Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Synthetic Apomixis an Old Enigma to Preserve Hybrid Vigor

Version 1 : Received: 16 January 2020 / Approved: 17 January 2020 / Online: 17 January 2020 (10:30:45 CET)

How to cite: Fiaz, S.; Wang, X.; Maqbool, R.; Ali, H.; Ahmad, S.; Riaz, A.; Alharthi, B. Synthetic Apomixis an Old Enigma to Preserve Hybrid Vigor. Preprints 2020, 2020010191 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202001.0191.v1). Fiaz, S.; Wang, X.; Maqbool, R.; Ali, H.; Ahmad, S.; Riaz, A.; Alharthi, B. Synthetic Apomixis an Old Enigma to Preserve Hybrid Vigor. Preprints 2020, 2020010191 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202001.0191.v1).

Abstract

The hybrid seeds of several important crops with supreme qualities, including yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, have been cultivated from decades. Thus far, a major challenge with hybrid seed, it does not hold ability to produce plants with same qualities over subsequent generations. Apomixis exist naturally an asexual mode of reproduction in flowering plants via avoiding meiosis and ultimately leads to seed production. Apomixis possess potential to preserve hybrid vigor for multiple generations for economically important plant genotypes. The evolution and genetics of asexual seed production is unclear and need much more efforts to find its genetic architecture. To fix hybrid vigor synthetic apomixis has been suggested an alternative. The development of MiMe (Mitosis instead of Meiosis) genotypes are utilized further for clonal gametes production. However, the identification and parental origin of genes responsible for synthetic apomixis are less known and need further understanding. Genome modifications utilizing genome editing technologies (GETs) like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (cas9) a reverse genetics tool has paved way to utilize emerging technologies in plant molecular biology. From the last decade, several genes in important crops have been successfully edited. The vast availability of GETs has made the functional genomics studies easy to conduct in crops important for food security. The disruption of expression of genes specific to egg cell MATRILINEAL (MTL) or BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) through CRISPR/Cas genome editing system can promote haploid plants. The establishment of synthetic apomixis by engineering MiMe genotype by genome editing BBM1 expression or disruption of MTL leads toward clonal seed production. In present review, we discussed the current development in plants by utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its possibility of promoting apomixis in crops to preserve hybrid vigour. In addition to this, genetics, evolution, epigenetic modifications and strategy for MiMe genotype development has been discussed in detail.

Subject Areas

hybrid vigor; flowering plants; apomixis; CRISPR/Cas9

Comments (2)

Comment 1
Received: 18 January 2020
Commenter: Awais Anwaar
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: This article is much useful for students as well as for researchers. This is all about the use of apomixis in preserving hybrid vigor
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Response 1 to Comment 1
Received: 19 January 2020
Commenter: Sajid Fiaz
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Thank you for your valuable comment. There is much potential to exploit apomixis in crop breeding programs. However, the mystery is yet to determined. Some useful information will further expand our understanding on apomictic plants.

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