear fusion occurs three times: once during female gametogenesis and twice during double fertilization, when two sperm cells fertilize the egg and the central cell. Haploid nuclei migrate in an actin filament-dependent manner to become in close contact, then two nuclei fuse. The nuclear fusion process in plant reproduction is achieved by the sequential nuclear membrane fusion events. Recent molecular genetic analyses using Arabidopsis thaliana showed the conservation of nuclear membrane fusion machinery between plants and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These include the heat shock protein 70 in the endoplasmic reticulum and conserved nuclear membrane proteins. Analyses of A. thaliana mutants of these components show that completion of the sperm nuclear fusion at fertilization is essential for proper embryo and endosperm development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0756.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: soil-like substrates; coal waste; sewage sludge; mineral wool; yielding plants
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:04:05 CEST)
In order to reduce the environmental damage caused by coal waste landfills, it is necessary to look for rational ways of their management. One of the methods of their development may be the creation of soil-like substrates. The aim of the study was to assess the properties of soil-like substrates from coal mining waste with a varied share of sewage sludge and waste mineral wool. The evaluation of the properties of the substrates was carried out in a pot experiment. The properties of the substrates and their yield potential were determined. Coal mining waste as a substrate, compared to anthropogenic soil, was characterized by: significantly higher sorption capacity, content of alkaline cations and pH, significantly higher content of organic carbon, nitrogen and assimilable forms of K and Mg, and lower content of assimilable P. The substrates enriched with sewage sludge showed: significant increase in the content of organic carbon, nitrogen and assimilable forms of P and Mg, optimization of sorption properties. Extending the composition of substrates with mineral wool resulted in further improvement of their properties. Yields of plants grown on coal mining waste were significantly lower than on anthropogenic soil. Substrates with sewage sludge and mineral wool had a significantly higher yield potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0061.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant functional traits; forest gaps; colonizing plants; Dinaric fir-beech forest
Online: 3 July 2023 (11:29:23 CEST)
In the research, we studied the typical functional plant traits and life forms of plants that colonize forest gaps. In the research, we analysed functional plant traits of plant species growing on five forest gaps in the Dinaric fir-beech forest in Slovenia. The forest gaps were created as a result of natural disturbances. We selected 18 functional plant traits, whose values were obtained from the BiolFlor database. With the help of the JUICE program, we calculated the frequency of its occurrence on individual forest gap for each functional plant trait. Then we calculated Sperman's correlation coefficient at p<0.05, between the occurrence of individual functional plant traits and single forest gap. We found out that forest gaps are mainly colonized by perennials and herbaceous perennials and hamephytes. These are plant species that begin to flower in June and July, bloom for two or three months and are pollinated by insects, mainly hover flys and wild bees. Characteristic of colonizing plant species is also that, in addition to reproducing by seeds and spores, they also reproduce vegetatively. Besides that, birds and forest mammals are the vectors of fruit and seed dispersal of colonizing plant species.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: essential oil plants; antisense oligoilators; secondary metabolites; oligonucleotide insecticides; green agriculture
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:48:52 CET)
Successful management of the synthesis of secondary metabolites of essential oil plants is the basis for the economic growth of the essential oil industry. Against the backdrop of a growing global population and a decrease in land available for cultivation, simple and effective ways to increase the content of certain components in essential oils are becoming increasingly important. Selection is no longer keeping pace with market needs, which stimulates the search for faster methods to control the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this article, using the genus Lavandula as an example, we will consider the prospects for use of antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), oligoilators, to rapidly increase the concentration of valuable components in essential oil. This article discusses the use of unmodified ASOs as regulators of plant secondary metabolism to increase the synthesis of individual valuable components, presenting a completely new way to increase the yield of valuable substances based on unique nucleotide sequences. The proposed approach is effective, affordable, safe, and also significantly reduces the time needed to obtain plants that synthesize the required concentrations of target substances. Oligoilators can the used along with oligonucleotide insecticides in complex formulations used for green agriculture. Further investigation is needed to determine maximum economic efficiency of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0408.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Duckweed; Machine learning; Image analysis; Machine training; Aquatic plants; Lemnaceae; Lemna
Online: 29 June 2022 (14:56:08 CEST)
Numerous new technologies have been implemented in image analysis methods that help researchers withdraw scientific conclusions from biological phenomena. Plants of the family Lemnaceae (duckweeds) are the smallest flowering plants in the world, and biometric measurements of single plants and their growth rate are highly challenging. Although the use of software for digital image analysis has changed the way scientists extract phenomenological data (also for studies on duckweeds), the procedure is often not wholly automated and sometimes relies on the intervention of a human operator. Such a constraint can limit the objectivity of the measurements and generally slows down the time required to produce scientific data. Here is the need to implement image analysis software with artificial intelligence that can substitute the human operator. In this paper, we present a new method to study the growth rates of the plants of the Lemnaceae family based on the application of machine learning procedures to digital image analysis. The method is compared to existing analogical and computer-operated procedures. Results showed that our method drastically reduces the time consumption of the human operator while retaining a high correlation in the growth rates measured with other procedures As expected, machine learning methods applied to digital image analysis can overtake the constraints of measuring growth rates of very small plants and might help duckweeds gain worldwide attention thanks to their great nutritional qualities and biological plasticity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0481.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: anomaly detection; machine learning; comparison analysis; renewable energy; Solar Power plants
Online: 30 December 2021 (11:51:18 CET)
The rapid industrial growth in solar energy is gaining increasing interest in renewable power from smart grids and plants. Anomaly detection in photovoltaic (PV) systems is a demanding task. In this sense, it is vital to utilize recent advances in machine learning to accurately and timely detect different anomalies and condition monitoring. This paper addresses this issue by evaluating different machine learning techniques and schemes and showing how to apply these approaches to solve anomaly detection and detect faults on photovoltaic components. For this, we apply distinct state-of-the-art machine learning techniques (AutoEncoder Long Short-Term Memory (AE-LSTM), Facebook-Prophet, and Isolation Forest) to detect faults/anomalies and evaluate their performance. These models shall identify the PV system's healthy and abnormal actual behaviors. Our results provide clear insights to make an informed decision, especially with experimental trade-offs for such complex solution space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Weed science; Plant-microbe interactions; Medicinal plants; shotgun metagenomics; soil metabarcoding
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:19:12 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the roles that microbes may be playing in the rootzone of the medicinal plant Datura inoxia. We hypothesized that rhizospheric and endophytic microbes would be found that were capable of performing the same secondary metabolic functions of the plant rootzone they inhabited. We also hypothesized that the microbial functions would be co-operative with and supportive to plant secondary metabolite production, for example, by providing precursors to important plant bioactive molecules. The methods employed were mi-crobial barcoding, tests of essential oils against antibiotic resistant bacteria and other soil bacterial isolates, 16S Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) metabarcoding, and Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) taxonomic and functional. A few of the main bacterial genera of interest that were dis-covered in the Datura root microbiome were Flavobacterium, Chitinophaga, Pseudomonas, Strepto-myces, Rhizobium, and Bacillus. In the context of known interactions, and current results, plants and microbes influence the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways of one other, in terms of the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. This is important because these compounds are phyto-protective antioxidants and are precursors to many aromatic bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. There was strong evidence to support the notion that synergistic production of plant de-rived secondary metabolites by microbes occurred, as well as the ability for the compounds to enter plant cells. There are possible biopharmaceutical and agricultural applications of the natural interplay that was discovered during this study of the Datura inoxia rhizosphere.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0488.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Reactive oxygen species; Medicinal plants; Cancer cell lines; Cytotoxicity
Online: 29 September 2021 (11:11:19 CEST)
This review article seeks to provide relevant information about the applicability of cell-based assays in assessing cytotoxicity of phytochemicals in light of several traditional methods available. Phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals are significant resources for drug discovery and development, thus underlining the enormous potentials of plant-derived natural products for the prevention and management of oxidative stress associated with cancer and other diseases. These effects have been linked to the content of phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds and their antioxidant properties. The abundance and complexity of these bio-constituents highlight the need for well-defined methods for the in vitro characterization and quantification of extracts and/or preparations that can translate to in vivo effects. Cell culture systems provide a useful model for basic research and a wide range of clinical in vitro studies and physiological processes as well as assessing the toxicity and therapeutic potential of compounds including plant extracts with potential medicinal benefits. Their use in cancer research provide a useful insight into possible therapeutic properties of phytochemicals at the cellular level. This approach has been instrumental in the initial stages of developing chemotherapeutic agents where human cancer cell lines are used as experimental models. These models have continued to contribute to elucidating specific requirements for certain biochemical events associated with proliferation, metabolism, loss of cell viability/apoptosis. Cell culture systems remain a promising tool in natural product development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0351.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cytoprotection; cytotoxicity; ferns; oxidative stress; Polypodiaceae; Polypodium vulgare L.; medicinal plants
Online: 14 May 2021 (16:03:00 CEST)
Pteridophytes, represented by ferns and allies, are an important phytogenetic bridge between lower and higher plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms). Ferns have evolved independently of any other species in the plant kingdom being its secondary metabolism a reservoir of phytoconstituents characteristic of this taxon. The study of the possible medicinal uses of Polypodium vulgare L. (Polypodiaceae), PV, has increased particularly when in 2008 the European Medicines Agency published a monograph about the rhizome of this species. Thus, our objective is to provide scientific knowledge on the methanolic extract from the fronds of P. vulgare L., one of the main ferns described in the Prades Mountains, to contribute to the validation of certain traditional uses. Specifically, we have characterized the methanolic extract of PV fronds (PVM) by HPLC-DAD and investigated its potential cytotoxicity, phototoxicity, ROS production and protective effects against oxidative stress by using in vitro methods. Our results show that PVM is not cytotoxic against the different cell lines assessed, but we found potential cytoprotective and cellular repair activity in 3T3 fibroblast cells. This biological activity could be attributed to the high content of polyphenolic compounds; thus, this extract is positioned as a potential candidate for pharmaceutical uses.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: elevated CO2; nitrogen-fixing plants; herbivores; total phenolic compounds; C:N ratio
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:32:07 CET)
Many studies have found that future predicted CO2 levels (< 800 ppm) can increase plant mass but dilute N content in leaves, impacting antiherbivore compounds. Nitrogen-fixing plants may balance leaf C:N ratio under elevated CO2, counteracting this dilution effect. The aim of this study was to look at how nitrogen-fixing plants grow and respond to herbivore damage at different CO2 levels. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa was grown at 400, 800, or 1600 ppm CO2 in soil collected from the field, inoculated with Frankia and exposed to herbivores (Orgyia leucostigma). Elevated CO2 increased nodulated plant biomass and stimulated the nitrogen fixation rate in the early growth stage. However, nitrogen-fixing plants were not able to balance the C:N ratio under elevated CO2 after grown 19 weeks. When plant were grown at 400 and 1600 ppm CO2, herbivores preferred to feed on leaves of nodulated plants. At 800 ppm CO2, nodulated plants accumulated more total phenolic compounds in response to herbivore damage than plants in the non-Frankia and non-herbivore treatments. Our results suggest that plant leaf defence, not leaf nutritional content, is the dominant driver of herbivory and nitrogen fixing plants have limited ability to balance C:N ratios at elevated CO2 in natural soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: invasive species; Noctuidae; host plants; polyphagous insects; host-strain; pest management
Online: 5 January 2021 (17:12:12 CET)
The alien invasive insect pest Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), commonly referred to as Fall Armyworm (FAW), is a polyphagous insect feeding on more than 350 host plants in addition to maize in its native habitat. Due to the voracious nature of FAW, significant yield losses on maize production were reported across the African continent since its detection in 2016. Despite being a polyphagous insect, little is known about its alternative host plants in the new habitat including Mozambique. This study aimed to assess the host range of FAW in the central province of Manica, Mozambique. A field survey was conducted from May to August 2019 (dry season of 2018/2019 cropping season) and in December 2019 and January 2020 (rainy season of 2019/2020 cropping season) in maize fields and crops often mixed with maize or located in the vicinity of maize fields. A total of 1291 fields were surveyed. In each field, 20 plants were selected in a “W” pattern and checked for the presence of FAW egg masses and/or larvae. At the time of the sampling, no evidence was found suggesting that in Manica province FAW feeds in crops other than maize because out of 35 different crops surveyed, FAW was only recorded on maize. Results from this study suggest that the strain of FAW occurring in Manica province might be the one specialized in maize or the continuous availability of maize fields throughout the year is influencing the choices of the host plants of this invasive insect pest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: gastronomy; livelihood; public healthcare; traditional knowledge; wild food plants; tribal belt
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:05:21 CEST)
The tribal belt of Pakistan-the Pak-Afghan border region is famous for its unique culture, ethnography and wild food plants and traditional knowledge. People of these regions gather wild plants for number of purposes including plants or plant parts for direct use, use it in the traditional cuisines and selling in local markets. However, there is huge lack of documentation of food system particularly the Wild Food Plants (WFPs). In current study we have focused on the uses and contributions of the WFPs in the tribal traditional food system. The ethnobotanical data were gathered through questionnaire surveys with Eighty-four informants 69 men and 15 women belonging to 21 different villages. We documented Sixty-three WFP species belonging to 34 botanical families, of which 27 were used as vegetables, 24 as fruits, 6 in different kinds of chutneys (starters) formation and six as fresh food species. Fruits were the mostly used part (40%) followed by leaves (24%), aerial parts (24%), seeds (7%), stem (3%), legume (2%) and young inflorescence (1%). Use of Carthamus oxycanthus & Pinus roxburghii seeds and Marsillea quadrifolia leaves were the novel reports for the gastronomy of Pakistan. The results elucidate that WFPs have a significant contribution in the Tribal Food Systems. Tribal people use WFPs not only due to their nutritional importance but also as a cultural practice - an inseparable component of the tribal communities. This important traditional Knowledge about the consumption of WFPs has been eroding with an alarming speed among the younger generations due to introduction of fast food chains, modernization, and globalization. Therefore, appropriates strategies are imperative not only to safeguard traditional knowledge but also the cultural heritage, food security and hence public healthcare via food supplement in the region.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: beekeeping; honey bees; honey production; bee forage plants; honey producing capacity
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:26:48 CEST)
Pakistan is an important country located in South Asia and ranks the world's sixth most populous country. It has diverse landscapes with their own specific vegetation. The country specific vegetative diversity has a great ecological and economic impact on the conservation of local fauna. It has huge potential for sustainable beekeeping industry if properly exploited. Beekeeping in Pakistan is mainly focused in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and central and north regions of Punjab provinces but nowadays it is growing rapidly across the country. Honey produced in Pakistan enjoys good repute in the Middle East due to its unique taste and quality. Pakistan exports around 4000 tons of the honey with the worth of about $ 23.00 million to Arab countries every year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0231.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Coal-fired Thermal Plants; CFD modelling; Pollution; Particulate matter; Sulphur dioxide
Online: 11 July 2020 (08:42:34 CEST)
Coal-fired thermal plants (CTPP) are known to pollute the atmosphere with emission of many greenhouse gases and particulate matter. The power generation from these thermal plants cannot be stopped completely because it forms the backbone of the grid power supply. It is necessary to study the dispersion patterns of pollutants that affect the health of the people. The dispersion patterns are location specific since they depend on local meteorological conditions. In this study, the dispersion of particulate matter (PM) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from a CTPP with 275 m high stack are studied under different atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) of neutral, stable and unstable conditions up to a distance of 30 km from the stack. The plume of the PM spreads under all conditions. During some parts of the day, PM settles around the stack while at other times PM keeps suspending in the air for the full distance under study. Sulphur dioxide dilutes to concentrations below the detection limits in about 12-13 km from the stack for neutral and unstable ABL whereas for the stable ABL, the dispersion is up to 30 km. The 24 h weighted average concentration of sulphur dioxide, at 10 m height from the ground, is 14.2 mg/m3 at a distance of 25 kms from the CTPP, which is comparable with the value of 9.2 mg/m3 measured at the Air Quality Stations located around the same distance. Based on the results policy changes that need to be implemented are suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Plants-Microbial Fuel Cells; clean energy; electric potential; power output; resistivity
Online: 18 September 2019 (08:21:05 CEST)
Plants Microbial Fuel Cells (PMFC) is a new technology that generates electricity in a renewable, clean and sustainable way. In spite of these advantages, it still faces limitations in power generation and current density, reaching lower production values than other renewable technologies. Different studies maintain that the high resistivity of the cathode is the main limitation in the generation of energy; therefore, non-metallic materials to obtain a better performance are replacing the metallic electrodes. The implementation of these materials applied to PMFC requires a complex interdisciplinary work. Through three experimental tests using metallic electrodes for the extraction of electrons, this research study shows that the treatment of the substrate with natural materials, the volume plant roots, and substrate temperature and humidity control have a significant influence in the increase of the electric potential and the generated current.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: quercetin; eugenol; organic compounds; rumen; environment; HPLC-DAD; polyphenols-containing plants
Online: 13 April 2019 (05:23:35 CEST)
This study had the objective to evaluate the effect of Piper betle L. powder (PP) at 5 different doses in substrate incubated by sunflower oil as secondary function of PUFA using in vitro gas production technique. The treatments of this study were run as a 2X5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.4: (1) control (S1) without supplementation of PP; (2) 15 mg PP (S2); (3) 30 mg PP (S3); (4) 45 mg PP (S4); and (5) 60 mg PP (S5), while sunflower oil was supplemented in all treatments: low 15 mg/incubation and high 30 mg/incubation. A 500 mg of TMR (hay: concentrate, 50:50) was assigned to basal substrate. The PP containing 1.84 mg/g DM quercetin and 1.00 mg/g DM eugenol altered rumen fermentation without change pH (p < 0.001) and methane production was lesser (p < 0.001) about -30% and -25% for DM and OM measurement, respectively. Gas kinetic, degradability, and ammonia level was significantly affected by supplementing PP (p < 0.01). Overall, this study suggested quercetin and eugenol deriving from PP acted three major accelerations: assembled carbon dioxide, behaved antimicrobial role and performed the balance water molecules in the rumen kinetic. This study suggests that PP promotes changing in vitro rumen fermentation and diminishing methane production within recommended doses, 0.1-15 mg/incubation in DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: carbon capture and storage; mineral carbonation; CO2 sequestration; Greek power plants
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:21:12 CEST)
While the demand in reduction of CO2 increases, the need for CO2 sequestration processes is very high. One promising technology is the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In this paper we refer to several papers which study the three main steps in CCS chain. CO2 capture technologies, CO2 transportation to the storage sites and the very critical step the CO2 storage. Recently a novel method (mineral carbonation) for CO2 sequestration has been proposed which is based in the reaction of CO2 with calcium or magnesium oxides or hydroxides to form stable carbonate materials. Greece is a country that emits CO2 mainly from the lignite fired power plant in Western Greece. After the study of the bibliographic references about the use of mineral carbonation process while injecting CO2 in the appropriate geological forms we concluded that there are also these forms in our country and mainly in the area near to the power plant such as in sites Vourinos and Pindos. In these sites exist minerals rich in oxides and hydroxides of Ca, Mg and Fe representing the perfect materials for mineral carbonation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: essential oils; drug resistant microorganisms; antimicrobial activity; antifungal activity; medicinal plants
Online: 11 October 2018 (11:51:16 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recurring global problem, which constantly demands new antimicrobial compounds to challenge the resistance. It is well known that essential oils (EOs) have been known for biological activities including antimicrobial properties. In this study, EOs from seven aromatic plants of Asir region of southwestern Saudi Arabia were tested for their antimicrobial efficacy against four drug resistant pathogenic bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus typhimurium) and one fungal isolate (Candida albicans). Chemical compositions of EOs were determined by Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that EOs from Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare proved most active against all isolates with inhibitory zone range between17 to 45 mm. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.025mg/ml was observed for Staph. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes with EO of Origanum vulgare. All the three EOs showed significant anti candida activity. Together form the results the EOs from Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare demonstrated a significant antimicrobial efficacy against drug resistant microorganisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: hyperspectral image; spectral characteristics of plants; spectral adaptive grouping; compressive sensing
Online: 8 May 2017 (11:45:34 CEST)
With the development of hyperspectral technology, to establish an effective spectral data compressive reconstruction method that can improving data storage, transmission and maintaining spectral information is critical for quantitative remote sensing research and application in vegetation. By introducing the idea of compressive sensing in compressed reconstruction, the spectral adaptive grouping distributed compressive sensing algorithm is proposed, which enables a distributed compressed sensing reconstruction of plant hyperspectral data. The experimental results showed that comparing with orthogonal matching pursuit(OMP) and gradient projection reconstruction(GPSR), the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the visual effect of image reconstruction in the spatial domain. The PSNR in low sampling rate(sampling rate is lower than 0.2) increases by 13.72dB than OMP and 1.66dB than GPSR. In the spectral domain, the average normalized root mean square error、the mean absolute percentage error and the mean absolute error of the proposed algorithm is35.38%，31.83% and 33.33% lower than GPSR respectively.. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can achieve relatively high reconstructed efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0769.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Molybdate Transporters; Metal homeostasis in plants; Molybdate distribution; Molybdenum Cofactor; Arabidopsis thaliana
Online: 12 October 2023 (04:44:34 CEST)
This review article deals with the pathways of cellular and global molybdate distribution in plants, especially with a full overview for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In its oxidized state as bioavailable molybdate, molybdenum can be absorbed from the environment. Especially in higher plants, molybdenum is indispensable as part of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), which is responsible for functionality as a prosthetic group in a variety of essential enzymes like nitrate reductase and sulfite oxidase. Therefore, plants need mechanisms for molybdate import and transport within the organism, which is accomplished via high-affinity molybdate transporter (MOT) localized in different cells and membranes. Two different MOT-families were identified. Especially legumes like Glycine max or Medicago truncatula have an increased numbers of MOT1-family members for supplying their symbionts with molybdate for nitrogenase activity. In Arabidopsis thaliana especially, the complete way of molybdate through the plant is traceable. Not only the uptake from soil by MOT1.1 and its distribution to leaves, flowers and seeds by MOT2-family members was identified, but also inside the cell the transport trough the cytoplasm and the vacuolar storage mechanisms depending on glutathione were described. Finally, supplying the Moco biosynthesis complex by MOT1.2 and MOT2.1 was demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0402.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Pollution; Phytoremediation; Plants; PM mitigation; Deposition; Foliage; Morphological traits; Par-ticulate matter
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:03:16 CEST)
Spectacularly, particulate matter pollution influences human health by aggravating numerous diseases and causing premature deaths. In order to eliminate its concentration in the ambient air, plant species can act as natural bio-filters and capture, degrade, and metabolize air pollutants inside their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with different pollution levels and plant types. The immobilization efficiency of Particulate Matter (PM) was investigated in the leaves of three species (shrub, climber, and herb) in the southwestern of Japan with a time gap of 14 days. Two healthy mature leaf samples of each specimen were carefully collected and analyzed using the gravimetric analytical method. A significant quantity of PM in three-size fractions with aerodynamic diameters ranging between (0.1-100 μm) was captured inside the leaf foliage of the analyzed species. Fine particles (2.5 -10 μm) dominated the highest portion of the PM deposition captured by the analyzed species with 70.6 μg.cm-2(39.5%). Shrub species represented with Elaeagnus pungens proved to be the most efficient species among the analyzed species. Leaf traits such as grooves, trichomes, roughness, and margin are considered key factors associated with positive PM deposition, whereas the total surface area of the leaves had no direct correlation to PM deposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0815.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: camellia sinensis; acacia gum; medicinal plants; tea; food; infusion beverages; health claims
Online: 10 August 2023 (05:44:28 CEST)
Infusions of Camellia sinensis leaves have been known for their health benefits. The ABC method is a method of enriching organic infusion leaves (from Camellia. sinensis) with organic dry and concentrated extracts using organic acacia gum and its application to white tea has provided Qi cha tea®. In the present study, we assessed the content of tea polyphenols and caffeine, and biochemical properties of Qi cha tea® and its botanical constituents. Antioxidant and cell viability activities were determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and MTT assay in Caco-2 and human HCT-116 cell lines, respectively. The caffeine, catechin, epicatechin composition of Qi cha tea® was modified with less caffeine and gallic acid and more EGCG than the original white tea. The majority of the tested botanical samples including Qi cha tea® at 50 µg/mL showed similar antioxidant activities, with the exception of Echinacea. The greatest effect was found for white tea. The antioxidant power of the Qi cha tea® (90% at 50 µg/mL for pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was divided by approximately a factor of 2 (61% at 50 µg/mL for pressurized liquid extraction products (PLEP)) which corresponds to the 48.3 % (mass/mass) white tea original content in the Qi cha tea®. Qi cha tea® showed the lowest activity in the viability of the two cell lines. The application of the ABC (Bio Concentrate Assets®) method to Qi cha tea® using various botanicals and dry extract with the acacia gum as blinder has allowed the development a new innovative functional health beverages which comply with European health claims.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0976.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; lignite-fired power plants; Particulate Matter (PM); Western Macedonia
Online: 14 July 2023 (05:32:18 CEST)
The lockdown implemented to tackle the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on air quality. Globally, studies have shown that the air pollutants levels reduced temporally during the restriction measures. In this study, we evaluated the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on the air quality of Western Macedonia, Greece, using the hourly concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 along with meteorological data from the Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AQMS) operated by the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia. In Western Macedonia, previous studies have identified that there is a general reduction in air pollutants levels during the last decade due to coal phase-out plan for power generation. During the lockdown the levels of PM2.5 and PM10 decreased further. However, reduced emissions from the local mining activities and lignite-fired power plant electricity generation, as well as the weather conditions seems to contribute to improving air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0348.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Alpine plants; human trampling disturbance; global change; recreation; plant traits; trail planning
Online: 5 July 2023 (15:37:51 CEST)
Human disturbance, such as trampling, is an integral component of global change, yet we lack a comprehensive understanding of its effects on alpine ecosystems. Many alpine systems are seeing a rapid increase in recreation, and in understudied regions, such as the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, disturbance impacts on alpine plants remain unclear. We surveyed disturbed (trail-side) and undisturbed (off-trail) transects along elevational gradients of popular hiking trails in the T’aḵ’t’aḵ’múy̓in tl’a In̓inyáx̱a7n region (Garibaldi Provincial Park), Canada, focusing on dominant shrubs (Phyllodoce empetriformis, Cassiope mertensiana, Vaccinium ovalifolium) and graminoids (Carex spp). We used a hierarchical Bayesian framework to test for disturbance by elevation effects on total plant percent cover, maximum plant height and diameter (growth proxies), and buds, flowers, and fruits (reproduction proxies). We found that trampling reduces plant cover and impacts all species, but that effects vary by species and trait, and disturbance effects only vary with elevation for one species’ trait. Growth traits are more sensitive to trampling than reproductive traits, which may lead to differential impacts on population persistence and species level fitness outcomes. Our study highlights that disturbance responses are species-specific, and this knowledge can help land managers minimize disturbance impacts on sensitive vegetation types.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0549.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forest plants; genetic breeding; omics technologies; multi-omics integration; gene regulatory networks
Online: 19 April 2023 (05:31:46 CEST)
In recent years, the ecological and economic values of forest plants have been gradually recognized worldwide. However, the growing global demand for new forest plant varieties with higher wood production capacity and better stress tolerance cannot be satisfied by conventional phenotype-based breeding, marker-assisted selection, and genomic selection. In the recent past, diverse omics technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been developed rapidly, providing powerful tools for the precision genetic breeding of forest plants. Genomics lays a solid foundation for understanding complex biological regulatory networks, while other omics technologies provide different perspectives at different levels. Multi-omics integration has combined the different omics technologies, becoming a powerful tool for genome-wide functional element identification in forest plant breeding. This review summarizes the recent progress of omics technologies and their applications in the genetic studies of forest plants. It will provide forest plant breeders with an elementary knowledge of multi-omics techniques for future breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0253.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Selenium species; Maize plants; Se fractions; Rock-soil-plant interface; Selenium accumulation
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:55:32 CET)
Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important staple food and primary source of livestock feed in the world. As the consumption of maize grown on the selenium-enriched soils of Naore Valley is one of the apparent causes of selenosis in the area, this work collected and analyzed total Se, Se fractions, and Se species distributions in maize plant samples, including grains, leaves, stalks, roots, rhizosphere soils, and the most representative parent rock materials from Naore Valley, Ziyang County, China. The Se distribution in soils markedly correlated with the weathered Se-enriched bedrocks, but most of the Se in the analyzed soils is enclosed as recalcitrant residual Se and organic-sulfide bound Se. In contrast, Se in rocks had a comparatively higher bioavailability and is bounded mainly to organic matter and sulfides minerals, with very few of the Se enclosed in the residual fraction. Maize plants might take a large amount of Se from the organic-sulfide bound Se fraction in the Se-rich soils, the weathered products from bedrocks or plant litters. Total Se concentrations in the collected samples were observed in descending order soil>leaf>root>grain>stalk. The predominant Se species detected in maize plants was SeMet. Se inorganic forms, mainly Se(VI), decreased from root to grain and were possibly assimilated into organic forms. Se (IV) was barely present. The natural increases in Se concentration affected mainly leaf and root dry-weight biomass as they are the organs that coped with the highest Se accumulation. This paper offers an insight into the uptake, accumulation, and distribution of Se forms in natural Se-rich maize crops and an opportunity for shifting Se-rich soils from menaces to valuable resources for growing Se-rich agricultural products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0493.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: water-assisted laser desorption/ionization; SpiderMass; cannabinoids; mass spectrometry; plants; in vivo
Online: 30 December 2021 (19:02:18 CET)
In the recent years, Cannabis and hemp-based products have become increasingly popular for various applications ranging from recreational use, edibles, beverages to health care products and medicines. The rapid detection and differentiation of phytocannabinoids is, therefore, essential to assess the potency, therapeutic and nutritional values of cannabis cultivars. Here, we implemented the SpiderMass technology for the in vivo detection of cannabidiol acid (CBDA) and tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA) and other endogenous organic plant compounds to access distribution gradients within the plants and differentiate cultivars. The SpiderMass system is composed of an IR- laser handheld microsampling probe connected to the mass spectrometer through a transfer tube. The analysis was performed in situ on different plant organs from freshly cultivated Cannabis plants in only a few seconds. SpiderMass analysis easily discriminated the two acid phytocannabinoid isomers by MS/MS and the built statistical models differentiated between four Cannabis cultivars. Different abundancies of acid phytocannabinoids were also found along the plant as well as between different cultivars. All together, these results introduce the direct analysis by SpiderMass as a compelling analytical alternative for forensic and hemp industrial analysis.