Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Risk Factors Associated with the Development of Metastases in Patients with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Version 1 : Received: 8 November 2021 / Approved: 9 November 2021 / Online: 9 November 2021 (08:30:27 CET)

How to cite: Kohno, S.; Ikegami, M.; Ikegami, T.; Aoki, H.; Ogawa, M.; Yano, F.; Etoh, K. Risk Factors Associated with the Development of Metastases in Patients with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. Preprints 2021, 2021110161 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0161.v1). Kohno, S.; Ikegami, M.; Ikegami, T.; Aoki, H.; Ogawa, M.; Yano, F.; Etoh, K. Risk Factors Associated with the Development of Metastases in Patients with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. Preprints 2021, 2021110161 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0161.v1).

Abstract

Neuroendocrine tumors develop from systemic endocrine and nerve cells, and their occurrence has increased recently. Since these tumors are heterogeneous, pathological classification has been based on the affected organ. In 2019, the World Health Organization introduced a change that is expected to influence neuroendocrine tumor research, as gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are now included within a unified classification. In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate the characteristics (e.g., lymph node metastases, all other metastases) of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors using this new classification in 50 cases. Tumor size, depth, MIB-1 index, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and neuroendocrine tumor grade were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and all other metastases. Venous invasion was more strongly correlated with lymph node metastasis and all other types of metastasis than with lymphatic invasion. Identification rates for lymphatic invasion were considered lower because of structural problems such as lymphatic vessels being much thinner than veins. However, venous invasion was considered effective in compensating for the low rate of identification in cases of lymphatic invasion. In future research, a unified classification and standardized framework for assessment will be important when analyzing the characteristics of neuroendocrine tumors, and large-scale studies are required.

Keywords

neuroendocrine tumor; metastasis; lymphatic invasion; venous invasion

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Oncology & Oncogenics

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