REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0299.v1
Online: 16 November 2022 (08:44:03 CET)
Cancer metastasis into the brain constitutes one of the most severe but not uncommon development of cancer growth. Several factors control how cancer types interact with the brain to establish metastasis These factors include system of migration, system of infiltration of the blood-brain barrier and the interaction with host cells (e.g., neurons, astrocytes) and the immune system fight against metastasis in the brain. Although, brain radiotherapy is the main treatment procedure carried out to treat, new therapies are emerging that constitute a glimpse of hope for increasing the diminutive life expectancy currently forecasted to cancer patients who are facing the prospectus of brain metastasis. However applying these therapeutic strategies has been has not been effective. Thus there is a need for better understanding of the metastasis process in order to suggest novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we follow the journey of various cancer cells from their primary location through the various process that they undergo including EMT, penetration of the ECM, intravasation, extravasation and infiltration of the blood brain barrier ending up with colonization and angiogenesis. In each phase, we focus on molecules that could potentially be drug target candidates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Breast; cancer; metastasis; oncology
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:52:17 CEST)
Regardless of the advances in our ability to detect early and treat breast cancer, it is still one of the common types of malignancy worldwide, with the majority of patients decease upon metastatic disease. Nevertheless, due to these advances, we have extensively characterized the drivers and molecular profiling of breast cancer and further dividing it into subtypes. These subgroups are based on immunohistological markers (Estrogen Receptor-ER, Progesterone Receptor-PR and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-HER-2) and transcriptomic signatures, with distinct therapeutic approaches and regiments. These therapeutic approaches include targeted therapy (HER-2+), endocrine therapy (HR+) or chemotherapy (TNBC) with optional combination radiotherapy, depending on clinical stage. Technological and scientific advances in the identification of molecular pathways that contribute to therapy-resistance and establishment of metastatic disease, have provided the rationale for revolutionary targeted approaches against Cyclin-Dependent Kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6), PI3 Kinase (PI3K), Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1), among others. In this review, we focus on the comprehensive overview of epidemiology and current standard of care treatment of metastatic breast cancer, along with ongoing clinical trials. Towards this goal, we utilized available literature from PubMed and ongoing clinical trial information from clinicaltrials.gov to reflect the up to date and future treatment options for metastatic breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Angiogenesis; metastasis; mammary neoplasm
Online: 17 December 2018 (15:20:52 CET)
Canine mammary tumors (CMT) are the most common cancer in noncastrated female dogs. Interestingly, triple-negative tumors are the most common molecular subtype in female dogs. In this study, we proposed to evaluate the expression of VEGFR-2, PDGFR and microvascular density (MVD) in a group of metastatic and nonmetastatic triple-negative CMT and compare the expression based on clinical parameters. Twenty-six female dogs with triple-negative mammary tumors were divided into three groups: nonmetastatic tumors (NMT) (N=11), tumors with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (N=10) and tumors with lung metastasis (LM) (N=5). We observed increased VEGFR-2 expression in LNM compared with NMT and a positive correlation between tumor grade and VEGFR-2 expression. A positive correlation was noted between VEGFR-2 and PDGFR expression. Regarding microvascular density (MVD), we identified a higher number of vessels in primary tumors with lymph node metastasis and lung metastasis compared with tumors with no metastasis. The primary tumors with lung metastasis exhibited an increased MVD compared with carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. Overall, our results suggest a deregulation of VEGFR-2 and PDGFR and high MVD in metastatic tumors, indicating a role for angiogenesis in tumor progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm; metastasis; markers
Online: 14 June 2023 (10:16:03 CEST)
Due to the lack of a diagnostic tumor marker (TM), the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasia (PNEN) is usually delayed, and a large part of patients present with regional (RM) and distant metastases (DM). The project aimed to assess the serum TM levels in PNEN and their relationships with disease extent and grade. One hundred fifteen patients with PNEN and 40 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled. Most of the PNEN were well-differentiated (93.04%) and non-functional (93.91%). Beta-2 microglobulin (BMG), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 18 (CY18), and ferritin concentrations in PNEN patients were significantly higher than in HS (p < 0.01). The highest area under the curve (AUC) ≥ 0.7 for differentiating PNEN patients from HS had CY18, CA19-9, and ferritin (p < 0.001). PNEN disease was localized (LD) in 63 patients, 8 had RM, and 44 exhibited DM. Patients with metastatic PNEN (RM, DM) also showed significantly higher levels of CY18, CA125, and CEA than those without metastases (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CY18, CA19-9, and ferritin were serum biomarkers that fair diagnosed PNEN disease. Elevated CY18, CA125, and CEA levels correlated with clinical stages (RM, DM) and elevated CY18, CA125 with high grade (G3) of disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0177.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: ferroptosis; cancer; EMT; angiogenesis; metastasis
Online: 2 June 2023 (10:12:45 CEST)
Ferroptosis is a newly discovered iron-dependent form of regulated cell death driven by phospholipid peroxidation, associated with processes including iron overload, lipid peroxidation and dysfunction of cellular antioxidant systems. Ferroptosis is found closely related to many diseases including cancer, at its every stage. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in malignant tumors that originate from epithelia promotes cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis by disrupting cell-cell and cell-martrix junctions, cell polarity, etc. Recent studies have shown that ferroptosis appears to share multiple initiators and overlapping pathways with EMT in cancers and identify ferroptosis as a potential predictor of various cancer grade and prognosis. Cancer metastasis involves multiple steps including local invasion of cancer cells, intravasation, survival in circulation, arrest at a distant organ site, extravasation and adaptation to foreign tissue microenvironments, angiogenesis and the formation of “premetastatic niche”. Numerous studies have revealed that ferroptosis is closely associated with cancer metastasis. From the cellular perspective, ferroptosis has been implicated in the regulation of cancer metastasis. From the molecular perspective, the signaling pathways activated during the two events interweave. This review briefly introduces the mechanisms of ferroptosis, and discusses how ferroptosis is involved in cancer progression including EMT, cancer angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1653.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: metastasis; cancer; copy number alterations; AI
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:31:45 CEST)
The accurate identification of the primary tumor origin in metastatic cancer cases is crucial for guiding treatment decisions and improving patient outcomes. Copy Number Alterations (CNA) have emerged as valuable genomic markers for predicting the origin of metastases. This research article presents a comprehensive analysis of CNA-based prediction models in metastatic cancer. The study utilizes a dataset comprising CNA profiles from twenty different cancer types and employs advanced AI-based techniques for prediction. The research workflow consists of two models. The first is convolution network-based, while the other is a multi-stage model. In the first stage, a RELU model is developed to differentiate between 16 cancer types, considering their CNA, chromosome location, strand, and overall location. The second stage involves building specialized models to detect differences between cancer types within the same location or organs, such as brain lower-grade glioma and glioblastoma multiforme. Both generalized models achieve an overall accuracy of over 90%, while the specialized models achieve an accuracy of approximately 95% with minimal loss values. The results demonstrate the potential of AI-based approaches utilizing CNA data for improved diagnosis and personalized treatment strategies in metastatic cancer. This research establishes a solid foundation for future advancements in the field, paving the way for more effective and targeted approaches in metastatic cancer management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1838.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; bone metastasis; biomarker
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:11:51 CEST)
We investigated the diagnostic capacity of selected circulating biomarkers (CBMs) for the early detection of bone metastasis (BMets) in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs). 115 patients with PanNENs and 40 controls were enrolled. We measured the serum levels of ferritin, cytokeratin 18 (CY18), CA19-9, CA125, AFP, CEA, and beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). 8 PanNENs patients developed BMets, and 107 remained BMets-free. We observed a significantly higher level of CA125 and CY18 in BM-PanNENs patients vs. non-BM-PanNENs patients (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively). CA125, CY18, and B2M area under receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) analyses differentiated BM-PanNENs from non-BM-PanNENs patients; CA125 area under the curve (AUC) 0.77, p < 0.01; CY18 AUC data were 0.72, p = 0.03, and B2M AUC 0.67, p = 0.02. Based on CBMs metrics in both subgroups, we reached a sensitivity/specificity for CA125 of 75/76%; for CY18 of 75/69%, for B2M of 100/50%, for CA125 and CY18 combination 93/90%, respectively. The useful CBMs for BM-PanNENs patients detection were CA125, CY18, and B2M. They seem to have the diagnostic capacity as a fair single biomarker and CA125&CY18 combination panel for the detection of BMets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: cellular senescence; metastasis; metabolic adaptation; invasion
Online: 30 November 2022 (04:23:43 CET)
Metastasis is a systemic condition and the major challenge among cancer types, as it can lead to multiorgan vulnerability. Recently, attention has been drawn to cellular senescence, a complex stress response condition, as a factor implicated in metastatic dissemination and outgrowth. Here, we examine the current knowledge of the features required for cells to invade and colonize secondary organs and how senescent cells can contribute to this process. First, we described the role of senescence in placentation, itself an invasive process which has been linked to higher rates of invasive cancers. Second, we describe how senescent cells can contribute to metastatic dissemination and colonization. Third, we discuss several metabolic adaptations by which senescent cells could promote cancer survival along the metastatic journey. In conclusion, we posit that targeting cellular senescence may have a potential therapeutic efficacy to limit metastasis formation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Breast cancer; CCN proteins; Metastasis; Tumorigenesis
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:38:09 CET)
CCNs are specific type of matricellular proteins, which are essential signaling molecules, and play multiple roles in multicellular eukaryotes. This family of proteins consists of six separate members in mammals. The architecture of CCN proteins is multimodular and comprises four distinct motifs. CCN proteins achieve their specific physiological functions by binding to integrin receptors. The CCN family has been implicated in both cure and disease with impacts on biological interactions, such as cell adhesion, chemotaxis and migration, mitogenesis, cell survival, angiogenesis, differentiation, tumorigenesis, immune functions, chondrogenesis, and wound healing. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women triggered by atypical expression of CCNs. A favorable or unfavorable association between various CCNs has been reported in patients with breast carcinomas. Aberrant expression of CCN1 intensifies the proliferation of epithelial cells that line the lobes and ducts of the breast. Evidence also shows that the expression of CCN2 can ameliorate tumor growth and metastasis. However, CCN3 (NOV), CCN5 (WISP-2), and CCN6 (WISP-3) are consistent with neoplastic development and metastasis repression. Particular CCN members can develop tumors and cancer progression, whereas others can competitively counter the processes. Several studies have been conducted on CCN proteins and cancer in recent years. In our study, we intend to provide an overview of those research works while keeping breast carcinoma on focus. We believe that the importance of the CCN protein family in breast cancer should be reconsidered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0528.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Hemangiosarcoma; neoplasia; oncology; metastasis; doxorubicin; hemoabdomen
Online: 24 August 2020 (10:08:43 CEST)
Canine Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a devastating cancer affecting blood vessels in numerous sites within the body that is primarily seen in middle to older aged dogs. It is marked by its rapid aggressive metastatic pathology that often results in a lack of apparent symptoms in early stages. In most cases, disease becomes apparent due to hemorrhagic events following the rupture of the malignant vascular cell structures that can capture and pool blood cells, resulting in necrosis of the affected tissues. The poor survival times in affected patients cause a hindrance to the ability to carry out large scale studies, leaving numerous knowledge gaps to be filled in future research. The pathologic similarities between this and human angiosarcoma (HA) provides the potential for translatable research to be carried out that would improve outcomes across species. Here, current knowledge is outlined in order to improve understanding HSA holistically and suggest future direction. Emphasis is placed on the potential to improve veterinary practices in ways that will improve the ability to quickly and accurately diagnose patients in order to establish better client communication and provide clarity in collaborating to create the best informed treatment plan possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0405.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; Cathepsin K; human; metastasis; physiology
Online: 27 March 2020 (10:33:50 CET)
The effect of proteolytic enzymes including Cathepsin K, a cysteine cathepsin, in onset and progression of cancers in human has been research intensive. Cathepsin K involves in many aspects and stages of cancers including apoptosis, cell proliferation, cancer immunology, inflammatory cell recruitment to tumors and aiding in the process of mobilization of normal healthy cells from their tissue compartments assisting in metastasis and angiogenesis. The objective of this review is to collect together and summarize and analyze the biochemical and physiological pathways of how cathepsin K is involved in onset and progression of cancers with more emphasis on breast and prostate cancers and cathepsin K regulated mechanisms underlying metastasis of such cancers to bones. Information for the review was gathered through published literature from global databases such as Google Scholar, PUBMED and NCBI on different studies on physiological interactions between enzymatic activity of cathepsin K with cancers and metastasis to bones. Analysis of published studies reveal that immunohistochemical studies of breast cancer cells indicate that they overexpress cathepsin K resulting in induction of aberrant mechanisms of cell signaling in breast cancers, creating a higher tendency for their metastasis to bones. Immunohistochemical, immunoprecipitation and fluorgenic assays of several studies done on the association of the same enzymatic activity on prostate cancers shows elevated levels of cathepsin K. Lesions derived from prostate cancer cell masses were observed to undergo increased bone formation and resorption levels. Such resorption levels cause secretion of biological factors promoting tumor expansion. In addition, studies indicate that Cathepsin K was observed to be a key component promoting higher bone resorption levels in patients suffering from cancer. Authors suggest that, to completely understand the association of cathepsin K on cancerous cells and their mechanism in metastasis, distributary patterns of cathepsin K in healthy human tissues needs to be extensively studied initially. It is also suggested that metastasis of breast and prostate cancers to bone could be terminated and overcome by successful production of efficient and precise inhibitory therapeutics targeting the enzymatic activity of Cathepsin K with minimum unintended adverse health effects.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; hybrid; metastasis
Online: 3 February 2020 (06:54:32 CET)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been well recognized for its essential role in cancer progression as well as normal tissue development. In cancer cells, activation of EMT permits the cells to acquire migratory and invasive abilities and stem-like properties. However, simple categorization of cancer cells into epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes misleads the understanding of the complicated metastatic process, and contradictory results from different studies also indicate the limitation of application of EMT theory in cancer metastasis. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests the existence of an intermediate status between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, i.e., the “hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal (hybrid E/M)”state, provides a possible explanation for those conflicting results. Appearance of hybrid E/M phenotype offers a more plastic status for cancer cells to adapt the stressful environment for proceeding metastasis. In this article, we review the biological importance of the dynamic changes between the epithelial and the mesenchymal states. The regulatory mechanisms encompassing the translational, post-translational, and epigenetic control for this complex and plastic status are also discussed .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colon cancer; metastasis; Liver Neoplasms; Review Literature
Online: 8 November 2023 (14:43:44 CET)
The current management of colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM) patients involves a multidisciplinary approach with surgical resection remaining the primary curative option. The advances in liver surgery have improved outcomes, enabling more patients to undergo surgery successfully. In addition, the development of imaging software has improved the preoperative planning and patient selection for surgery and other interventions. Systemic therapies, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies have enhanced the chances of complete resection. Targeted agents in combination with chemotherapy, have shown efficacy in downstaging tumors and increasing resectability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1586.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cancer Genomics; Metastasis; Prostate Cancer; Tumor Heterogeneity
Online: 25 October 2023 (05:15:54 CEST)
Prostate cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, and mortality is mainly due to metastases, but the initial steps of metastasis have not been well characterized. We have performed integrative whole exome sequencing and transcriptome analysis of primary prostate tumor foci and corresponding lymph node metastases (LNM) from 43 patients enrolled in clinical trial. We present evidence that while there are some cases of clonally independent primary tumor foci, 87% of primary tumor foci and metastases are descended from a common ancestor. We demonstrate that genes related to oxidative phosphorylation are upregulated in LNM and in African-American patients relative to White patients. We further show that mutations in TP53, FLT4, EYA1, NCOR2, CSMD3, and PCDH15 are enriched in prostate cancer metastases. These findings were validated in a meta-analysis of 3,929 primary tumors and 2,721 metastases and reveal a pattern of molecular alterations underlying the pathology of metastatic prostate cancer. We show that LNM contain multiple subclones that are already present in primary tumor foci. We observed enrichment of mutations in several genes including understudied genes such as EYA1, CSMD3, FLT4, NCOR2, and PCDH15 and find that mutations in EYA1 and CSMD3 are associated with poor outcome in prostate cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0682.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Akt; cancer; metastasis; HNSCC; EMT; cytoskeletal remodelling
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:33:01 CEST)
Metastasis is a critical step in the process of carcinogenesis and a vast majority of cancer related mortalities result from metastat-ic disease that is resistant to current therapies. Cell migration and invasion are the first steps of the metastasis process, which mainly occurs by two important biological mechanisms i.e., cytoskeletal remodelling and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Akt (also known as Protein Kinase B) is a central signalling molecule of the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway. Aberrant acti-vation of this pathway has been identified in a wide range of cancers. Several studies have revealed that Akt actively engages with the migratory process in motile cells, including metastatic cancer cells. The downstream signalling mechanism of Akt in cell migration depends upon the tumour type, sites, and intracellular localisation of activated Akt. In this review, we focus on the role of Akt in the regulation of two events that control cell migration and invasion in various cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and the status of PI3K-Akt pathway inhibitors in clinical trials in HNSCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0999.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; metastasis; tissue-based genomic biomarker
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:17:24 CEST)
Background: The incidence of prostate cancer (PC) has been risen annually. Despite the diagnosis is made mainly with non-metastatic PC, mortality is explained by the metastatic disease (mPC). Without a doubt there is an intermediate scenario in which patients have no mPC but will have initiated a metastatic cascade through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. There is indeed a need for more and better tools to predict what patients will progress in the future to non-localized clinical disease or already have micrometastatic disease, and therefore, will clinically progress after primary treatment. Biomarkers for predicting mPC are still under development; there are few studies and not much evidence of their usefulness. Summary: This review is focused on tissue-based genomic biomarkers (TBGB) for predicting metastatic disease. We developed four main research questions that will attempt to answer according to the current evidence. Why is important to predict metastatic disease? Which tests are available to predict metastatic disease? What impact should there be on clinical guidelines and clinical practice in predicting metastatic disease? What are current prostate cancer treatments? Key Messages: Knowing useful predict tools could help determine which patients may need multimodal or adjuvant treatment even with a localized disease, and in consequence, what patients do not need more than a single modality of treatment. The importance of predicting metastasis is fundamental, given that once metastasis is diagnosed, the quality of life (QoL) and survival drop dramatically.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Osteosarcoma; Tumorigenesis; Metastasis; Immune Evasion; Chemoresistance; Mutation
Online: 7 February 2023 (06:12:43 CET)
There has been no significant efficacy in treatment for osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis after nearly four decades of trials. This motivates us to elucidate OS therapies according to their four bidirectional mutation stages. To refresh the OS therapy status quo, the historical developments and clinical advancements are briefly described. However, the main issue of metastasis remains unresolved, accounting for 90% of pulmonary metastasis deaths. Thus, this metastasis problem is related to immune evasion and chemoresistance that are being induced after long-term treatment by the use of immunotherapy for tumorigenesis. Therefore, it is rationale to discuss the relationship cycles of mutation stages including tumorigenesis, metastasis, immune evasion, and chemoresistance. Even though many combinational and targeted therapies have been developed to intensify these mutation treatments, successful clinical translations with higher cure rates are still rare. Through this review, an in-depth understanding of the bidirectional relationship between the four OS mutation stages and their respective therapies is provided. Herein, we summarise the medicines used to treat tumorigenesis, including COLGALT2 inhibitors, Tra2B, and AGAP1, miR-148a and miR-21-5p EVs, and the lncRNA LIFR-AS1. Following the medicines used to treat metastasis are AXL, miR-135a-5p, mRNA BCL6, TGFβ1, Tim-3, SOCS5, CASC15, KLF3-AS1, PDCD4, ATG5, and Rab22a-NeoF1. Then the medicines used to treat immune evasion are N-cadherin, anti-IL-9, USP12 inhibitor, IgG-4+ B-cells, LAP inhibitor, anti-Wnt2 mAb, anti-αvβ8 integrin, HK2-mediated IκBα, IDO inhibitor with NO, and TGF-βRII with anti-IgG1. Finally, the medicines used to treat chemoresistance are DHFR, FPGS, HSP-90AA1, XCT-790, ATKI, and IGF1. As a result, this contribution is expected to serve as a reference and guide for scientists and clinicians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: neuroendocrine tumor; metastasis; lymphatic invasion; venous invasion
Online: 9 November 2021 (08:30:27 CET)
Neuroendocrine tumors develop from systemic endocrine and nerve cells, and their occurrence has increased recently. Since these tumors are heterogeneous, pathological classification has been based on the affected organ. In 2019, the World Health Organization introduced a change that is expected to influence neuroendocrine tumor research, as gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are now included within a unified classification. In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate the characteristics (e.g., lymph node metastases, all other metastases) of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors using this new classification in 50 cases. Tumor size, depth, MIB-1 index, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and neuroendocrine tumor grade were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and all other metastases. Venous invasion was more strongly correlated with lymph node metastasis and all other types of metastasis than with lymphatic invasion. Identification rates for lymphatic invasion were considered lower because of structural problems such as lymphatic vessels being much thinner than veins. However, venous invasion was considered effective in compensating for the low rate of identification in cases of lymphatic invasion. In future research, a unified classification and standardized framework for assessment will be important when analyzing the characteristics of neuroendocrine tumors, and large-scale studies are required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0629.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pancreatic cancer; epigenetics; metastasis; enhancer; DNA methylation
Online: 25 June 2021 (16:05:34 CEST)
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the most common (90%) and aggressive type of pancreatic cancer. Genomic analyses of PDA specimens have identified the recurrent genetic mutations that drive PDA initiation and progression. However, the underlying mechanisms that further drive PDA metastasis remain elusive. Despite many attempts, no recurrent genetic mutation driving PDA metastasis has been found, suggesting that PDA metastasis is driven by epigenetic fluctuations rather than genetic factors. Therefore, establishing epigenetic mechanisms of PDA metastasis would facilitate the development of successful therapeutic interventions. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in PDA as a critical contributor on PDA progression and metastasis. In particular, we explore the recent advancements elucidating the role of nucleosome remodeling, histone modification, and DNA methylation in the process of cancer metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0637.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: glioblastoma; neural stem cells; replicative senescence; metastasis
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:33:23 CEST)
Due to its aggressive and invasive nature glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumour in adults, remains almost invariably lethal. Significant advances in the last several years have elucidated much of the molecular and genetic complexities of GBM. However, GBM exhibits a vast genetic variation and a wide diversity of phenotypes that has complicated the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This complex pathogenesis makes it necessary the development of experimental models that could be used to further understand the disease, and also to provide a more realistic testing ground for potential therapies. In this report, we describe the process of transformation of primary mouse embryo astrocytes into immortalized cultures with neural stem cell characteristics, that are able to generate of GBM when injected in the brain of C57BL/6 mice, or heterotopic tumours when injected iv. Overall, our results show that oncogenic transformation is a fate for NSC if cultured for long periods in vitro. In addition, since no additional hit is necessary to induce the oncogenic transformation, our model may be used to investigate the pathogenesis of gliomagenesis and to test the effectiveness of different drugs throughout the natural history of GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TCGA; lung adenocarcinoma; RN7SL494P; nodal metastasis; prognosis
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:27:55 CET)
The metastasis of lung cancer can spread to the lymph nodes around the lungs. Metastasis, rather than the primary cancer, judges patients survival. Wherefore, a more detailed study on transcriptome of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma including primary carcinoma was carried out. LUAD RNA-seq data and the corresponding clinical information were available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which included 522 cases but only 515 cases have transcriptome data. Differential expression analyses between cases and controls, between primary cancer and metastasis subgroup, or between TNM stages, were respectively carried out using edgeR package. Then, the Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to verify the gradient changes of cancer metastasis or staging with the differential expression genes. The survival analyses were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier algorithm and log-rank test. The functional predictions for the differentially expressed genes were porformed with the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (GO/KEGG). Single gene set enrichment analysis (single GSEA) was run to explore the biological pathways associated with the expressions of RN7SL494P gene based on the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB). 406 and 439 differentially expressed genes were identified respectively in lymph node metastasis or TNM stages. 112/296 intersection genes were associated with nodal metastasis and/or staging, among them only 25 genes were associated with the nodal metastasis, 13 genes were associated with the staging with gradient changes. Only one gene (RN7SL494P) was found to be associated with prognosis. But RN7SL494P was not found joining any biological functions or processes or cellular components with GO/KEGG analyses. Finally, single GSEA enrichment and pathway analyses showed that RN7SL494P might be involving in cancer development process and poor outcome in lung adenocarcinoma. These findings highlight the potential applications of RN7SL494P as a promising molecular predictor not only in nodal metastasis but prognosis evalution in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0307.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: breast cancer; metastasis; Notch; Jagged-1; Dll4
Online: 17 September 2018 (11:54:19 CEST)
Metastasis is a major cause factor for breast cancer (BC)-associated mortality. During the metastatic process, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) detach from the primary sites, and enter the bloodstream and establish the secondary colonies. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence for the importance of Notch signaling in BC metastasis. Therefore, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which Notch contributes to the origin of BC DTCs, increases their motility, regulates their intravasation and extravasation, protects them from host surveillance, and finally facilitates colonization. Identification of the mechanisms underlying Notch-related BC metastasis will lead to the development of novel Notch-targeted therapeutic strategies to reduce metastasis and significantly improve outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1825.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Elastography; Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound; Neoplasia; Metastasis; Feline; Canine
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:44:47 CET)
The aim of this literature review was to present the novel imaging modalities elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. We provided an overview of the concepts and applications of each technique for the investigation of neoplastic and metastatic tumors in dogs and cats. Studies with elastography are based on the elasticity and deformation of the evaluated tissue. The information obtained from the different types of elastography can aid in the detection and differentiation of malignant and benign structures. Descriptions of elastographic studies in several organs and tissue in veterinary medicine reported that, in general, malignant tumors tend to be more rigid, and, therefore, less deformable than benign lesions or in comparison to the healthy parenchyma. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is based on the intravenous injection of contrast media constituted by microbubbles. This imaging modality can be performed in non-sedated animals and provides information on the tissue perfusion, allowing the investigation of macro- and micro-circulation. Studies with different organs and tissues were performed in dogs and cats and revealed a tendency of malignant tumors to present faster transit of the contrast media (time to wash-in, peak and wash-out). These advanced techniques can be associated with other imaging modalities, aiding important information to the well-established exams of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. They can be used as screening tests, potentially representing an alternative to the invasive sampling methods required for cytological and histopathological analysis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; mandible metastasis; biopsy; diagnosis; Batson plexus
Online: 4 October 2023 (12:17:21 CEST)
Liver is the sixth most common site of primary malignant tumors, and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver malignancy and lungs, abdominal lymph nodes and adrenal glands are the most common sites of its metastasis. We present a rare case of an isolated metastasis of a hepatocellular carcinoma in the left mandibular ramus, with regards to its clinical and radiological presentation and with regards to possible routes of the metastatic spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; CXCL14; gene silence; metastasis; DNA methylation
Online: 3 October 2023 (11:09:47 CEST)
CXCL14 is one of the most evolutionarily conserved members of the chemokine family and is constitutionally expressed in multiple organs, suggesting that it is involved in the homeostasis maintenance of the system. CXCL14 is highly expressed in colon epithelial cells and shows obvious gene silencing in clinical colon cancer samples, suggesting that its silencing is related to the immune escape of cancer cells. In this paper, we analyzed the expression profiles of multiple human clinical colon cancer datasets and mouse colon cancer models to reveal the variation trend of CXCL14 expression during colitis, colon polyps, primary colon cancer, and liver metastases. The relationship between CXCL14 gene silencing and promoter hypermethylation was revealed through the colorectal carcinoma methylation database. The results suggest that CXCL14 is a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal carcinoma, which is activated first and then silenced during the process of tumor occurrence and deterioration. Promoter hypermethylation is the main cause of CXCL14 silencing. The methylation level of CXCL14 is correlated with the anatomic site of tumor occurrence and positively correlated with patient age, and associated with prognosis. Reversing the hypermethylation of CXCL14 may be an epigenetic therapy for colon cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; primary tumor resection; synchronous; metastasis; asymptomatic
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:25:39 CEST)
The role of upfront primary tumor resection (PTR) in patients with unresectable metastatic col-orectal cancer (CRC) without severe symptoms remains controversial. We retrospectively ana-lyzed the role of PTR in overall survival (OS) in different subgroups. Among 331 patients diag-nosed with synchronous metastatic CRC between 2010 and 2020, 223 were analyzed. The PTR group (n = 42) showed better performance (p = 0.038); higher frequencies of right-sided origin (p = 0.014), T4 stage (p = 0.005), M1a stage (p = 0.015), and <2 organ metastases (p = 0.002); and re-ceived fewer targeted agents (p < 0.001) than the chemotherapy group (n = 181). The PTR group showed longer OS (20.5 versus 14.0 months, p = 0.016), but PTR was marginally related to OS in multivariate analysis (p = 0.060). Male sex (p = 0.022), good performance status (p = 0.07), left-sided tumor (p = 0.069), low serum carcinoembryonic antigen level (p = 0.092), T3 stage (p = 0.029), M1a stage (p = 0.025), <2 organ metastases (p = 0.017), and administration of targeted agents, especially bevacizumab (p = 0.024), were related to survival benefit after PTR. Upfront PTR should be considered when selecting patients with favorable prognoses for bevacizumab administration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0651.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cancer; adhesion; metastasis; inhibition; therapeutic approaches; targeted therapies
Online: 9 August 2023 (02:48:16 CEST)
This comprehensive review delves into cancer's complexity, focusing on adhesion, metastasis, and inhibition. It explores the pivotal role of these factors in disease progression and therapeutic strategies. This review covers cancer cell migration, invasion, and colonization of distant organs, emphasizing the significance of cell adhesion and the intricate metastasis process. Inhibition approaches targeting adhesion molecules, such as integrins and cadherins, are discussed. Overall, this review contributes significantly to advancing cancer research and developing targeted therapies, holding promise for improving patient outcomes worldwide. Exploring different inhibition strategies revealed promising therapeutic targets to alleviate adhesion and metastasis of cancer cells. The effectiveness of integrin-blocking antibodies, small molecule inhibitors targeting FAK and the TGF-β pathway, and combination therapies underscores their potential to disrupt focal adhesions and control epithelial-mesenchymal transition processes. The identification of as FAK, Src, β-catenin and SMAD4 offers valuable starting points for further research and the development of targeted therapies. The complex interrelationships between adhesion and metastatic signaling networks will be relevant to the development of new treatment approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Hydatid cyst fluid; Antigen; Cancer inhibition; Apoptosis; Metastasis
Online: 1 August 2023 (02:54:51 CEST)
Hydatid cyst fluid is a complex biological substance consisting primarily of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, salts, enzymes, hormones, growth factors, immune modulators, and other bioactive molecules. Antigens, including antigen B (AgB) and antigen 5 family members (Ag5), have been identified in hydatid cyst fluid and have been shown to have the ability to inhibit cancer progression. The exact mechanisms by which these components exert inhibitory effects on cancer progression are not fully understood, but it is believed that they may influence multiple signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In vitro studies have demonstrated that treatment with hydatid cyst fluid or specific antigens can inhibit cell growth, induce apoptosis, and suppress the migration of cancer cells. Animal model studies have also demonstrated significant inhibition of tumor growth, reduction in angiogenesis, and suppression of metastasis. Limited clinical studies have shown promising outcomes, including improved overall survival and reduced recurrence rates among breast cancer patients receiving AgB immunotherapy alongside standard treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1438.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: brain metastasis; tumor microenvironment; targeted therapy; immune therapy
Online: 20 June 2023 (11:56:39 CEST)
Brain metastasis (BrM), involving the spread of cells from a primary tumor through the blood circulation system to the brain microvasculature, eventually progresses despite multiple treatments and remains a substantial contributor to major mortality in patients with advanced- stage cancer. Molecular signatures and immune cellular components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) are emerging as essential regulators involved in establishing an organ-specific metastasis (colonization) and therapeutic response. A comprehensive understanding of detailed characterization and the immune landscape in context of process of BrM formation will greatly expand the horizon of treatments available to target these deadly diseases. In this review, we provide a comprehensive picture of the complex interactions between tumor cells and immune cellular components participated in the BrM process. Based on this knowledge, we will discuss opportunities and challenges for therapeutic strategies against BrM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Breast cancer; Rutin; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition; Metastasis; Angiogenesis
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:41:57 CEST)
Rutin has been reported as a potential anti-cancer agent for several decades. This study evaluated the effects of rutin on the proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Increasing concentrations of rutin significantly stimulated the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells compared to controls. Wound scratch assay demonstrated that rutin had an inducing effect on the migration of the cells. In MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, rutin upregulated MKI67, VIM, CDH2, FN1, and VEGFA and downregulated CDH1 and THBS1 genes. It also increased N-cadherin and VEGFA and decreased E-cadherin and thrombospondin 1 protein expression. Our data indicated that rutin could stimulate proliferation, migration, and pro-angiogenic activity in two different breast cancer cell lines. This phytoestrogen induced invasion and migration of both cell lines by a mechanism involving the EMT process. This suggests that rutin may act as a breast cancer-promoting phytoestrogen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastasis; cancer evolution; bioinformatics; cancer biology; cancer genomics
Online: 31 October 2022 (07:06:45 CET)
: Cancer metastasis is the lethal developmental step in cancer, responsible for the majority of cancer deaths. To metastasize, cancer cells must acquire the ability to disseminate systemically and to escape an activated immune response. Here, we endeavoured to investigate if metastatic dissemination reflects acquisition of genomic traits that are selected for. We acquired mutation and copy number data from 8,332 tumours representing 19 cancer types acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Hartwig Medical Foundation. A total of 827,344 non-synonymous mutations across 8,332 tumour samples representing 19 cancer types were timed as early or late relative to copy number alterations, and potential driver events were annotated. We found that metastatic cancers had significantly higher proportion of clonal mutations and a general enrichment of early mutations in p53 and RTK/KRAS pathways. However, while individual pathways demonstrated a clear time-separated preference for specific events, the relative timing did not vary between primary and metastatic cancers. These results indicate that the selective pressure that drives cancer development does not change dramatically between primary and metastatic cancer on a genomic level, and is mainly focused on alterations that increase proliferation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Circular RNA; Cutaneous Melanoma; Immunotherapy; metastasis; LncRNA; ecRNA
Online: 11 July 2022 (14:14:53 CEST)
Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) is the most lethal form of skin cancer if it becomes metastatic, where treatment options and survival chances decrease dramatically. Immunotherapy treatments based on the immunologic checkpoint inhibitors (PD-1 and CTLA4) constituted a main breakthrough in the treatment of metastatic CM, particularly in the long-term benefit. However, several molecular pathways are responsible for the failure of this strategy in about 50-70% of CM patients. Some Long Non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNA) are implicated in triggering pro- and antitumorigenic responses to various cancer treatments. The relationship between lncRNA, circRNA and Immune Checkpoint Blockade (ICB) immunotherapy is not extensively explored in cutaneous metastatic melanoma (CMM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential role of both circRNA and lncRNA as a predictive immunotherapy biomarker in CMM. RNA-seq from 12 FFPE samples from the metastatic biopsy of metastatic melanoma patients treated with Nivolumab were analyzed. Our findings indicate that specific lncRNA and circRNA are involved in regulatory networks of the immune response against metastatic melanoma under treatment with nivolumab. Moreover, we have established a risk score that allows the prediction of Overall survival (OS) and Progression-free survival (PFS) of CMM patients with high accuracy. This proof of principle work provides a possible insight on the function of ceRNA, contributing to decipher the complex molecular mechanism of ICB cancer treatment response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; metastasis; causal learning; machine learning
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:40:33 CET)
Background: Risk of metastatic recurrence of breast cancer after initial diagnosis and treatment depends on the presence of a number of risk factors. Although most univariate risk factors have been identified using classical methods, machine-learning methods are also being conducted to tease out non-obvious contributors to a patient’s individual risk of developing late distant metastasis. Bayesian-network algorithms may predict not only risk factors but also interactions among these risks, which consequently lead to metastatic breast cancer. We proposed to apply a previously developed machine-learning method to predict risk factors of 5-, 10- and 15-year metastasis. Methods: We applied a previously validated algorithm named the Markov Blanket and Interactive risk factor Learner (MBIL) on the electronic health record (EHR)-based Lynn Sage database (LSDB) from the Lynn Sage Comprehensive Breast Cancer at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. This algorithm provided an output of both single and interactive risk factors of 5-, 10-, and 15-year metastasis from LSDB. We individually examined and interpreted the clinical relevance of these interactions based on years to metastasis and the reliance on interactivity between risk factors. Results: We found that with lower alpha values (low interactivity score), the prevalence of variables with an independent influence on long term metastasis was higher (i.e., HER2, TNEG). As the value of alpha increased to 480, stronger interactions were needed to define clusters of factors that increased the risk of metastasis (i.e., ER, smoking, race, alcohol usage). Conclusion: MBIL identified single and interacting risk factors of metastatic breast cancer, many of which were supported by clinical evidence. These results strongly recommend the development of further large data studies with different databases to validate the degree to which some of these variables impact metastatic breast cancer in the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cell fusion; tumor hybrid cell; metastasis; drug resistance
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:07:48 CET)
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death and can be realized through the phenomenon of tumor cell fusion. The fusion of tumor cells with other tumor or normal cells leads to the appearance of tumor hybrid cells (THCs) exhibiting novel properties such as increased proliferation and migration, drug resistance, decreased apoptosis rate and avoiding immune surveillance. Experimental studies showed the association of THCs with a high frequency of cancer metastasis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Many other questions also remain to be answered: the role of genetic alterations in tumor cell fusion, the molecular landscape of cells after fusion, the lifetime and fate of different THCs, and the specific markers of THCs, and their correlation with various cancers and clinicopathological parameters. In this review, we discuss the factors and potential mechanisms involved in the occurrence of THCs, the types of THCs, and their role in cancer drug resistance and metastasis, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for the prevention and targeting of tumor cell fusion. In conclusion, we emphasize the current knowledge gaps in the biology of THCs that should be addressed to develop highly effective therapeutics and strategies for metastasis suppression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0400.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Orai3; Store Operated Calcium entry; Pancreatic Cancer; Metastasis
Online: 27 October 2021 (11:16:03 CEST)
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancers with 5-year mean survival rate of less than 10%. Most of the PC associated deaths are due to metastasis to secondary sites. Calcium (Ca2+) signaling plays a critical role in regulating hallmarks of cancer progression including cell proliferation, migration and apoptotic resistance. Store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediated by Orai1/2/3 channels is a highly regulated and ubiquitous pathway responsible for Ca2+ influx into non-excitable cells. In this study, we performed extensive bioinformatic analysis of publicly available datasets and observed that Orai3 expression is inversely associated with the mean survival time of PC patients. Orai3 expression analysis in a battery of PC cell lines corroborated its differential expression profile. We then carried out thorough Ca2+ imaging experiments in 6 PC cell lines and found that Orai3 forms a functional SOCE in PC cells. Our in vitro functional assays show that Orai3 regulates PC cell cycle progression, apoptosis and migration. Most importantly, our in vivo xenograft studies demonstrate a critical role of Orai3 in PC tumor growth and secondary metastasis. Mechanistically, Orai3 controls G1 phase progression, matrix metalloproteinase expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in PC cells. Taken together, this study for the first time reports that Orai3 drives aggressive phenotypes of PC cells i.e. migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Considering that Orai3 expression is inversely associated with the PC patients survival time, it appears to be a highly attractive therapeutic target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0679.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Keywords. Colorectal cancer, peritoneal metastasis, HIPEC, surgery, feasibility.
Online: 27 November 2020 (08:49:39 CET)
.Background: Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) showed promising results in patients with colorectal carcinoma at high risk of recurrence but still without clinically and radiologically evident signs of peritoneal spread. This study aims to analyze the feasibility of this proactive, early phase, multimodality approach. Methods: A mono-institutional, prospective, parallel, two-stage phase II trial enrolled 49 patients to standard surgery or surgery plus intraoperative HIPEC. Before the procedure and during surgery, patients received intravenous fluorouracil (and leucovorin to potentiate oxaliplatin activity. Data analysis included length of hospital stay, surgery duration, type of surgery and chemotherapy-related complications risk score. Results: No significant difference was seen in the median time spent in the hospital with a median stay of 7 days in both groups (p=0.5720). The surgical procedure's median duration was longer in the HIPEC group than in the control one. Side-effects and surgical complications did not cross at any time the Pocock-type boundary for side/effect monitoring (p=0.80, N.S.). Conclusions: The present prospective study results demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the colorectal surgery plus HIPEC treatment in patients with colorectal cancer patients at high-risk for peritoneal invasion, although clinically and radiologically undetectable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0021.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: COVID-19; metastasis; lung adenocarcinoma; smoking; aging; ACE2
Online: 6 July 2020 (10:14:03 CEST)
The recent COVID-19 outbreak in China led to a worldwide pandemic associated with a severe acute respiratory illness. A higher incidence of COVID-19 infection was demonstrated in cancer patients, including patients with lung cancer. This study was conducted to get insights into the reasons for this enhanced frequency of COVID-19 infection. Methods: Using different bioinformatic tools, the expression and methylation pattern of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene were analyzed in healthy and malignant tissues with a focus on lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and correlated to clinical parameters and smoking history. Results: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were heterogeneously expressed across 36 healthy tissues with the highest expression in digestive, urinary and reproductive organs, while their expression was significantly lower in 36 cancer tissues. In LUAD, ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 was overexpressed, which inversely correlated to the promoter methylation. An age-dependent upregulation of ACE2 expression was found in LUAD compared to normal lung tissues. In a healthy lung, TMPRSS2 expression was dependent on sex and smoking history and downregulated in LUAD of smokers. Cancer progression was associated with decreased TMPRSS2, but unaltered ACE2 expression, while ACE2 expression in lung metastases of different cancers was higher than in metastasis of other sites. TMPRSS2, but not ACE2 expression, was associated with LUAD patients’ survival. Conclusions: Comprehensive molecular analyses revealed a heterogeneous, distinct expression and methylation profile of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in healthy lung vs LUAD tissues across sex, age and smoking history, which is associated with clinical parameters and might have implications for COVID-19 disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; cancer stem cells; signaling, chemoresistance, metastasis
Online: 15 June 2018 (15:14:22 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Poor overall survival, particularly for patients with high grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer, are often attributed to late stage at diagnosis and relapse following chemotherapy. HGS ovarian cancer is a heterogenous disease in that few genes are consistently mutated between patients. Additionally, HGS ovarian cancer is characterized by high genomic instability. For these reasons personalized approaches may be necessary for effective treatment and cure. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that contribute to tumor metastasis and chemoresistance are essential to improve survival rates. One favored model for tumor metastasis and chemoresistance is the cancer stem cell (CSC) model. CSCs are cells with enhanced self-renewal properties that are enriched following chemotherapy. Elimination of this cell population is thought to be a mechanism to increase therapeutic response. Therefore, accurate identification of stem cell populations that are most clinically relevant is necessary. While many CSC identifiers (ALDH, OCT4, CD133, and side population) have been established, it is still not clear which population(s) will be most beneficial to targeted in patients. Therefore, there is a critical need to characterize CSCs with reliable markers and find their weaknesses that will make the CSCs amenable to therapy. Many signaling pathways are implicated for their roles in CSC initiation and maintenance. Therapeutically targeting pathways needed for CSC initiation or maintenance may be an effective way of treating HGS ovarian cancer patients. In conclusion, the prognosis for HGS ovarian cancer may be improved by combining CSC phenotyping with targeted therapies for pathways involved in CSC maintenance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0240.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: epoxyqinomicin; DHMEQ; metastasis; invasion; adhesion; 3D cell culture
Online: 25 January 2018 (10:27:11 CET)
We previously designed and synthesized dehydroxyepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) as an inhibitor of NF-κB based on the structure of microbial secondary metabolite epoxyquinomicin C. DHMEQ showed anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity in various in vivo disease models without toxicity. Cell detachment from the primary tumor and subsequent invasion are considered to be early phase of metastasis, while tumor cell attachment to the tissue and secondary tumor formation the late phase. The assay system for late phase was set up with intra-portal-vein injection of pancreatic cancer cells. Administration of DHMEQ was found to inhibit the liver metastasis possibly by decreasing the expression of MMP-9 and IL-8. Also when the pancreatic cancer cells treated with DHMEQ was inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice, the metastatic foci formation was inhibited. These results indicate that DHMEQ is likely to inhibit the late phase of metastasis. Meanwhile, we have recently employed three-dimensional (3D) culture of breast cancer cells for the model of early phase metastasis. DHMEQ inhibited the 3D invasion of breast cancer cells without toxicity. In this way, DHMEQ was shown to inhibit the late and early phases of metastasis. Thus, DHMEQ is likely to be useful for the suppression of cancer metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0146.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cancer metastasis; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; exosomes; tumor microenvironment
Online: 29 September 2017 (03:17:31 CEST)
The lymphocyte function–associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (also CD11a/CD18 and αLβ2), is just one of many integrins in the human body, but its significance derives from its exclusive presence in leukocytes. In this review, we summarize the studies relating LFA-1 and its major ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) with cancer, through the function of lymphocytes and myeloid cells on tumor cells. We consider how LFA-1 mediates the interaction of leukocytes with tumors and the role of ICAM-1 in tumor dynamics, which can be independent of its interaction with LFA-1. A more detailed examination of LFA’s role within B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia is made. Finally, we discuss the role of LFA-1-harboring exosomes in tumor growth and metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: deep learning; DNN; machine learning; breast cancer; metastasis, metastatic breast cancer, distant recurrence of breast cancer metastasis; prediction; clinical; EHR
Online: 29 June 2022 (04:06:16 CEST)
ABSTRACT Background It is important to be able to predict, for each individual patient, the likelihood of later metastatic occurrence, because the prediction can guide treatment plans tailored to a specific patient to prevent metastasis and to help avoid under- or over-treatment. Deep Neural Network (DNN) learning, commonly referred to as deep learning, has become popular due to its success in image detection and prediction, but questions such as whether deep learning outperforms other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data remain unanswered. Grid search has been introduced to deep learning hyperparameter tunning for the purpose of improving its prediction performance, but the effect of grid search on other machine learning methods are under-studied. In this research, we take the empirical approach to study the performance of deep learning and other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data to predict the occurrence of breast cancer metastasis (BCM) 5, 10, or 15-years after the initial treatment. We developed DNN models as well as models using 9 other machine learning methods including Naive Bayes (NB), Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), LASSO, Decision Tree (DT), k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Random Forrest (RF), AdaBoost (ADB), and XGBoost (XGB). We used grid search to tune hyperparameters for all methods. We then compared the deep learning models to the models trained using the 9 other machine learning methods. Results Based on the mean test AUC results, DNN ranks 6th, 4th, and 3rd when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM respectively, out of 10 machine learning methods. The top performing methods in predicting 5-year BCM are XGB(1st), RF(2nd), and KNN(3rd). For predicting 10-year BCM the top performers are XGB (1st), RF(2nd), and NB(3rd) . Finally, for 15-year BCM the top performers are SVM (1st), LR and LASSO (tied for 2nd), and DNN (3rd). The ensemble methods RF and XGB outperform other methods when data are less balanced, while SVM, LR, LASSO, and DNN outperform other methods when data are more balanced. Our statistical testing results show that at a significance level of 0.05 DNN overall performs no worse than other machine learning methods when predicting 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year BCM. Conclusions Our results show that deep learning with grid search overall performs at least as well as other machine learning methods when using non-image clinical data. It is interesting to note that some of the other machine learning methods such as XGB, RF, and SVM are very strong competitors of DNN when incorporating grid search. It is also worth noting that the computation time required to do grid search with DNN is way more than that required to do grid search with the other 9 machine learning methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0852.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Metastatic Breast Cancer; Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis; SH3PXD2B; Eribulin
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:12:03 CEST)
Breast Cancer metastasis remains a formidable challenge in cancer research, contributing significantly to patient mortality despite advances in medical research. Lung metastasis, associated with breast cancer, poses an ongoing clinical dilemma with limited curative treatment options. This study delves into the intricate mechanisms underlying Breast Cancer-Lung Metastasis (BC-LM) primarily focusing on the function of SH3PXD2B in maturation of invadopodia, inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, disruption of proteostasis network, and ultimately leading to metastasis of Breast Cancer (BC) cells. With an extensive analysis of differential gene expression using RNASeq data, comparing normal breast cancer cells to metastatic sub-populations in lung. Employing the New Tuxedo pipeline our investigation notably observes SH3PXD2B as a key regulator in lung metastasis samples. This trend is further substantiated by data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), and Human Protein Atlas (HPA) which highlights elevated SH3PXD2B expression in MDA-MB-468 cells, underscoring its significance in metastatic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, we checked the overall survival (OS) of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients pinpointing SH3PXD2B and its associated partners like SH3PXD2A, MMPs, CTTN, ADAMs, and EMT markers with substantial expression in both BC and lung cancer, prognosticating poorer patient survival. Further, our transcription factor – target gene (TFTG) network essentially elucidated the role of SH3PXD2B as a key node in the network unveiling its roles in regulating cell migration, communication, and developmental processes. Proteomics and Western blotting assays consistently confirm heightened SH3PXD2B expression in BC cell lines, reaffirming our findings. By employing computational structure biology along with cancer systems biology approach, we generated a high-confidence structural model of SH3PXD2B, indicating its SH3_2 and SH3_3 domains crucial for interactions with the drug molecules. Molecular docking simulations identify Eribulin as a promising therapeutic agent capable of targeting these domains. Thus, our multidisciplinary approach seamlessly amalgamates systems medicine principles, aiming to repurpose existing drugs that target SH3PXD2B based on molecular signatures. Targeted therapies have emerged as a promising avenue for addressing MBC and this mechanistic model introduces novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of BC-LM patients.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: brain metastasis; breast cancer; diagnosis; comedonecrosis; solid growth pattern
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:44:47 CEST)
Since there are no morphological clues capable of making a pathologist suspect a possible mammary origin of a metastatic lesion without adequate clinical information, the histologic diagnosis of brain metastasis from BC is still based on the immunohistochemical expression of mammary gland markers such as GATA-3, ERs, PgRs and HER-2. The present retrospective study aimed to select purely morphological features capable to suggest the mammary origin of a metastatic carcinoma to the brain. The following histological features were collected on a series of 30 cases of brain metastases from breast cancer:(i) solid growth pattern; (ii) presence of comedonecrosis; (iii) glandular differentiation. Our results showed that most cases histologically exhibited solid growth pattern with at least focal comedonecrosis, producing an overall morphology closely reminiscent of mammary high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Although the above-mentioned morphological parameters are not strictly specific to a mammary origin, they may have an important diagnostic utility in leading pathologists to suspect a possible breast primary tumor and to include GATA-3, ERs, PgRs and HER-2 to the immunohistochemical panel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1643.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: metastasis treatment; small molecules; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; integrins; siRNA
Online: 22 June 2023 (16:10:15 CEST)
Metastasis is the main cause of anti-cancer therapies failure, leading to unfavorable prognosis for patients. The true challenge to increase cancer patient life expectancy by making cancer a chronic disease with periodic but manageable relapses, relies on the development of efficient therapeutic strategies specifically directed against key targets in the metastatic process. Traditional chemotherapy with classical alkylating agents, microtubule inhibitors and antimetabolites has demonstrated its limited efficacy against metastatic cells due to their capacity to select chemo-resistant cell populations that undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (ETM) thus promoting the colonization of distant sites that in turn sustain the initial metastatic process. This scenario has prompted efforts aimed at discovering a wide variety of small molecules as potential anti-metastatic drugs directed against more specific targets known to be involved in the various stages of metastasis. In this short reviews we will give an overview of the most recent advances related to three main large families of antimetastatic small molecules: intracellular tyrosine kinase inhibitors, integrin antagonists and small interfering (siRNAs). Although the majority of these small molecules are not yet approved and not available in the drug market, any information related to their stage of development could represent a precious and valuable tool to identify new targets in the endless fight against metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Benzofuran; Ailanthoidol; p53; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Epithelia-mesenchymal transition; Metastasis
Online: 30 May 2023 (08:21:26 CEST)
2-(4-Benzyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(carbethoxyethylene)-7-methoxy-benzofuran (BMBF), a benzofuran derivative, is an intermediate found in the process of total synthesis of ailanthoidol. Benzofuran derivatives are a class of compounds that possess various biological and pharmacological activities. The present study explored the anti-metastasis effects in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our preliminary findings indicate that BMBF suppresses the proliferation and changes the morphology of Huh7, an HCC cell line with a mutated p53 gene (Y220C). According to scratching motility assay, noncytotoxic concentrations of BMBF significantly inhibited the motility and migration in Huh7 cells. BMBF upregulated the expression of E-cadherin and downregulated the expression of vimentin, Slug, and MMP9, which are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and metastasis in Huh7 cells. BMBF decreased the expression of integrin α7 and deactivated its downstream signal FAK/AKT and inhibited p53 protein levels. Cell transfection with p53 siRNA resulted in prevention of cell invasion because of the reduced expression of integrin α7, Slug, and MMP-9 in Huh7 cells. BMBF had anti-metastatic effects in PLC/PRF/5, an HCC cell line with R249S, a mutated p53 gene. Our findings indicate that BMBF has anti-metastatic effects in that it downregulates p53 and mediates the suppression of integrin α7, EMT, and MMP-9 in HCC cells with mutated p53 gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0650.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: malignant melanoma; liver metastasis; cytokines; IL11RA; hepatic endothelial cells
Online: 20 April 2023 (10:30:39 CEST)
Cytokines and chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) are soluble extracellular proteins that bind to specific receptors and play an integral role in the cell-to-cell signaling network, in addition can promote the homing of cancer cells into different organs. We investigated the potential relationship between human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs) and several melanoma cell lines for the expression of chemokine and cytokine ligand and receptor expression during invasion of melanoma cells. In order to define the invasion related gene expression differences, we selected invasive and non-invasive subpopulations of cells after co-culturing with HHSECs. In addition, we determined protein expression of the endothelial cells before and after co-culturing with melanoma cell lines originated from primary tumors. Cell lines with increased invasive capacity after culturing with conditioned medium showed a set of receptor genes (CXCR1, IL1RL1, IL1RN, IL3RA, IL8RA, IL11RA, IL15RA, IL17RC, and IL17RD) with significantly different expression. It is very important note, that the IL11RA gene expression level was also significantly increased in primary melanoma tissues with liver metastasis as well. Proteome arrays revealed 15 differentially expressed proteins (including CD31, VCAM-1, ANGPT2, CXCL8, and CCL20) in the hepatic endothelial cells after co-cultured with melanoma cells. Our findings clearly indicate the interaction between liver endothelial- and melanoma cells. Based on our data, we assume that overexpression of the IL11RA gene might has key role in the formation of organ specific metastasis to the liver by primary melanoma cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0080.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: gastric cancer; deep learning; digital pathology; lymph node metastasis
Online: 3 August 2022 (08:48:02 CEST)
Histologically poor differentiation is associated with lymph node metastasis. Thus, pathological evaluation of biopsy specimens is crucial when treating stomach cancers. Deep learning of WSIs is challenging because the images are enormous. Given the computing limitations, patch-level supervised learning methods have been proposed. However, valuable information is lost when dividing WSIs into smaller patches. Another drawback is the need for pixel-level annotation by a pathologist. It is acceptable to differentiate, i.e., grade, gastric cancer at the holistic tissue level (i.e., under low magnification). We developed a weakly supervised learning technique for tissue-level gastric adenocarcinoma histological differentiation (well-to-moderately or poorly differentiated) and applied global reasoning to tissue-level features. The tissue-level AUROCs of the histological differentiation classifiers were 0.953, 0.969, and 0.943, respectively when data from five hospitals were subjected to threefold cross-validation. Comparison of the Grad-CAM heatmaps of the trained classifier and the pathologists’ annotations confirmed that our weakly supervised model exhibited performed well.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Breast cancer; metastasis; cytokines; microenvironment; bisphenol A; endocrine disruptors.
Online: 13 September 2021 (14:48:05 CEST)
Background: Metastasis is a complex process that involves the spread of the tumor to distant parts of the body from its original site. Metastatic dissemination represents the main physiopathology of cancer. Soluble factors such as cytokines have been closely related to breast cancer (BC) metastasis. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical compound with estrogenic properties, which exposure in the early stages of neonatal life leads to an increase in the size and weight of breast tumors and cellular changes in the tumoral immune microenvironment. Methods: Thus, we used female BALB/c mice that were exposed neonatally to a single dose of BPA. Once sexual maturity was reached, a mammary tumor was induced injecting 4T1 cells in situ. After 25 days of injection, we evaluated endocrine alterations, cytokine expression, tissue alterations denoted by macro and micro metastases in the lung, and metastasis-induced cell infiltration. Results: BPA neonatal treatment did not show significant endocrine alterations. Nevertheless, BPA induced a great rate of metastasis to the lung associated with higher intratumoral expression of IL-1b, IL-6, IFN-g, TNF-a and VEGF. Conclusions Our data suggest that cytokines are key players in BC metastasis induction, and that BPA is a risk factor to be considered. This knowledge must be considered with the aim of recognizing environmental pollution in the clinical history of patients to possibly counter BC metastases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Breast neoplasms; neoplasm metastasis; inflammatory breast neoplasms; survival analysis
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:56:00 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to determine the change in overall survival (OS) for patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer (dnMBC) over time. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with 1981 patients with dnMBC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2017 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. OS was measured from the date of diagnosis of dnMBC. OS was compared between patients diagnosed during different time periods: 5-year periods and periods defined according to when key agents were approved for clinical use. The median OS was 3.4 years. The 5- and 10-year OS rates improved over time across both types of time periods. A subgroup analysis showed that OS improved significantly over time for the estrogen-receptor-positive/HER2-positive (ER+/HER2+) subtype, and exhibited a tendency toward improvement over time for the ER-negative (ER-)/HER2+ subtype. Median OS was significantly longer in patients with non-inflammatory breast cancer (P = .02) and in patients with ER+ disease, progesterone-receptor-positive disease, HER2+ disease, lower nuclear grade, locoregional therapy, and metastasis to a single organ (all P <.0001). These findings showed that OS at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis in patients with dnMBC improved over time. The significant improvements in OS over time for the ER+/HER2+ subtype and the tendency toward improvement for ER-/HER2+ subtype suggest the contribution of HER2-targeted therapy to survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Brain Metastasis; Immune Checkpoint; Tumor Microenvironment, T-cells, TILs
Online: 15 February 2021 (15:06:48 CET)
The heterogeneity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is not well characterized in brain metastasis. To address this, we performed a targeted analysis of immune cell subsets in brain metastasis tissues to test which immunosuppressive routes are involved in brain metastasis. We performed multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF), using commercially available validated antibodies on twenty formalin-fixed paraffin embedded whole sections. We quantitated the subsets of immune cells utilizing a targeted panel of proteins including PanCK, CD8, CD4, VISTA and Iba1, and analyzed an average of 15000 cells per sample. We classified tumours as either high (>30%) or low (<30%) tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and found that increased TILs density correlated with survival. We next sought out to phenotype these TILs using mIF. The tumours with low TILs (n=9) had significantly higher expression of the immune-checkpoint molecule VISTA in tumor cells (p<0.01) as well as in their microenvironment (p<0.001). Contrastingly, the brain metastatic tumours with high TILs (n=8) displayed higher levels of activated microglia, as measured by Iba1 expression. Low TILs-tumours displayed CD8+ T-cells that co-express VISTA (p<0.01) significantly more compared to high TILs group, where CD8+ T-cells significantly co-express Iba1 (p<0.05). Interestingly, no definite phenotypes of CD4+ subsets were observed. These results were supported by RNA analysis of a publicly available, independent cohort. In conclusion, our work contributes to a growing understanding of the immune surveillance escape routes active in brain metastasis.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: bone metastasis; breast cancer; radiotherapy; diagnostic imaging; systemic therapies
Online: 20 August 2020 (04:25:31 CEST)
The standard care for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is systemic therapies with imbrication of focal treatment for symptoms. Recently, thanks to implementation of radiological and metabolic exams and development of new target therapies, oligometastatic and oligoprogressive settings are even more common, paving the way to a paradigm change of focal treatments role. In fact, according to immunophenotype, radiotherapy can be considered with radical intent in these settings of patients. The aim of this literature review is to analyse available clinical data on prognosis of bone metastases from breast cancer and benefits of available treatments for developing a practical guide for clinicians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; survival; KRAS; median; codon; metastasis; sided; tumour
Online: 13 July 2020 (03:03:23 CEST)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer, with rising incidence due to lifestyle and diet. 40% of CRC cases are found to have KRAS mutations. In this study, we investigate the survival outcome of metastatic Colorectal cancer mCRC) patients in Brunei Darussalam restrospectively. Chi-squared test was used to compare the survival outcomes of mCRC patients, and Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the median ages of both groups. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were drawn and logrank test was used to compare the survival outcome between two groups. There was a total of 105 patients with stage IV CRC being treated during the study period. 81.6% (n=62) of mCRC patients were found to have the primary tumours on the left side of the colon. 19 of these 26 (73.1%) mutant KRAS mCRC patients died, while 23 of 50 (46.0%) wild-type KRAS mCRC patients died at the end of the study period, contributing to death rates of 45.2% and 54.8%, correspondingly. 30.3% (n=23) of the study population had a single metastatic site detected (either liver, or lung or any other organs), while 69.7% (n=53) of the 76 mCRC patients had two (double) or more metastatic sites. 69.2% (n=18) and 30.8% (n=8) of the mutant KRAS mCRC patients had mutations within codons 12 and 13, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Brunei Darussalam to analyse both the survival outcomes of metastatic CRC patients and those of mutant KRAS mCRC patients. Chi-squared analysis showed a significant difference between the survival outcomes of wild-type KRAS and mutant KRAS mCRC patients (p-value = 0.024). There was a significant difference in the survival outcome between the mutant KRAS mCRC patients with RCC and mutant KRAS mCRC with LCC patients. There was no significant difference between the survival outcomes of mutant KRAS patients with mutations in either codon 12 or 13 of the KRAS gene (Table 3). However, there is a significant difference in the median survival periods between the mutant KRAS mCRC patients with mutations in codon 12 and those with mutation in codon 13 of the KRAS gene (p-value = 0.003). In conclusion, we found that mutant KRAS mCRC patients had a significantly poorer OS, which was shown to be worse when the primary tumours were found at the left side of the colon. Mutant KRAS mCRC patients with mutations in codon 12 were found to have shorter survival median periods than those with mutations within codon 13.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cancer stem cells; plasticity; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition; metastasis; microenvironment
Online: 29 December 2019 (14:51:39 CET)
Intratumoral heterogeneity is a major ongoing challenge in the effective therapeutic targeting of cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that a fraction of cells within a tumor termed Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are primarily responsible for this diversity resulting in therapeutic resistance and metastasis. Adding to this complexity, recent studies have shown that there can be different subpopulations of CSCs with varying biochemical and biophysical traits resulting in varied dissemination and drug-resistance potential. Moreover, cancer cells can exhibit a high level of plasticity or the ability to dynamically switch between CSC and non-CSC states or among different subsets of CSCs. The molecular mechanisms underlying such plasticity has been under extensive investigation and the trans-differentiation process of Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been identified as a major contributing factor. Besides genetic and epigenetic factors, CSC plasticity is also shaped by non-cell-autonomous effects such as the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in understanding CSC plasticity in tumor progression at biochemical and biophysical levels, and the latest in silico approaches being taken for characterizing cancer cell plasticity with implications in improving existing therapeutic approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0238.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: tumor dormancy; tumor relapse; tumor escape; metastasis; cancer therapy
Online: 11 October 2018 (13:10:31 CEST)
Tumor dormancy, a clinically undetectable state of cancer, makes a major contribution to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), minimum residual disease (MRD), tumor outgrowth, cancer relapse, and metastasis. Despite its high incidence, the whole picture of dormancy-regulated molecular programs is far from clear. That is, it is unknown when and which dormant cells will resume proliferation causing late relapse, and which will remain asymptomatic and harmless to their hosts. Thus, identification of dormancy-related culprits and understanding their roles can help predict cancer prognosis and may increase the probability of a timely therapeutic intervention for the desired outcome. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the dormancy-dictated molecular mechanisms, including an angiogenic switch, immune escape, cancer stem cells, extra cellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, metabolic reprogramming, miRNAs, epigenetic modifications, and stress-induced-p38 signaling pathways. Further, we analyze the possibility of leveraging these dormancy-related molecular cues to outmaneuver cancer, and discuss the implications of such approaches in cancer treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: tumor dormancy; tumor relapse; tumor escape; metastasis; cancer therapy
Online: 11 October 2018 (02:53:11 CEST)
Tumor dormancy, a clinically undetectable state of cancer, makes a major contribution to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), minimum residual disease (MRD), tumor outgrowth, cancer relapse, and metastasis. Despite its high incidence, the whole picture of dormancy-regulated molecular programs is far from clear. That is, it is unknown when and which dormant cells will resume proliferation causing late relapse, and which will remain asymptomatic and harmless to their hosts. Thus, identification of dormancy-related culprits and understanding their roles can help predict cancer prognosis and may increase the probability of a timely therapeutic intervention for the desired outcome. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the dormancy-dictated molecular mechanisms, including an angiogenic switch, immune escape, cancer stem cells, extra cellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, metabolic reprogramming, miRNAs, epigenetic modifications, and stress-induced-p38 signaling pathways. Further, we analyze the possibility of leveraging these dormancy-related molecular cues to outmaneuver cancer, and discuss the implications of such approaches in cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Nectin-4; metastasis; angiogenesis; circulating tumor cells; cancer relapse
Online: 8 October 2018 (15:52:03 CEST)
In the present study, we have systematically examined the clinical significance of Nectin-4 (encoded by the PVRL-4 gene), a marker for breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), in cancer metastasis and angiogenesis using a variety of human specimens, including invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) with multiple grades, several types of primary tumors to local and distant relapses, lymph node metastases and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Nectin-4 was overexpressed in more than 92% of samples with 65.2% Nectin-4 positive cells. The level of expression was increased with increasing tumor grade (GI-III) and size (T1-4) of IDC specimens. More induction of Nectin-4 was noted in relapsed samples from a variety of tumors (colon, tongue, liver, kidney, ovary, buccal mucosa) in comparison to primary tumors, while paired adjacent normal tissues do not express any Nectin-4. A high expression of Nectin-4 along with other representative markers in CTCs and lymph node metastasis was also observed in cancer specimens. An increased level of Nectin-4 along with representative metastatic (CD-44, Sca1, ALDH1, Nanog) and angiogenic (Ang-I, Ang-II, VEGF) markers was noted in metastatic tumors (local and distant) in comparison to primary tumors that were correlated with different grades of tumor progression. In addition, greater expression of Nectin-4 was observed in secondary tumors (distant metastasis, e.g., breast to liver or stomach to gallbladder) in comparison to primary tumors. Nectin-4 was overexpressed at all stages of metastasis and angiogenesis, thus appearing to play a major role in tumor relapse through the PI3K-Akt-NFκβ pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: STING; cGAS; cGAMP; interferon signaling; cancer; metastasis; BRCA; proton channel
Online: 2 October 2023 (10:57:16 CEST)
The evolutionary conserved STING-cGAS pathway represents one of the most important cytosolic DNA sensing systems that is activated in response to viral invasion and/or damaged integrity of the nuclear envelope. The key outcome of this pathway is the production of IFN, which subsequently stimulates hundreds of genes. In oncology, the situation is a complex one since this pathway may serve either anti- or pro-oncogenic roles in a context-dependent fashion. The prevailing understanding is that when the innate immune response is activated by sensing cytosolic DNA, such as from ruptured micronuclei, it results in the production of interferon which attracts cytotoxic cells to destroy tumors. However, in tumor cells that have adjusted to significant chromosomal instability, particularly in relapsed, treatment-resistant cancers, the cGAS–STING pathway often supports cancer progression. In these cells, the pathway initiates a non-canonical nuclear factor κB transcriptional response, fostering the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we review this intricate pathway in conjunction with cancer progression and development of new treatment modalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ESCC; MSCC; spinal metastasis; decompression surgery; radiotherapy; spinal cord syndrome
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:34:03 CEST)
Background: Surgical decompression (SD) with and without posterior stabilization followed by radiotherapy is an established treatment for patients with metastatic spinal disease with epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC). This study aims to identify risk factors for occurrence of neurologic comprise resulting from local recurrence. Methods: All patients who received surgical treatment for metastatic spinal disease at our center between 2011 and 2022 were included in this study. Cases were evaluated for tumor entity, surgical technique for decompression (decompression, hemilaminectomy, laminectomy, corpectomy) neurological deficits, grade of ESCC, time interval to radiotherapy and perioperative complications. Results: A total of 747 patients were included in the final analysis, with a follow-up of 296.8 days (95% CI (263.5, 330.1)). During the follow-up period 7.5% of patients developed spinal cord/cauda syndrome (SCS). Multivariate analysis revealed prolonged time (> 35 d) to radiation therapy as solitary risk factor (p < 0.001) for occurrence of SCS during follow-up. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of spinal metastatic disease improves patients’ quality of life and Frankel grade but radiation therapy needs to be scheduled within a time frame of few weeks in order to reduce the risk of tumor-induced neurologic comprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0385.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; BRAFV600E mutation; lymph node metastasis; prognosis; outcomes.
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:14:21 CEST)
We aimed to assess the prognostic value of BRAFV600E mutation in a series of 127 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cases as a single factor, as well as in synergic interaction with other standard risk factors. All cases were tested for BRAFV600E mutation by real-time PCR. Event-free survival (EFS) was calculated between the date of the first evaluation and the date of occurrence of an adverse event (tumor recurrence/distant metastasis) or the date of the last known status. The prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation was 57.2%. The Kaplan-Meyer analysis showed a significant reduction of EFS among cases harboring BRAFV600E mutation compared to non-mutated cases (p=0.010). In addition, BRAFV600E mutation was found to better predict adverse outcomes when associated with the following risk factors: age≥55 years-old (p<0.001), male gender (p<0.001), conventional (p=0.005) and tall cell (p=0.014) histology, tumor size>40mm (p=0.001), extrathyroidal extension (p=0.001), multifocality (p=0.001) and lymph node metastasis (p<0.001). In univariate analysis, a 3.74-fold increased risk for a reduced EFS (p=0.018) was found for BRAFV600E mutated cases. Our results highlight the prognostic value of BRAFV600E mutation in PTCs. Moreover, the synergic interaction between BRAFV600E mutation and other risk factors seems more valuable in terms of prognosis, compared to BRAFV600E mutation alone.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2169.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiac Metastasis; Cardio-oncology; Cardiac Disease; Acute myocardial infarction; Cardiology
Online: 31 May 2023 (04:04:21 CEST)
Abstract Background: Most cardiac metastases emerge from primary lung, breast, and hematologic malignancies. The clinical manifestations of cardiac metastasis vary depending on tumor location and size. Cardiac metastasis from cervical squamous cell carcinoma is extremely rare and is mostly found on autopsy. We report a case of cervical cancer metastasis to the interventricular septum. Case Summary. This report discusses the case of a 48-year-old woman with interventricular septal metastases, originating from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. The woman came to our hospital after experiencing a fainting spell. Her hospital stay was notable for a brief syncopal event during a 30-second asystole episode, which ended spontaneously. Upon awakening, she reported severe chest pain. In response, she was quickly taken to the catheterization laboratory. There, a coronary angiography revealed an 80% blockage in her left anterior descending artery. Two years prior, our patient was diagnosed with invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma with PET/CT showing no evidence of metastatic disease. A repeat PET/CT scan was done following cardiac catheterization and was significant for a mass along the interventricular septum of the heart. Discussion. Cardiac metastasis from primary cervical squamous cell carcinomas is scarcely reported in medical literature. Among these rare cases, the majority involved the right ventricle, with only three involving the left ventricle. There are no documented instances of metastasis to the interventricular septum. To our knowledge, this would be the first such case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1804.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EVs; Macrophages 1; STAT3, AKT; NF-κB; metastasis; colorectal cancer.
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:48:17 CEST)
Despite the numerous advances in target therapy for the treatment of colorectal cancer, aggressive colorectal cancer remains an incurable disease whose negative modulation of the immune system in the tumor microenvironment is still critical for improving the patient's prognosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have received attention for their use as cell-membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles and drug delivery systems in nanomedicine derived by nearly all cell types for intercellular communication and regulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, M1 Macrophage EVs (M1EVs) were used as nanocarriers of oxaliplatin (M1EV1) associated with retinoic acid (M1EV2) and Libidibia ferrea (M1EV3), or combined together with retinoic acid and Libidibia ferrea (M1EV4) to evaluate their antiproliferative and immunomodulatory potential on CT-26 and MC-38 colorectal cancer cell lines, as well as their capacity to prevent metastases in mouse models of colorectal cancer such as allographic and peritoneal. Tumors were evaluated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The cell death profile and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMT) were analyzed in vitro in colorectal cancer cell lines. Polarization of murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) was also carried out. M1EV2 and M1EV3 used alone or especially combined (M1EV4) downregulated the tumor progression by TME immunomodulation, leading to a decrease in primary tumor size and metastases in peritoneum, liver and lungs. STAT3, NF-kB and AKT were the major genes downregulated by systems of M1EVs. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) switched M2 phenotype (CD163) towards M1 (CD68) reducing levels of IL-10, TGF-β and CCL22. Furthermore, malignant cells showed overexpression of FADD, APAF-1, caspase-3, and E-cadherin, and decreased expression of MDR-1, survivin, vimentin, CXCR4, and PD-L1 after treatment with systems of M1EVs. The results obtained in this study provided evidence that EVs from M1 antitumor macrophages can transport drugs and increase their immunomodulatory and antitumor activity by stimulating activation or blockage of pathways involved in cell proliferation, migration, cell survival, and drug resistance processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0893.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: lncRNAs; non-coding RNAs; lung cancer; metastasis; biomarkers; therapy resistance
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:24:56 CEST)
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are mRNA-like molecules that do not encode for proteins and that are longer than 200 nucleotides. LncRNAs play important biological roles in normal cell physiology and organism development. Therefore, deregulation of their activities is involved in disease processes such as cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths due to late stage at diagnosis, distant metastasis, and high rates of therapeutic failure. LncRNAs are emerging as important molecules in lung cancer for their oncogenic or tumor suppressive functions. LncRNAs are highly stable in circulation, presenting an opportunity for use as non-invasive and early-stage cancer diagnostic tools. Here, we summarize latest works providing in vivo evidence available for LncRNAs role in cancer development, therapy-induced resistance, and their potential as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis, with a focus on lung cancer. Additionally, we discuss current therapeutic approaches to target LncRNAs. The evidence discussed here strongly suggests that investigation of LncRNAs in lung cancer in addition to protein-coding genes will provide a holistic view of molecular mechanisms of cancer initiation, development, and progression, and could open a new avenue for cancer treatment.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: indocyanine green; icg; near infrared light; liver; surgery; colorectal metastasis
Online: 11 April 2023 (08:33:57 CEST)
Introduction: Successful R0 resection is crucial for the survival of patients with primary liver cancer (PLC) or liver metastases. Up to date, surgical resection lacks a sensitive, real-time intraoperative imaging modality to determine R0 resection. Real-time intraoperative visualization with near-infrared light fluorescence (NIRF) using indocyanine green (ICG) may have the potential to meet this demand. This study evaluates the value of ICG visualization in PLC and liver metastases surgery regarding R0 resection rates. Materials and Methods Patients with PLC or liver metastases were included in this prospective cohort study. ICG 10mg was administered intravenously 24 hours before surgery. Real-time intraoperative NIRF visualization was made with the SpectrumTM Fluorescence Imaging Camera System. First, all liver segments were inspected with the fluorescence imaging system and intraoperative ultrasound for identification of the known tumor as well as additional lesions, compared to preoperative MRI. PLC, liver metastases, and additional lesions were then resected according to oncological principles. Of all resected specimens the resection margins were analyzed with the fluorescence imaging system for ICG positive spots right after resection. Histology of additional detected lesions as well as ICG fluorescence compared to histological resection margins were assessed. Results Of the 66 included patients median age was 65.5 years (IQR 58.7 - 73.9), 27 (40.9%) were female and 18 (27.3%) were operated laparoscopically. Additional ICG positive lesions were detected in 23 (35.4%) patients of which nine (29%) were malignant. In patients with no fluorescent signal at the resection margin, R0 rate was 93.9%, R1 rate was 6.1%, and R2 rate was 0% compared to a ICG positive resection margin with a R0 rate of 64.3%, R1 rate of 21.4%, and R2 rate of 14.3% (p=0.005). One and two year overall survival were 95.2% and 88.4%, respectively. Conclusion The here presented study provides significant evidence that ICG NIRF guidance helps to identify R0 resection intraoperatively. This offers a true potential to verify radical resection and improve patients´ outcome. Furthermore, implementation of NIRF guided imaging in liver tumor surgery allows to detect a considerable amount of additional malignant lesions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0023.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cooperation; conditioned media; TGF-β1; intratumour heterogeneity; metastasis; EMT; invasion
Online: 14 November 2022 (10:58:41 CET)
Intratumour heterogeneity is often associated with poor response to treatment and bad prognosis. In addition to constitutive genetic/epigenetic sources, phenotypic and functional heterogeneity can reflect cell plasticity due to changes in gene expression patterns induced by signals from the tumour microenvironment or other cells. Positive interactions between cancer clones can increase their fitness and contribute to tumour growth, resistance to drugs and metastasis. Consequently, understanding the pathways involved in such behaviours is of great significance for cancer treatment. To explore if and how genetically distant clones can synergistically enhance each other's metastatic potential, this study used three (two breast and one lung) cancer cell lines with different aggressiveness levels. We found that (i) the conditioned media from the breast and lung aggressive lines induce mesenchymal features and increase the migration and invasion potential of the poorly metastatic breast line, and (ii) in both cases, this interclonal communication is based on the same soluble factor – namely, the tumour growth factor TGF-β1. Furthermore, when the two breast lines are mixed and co-cultured, the invasive potential of both lines is enhanced, and this outcome is dependent on the recruitment of the less aggressive clone into expressing a malignant phenotype. Based on our findings, we propose a two-tier model whereby highly metastatic clones can recruit weakly metastatic clones into acquiring an invasive phenotype, which in turn augments the invasion ability of the former (i.e., a “help me help you” strategy) through shared proteases and/or ECM remodelling. We suggest that such synergistic cooperation can easily emerge via cross-talk involving metastatic clones able to constitutively secrete signalling molecules that induce and maintain their own malignant state (i.e., autocrine/cell-autonomous signalling) and clones that have the ability to respond to those signals (i.e., paracrine/non-cell-autonomous signalling) and express a metastatic phenotype. Taking into account the lack of therapies to directly affect the metastatic process, interfering with such cooperative behaviours that tumour cells engage in during the early steps in the metastatic cascade could provide an additional strategy to increase patient survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colo-rectal cancer; liver metastasis; simultaneous approach; surgical treatment; chemotherapy
Online: 9 November 2022 (15:36:13 CET)
Management of synchronous colorectal cancer with liver metastases (SCLM) is still on debate, regarding timing, indications and complications of the 3 strategies: classic approach (first tumor resection), simultaneous resection and reverse approach (liver first). A retrospective single-centre evaluation of synchronous approach was accomplished, focusing on surgical technique, indications and perioperative complications. Between 2017 and 2020, 31 SCLM patients benefited from synchronously colorectal and hepatic approach: segmental colectomies/rectal resections, simultaneously with liver metastasectomies (associated with radiofrequency ablation). Post-therapeutic imaging monitoring was performed from every 3 to 6 months. There were no perioperative complications related to the combination of the two procedures, low morbidity and zero postoperative mortality. The follow-up period was from 10 to 40 months: 13 patients had no evidence of recurrence, 10 patients had hepatic metastases in regression, 4 of them had signs of peritoneal carcinomatosis and 4 patients showed progression of liver disease; all patients were on chemotherapy. During follow-up 4 patients died. Experience shows that the simultaneous approach of recto-colic and hepatic resections in colo-rectal cancers is a safe procedure, with low morbidity, the limits being dictated by the size of the liver metastases. The results at long-distance must be drawn by further consistent trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Wound healing; metastasis; oxidative stress; macrophage; HIF; NF-kB; Nrf2
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:28:28 CEST)
Many signaling pathways, molecular and cellular actors which are critical for wound healing have been implicated in cancer metastasis. These two conditions are a complex succession of cellular biological events and accurate regulation of these events is essential. Apart from inflammation, macrophages-released ROS arise as major regulators of these processes. But, whatever the pathology concerned, oxidative stress is a complicated phenomenon to control and requires a finely tuned balance over the different stages and responding cells. This review provides an overview of the pivotal role of oxidative stress in both wound healing and metastasis, encompassing the contribution of macrophages. Indeed, macrophages are major ROS producers but also appear as their targets since ROS interfere with their differentiation and function. Elucidating ROS functions in wound healing and metastatic spread may allow the development of innovative therapeutic strategies involving redox modulators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: uveal melanoma; BAP1; PROS1; MERTK; macrophage; tumor immune microenvironment; metastasis
Online: 16 June 2022 (10:42:50 CEST)
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary cancer of the eye and is associated with a high rate of metastatic death. UM can be stratified into two main classes based on metastatic risk, with class 1 UM having a low metastatic risk and class 2 UM having a high metastatic risk. Class 2 UM have a distinctive genomic, transcriptomic, histopathologic, and clinical phenotype characterized by biallelic inactivation of the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene, an immune suppressive microenvironment enriched for M2-polarized macrophages, and poor response to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy. To identify potential mechanistic links between BAP1 loss and immune suppression in class 2 UM, we performed an integrated analysis of UM samples, as well as genetically engineered UM cell lines and uveal melanocytes (UMC). Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we found that the most highly up-regulated gene associated with BAP1 loss across these datasets was PROS1, which encodes a ligand that triggers phosphorylation and activation of the immunosuppressive macrophage receptor MERTK. The inverse association between BAP1 and PROS1 in class 2 UM was confirmed by single-cell RNA-seq, which also revealed that MERTK was up-regulated in CD163+ macrophages in class 2 UM. Using ChIP-seq, BAP1 knockdown in UM cells resulted in an accumulation of H3K27ac at the PROS1 locus, suggesting epigenetic regulation of PROS1 by BAP1. Phosphorylation of MERTK in RAW 264.7 monocyte-macrophage cells was increased upon co-culture with BAP1-/- UMCs, and this phosphorylation was blocked by depletion of PROS1 in the UMCs. These findings were corroborated by multi-color immunohistochemistry, where class 2/BAP1-mutant UMs demonstrated increased PROS1 expression in tumor cells and increased MERTK phosphorylation in CD163+ macrophages compared to class 1/BAP1-wildtype UMs. Taken together, these findings provide a mechanistic link between BAP1 loss and suppression of the tumor immune microenvironment in class 2 UMs, and they implicate the PROS1-MERTK pathway as a potential target for immunotherapy in UM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0612.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Gastric cancer; natural products; autophagy; apoptosis; angiogenesis; metastasis; chemo-resistance.
Online: 27 July 2021 (22:20:18 CEST)
Gastric cancer, also known as stomach cancer, is a cancer which develops from the lining of the stomach. Accumulated evidences and epidemiological studies have been indicated that natural products play an important role in gastric cancer prevention and treatment, although its mechanism of action did not elucidate yet. Particularly, experimental studies have been showed that natural products displayed a protective effect against gastric cancer via numerous molecular mechanisms such as suppression of cell metastasis, anti-angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and modulation of autophagy. Although chemotherapy remains the standard treatment for advanced gastric cancer along with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy and immunotherapy, but its adverse side effects including neutropenia, stomatitis, mucositis, diarrhea, nausea, and emesis are well documented. Additionally, intake of naturally occurring phytochemicals could increase the efficacy of gastric chemotherapy and chemotherapeutics resistance. However, natural product structural stability and powerful bioactivity are important to develop novel treatments for gastric cancer that may minimize such adverse effects. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the potential therapeutic effects of natural products on prevention and treatment of gastric cancer with intensive molecular mechanisms of action, bioavailability, and safety efficacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0779.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Lineage Plasticity; Tumor Progression; Metastasis; Therapy Resistance; Epithelial-Mesenchymal Plasticity
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:48:08 CEST)
Lineage plasticity, the switching of cells from one lineage to another has been recognized to be a cardinal property essential for embryonic development, tissue repair and homeostasis. However, such a highly regulated process goes awry when cancer cells exploit this inherent ability to their advantage, resulting in tumorigenesis, relapse, metastasis and therapy resistance. In this review, we summarize our current understanding on the role of lineage plasticity in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance in multiple cancers. Lineage plasticity can be triggered by treatment itself and is reported across various solid as well as liquid tumors. Here we focus on the importance of lineage switching in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance of solid tumors such as the prostate, lung, hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma and the myeloid and lymphoid lineage switch observed in leukemias. Besides this, we also discuss the role of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in facilitating the lineage switch in biphasic cancers such as aggressive carcinosarcomas. We also discuss the mechanisms involved, current therapeutic approaches and challenges that lie ahead in taming the scourge of lineage plasticity in cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: carbon ions; particle therapy; radiotherapy; radiobiology; hypoxia; RBE; immunotherapy; metastasis
Online: 5 October 2020 (08:16:34 CEST)
Radiotherapy using accelerated charged particles is rapidly growing worldwide. About 85% of the cancer patients receiving particle therapy is irradiated with protons, which have physical advantages compared to X-rays but similar biological response. In addition to the ballistic advantages, heavy ions present specific radiobiological features that can make them attractive for treating radioresistant, hypoxic tumors. An ideal heavy ion should have lower toxicity in the entrance channel (normal tissue), and being exquisitely effective in the target region (tumor). Carbon ions have been chosen because they represent the best combination in this direction. Normal tissue toxicities and second cancer risk are similar to those observed in conventional radiotherapy. In the target region, they have increased relative biological effectiveness and reduced oxygen enhancement ratio compared to X-rays. Some radiobiology properties of densely ionizing carbon ions are so distinct from X-rays and protons that they can be considered as a different “drug” in oncology, and may elicit favorable responses such as increased immune response and reduced angiogenesis and metastatic potential. The radiobiological properties of carbon ions should guide patient selection and treatment protocols to achieve optimal clinical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Thienopyrimidines, RP-010, Prostate cancer, Metastasis, Wnt/β-catenin, Apoptosis.
Online: 4 March 2019 (13:37:02 CET)
Thienopyrimidines are a versatile group of compounds that contain a biologically active pharmacophore and reported to have anticancer efficacy in vitro. Here, we report for the first time, that thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine - based compounds, designated the RP series, have efficacy in prostate cancer cells. The lead compound, RP-010, was efficacious in PC3 and DU-145 prostate cancer (PC) cells (IC50< 1µM). The cytotoxicity of RP-010 was significantly lower in normal cells. RP-010 (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 µM) arrested prostate cancer cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, induced mitotic catastrophe and apoptotic signaling in both PC cell lines. Mechanistic studies suggested that RP-010 (1 and 2 µM) inhibits the wingless-type MMTV (Wnt)/β-catenin signaling pathway, mainly by inducing β-catenin fragmentation, while down regulating important proteins in the pathway, i.e. LRP-6, DVL3, and c-Myc. Interestingly, RP-010 (1 and 2 µM) induced the nuclear translocation of the negative feedback proteins, Naked 1 and Naked 2, in the signaling pathway. In addition, RP-010 (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 µM) significantly decreased the migration and invasiveness of PC cells in vitro. Finally, RP-010 did not produce significant toxic effects in zebrafish at concentrations up to 6 µM. In conclusion, RP-10 is a promising anticancer compound in metastatic prostate cancer and did not produce overt toxicity in an in vivo zebrafish model. Future mechanistic and efficacy studies are needed in-vivo to optimize the lead compound RP-010 for clinical use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer liver metastasis; heterogeneity; gene; transcriptome; protein; metabolism; immune; therapy
Online: 6 November 2023 (03:09:57 CET)
Colorectal cancer is a high-incidence tumor that has a high mortality rate due to its frequent metastasis to the liver. The difference in genes, proteins, and immune microenvironment between the primary and metastatic sites causes them to show different responses to treatment. Colorectal cancer liver metastasis patients also tend to show poorer treatment response and prognosis. Therefore, in this paper, we summarize the heterogeneity exhibited after colorectal cancer liver metastasis from five aspects (gene, transcriptome, protein, metabolism, and immunity), and we found that except for the genetic heterogeneity, the other four aspects exhibite significant heterogeneity, which might serve as a new therapeutic direction and a prognostic marker for patients with liver metastasis. Finally, the therapeutic modalities regarding tumors are rapidly evolving, and we have also summarize the new clinical therapeutic modalities currently proposed based on these heterogeneities, aiming to provide new therapeutic ideas for the clinical treatment of patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: α-linolenic acid; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; metastasis; apoptosis; oral cancer; OSCC
Online: 9 October 2023 (14:46:21 CEST)
Oral cancer ranks sixth among Taiwan's top 10 cancers, and most patients with poor prognosis acquire metastases. The essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) has been found to diminish many cancer properties. However, the anti-cancer activity of ALA in oral cancer has yet to be determined. Migration and invasion assays confirmed OSCC cells' EMT capabilities, whereas flow cytometry and Western blotting identified the molecular pathways. ALA dramatically reduced cell growth in a concentration dependent manner, according to the findings. Low concentrations of ALA (100 or 200 μM) inhibit colony formation, expression of Twist and EMT-related proteins, expression of MMP2/-9 proteins and enzyme activity, as well as cell migration and invasion. Treatment with high concentrations of ALA (200 or 400 μM) greatly increases JNK phosphorylation and c-jun nuclear accumulation, then upregulates the FasL/caspase8/caspase3 and Bid/cytochrome c/caspase9/caspase3 pathways, leading to cell death. Low concentrations of ALA inhibit SAS and GNM cell migration and invasion by suppressing Twist and downregulating EMT-related proteins, or by decreasing the protein expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2/-9, whereas high concentrations of ALA promote apoptosis by activating the JNK/FasL/caspase 8/caspase 3-extrinsic pathway and the Bid/cytochrome c/caspase 9 pathway. ALA demonstrates potential as a treatment for OSCC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0227.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: metastasis marker; gene expression; machine learning; XGBoost; breast cancer; feature importance.
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:21:26 CEST)
Cancer metastasis accounts for approximately 90% of cancer deaths, and elucidating markers in metastasis is the first step in its prevention. To characterize metastasis marker genes of breast cancer (MGs), XGBoost models that classify metastasis status were trained with gene expression profiles from TCGA. Then, a metastasis score (MS) was assigned to each gene by calculating the inner product between the feature importance and AUC performance of the models. As a result, the 54, 202, and 357 genes with the highest MS were characterized as MGs by empirical P-value cutoffs of 0.001, 0.005, and 0.01, respectively. The three sets of MGs were compared with those from existing metastasis marker databases, which provided significant results in most comparisons. We noticed that the set of MGs with the median EP cutoff showed better performance than the other two sets, suggesting the importance of the cutoff used in determining MGs. They were also significantly enriched in biological processes associated to breast cancer metastasis. The MGs that could not be identified by statistical analysis (e.g., GOLM1, ELAVL1, UBP1, and AZGP1) as well as the MGs with the highest MS (e.g., ZNF676, FAM163B, LDOC2, IRF1, and STK40) were verified via the literature. Additionally, we checked how close the MGs are located to each other in the protein–protein interaction networks. We expect that the characterized markers will help understand and prevent breast cancer metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Radiomics; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); soft tissue sarcoma; lung metastasis; edema
Online: 17 August 2023 (12:58:38 CEST)
Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether radiomic features extracted solely from the edema of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) could predict the occurrence of lung metastasis in comparison with features extracted solely from the tumoral mass. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 32 STSs including 14 with lung metastasis and 18 without. Segmentation of the tumor mass and edema was performed for each MRI examination. A total of 107 radiomic features were extracted for each mass segmentation and 107 radiomic features for each edema segmentation. A two-step feature selection process was applied. Two predictive features for the development of lung metastasis were selected from the mass-related features, as well as two predictive features from the edema-related features. Two random forest models were created based on these selected features; 100 random subsampling runs were performed. Key performance metrics including accuracy and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated, and the resulting accuracies were compared. Results: The model based on mass-related features achieved a median accuracy of 0.83 and a median AUC of 0.88, while the model based on edema-related features achieved a median accuracy of 0.75 and a median AUC of 0.79. Statistical analysis comparing the accuracies of the two models revealed no significant difference. Conclusion: Both models showed promise in predicting the occurrence of lung metastasis in soft tissue sarcomas. These findings suggest that radiomic analysis of edema features can provide valuable insights into the prediction of lung metastasis in soft tissue sarcomas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0946.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SOX11; epithelial-mesenchymal; transition; E-cadherin; vimentin; ovarian; cancer; metastasis; survival
Online: 14 August 2023 (05:34:42 CEST)
Background: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies with serous carcinoma being the most common histopathologic subtype. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) correlates with an increased metastatic potential, whereas the transcription factor SOX11 is overexpressed in diverse malignancies. Methods: In the present study, we aim to evaluate the potential role of the immunohistochemical expression of SOX11 in 30 serous ovarian carcinomas in association with E-cadherin and Vimentin expression as well as with patients’ clinicopathological data. Results: Most of the examined cases showed concurrent expression of E-cadherin and Vimentin, whereas SOX11 was expressed in a minority of the cases (26,7%). Interestingly, the positive cases had more frequently a metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis compared to the negative cases (p=0.09), an association, however, of marginal significance. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between E-Cadherin and SOX11 expression (p=0,0077) and a positive correlation between Vimentin and SOX11 expression (p=0,0130). Conclusions: The present work, for the first time, provides preliminary evidence SOX11 overexpression alongside E-cadherin loss in the promotion of EMT in serous ovarian cancer, thereby endorsing tumor metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0046.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cancer; circulating tumour cell clusters; metastasis; TGF-β1; extravasation; phenotypic plasticity
Online: 19 July 2023 (02:38:28 CEST)
Background: As cancer progresses, cells acquire traits that allow them to disperse and disseminate to distant locations in the body – a process known as metastasis. While in the vasculature, these cells are referred to as circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and can manifest either as single cells or clusters of cells (i.e., CTC clusters), with the latter being the most aggressive. The increased metastatic potential of CTC clusters is generally associated with cooperative group benefits in terms of survival, such as increased resistance to shear stress, anoikis, immune attacks and drugs. However, the adoption of a group phenotype poses a challenge when exiting the vasculature (extravasation) as the large size can hinder the passage through vessel walls. Despite their significant role in the metastatic process, the mechanisms through which CTC clusters extravasate remain largely unknown. Based on the observed in vivo association between CTC clusters and platelets, we hypothesized that cancer cells take advantage of the platelet-derived Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) – a signalling factor that has been widely implicated in many aspects of cancer, to facilitate their own dissemination. To address this possibility, we evaluated the effect of exogenous TGF-β1 on an experimentally evolved non-small lung cancer cell line that we previously developed and used to investigate the biology of CTC clusters. Results: We found that exogenous TGF-β1 induced the dissociation of clusters into adherent single cells. Once adhered, cells released their own TGF-β1 and were able to individually migrate and invade in the absence of exogenous TGF-β1. Based on these findings we developed a model that involves a TGF-β1-mediated plastic switch between a cooperative phenotype and a single-celled stage that enables the extravasation of CTC clusters. Conclusions: This model allows for the possibility that therapies can be developed against TGF-β1 signalling components and/or TGF-β1 target genes to suppress the metastatic potential of CTC clusters. Considering the negative impact that metastasis has on cancer prognosis and the lack of therapies against this process, interfering with the ability of CTC clusters to switch between cooperative and individual behaviours could provide new strategies to improve patient survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0676.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ultrasound; endometrial cancer; lymph nodes metastasis; myometrial invasion; tumor-free distance
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:06:16 CEST)
Background: Ultrasonography’s usefulness in endometrial cancer (EC) diagnosis consists of its staging and predictive roles. Ultrasound-measured tumor-free distance from the tumor to the uterine serosa (uTFD) is a promising marker for this variable. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of this biomarker in locoregional staging, and thus in the prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM). Methods: We conducted a single-institutional, prospective study on 116 consecutive patients with EC who underwent 2D transvaginal ultrasound examination. The uTFD marker was compared with the depth of ultrasound-measured myometrial invasion (uMI). Univariate and multivariate logit models were evaluated to assess the predictive power of the uTFD and uMI in regard to LNM. The reference standard was a final histopathology result. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meyer method. Results: LNM was found in 17% of the patients (20/116). In the univariate analysis, uMI and uTFD were significant predictors of LNM. Accuracy was 70.7%, and NPV was 92.68% (OR 4.746, 95% CI 1.710-13.174) for uMI (p = 0.002), and 63.8%, and 89.02% (OR 0.842, 95% CI 0.736 – 0.963), respectively, for uTFD (p = 0.01). The cut-off value for uTFD in the prediction of LNM was 5.2 mm. The absence of LNM was associated more with biomarker values uMI <1/2 and uTFD >=5.2 mm than with the presence of metastases with uMI >1/2 and uTFD values <5.2 mm. In the multivariate analysis, the accuracy of the uMI-uTFD model was 74%, and NPV was 90.24% (p = NS). Neither uMI nor uTFD are surrogates for overall and recurrence-free survivals in endometrial cancer. Conclusions: Both uMI and uTFD, either alone or in combination, are valuable tools for gaining additional preoperative information on expected lymph node status. Negative lymph nodes status is better described by ultrasound biomarkers than a positive status. It is easier to use uTFD measurement as a biomarker of EC invasion than uMI, and the former still maintains a similar predictive value for lymph node metastases to the latter at diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity; stemness; landscape; phenotypic plasticity; cancer stem cells; metastasis
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:57:56 CEST)
Establishing macrometastases at distant organs is a highly challenging process for cancer cells, with extremely high attrition rates. A very small percentage of disseminated cells have the ability to dynamically adapt to their changing micro-environments through reversibly switching to another phenotype, aiding metastasis. Such plasticity can be exhibited along one or more axes – epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) being the two most studied, and often tacitly assumed to be synonymous. Here, we review the emerging concepts related to EMP and CSCs across multiple cancers. Both processes are multi-dimensional in nature; for instance, EMP can be defined on morphological, molecular and functional changes, which may or may not be synchronized. Similarly, self-renewal, multi-lineage potential, and anoikis and/or therapy resistance may not all occur simultaneously in CSCs. Thus, arriving at rigorous functional definitions for both EMP and CSCs is crucial. These processes are dynamic, reversible, and semi-independent in nature; cells traverse the inter-connected high-dimensional EMP and CSC landscapes in diverse paths, each of which may exhibit a distinct EMP-CSC coupling. Our proposed model offers a potential unifying framework for elucidating the coupled decision-making along these dimensions and highlights a key set of open questions to be answered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; multidetector computed tomography; liver; neoplasm metastasis; gadoxetic acid
Online: 31 May 2020 (18:32:40 CEST)
To investigate the impact of radiologic experience on the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography CT vs. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporting for liver metastases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (LM of PDAC). Intra-individual CT and MRI examinations of 112 patients with clinically proven LM of PDAC were included. Four radiologists with varying years of experience (A > 20, B > 5, C > 1 and D < 1) assessed liver segments affected by LM of PDAC, as well as associated metastases occurring in each patient. Their sensitivity and specificity in evaluating the segments were compared. Cohen's Kappa (κ) for diagnosed liver segments and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC) for the number of metastatic lesions in each patient were calculated. The radiologists’ sensitivity and specificity for the CT vs. MRI were, respectively: Reader A -94.4, 90.3% vs. 96.6, 94.8%; B - 86.7, 79.7% vs. 83.9, 82.0%; C - 78.0, 76.7% vs. 83.3, 78.9% and D - 71.8, 79.2% vs. 64.0, 69.5%. Reviewers A and B achieved greater agreement in assessing results from the MRI (κ = 0.72, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.73, p < 0.001) vs. the CT (κ = 0.58, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.61, p < 0.001), in contrast to readers C and D (MRI: κ = 0.34, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.42, p < 0.001, and CT: κ = 0.48, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.59, p < 0.001). Our results indicate that accurate diagnosis of LM of PDAC depends more on radiologic experience in MRI over CT scans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: adenosine receptor; immune system; cancer therapy; tumor microenvironment; cell proliferation; metastasis
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:28:09 CEST)
There are four subtypes of adenosine receptors (ARs), named A1, A2A, A2B and A3, all of which are G protein-coupled receptors. The A2BAR, coupled to both Gαi and Gαq G proteins, is one of the several G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in a significantly higher level in some cancer tissues in comparison to adjacent normal tissues. There is growing evidence that the A2BAR plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune suppression. Thus, A2BAR antagonists are potentially novel attractive anticancer agents. Several antagonists targeting at the A2BAR are currently in clinical trials for various types of cancers. In this review, we first describe the signaling, agonists, and antagonists of the A2BAR. We further discuss the role of the A2BAR in the progression of various types cancers, and the rationale of using A2BAR antagonists in cancer therapy
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: pheochromocytoma; paraganglioma; GAPP; metastasis; prognosis; catecholamine; gene mutation; immunohistochemistry; pathology; diagnosis
Online: 25 July 2018 (11:41:52 CEST)
Pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors characterized by catecholamine production in the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal paraganglia. PPGL with metastasis was termed malignant PPGL. However, the distinction between “benign” and “malignant” PPGLs has been debated. Currently, all PPGLs are believed to have some metastatic potential and are assigned malignant tumors (ICD-O/3) by the WHO Classification of Endocrine Organs (2017, 4th edition). Therefore, the previous categories benign and malignant PPGL have been eliminated in favor of a risk stratification approach. The Grading of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (GAPP) is a tool for risk stratification for predicting metastasis and the prognosis of patients. At least 30% of PPGLs are hereditary, with 20 genes identified and genotype-phenotype correlations clarified. Of these, VHL, RET, and NF1 have been well investigated and are the primary cause of bilateral PCC. In addition, succinate dehydrogenase gene subunits SDHB and SDHD are strongly correlated with extra-adrenal location, younger age, multiple tumors, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Disease stratification by catecholamine phenotype and molecular profiling correlates with histological grading by GAPP. PPGLs should be understood comprehensively based on clinical, biochemical, molecular, and pathological data for patient care. A flow chart for pathological diagnosis is included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cytoskeleton; extracellular matrix remodeling; ovarian cancer; anoikis resistance; metastasis
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:10:00 CEST)
Background: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process where epithelial cells lose their adhesive properties and gain invasive, metastatic, and mesenchymal properties. Maintaining the balance between epithelial and mesenchymal stage is essential for tissue homeo-stasis. Many of the genes promoting mesenchymal transformation has been identified; however, our understanding of the genes responsible for maintaining the epithelial phenotype is limited. Our objective was to identify genes responsible for maintaining the epithelial phenotype and in-hibiting EMT. Methods: RNA seq was performed using an vitro model of EMT. CTGF expres-sion was determined by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Knockout of CTGF was done using the CTGF sgRNA CRISPR/CAS9. Tumorigenic potential was determined using NCG mice. Results: Knocked-out of CTGF in epithelial ovarian cancer cells leads to the acquisition of functional characteristics associated with the mesenchymal phenotype such as Anoikis resistance, cytoskel-eton remodeling, increased cell stiffness, and acquisition of invasion and tumorigenic capacity. Conclusions: We identified CTGF is an important regulator of the epithelial phenotype, and its loss is associated with early cellular modifications required for EMT. We describe a novel role for CTGF, regulating cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix interactions necessary for conserva-tion of epithelial structure and function. These findings provide a new window to understand the early stages on mesenchymal transformation
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; prostate cancer; tissue biomarkers; microRNA; EMT-related proteins; metastasis
Online: 14 July 2023 (16:12:32 CEST)
Prostate cancer is the most occurred malignant disease in the male population in over one-half of the countries and still constitutes the fifth leading cause of death in 2020, worldwide. Metastatic prostate cancer is a lethal malignancy that mostly is terminated within several years through the patient's death. Researchers should focus on the phenomenon which is rigorously appertaining to metastatic cascade and operating as an initiator of metastases to provide the knowledge needed to solve the problem of diagnostics and treatment of advanced prostate cancer patients. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is one such phenomenon. The current review is based mainly on three papers published in 2021, which describe the most important tissue-specific factors managing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and are discussed with scientific papers published in acknowledged journals. The effect of the current review is the specification of profiles of precise tissue factors predicting the progression of the prostate neoplasm to its metastatic stage in a new edition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: microfluidics; metastasis; cancer; mechanical properties; physics of cancer; chemotherapy; microcirculation; tumor microenvironment
Online: 4 July 2023 (08:47:01 CEST)
There is rapidly emerging evidence from pre-clinical studies, patient samples and patient subpopulations that certain chemotherapeutics inadvertently produce prometastatic effects. Prior to this, we showed that doxorubicin and daunorubicin, stiffen cells before causing cell death, predisposing the cells to clogging and extravasation, the latter being a step in metastasis. Here, we investigate which other anti-cancer drugs might have similar prometastatic effects by altering the biophysical properties of cells. We treat myelogenous (K562) leukemic cancer cells with the drugs nocodazole and hydroxyurea, and then measure their mechanical properties using the microfluidic microcirculation mimetic (MMM) device, which mimics aspects of blood circulation and enables the measurement of cell mechanical properties via transit times through the device. We also quantify the morphological properties of cells to explore biophysical mechanisms underlying the MMM results. Results from MMM measurements show that nocodazole- and hydroxyurea-treated K562 cells exhibit significantly altered transit times. Nocodazole caused significant (p < 0.01) increase in transit times, implying a stiffening of cells. This work shows the feasibility of using the MMM to explore possible biophysical mechanisms that might contribute to chemotherapy-induced metastasis. Our work also suggests cell mechanics as a therapeutic target for much needed antimetastatic strategies in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0602.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Chemotherapy Resistance; Molecular Targeting; Signalling Pathway; Metastasis; Apoptosis; Tumor Microenvironment; Cancer Stemness
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:37:41 CEST)
Cancer is a devastating disease, causing tremendous morbidity and mortality each year. Cancer can be considered as a genetic disease in the sense that instabilities in protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are among the hallmarks of cancer progression and metastasis. However, a particular cancer can express different proteins in different patients, making cancer a heterogeneous disease. This heterogeneity in part influences treatment resistance and failure. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanism by which cancer cells develop and enhance resistance to different agents. This review aims to present the general paradigm and recent updates on cancer cell resistance to different antitumor agents. It demonstrates that tumor resistance results from a myriad of factors, including tumor microenvironment, supporting immune cells, and cancer stem cells. This interaction contributes to cancer cells overcoming the therapeutic effects of different classes of antitumor agents, such as cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, targeted agents, and immunotherapies. With the development of advanced molecular analysis, specialized genomic assessment has assisted clinicians and researchers in choosing selected agents combating cancer cells. Together, this approach can potentially reduce treatment toxicity, health system burden, and financial costs while improving patient quality of life. Understanding the exact mechanism of drug resistance in cancer cells can open the way to new effective and less toxic therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1994.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: brain; metastasis; breast cancer; interferon-; blood-brain barrier; immune response; T lymphocytes
Online: 29 May 2023 (08:24:41 CEST)
The appearance of brain metastasis is the most serious complication of breast cancer with mostly fatal outcomes. To reach the brain, tumor cells need to pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The molecular mechanisms underlying penetration of the BBB are largely unknown. Previously we found that tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes enhance the development of brain metastasis of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. In the current study, we investigate the contribution of T lymphocytes and the IFN- pathway in enabling breast cancer cells to pass the in vitro BBB. CD8+ cells display the strongest stimulatory effect on breast cancer cell passage. We show that inhibition of the IFN- receptor in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, or neutralization of soluble IFN-, impairs the in vitro trespassing of breast cancer cells. Importantly, we validated our findings using gene expression data of breast cancer patients. CXCL-9,-10,-11/CXCR3 axis, dependent on IFN- signaling activity, was overexpressed in primary breast cancer samples of patients who developed brain metastasis. The data support a role for T-lymphocytes and the IFN- pathway in the formation of brain metastasis of ER- breast cancer, and offer targets to design future therapies for preventing breast cancer cells to cross the BBB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: tumor microenvironment; connexins; cell-cell contacts; tumor stroma; carcinogenesis; tumor development; metastasis
Online: 16 December 2021 (08:12:13 CET)
The modern paradigm of studying the processes of carcinogenesis and vital activity of tumor tissues implies increased attention to constituents of tumor microenvironment (TME) and their interactions. These interactions between the cells in TME can be mediated via protein junctions of different types. Connexins (Cnxs) are one of the major contributors to intercellular communication. They form gap junctions responsible for the transfer of ions, metabolites, peptides, miRNA, etc. between neighboring tumor cells as well as between tumor and stromal cells. Cnx hemichannels mediate purinergic signaling and bidirectional molecular transport with the extracellular environment. Additionally, Cnxs were reported to localize in tumor-derived exosomes and facilitate the release of their cargo. A large body of evidence implies that the role of connexins in cancer is multifaceted. Pro- or anti-tumorigenic properties of connexins are determined by their abundance, localization and functionality as well as channel assembly and non-channel functions. In this review we have summarized the data on the Cnxs contribution in TME and to the cancer initiation and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pancreatic cancer; recurrence; metastasis; surgical resection; circulating tumour cells; CTC; CellSearch; prognostication
Online: 22 December 2020 (12:02:41 CET)
In patients with presumed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), biomarkers that may open for personalised, risk-adapted treatment are lacking. The study analysed the impact of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) on the patterns of recurrence and survival in 98 patients resected for PDAC with 5-10 years of follow-up. Preoperative samples were analysed by the CellSearch® system for EpCAM+/DAPI+/CK+/CD45- CTCs. CTCs were detected in 7 of the 98 patients. CTCs predicted a significantly shorter median DFS of 3.3 vs. 9.2 months and a median CSS of 6.3 vs. 18.5 months. Relapse status was confirmed by imaging for 87 patients. Of these, 58 developed distant metastases (DM) and 29 cases isolated local recurrence (ILR) as first event. All patients with CTCs experienced DM. pN-status and histological grade >2 were other independent risk factors for DM, but only CTCs predicted significantly shorter cancer-specific, disease-free and post-recurrence survival. We conclude that CTC presence in resected PDAC patients predicted early distant metastasis and impaired survival. The impact of CTCs was comparable to that of histopathological risk factors and exceeded the effect size of other preoperative parameters. Thus, preoperative CTCs alone or in combination with histopathological factors may guide initial treatment decisions in patients with resectable PDAC in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; cancer-associated fibroblasts; metastasis; cell migration; cell invasion; Akt; EGFR
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:25:20 CEST)
Oral cancer cells (TYS) and the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, in response to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, COM) and normal oral mucosal fibroblasts (MM1) was studied. Metastatic cell behaviour was observed by cell-scatter, 3D-collagen gel migration and 3D-spheroid invasion assays. Akt, MAPK, EGFR, TGFβRii and CXCR4 inhibitors were used to identify the signalling pathways involved. Signalling pathway protein expression and activation were assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. COM-CM (conditioned medium) and MM1-CM stimulated cancer cell scattering, which was blocked only by the Akt inhibitor. COM-CM induced scattered cancer cells showed higher levels of Akt phosphorylation than the negative control and MM1-CM. Migration and invasion of TYS cells into the collagen gels from the spheroids was stimulated by CM from both sources, compared to the negative control. COM cells stimulated TYS, cancer cell invasion into the collagen more than MM1 and the control. Akt and EGFR inhibitors effectively blocked CM and COM cell-induced invasion. Akt-silenced cancer cells were not stimulated to migrate and invade by fibroblast-CM and did not survive addition of the EGFR inhibitor. This suggests that CAFs stimulate oral cancer cell migration and invasion in an Akt- dependent manner. EGFR and Akt are potential therapy targets in metastatic oral cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0312.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: marine invertebrates; glycosaminoglycans; platelets; circulating tumor cells; circulating tumor microemboli; hematogenic metastasis
Online: 19 May 2020 (07:45:44 CEST)
Although metastasis is the primary cause of death on patients with malignant solid tumors, efficient antimetastatic therapies are not clinically available thus far. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans from marine sources have shown promising pharmacological effects, acting in different steps of the metastatic process. Oversulfated dermatan sulfate from ascidians is effective in preventing metastasis by inhibition of P-selectin, a platelet surface protein involved in the platelet-tumor cell emboli formation. We report in this work that the heparan sulfate isolated from the viscera of the ascidian Phallusia nigra drastically attenuates metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in mice. Our in vitro and in vivo assessments demonstrate that the P. nigra glycan has very low anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities and a reduced hypotension potential, although efficiently preventing metastasis. Therefore, it may be a promising candidate for the development of a novel anti-metastatic drug.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer metastasis, chemokines, cytoreductive surgery, Cytotoxic T cells, BDCA3 Dendritic cells.
Online: 10 June 2019 (16:03:23 CEST)
Nowadays the positive immune involvement in the eradication of tumor cells is assigned to the adaptive immune response. By awakening of in vivo responding T cells that are suppressed by the tumor and prevents immunological cure of the cancer. The adaptive immune response is a complex of different cells and protein molecules. Normally activated T cells are well-ordered by several late occurring inhibitors to contain the response to the unknown invaders and spare the normal cells. The tumor strengthens this inhibitory response to escape from immune elimination. Immunotherapy is to unleash the full capacity of the adaptive immune system by blocking this inhibitor response by monoclonal antibodies but with the potential drawback of autoimmune phenomena. Seen the success of the immunotherapy another feature of the immune system is overlooked. Cytokines and chemokines became in oblivion after their suspected necrosis of the tumor (TNF) did not fulfil their initial hope. When patients seek help for their complaints the ovarian cancer is in most cases already metastasized to the peritoneum and omentum. Here, we show that on the one hand chemokines produced by Th2, CD8 and NK cells inhibit cancer spreading and thus leads to a better operability and thus better survival. On the other hand, chemokine receptors are expressed by the tumor that are a decoy by binding chemokines that normally should attract antigen cross-presenting dendritic cells, which start an adaptive T cell response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: metastasis; flaxseed proteins; cancer treatment; radiotherapy; mechanobiology; proteoform level analysis; flaxseed amino-acids
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:54:42 CEST)
Flaxseed has been recognized as a valuable source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, including proteins that possess various health benefits. In recent years, studies have shown that flaxseed proteins, including albumins, globulins, glutelin, and prolamins, possess anti-cancer properties. These properties are attributed to their ability to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, induce apoptosis, and interfere with cancer cell signaling pathways, ultimately leading to the inhibition of metastasis. Moreover, flaxseed proteins have been reported to modulate cancer cell mechanobiology, leading to changes in cell behavior and reduced cancer cell migration and invasion. This review provides an overview of the anti-cancer properties of flaxseed proteins, with a focus on their potential use in cancer treatment. Additionally, it highlights the need for further research to fully establish the potential of flaxseed proteins in cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0238.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: VMAT; stereotactic radiosurgery; brain tumor-related epilepsy; overall survival; brain metastasis; brain location
Online: 2 August 2023 (16:01:27 CEST)
Whole-brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery are two treatment modalities commonly utilized to treat brain metastases (BMs). The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the main radio-oncologic and clinical-demographic aspects of a cohort of BM patients treated with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for radiosurgery (VMAT-RS). This is a cross-sectional observational design study with retrospective review of medical records of patients with brain metastases treated with VMAT- RS between 2012 and 2018. Clinical and demographic data, with special attention to sex, age, primary tumor, brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE), number and brain location of BMs, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), the updated DS-GPA prognostic index and the survival estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier model from the date of radiosurgery were analyzed. One hundred and twenty-one patients with 229 BMs were treated with VMAT-RS. Patients presented 1-4 BMs, which were treated with 5 non-coplanar VMAT arcs. Sixty-eight percent of the patients had lung cancer and 35% of the BMs were in the frontal lobe. Proportion of local control was 88.5%. BTRE prevalence was 30.6%. The median survival time (MST) was 7.7 months. In the multivariate analysis of the Cox Regression model KPS70 (HRKPS<70=2.59; p=0.001) and higher DS-GPA (HRDS-GPAII =0.55, p=0.022; HRDS-GPAIII-IV =0.38, p=0.006) were associated with improved survival. In the univariate analysis, primary tumor, age and the presence of metastases in the posterior fossa (PFBMs) were also significative. In conclusion, the VMAT-RS is a technique with an overall survival comparable to other radiosurgery techniques. The median survival is significantly longer in those with higher KPS and DS-GPA. Other variables such as the type of primary tumor, age and PFBMs could also influence survival, although further studies are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0936.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Lymph node; Occult lymph node metastasis; Postoperative chemotherapy; Lymphadenectomy
Online: 13 June 2023 (12:22:21 CEST)
Background A limited lymphadenectomy may make patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at risk for missing occult nodal disease. This study aimed to determine an effective threshold of lymph nodes (LNs) for evaluation of the quality of lymphadenectomy and discuss the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on pN0 patients. Methods Patients treated surgically for ESCC between 2010 and 2018 in Sichuan Cancer Hospital were included. NPV (Negative Predictive Value) based on a beta-binomial distribution was developed to assess the confidence of node-negative disease. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to compare survival differences among groups. Results When patients had >21 LNs examined, the probability of false-negative findings was estimated at <10%, and NPV was estimated at a high level (>86.5%). For patients with LNs removed ≤21, 5-year OS (or DFS) in postoperative chemotherapy group vs that in surgery group was 65.3% vs 54.6%, p = 0.041 (or 59.2% vs 46.6%, p = 0.033). But for patients with >21 LNs, there were no statistical differences (p = 0.683 for OS or p = 0.942 for DFS). Conclusion Only pN0 patients who were at high risk of occult lymph node metastasis (examined LNs ≤21) could benefit from postoperative chemotherapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cancer stem cells; tumor microenvironment; metastasis; chemoresistance; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; clinical trials
Online: 19 May 2020 (14:01:27 CEST)
Despite great strides being achieved in improving cancer patients’ outcomes through better therapies and combinatorial treatment, several hurdles still remain due to therapy resistance, cancer recurrence and metastasis. Drug resistance, culminating in relapse and metastatic disease continue to be associated with fatal disease. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells known to be resistant to therapy and cause metastasis. Whilst the debate on whether CSCs are the origins of the primary tumor rages on, CSCs have been further characterised in many cancers with data illustrating that CSCs display great abilities to self-renew, withstand therapies due to enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) properties, enhanced expression of ABC membrane transporters, activation of several survival signaling pathways and increased immune evasion DNA repair mechanisms. CSCs also display great heterogeneity with the consequential lack of specific CSC markers presenting a great challenge to their targeting. In this updated review we re-visit CSCs within the tumor microenvironment (TME) and present novel treatment strategies targeting CSCs. These promising strategies include targeting CSCs-specific properties using small molecule inhibitors, immunotherapy, microRNA mediated inhibitors, epigenetic methods as well as targeting CSC niche-microenvironmental factors and differentiation. Lastly, we present recent clinical trials undertaken to try to turn the tide against cancer by targeting CSC-associated drug resistance and metastasis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hypoxia; HIF-1α; partial EMT; collective migration; inflammatory breast cancer; E-cadherin; metastasis
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:19:42 CEST)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular biological process involved in migration of primary cancer cells to secondary sites facilitating metastasis. Besides, EMT also confers properties such as stemness, drug resistance and immune evasion which can aid a successful colonization at the distant site. EMT is not a binary process; recent evidence suggests that cells in partial EMT or hybrid E/M phenotype(s) can have enhanced stemness and drug resistance as compared to those undergoing a complete EMT. Moreover, partial EMT enables collective migration of cells as clusters of circulating tumor cells or emboli, further endorsing that cells in hybrid E/M phenotypes may be the ‘fittest’ for metastasis. Here, we review mechanisms and implications of hybrid E/M phenotypes, including their reported association with hypoxia. Hypoxia-driven activation of HIF-1α can drive EMT. In addition, cyclic hypoxia, as compared to acute or chronic hypoxia, shows the highest levels of active HIF-1α and can augment cancer aggressiveness to a greater extent, including enriching for a partial EMT phenotype. We also discuss how metastasis is influenced by hypoxia, partial EMT and collective cell migration, and call for a better understanding of interconnections among these mechanisms. We discuss the known regulators of hypoxia, hybrid EMT and collective cell migration and highlight the gaps which needs to be filled for connecting these three axes which will increase our understanding of dynamics of metastasis and help control it more effectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0541.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: humanized mice; human immune system; preclinical oncology model; metastasis model; immunotherapy; efficacy; safety
Online: 30 April 2020 (17:10:32 CEST)
Metastases cause high mortality in several cancers and immunotherapies are expected to be effective in the prevention and treatment of metastatic disease. However, only a minority of patients benefit from immunotherapies. This creates a need for novel therapies that are efficacious regardless of the cancer types and metastatic environments they are growing in. Preclinical immuno-oncology models for studying metastases have long been limited to syngeneic or carcinogenesis-inducible models that have murine cancer and immune cells. However, the translational power of these models has been questioned. Interactions between tumor and immune cells are often species-specific and regulated by different cytokines in mice and humans. For increased translational power, mice engrafted with functional parts of human immune system have been developed. These humanized mice are utilized to advance understanding the role of immune cells in the metastatic process, but increasingly also to study the efficacy and safety of novel immunotherapies. From these aspects, this review will discuss the role of immune cells in the metastatic process and the utility of humanized mouse models in immuno-oncology research for metastatic cancers, covering several models from the perspective of efficacy and safety of immunotherapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS); stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT); brain metastasis; immunotherapy; whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT)
Online: 24 July 2018 (11:47:15 CEST)
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has become increasingly important in the management of brain metastases due to improving systemic disease control and rising incidence. Initial trials demonstrated SRS with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) improved local control rates versus WBRT alone. Concerns with WBRT associated neurocognitive toxicity have contributed to greater use of SRS alone, including for patients with multiple metastases and following surgical resection. Molecular information, targeted agents and immunotherapy have also altered the landscape for the management of brain metastases. This review summarises current and emerging data on the role of SRS in the management of brain metastases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0828.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: osteopontin; OPN; SPP1; CD44; lung cancer; polymorphism; cancer progression; metastasis; prognosis; radiotherapy; curative treatment
Online: 13 November 2023 (13:06:01 CET)
Osteopontin (OPN)-CD44 signaling plays an important role in promoting tumor progression and metastasis. In cancer, OPN and CD44 overexpression is a marker of aggressive disease and poor prognosis, and correlates with therapy resistance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OPN and CD44 genes with clinical outcomes in 307 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. The potential impact of the variants on plasma OPN levels was also inves-tigated. Multivariate analysis showed that OPN rs11730582 CC carriers had a significantly in-creased risk of death (p = 0.029), while the CD44 rs187116 A allele correlated with reduced risk of locoregional recurrence (p = 0.016) in the curative treatment subset. The rs11730582/rs187116 combination was associated with an elevated risk of metastasis in these patients (p = 0.016). Fur-thermore, the OPN rs1126772 G variant alone (p = 0.018) and in combination with rs11730582 CC (p = 7x10-5) was associated with poor OS in the squamous cell carcinoma subgroup. The rs11730582 CC, rs187116 GG and rs1126772 G, as well as their respective combinations, were in-dependent risk factors for unfavorable treatment outcomes. The impact of rs11730582-rs1126772 haplotypes on OS was also observed. These data suggest that OPN and CD44 germline variants may predict treatment effects in NSCLC.