REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0103.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: fructose; obesity; liver; aerobic exercise; strength exercise; combined exercise
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:02:06 CET)
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance. However, physical exercise has been indicated for the treatment of several chronic diseases. In this review, we show how each exercise protocol (aerobic, strength or a combination of both) promote improvements in the obesogenic state created by fructose consumption as an improvement in the serum and liver lipid profile (HDL increase and decrease TG and LDL levels) and a reduction of markers of inflammation caused by an excess of fructose. Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of aerobic physical exercise, strength or a combination of both is essential for attenuating the complications developed by the consumption of fructose.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0761.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Peripheral Artery Disease; Exercise Intolerance; Exercise Limitations; Intermittent Claudication; Exercise Training
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:16:32 CEST)
Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most common symptom of peripheral artery disease (PAD). IC affects the quality of life and results in marked exercise intolerance and limitation to daily activities with increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Exercise training is the first line of conservative management in PAD. However, patients with IC Patient cannot tolerate exercise because of leg discomfort induced by physical effort. This review will address alternative rehabilitation strategies to reduce exercise limitations and improve exercise tolerance in patients with IC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0448.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: moderate exercise; vigorous exercise; upper respiratory infection; immunity
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:31:03 CET)
The practice of physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological strategy for preventing and treating chronic diseases. A large body of evidence has contributed to establishing a positive correlation between a physically active lifestyle and health benefits, including enhanced vaccination responses, lower numbers of senescent T-cells, increased T-cell proliferative capacity, lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved neutrophil and macrophage function. While females are generally thought to exert more robust immune responses than males in response to a variety of challenges, and both male and female sex hormones have been suggested as mediators of immune function, research on this topic has not always been designed with a sex-specific lens. The goal of this review is to summarize the available experimental and clinical evidence linking exercise and immune function in male and female subjects, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex-specific mechanisms. Overall, the available evidence indicates that moderate exercise and physical activity improves immune function in both sexes, whereas prolonged and high-intensity exercise temporarily impairs immune responses at a higher degree in females. A role of male and female sex hormones in these sex-specific effects is also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: exercise intensity; training impulse; training strain; exercise volume
Online: 10 November 2021 (14:30:55 CET)
The International System of Units (SI) was adopted in 1960 as a universal measuring system to be used for all areas of science. Sports Science papers have shown lots of inaccurate and inappropriate terms for quantification of athletes’ performance and the psychobiological responses to exercise (e.g., internal load). In biomechanics, external and internal loads are forces acting externally and internally, inducing stress and strain in the biological tissues. Therefore, the current review present simple proposals to correct the inappropriate terms: 1) do not use the term external load when referring to the assessment of exercise time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.; 2) do not use the term internal load when referring to the assessment of psychobiological stress markers (i.e., session rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, blood lactate, oxygen consumption, etc.); 3) do not use the term impulse when expressing other calculus than integrating force with respect to time, and neither strain, when expressing other phenomena than the body deformation. Instead, the term exercise intensity is universal and can be used to describe all forms of exercise. Finally, duration should precisely be described according to physical quantities (e.g., time, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, force, torque, work, power, impulse, etc.) and the units accomplish by use of the SI. These simple quantifications can be performed for the exercises, sessions, microcycles, mesocycles and macrocycles of the athletes. Such standardization will provide a consistent and clear communication among sports scientists and all areas of science.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Older adults; Physical exercise; Virtual exercise; COVID-19
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:08:37 CET)
Social isolation magnified by the restriction of movement order during the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to negative psychosocial health impact among community-dwelling older adults. We evaluated the feasibility of virtual research methods and virtual group exercises among individuals aged 60 years and over in Malaysia. Participants were recruited from the Promoting Independence in Seniors with Arthritis (PISA) pilot cohort through social media messages. A four-week course of virtual group exercise was offered. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during the last attended follow-up of the cohort study (pre-pandemic), pre-intervention, and post-intervention. Exercise adherence was recorded using diary with daily entries and attendance to the virtual group exercise sessions were captured daily. The outcomes of interest were changes of anxiety and depression scores from baseline to pre-intervention (pandemic-related) and post-intervention (virtual exercise related). Forty-three individuals were recruited. A significant increase in anxiety scores from baseline to pre-intervention was observed. Comparisons using repeated-measures analysis of variance between those who attendance ≥14 and <14 group exercise sessions revealed no between-within subjects differences in depression scores. There was a 23% dropout rate in the post intervention survey and 60.5% of diaries were returned. This study demonstrated the feasibility of conducting research entirely virtually among older persons during the peak of global first wave of a pandemic. The pandemic has led to increased anxiety among community-dwelling older adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0106.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: ketogenic diet; exercise therapy; community health planning; natural; exercise intervention
Online: 6 October 2021 (12:40:59 CEST)
The ketogenic diet and walking exercise training activity are two key public health lifestyle factors. The potential of combined lifestyle factors interventions focused on getting to compliance in forced exercise. A balanced ketogenic diet and regular exercise activity is a key modifiable factor to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Influence health across the lifespan and reduction of the risk of premature death through several biological mechanisms. Community older group’s lifestyle factors interventions contribute identity in their natural living environment. While the older health benefits of walking exercise training strategies are commonly to study, combined ketogenic diet and walking exercise interventions have induced greater benefits in community older groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0591.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: inflammation; atopy; exercise induced asthma; exercise induced bronchoconstriction; sex differences
Online: 27 August 2020 (05:31:38 CEST)
Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common complication of athletes and individuals who exercise regularly. It is estimated that about 90% of patients with underlying asthma experience EIB. Sex differences in the prevalence of asthma have been widely reported, with higher rates in boys vs. girls before puberty, and higher rates in women than men after puberty. Because atopy has been reported to occur at higher rates in athletes than in non-athletes, in this study we investigated sex differences in EIB and atopy in athletes. A systematic literature review identified 60 studies evaluating EIB and/or atopy in post-pubertal adult athletes (n=7501). Collectively, these studies reported: 1) a 23% prevalence of EIB in athletes; 2) a higher prevalence of atopy in male athletes vs. females; 3) a higher prevalence of atopy in athletes with EIB; and 4) a significantly higher rate of atopic EIB in male vs. female athletes. Our analysis indicates that the physiological changes that occur during exercise may differentially affect male and female athletes, and suggest an interaction between male sex, exercise, and atopic status in the course of EIB. Understanding these sex differences is important to provide personalized management plans to athletes with underlying asthma and/or atopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Shoulder impingement syndrome; Scapula; Exercise therapy; Exercise movement techniques; Musculoskeletal pain
Online: 6 August 2021 (17:21:21 CEST)
Exercises for lower trapezius (LT) often use overhead positions, causing compressive forces to the subacromial space. Scapular retraction would be an alternative to activate LT muscle. Electromyography of infraspinatus (IS), upper (UT) and LT was recorded during scapular retraction under progressive adduction loads of 42 participants, divided in 2 groups: with (SP, n=26) and without shoulder pain (nSP, n=16). The adduction loads of 20, 30, 40 and 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction were applied using a load cell. Normalized electromyography and the ratio between UT and LT (UT:LT) were used for statistical analysis. No differences were observed between groups, but a condition effect occurred for all muscles: UT showed higher values at 50% vs. 20% (p=0.004); LT showed higher values on 40% and 50% (p=0.001; 0.006). Higher values for IS were noted at 40% (vs 20%; p=0.04), and at 50% (vs. 20%; p=0.001, vs. 30%, p=0.001; vs. 40%; p=0.001). UT:LT showed lower values at 50% (vs. 20%; p=0.001, and vs. 30%; p=0.016). Scapular retraction with adduction loads at 40-50% is an alternative to overhead exercises aiming to activate the LT and the IS muscles. The exercise ensures higher levels of LT and IS excitation, without increasing UT excitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0466.v1
Online: 28 September 2021 (11:23:15 CEST)
Ageing is a major risk factor for many of the most prevalent diseases, including neurodegenerative disease, cancer and heart disease. As the global population continues to age, behavioural interventions that can promote healthy ageing will improve quality of life and relieve the socio-economic burden that comes with an aged society. Exercise is recognised as an effective intervention against many diseases of ageing, but we don’t know the stage in an individual’s lifetime in which exercise is most effective at promoting healthy ageing and whether it has a direct effect on lifespan. We exercised w1118 Drosophila melanogaster, interrogating effects of sex and group size, at different stages of their lifetime and recorded their lifespan. Climbing scores at 30 days were measured to record differences in fitness in response to exercise. We also assessed the mitochondrial proteome of w1118 Drosophila that had been exercised for one week, alongside mitochondrial respiration measured using High-Resolution Respirometry, to determine changes in mitochondrial physiology in response to exercise. We found that age-targeted exercise interventions improve lifespan in male and female Drosophila, and grouped males exercised in late life had improved climbing scores, when compared with those exercised throughout their entire lifespan. The proteins of the electron transport chain were significantly upregulated in expression after one week of exercise, and complex II linked respiration was significantly increased in exercised -Drosophila. Taken together our study provides a basis to test specific proteins and complex II of the respiratory chain as important effectors of exercise induced healthy ageing.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0175.v1
Online: 4 November 2020 (08:28:30 CET)
Objective: To explore the inter-rater reliability of the Measurement Of adherence Via Exercise Demonstration (MOVED) adherence tool. Design: Reliability study of a patient adherence measurement tool.Setting: Simulated physiotherapist-patient consultations. Participants: Sixteen experienced physiotherapists rated patient adherence to exercise. Interventions: N/A Main Outcome Measure: Inter-rater reliability of MOVED.Methods: The MOVED tool consists of two parts. Part one asks patients to self-report their adherence to exercise dose (including number of completed sessions, sets and repetitions in the last seven days). Part two asks patients to demonstrate each exercise. Component scores are totalled to give an overall level of patient adherence to each exercise.Participants were provided with a copy of five physiotherapist-prescribed exercises. Participants were then shown five corresponding video vignettes of simulated physiotherapist-patient consultations where patients were asked to self-report exercise frequency, sets and repetitions and demonstrate each exercise within the context of a consultation. Participants were asked to rate the level of patient adherence to each of the five exercises using the MOVED tool. Inter-rater reliability of MOVED scores was assessed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and 95% Confidence Intervals. Results: The ICC of part one (self-report) was .90 (95%CI .74-.98), part two (demonstration) was .98 (95%CI .94-.99) and total score was .96 (95%CI .88-.99), demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: The MOVED tool, which can highlight whether patients are adhering to exercise technique as well as exercise dose, may provide clinicians and researchers with a more robust measure of exercise adherence when compared with other measures currently available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0741.v1
Online: 31 July 2020 (09:55:18 CEST)
Loss of muscle mass and strength are progressing with aging. Exercise is a beneficial method to prevent physical disfunction and habitual exercise improve the muscle quality. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a long-term habitual exercise on the senescence-accelerated mice prone8 (SAMP8). 27wk SAMP8 were used in this study. Mice were classified into 28 (28w) and 44 weeks old. The 44-week group was divided into the sedentary group (44w) and a group exercising for 16 weeks (44w+Ex). The 44w+Ex performed habitual exercise from 28 to 44 weeks. Additionally, grip strength tests were performed with mice aged 28 and 44 weeks. Mice were dissected and collected muscle samples and measured muscle weight at 44w. Gastrocnemius was decreased in 44w but were unchanged in 44w+Ex. Grip strength in 44w was lower trend, but there was no change in 44w+Ex. The phosphorylation levels of Akt and p70S6K as a protein synthesis marker were decreased in 44w. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV(COXIV) mRNA and protein levels decreased in 44w. These results suggested that long-term habitual exercise attenuated muscle mass and strength decline through improving muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. In conclusion, long-term habitual exercise attenuated muscle mass and strength decline.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: diabetes; exercise; cardiomyopathy; heart failure
Online: 3 October 2019 (13:59:22 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is associated with cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and renal comorbidities. Among these, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) causes the most severe symptoms and is considered to be a major health problem worldwide. Exercise is widely known as an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. Importantly, the onset of complications arising from diabetes can be delayed or even prevented by exercise. Regular exercise is reported to have positive effects on diabetes mellitus and the development of DCM. The protective effects of exercise include the prevention of cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and microvascular diseases, as well as improvement in cardiac mitochondrial function, and calcium regulation. The present review summarizes the recent findings to describe the potential mechanisms by which exercise may prevent DCM and heart failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0210.v1
Online: 22 January 2019 (10:56:07 CET)
Background: Since the beginning of the 20th century, the importance of creating healthy work environments and promoting the health of workers in the healthcare sector to create Healthy and Resilient Organizations has been emphasized. In this context, self-esteem is an essential construct which influences health and healthy life styles, and therefore, the general wellbeing of nurses. The objective of this study was to analyze the mediating role of reasons for exercising in the effect that self-esteem has on uncontrolled eating by nursing professionals. Methods: The sample was made up of 1094 nurses who were administered the Rosenberg General Self-esteem Scale, the Goal Content for Exercise Questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. Results: Bivariate correlation analysis and multiple mediation analysis showed that self-esteem has direct and indirect effects on uncontrolled eating. More so, self-esteem predicts doing physical exercise to improve one’s image, recognition and social affiliation, although the effects on uncontrolled eating were only significant through image. Conclusions: The results have important practical implications in the framework of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP) as it emphasizes self-esteem, physical exercise and eating as essential aspects of the health and wellbeing of employees in the healthcare sector, highlighting the importance of creating organizations committed to promoting the psychosocial health of their workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0526.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Dancing, Muscle stretching exercise, Pliability
Online: 21 November 2018 (13:29:32 CET)
Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of stretching methods for flexibility, muscle activation, and pressure pain threshold in ballet dancers, and to suggest an effective stretching method. Methods: Thirty-three ballet dancers were randomized to a static stretching group (n=11), muscle energy technique stretching group (n=11), and vibration-assisted stretching group (n=11). The angle of hip joint extension in arabesque, the activation of rectus femoris in Devéloppé, and the pressure pain threshold on rectus femoris in sitting position were measured to compare the effects of different stretching methods. Results: Hip joint extension angles increased in all stretching methods (p<0.05), however, vibration-assisted stretching and muscle energy technique stretching were more effective than static stretching (p<0.05). The activation of the rectus femoris decreased in all groups (p<0.05), but the muscle energy technique stretching group and the vibration-assisted stretching group showed a significant decrease compared to the static stretching group (p<0.05). The pressure pain threshold showed significant improvement only in the static stretching group (p<0.05), and the vibration-assisted stretching group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Vibration-assisted stretching compared to static stretching and muscle energy technique stretching is a beneficial method for flexibility, muscle activation, and pressure pain threshold in ballet dancers.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: aging; aerobic exercise; vascular occlusion; electromyography
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:11:26 CET)
Background and Objectives: Blood flow restriction (BFR) has been investigated as an alternative method combined with resistance training or AT to promote different health benefits for older people. Nevertheless, no study analyzed chronic effects of BFR on muscle activation in this population, and in some investigations, the application of BFR has been employed arbitrary pressures, which can be a serious methodological error, both from the results and of the risk to the health of the older. Thus, this study analyzed the effect of 24 weeks of walking with BFR on activation and muscle strength in elderly women with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: Thirty older women (66.0±4.6 years) performed randomly to one of three training groups: WALK (moderate-intensity walking), WALK+BFR (low-intensity walking with BFR), or BFR (BFR alone). Muscle activation (sEMG) and strength of knee flexors and extensors were measured pre-intervention and after 12 and 24 weeks. Results: Only a trivial effect size (ES) for the WALK+BFR (ES= 0.16) was observed in sEMG of the knee flexors compared to WALK. A moderate effect was observed in sEMG of the knee extensors (ES= 0.65) for the WALK+BFR compared to the WALK. However, adverse effects were found in the strength of the knee flexors for the BFR (ES= −0.86) and WALK+BFR (ES= −0.69) compared to WALK. Adverse and null effects, respectively for the BFR (ES= −0.16) and WALK+BFR (ES= 0.06) groups, were also observed on the strength gain of the knee extensors. Conclusions: Low-intensity walk combined with BFR does not provide relevant chronic effects on strength gain or even limit muscle strength gain, however, due to greater activation of knee extensors over 24 weeks, it is possible to benefit from the use of similar strategies to obtain neuromuscular gains in the long‐term for elderly women with osteopenia and osteoporosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0567.v1
Online: 23 July 2020 (13:12:36 CEST)
Exercise training influences the risk of vascular thrombosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Mitochondrial functionalities in platelets involve the cellular bioenergetics and thrombogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of cycling exercise training (CET) on platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics in PAD patients. Forty randomly selected patients with PAD engaged in general rehabilitation (GR) with CET (i.e., cycling exercise at ventilation threshold for 30 min/day, 3 days/week) (GR+CET, n=20) or to a control group that only received GR course (n=20) for 12 weeks. Systemic aerobic capacity and platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics that included oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and electron transport system (ETS) were measured using automatic gas analysis and high-resolution respirometry, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that GR+CET for 12 weeks significantly (i) elevated VO2peak and lowered VE-VCO2 slope, (ii) raised resting ankle-brachial index and enhanced cardiac output response to exercise, (iii) increased the distance in 6-minute walk test and raised the Short Form-36 physical/mental component scores, and (iv) enhanced capacities of mitochondrial OXPHOS and ETS in platelets by activating FADH2 (Complex II)-dependent pathway. Moreover, changes in VO2peak levels were positively associated with changes in platelet OXPHOS and ETS capacities. However, no significant changes in systemic aerobic capacity, platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) occurred following GR alone. Hence, we conclude that CET effectively increases the capacities of platelet mitochondrial bioenergetics by enhancing Complex II activity in patients with PAD. Moreover, the exercise regimen also enhanced functional exercise capacity, consequently improving HRQoL in PAD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0533.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: exercise classification; motion capture; virtual rehabilitation
Online: 22 November 2018 (04:33:58 CET)
The rapid development of algorithms for skeleton detection with relatively inexpensive contactless systems and cameras opens the possibility of virtual exercise therapy for patients with different complications. However, evaluation and confirmation of posture classifications is still needed. The purpose of this study was therefore to find the most accurate algorithm for automatic classification of human exercise movement. A Kinect V2 with 25 joints identification was used to record movements for data analysis. A total of 10 subjects volunteered for this study. Four algorithms were tested for the classification of different postures in Matlab. These were based on: total error of vector lengths, total error of angles, multiplication of these two parameters and simultaneous analysis of the first and second parameters. A base of 13 exercises was then created to test the recognition of postures by the algorithm, and to analyse subject performance. The best results for posture classification was shown by the second algorithm with an accuracy of 94.9%. The average correctness of exercises among the 10 participants was 94.2% (SD1.8%). The algorithms tested in this study therefore proved to be effective and could potentially form the basis for developing a system for remote monitoring of rehabilitation involving exercise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0199.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: disability, exercise, health promotion, framework, theory
Online: 9 August 2018 (21:01:43 CEST)
Lack of physical activity participation for adults with a disability remain a large public health concern. For those with existing, or newly acquired disability, increased sedentary behavior stemming from physical impairments often results in the development of secondary chronic health conditions (e.g., obesity or osteoarthritis) which leads to participation restrictions within major life roles. Without intervention these secondary conditions further increase physical impairment which, in turn, sets these populations up for continuous negative health trajectories over their remaining lifespan. Physical activity can attenuate the development of secondary health conditions and optimize health outcomes within these populations. However, those with disability often do not possess the necessary physical capacity to maintain physically active lifestyles. Therefore, exercise programs specifically designed to increase physical functioning have been identified as a necessary intermediate step to reduce physical limitations prior to adoption of physically active lifestyles. Adoption of exercise program participation remains a difficult task for both the general population and those with disability alike. Based on current rates of physical inactivity, it is clear that traditional health behavior change models do not adequately address the complexity of this issue. This paper highlights some of the limitations within the current health behavior change models as they relate to exercise behavior. Additionally, a novel conceptual framework is presented for the intent of its incorporation within research and health promotion interventions targeting exercise behavior within disability populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: osteosarcopenic obesity; exercise; diet; aging; fall
Online: 2 May 2018 (08:02:13 CEST)
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is described by the simultaneous presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and increased adiposity. Over time, older adults with OSO syndrome might be at greater risk for loss of physical function and bone fractures. Furthermore, a sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutrition, pharmaceutical drugs and chronic conditions encompass the multifactorial nature of OSO syndrome. Physical activity and a healthy diet play a crucial role in management and treatment of OSO syndrome. Research has shown that even low-intensity physical activity or daily habitual activity can maintain bone mineral density, muscle strength and improve muscle quality, and reduce adiposity. However, older adults with high risk of fall and injuries require tailored exercise intensity. Also, balanced daily intake of vitamin D, calcium and protein is important in prevention and treatment of OSO syndrome in postmenopausal women. Effective measurement of bone mass, muscle mass and strength is required when detecting OSO syndrome and to evaluate the balance, strength and endurance of elder individuals and severity of the condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0258.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; exercise; adherence
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:43:52 CEST)
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer treatment is associated with adverse physiological changes, however exercise can improve outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine exercise intervention adherence, and its effects on physiological outcomes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergoing ADT. Uniquely, this review incorporates a meta-aggregation of qualitative data, providing perspectives from the men’s experiences. A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed following PRISMA Guidelines. Databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed) were searched for studies using “prostate cancer”, “exercise intervention”, and “androgen deprivation therapy”. Quantitative randomised controlled trials describing adherence to exercise interventions were selected, with qualitative articles selected based on descriptions of experiences around participation. Subgroup meta-analyses of adherence, exercise mode, and intervention duration were completed for quality of life, aerobic fitness, fatigue, and strength. Articles (n=64) articles were identified, with 29 (n=23 quantitative; n=6 qualitative) articles from 25 studies included. Exercise had no effects (p<0.05) on quality of life and fatigue. Significant effects (all p<0.05) were observed for aerobic fitness, and upper- and lower-body strength. Adherence to exercise-based interventions was 80.38%, with improvements observed in aerobic fitness and strength. Subgroup analysis revealed exercise adherence impacted fatigue and strength, with greater improvements observed in programs >12-weeks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0380.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Exercise training; arrhythmias; Drosophila; apolipoprotein B; aging
Online: 29 March 2022 (10:07:13 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) places a heavy burden on older patients and the global healthcare system. A large body of evidence suggests that exercise training is essential in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we used the Drosophila melanogaster animal model to study the effects of early-life exercise training (ELET) on the aging heart and lifespan. We found in flies that age-induced arrhythmias are conserved across different genetic backgrounds. The fat body is the primary source of circulating lipoproteins in flies. Inhibition of fat body apoLpp (the flies apoB homolog) demonstrated that low expression of apoLpp reduced the development of arrhythmias in aged flies but did not affect average lifespan. At the same time, ELET can also reduce the expression of apoLpp mRNA in aged flies and have a protective effect on the heart, which is similar to the inhibition of apoLpp mRNA. Although treatment of apoLppRNAi and ELET alone had no significant effect on lifespan, the combination of apoLppRNAi and ELET extended the average lifespan of flies. Therefore, we conclude that apoLppRNAi and ELET are sufficient to resist age-induced arrhythmias, which may be related to the decreased expression of apoLpp mRNA, and that apoLppRNAi and ELET have a combined effect on prolonging the average lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Functional fitness training; athletic performance; exercise testing
Online: 1 June 2021 (12:32:59 CEST)
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years; 70.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed, on separate weeks, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), maximal oxygen consumption (2km row test), muscle strength (1RM back and front squat, isometric peak torque), and muscle power (1RM snatch and clean & jerk), and muscle endurance (Tibana test), which were compared with performance during the CrossFit® Open 2020. Multiple linear regression showed that for the CrossFit Open 2020.1 and 2020.2 workouts, the score in the Tibana test was the only variable that explained the outcomes (Beta = -0.78, p < 0.01 for 2020.1 workout and Beta = 0.82, p < 0.01 for 2020.2 workout). Performance in the CrossFit Open 2020.3 and 2020.4 workouts were explained through the relative strength (Beta = 0.58, p = 0.02 for 2020.3 workout and Beta = 0.50, p = 0.04 for 2020.4 workout). Lastly, Tibana test had the greatest influence on CrossFit Open 2020.5 workout (Beta = -0.75, p < 0.01). A local muscle endurance and muscle strength may be used to predict CrossFit® open workout performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0555.v1
Online: 21 November 2020 (10:50:28 CET)
What do you want to do ?New mailCopyBackground: to analyze the changes that a therapeutic physical exercise program is capable of causing in the functionality of patients suffering from ALS and in addition, to analyze the respiratory capacity. Methods: a systematic review of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, SciELO, PEDro, CINAHL and MEDline databases is carried out. The information was filtered using the following MeSH terms: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "Physical Therapy", "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine". Clinical trials published in the last 5 years were included in which one of the interventions was therapeutic physical exercise in patients with ALS, which included the ALSFRS-R as a result variable. Results: 10 clinical trials with a total of 421 patients were analyzed, of which 183 underwent rehabilitation with physical exercise and were part of the case group; the rest belong to the control group and their treatment was mostly passive. The observed trend is of a decrease of approximately 6 points in the ALSFRS-R scale at 6 months in the case groups; however, no behavior pattern was met in the controls. Conclusions: Therapeutic physical exercise could contribute to slow down the deterioration of the musculature of people with ALS, thus facilitating the performance of their daily activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; physical therapy; rehabilitation; exercise
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:53:01 CET)
Background: to analyze the changes that a therapeutic physical exercise program is capable of causing in the functionality of patients suffering from ALS and in addition, to analyze the respiratory capacity. Methods: a systematic review of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, SciELO, PEDro, CINAHL and MEDline databases is carried out. The information was filtered using the following MeSH terms: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "Physical Therapy", "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine". Clinical trials published in the last 5 years were included in which one of the interventions was therapeutic physical exercise in patients with ALS, which included the ALSFRS-R as a result variable. Results: 10 clinical trials with a total of 421 patients were analyzed, of which 183 underwent rehabilitation with physical exercise and were part of the case group; the rest belong to the control group and their treatment was mostly passive. The observed trend is of a decrease of approximately 6 points in the ALSFRS-R scale at 6 months in the case groups; however, no behavior pattern was met in the controls. Conclusions: Therapeutic physical exercise could contribute to slow down the deterioration of the musculature of people with ALS, thus facilitating the performance of their daily activities.What do you want to do ?New mailCopy
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: pulmonary arteriovenous malformation; exercise intolerance; oxygen desaturation
Online: 18 November 2020 (12:29:02 CET)
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVMs) in children are rare lesions characterized by abnormal low resistance vascular structures connecting a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein, resulting in an intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt. The insidious onset and variable signs and symptoms make diagnosis difficult, especially in children. PAVMs can be single or multiple, congenital or acquired, and up to 47-80% of cases are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).We present the case of a 12-year-old female teenager referred to our center for epistaxis, headache, fatigue and weakness, with evidence of mild oxygen desaturation. Bubble test showed a right-to-left shunt and pulmonary angio-CT confirmed the diagnosis. Percutaneous selective embolization was performed with full recovery of normal arterial oxygen saturation. When differentiating between mild oxygen desaturation and exercise intolerance in children and adolescents, physicians should be aware of the possibility of PAVMs as a cause.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0346.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: immunity; leukocyte; lymphocyte; flow cytometry; glucose; exercise
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:59:44 CEST)
Using a randomized, crossover approach, cyclists (N = 20, overnight fasted) engaged in three 75-km time trials while ingesting water (WAT) or carbohydrate (0.2 g/kg every 15 minutes) from bananas (BAN) or a 6% sugar beverage (SUG). Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 h-, 1.5 h-, and 21 h-post-exercise, and analyzed for NK cytotoxicity activity (NKCA) using pure NK cell populations. The two carbohydrate trials (BAN, SUG) compared to WAT were associated with higher post-exercise glucose, and lower cortisol, total blood leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts (interaction effects, P < 0.001). The immediate post-exercise increase in NK cell counts was higher in WAT (78%) compared to BAN (32%) and SUG (15%) trials (P ≤ 0.017). The 1.5 h post-exercise decrease in NK cell counts did not differ after WAT (−46%), BAN (−46%), and SUG (−51%) trials. The pattern of change in post-exercise NKCA differed between trials (P < 0.001). The 1.5 h post-exercise decreases in NKCA were 23%, 29%, and 33% in the WAT, BAN, and SUG trials, respectively, but trial contrasts did not differ significantly. Carbohydrate ingestion from BAN or SUG attenuated immediate-post-exercise increases in leukocyte, neutrophil, and NK cell counts, but did not counter the 1.5-h decreases in NK cell counts and NKCA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0287.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: exercise; polyphenol; metabolite; Hippurate; intestinal tract; colon
Online: 15 October 2018 (07:39:26 CEST)
Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group design, this investigation determined if the combination of 2-weeks flavonoid supplementation (329 mg/day, quercetin, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols mixture) and a 45-minute walking bout (62.2±0.9% VO2max) enhanced the translocation of gut-derived phenolics into circulation in a group of walkers (N = 77). The walkers (flavonoid, placebo groups) were randomized to either sit or walk briskly on treadmills for 45 minutes (thus four groups: placebo-sit, placebo-walk, flavonoid-sit, flavonoid-walk). A comparator group of runners (N = 19) ingested a double flavonoid dose for 2 weeks (658 mg/day) and ran for 2.5 h (69.2±1.2% VO2max). Four blood samples were collected (pre- and post-supplementation, immediately-post- and 24-h post-exercise/rest). Of the 76 metabolites detected in this targeted analysis, 15 increased after the 2.5-h run, and when grouped were also elevated post-exercise (versus placebo-sit) for the placebo- and flavonoid-walking groups (P < 0.05). A secondary analysis showed that pre-study plasma concentrations of gut-derived phenolics in the runners were 40% higher compared to walkers (P = 0.031). These data indicate that acute exercise bouts (brisk walking, intensive running) are linked to an increased translocation of gut-derived phenolics into circulation, an effect that is amplified when combined with a 2-week period of increased flavonoid intake or chronic training as a runner.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0023.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: physical exercise; irisin; neurodegeneration; aging; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 11 February 2018 (04:28:07 CET)
Irisin, a skeletal muscle-secreted myokine, produced in response to physical exercise, has protective functions in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems, including the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factors and modification of telomere length. Such beneficial effects may inhibit or delay the emergence of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review is based on the hypothesis that irisin produced by physical exercise helps control AD progression. Herein, we describe the physiology of irisin and its potential role in delaying or preventing AD. Although current and ongoing studies on irisin show promising results, further research is required to clarify its potential as a meaningful therapeutic target for treating human diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: insulin resistance; diet; exercise; microbiome; metabolic disorders
Online: 9 January 2018 (10:05:09 CET)
Insulin resistance is a prominent pathophysiologic syndrome in a plethora of metabolic disorders including obesity, prediabetes, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Ten et al., 2007), impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovary syndrome and hypercoagulability (Smith & LeRoith, 2004). It is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation syndrome, pancreatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, gall bladder disease, multiple cancers (breasts, uterus, cervix prostate, kidney, colon, esophagus, pancreas and liver), stroke, cataracts, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. It is also associated with causation of abnormal menses, infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, osteoarthritis, phlebitis and other venous diseases. Insulin resistance is thought to be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to its development. Once present, insulin resistance affects the metabolism, behavior, physical appearance and has lasting effects. This paper will review the latest evidence in development of insulin resistance, its pathogenesis and manifestation and its relation to other conditions. The final aim is to raise awareness of its role on diet, metabolic, genetics and microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0580.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:24:29 CEST)
Covid-19 restrictions impacted many people’s daily lives through infection, fear of infection and the implementation of restrictions on movement. Restrictions and fear of contamination impacted physical activity patterns activity and increased mental health issues globally across a variety of ages. This re-issue of a questionnaire sought to examine the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on frequency of physical activity, participation in sports, wellbeing and symptoms of anxiety and depression in Irish adolescents. 3,021 adolescents from 61 post-primary schools in the Republic of Ireland completed questionnaires. Consistent with a previous issue of the questionnaire, a minority of adolescents were found to meet the WHO’s physical activity guidelines (11.6% of males and 5.2% of females) although there were large decreases in 1st year males and females. Adolescents reporting elevated symptoms of depression increased from 39% to 46% with almost 3 in 5 females reporting symptoms of depression ranging from mild to extreme. Highest levels of wellbeing were found in adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports, although there was an 8% reduction in the amount of adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports. There were no changes in physical activity levels overall, despite changes within sub-groups and patterns of physical activity. There was a clear increase in symptoms of depression, with females impacted more than males. Previously active individuals were more likely to increase activity and therefore report higher levels of mental health while those who were less active were more likely to decrease activity and report lower mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0630.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Exercise; Runners; Near-infrared spectroscopy; Respiratory muscles; Respiration.
Online: 28 June 2021 (09:44:55 CEST)
The study aimed to evaluate the association between the changes in ventilatory variables (tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (RR), and lung ventilation (VE)) and deoxygenation of m.intescostales (∆SmO2-m.intercostales) during a maximal incremental exercise in nineteen male competitive marathon runners. The ventilatory variables and oxygen-consumption (VO2) were recorded breath-by-breath by exhaled gas analysis. A near-infrared spectroscopy device (MOXY) located in the right-hemithorax allowed recording SmO2-m.intercostales. To explore changes in oxygen levels in muscles with high demand during exercise, a second MOXY records SmO2-m.vastus laterallis. The triphasic model of exercise intensity was used for evaluating changes in SmO2 in both muscle groups. We found that ∆SmO2-m.intercostales correlated with VO2-peak (r=0.65; p=0.002) and the increase of VE (r=0.78; p=0.001), RR (r=0.54; p=0.001), but not Vt (p=0.210). The interaction of factors (muscles X exercise-phases) in SmO2 expressed as an arbitrary unit (a.u) was significant (p=0.005). At VT1 were no difference (p=0.177), but SmO2-m.intercostales was higher at VT1 (p<0.001) and VO2-peak (p<0.001). In competitive marathon runners, the m.intercostales deoxygenation during incremental exercise is directly associated with the aerobic capacity and increased lung ventilation and respiratory rate, but not tidal volume. Besides, it shows less deoxygenation than m.vastus laterallis at intensities above the aerobic ventilatory threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0374.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cfDNA; next generation sequencing; full marathon; exercise; physiology
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:52:33 CET)
Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is frequently analyzed using liquid biopsy to investigate cancer markers. Accordingly, we hypothesized this concept could be applied to the field of exercise physiology. Here, we aimed to identify specific cfDNA (spcfDNA) sequences in the plasma of non-treated human participants using next generation sequencing (NGS) and to clearly define the dynamics regarding the amounts of spcfDNA-fragments upon extreme exercise, such as running a full marathon. NGS analysis was performed using cfDNA of pooled plasma collected from non-treated participants. We confirmed the TaqMan-qPCR assay had a high sensitivity and found the spcfDNA sequence abundance was 16,600-fold higher than a normal genomic region. We then used the TaqMan-qPCR assay to investigate the dynamics of the levels of spcfDNA-fragments upon running a full marathon. Quantities of the spcfDNA fragments were significantly increased post marathon. Furthermore, the amounts of spcfDNA fragments strongly correlated with the numbers of white blood cells and plasma myoglobin concentrations. These results suggest the spcfDNA fragments identified in this study were highly sensitive response markers to extreme physical stress. The findings of this study may provide new insights into exercise physiology and genome biology on the human.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Exercise; Health; Obesity; Northern Latitudes; Cross-country skiing
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:15:58 CET)
Background: Physical activity is recommended to mitigate the incidence of obesity, but delivery of community wide initiatives is cumbersome. The challenges met by such programs are magnified when implementation transpires in the remote villages of Alaska. To overcome the difficulty of this challenge in the Arctic, the Skiku/AK Nordic cross-country skiing program was developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to Skiku/AK Nordic program would promote physical activity levels that met the daily recommendations for physical activity in Alaska Native children. Methods: Eight children (4 females and 4 males; 10±2 years/age) were recruited from Kaktovik, Alaska for participation in this study. Expert coaches and staff provided one week of cross-country ski instruction and access to ski equipment. Physical activity was monitored using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Data collected from the devices was then downloaded and analyzed using ActiLife software. Results: The participants expended ~586 calories/day devoted to physical activity. Light and moderate physical activity was 68±38 minutes/day and 447±248 minutes/day, respectively. Conclusions: Delivery of the Skiku/AK Nordic program promoted favorable levels of physical activity in Alaska Native children. Further research is needed to assess the longitudinal and seasonal effectiveness of the Skiku/AK Nordic program.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0270.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: sedentism; exercise; immunometabolism; SARS-COV-2; Cytokines; immunity
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:48:59 CEST)
Many reports showed a dramatic decrease in the levels of physical activity during the current pandemic of SARS-COV-2. This has substantial immunometabolic implications, especially in those at risk or with metabolic diseases including individuals with obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Here we discuss the route from physical inactivity to immnometabolic aberrancies; focusing on how insulin resistance could represent an adaptive mechanism to the low physical activity levels and/or high energy intake and on how such an adaptive mechanism could derail to be a pathognomonic feature of metabolic diseases creating a vicious circle of immune and metabolic aberrancies. We provide a theoretical framework to the severe immunopathology of COVID-19 in patients with metabolic diseases. We finally discuss the idea of exercise as a potential adjuvant against COVID-19 and emphasize how even interrupting prolonged periods of sitting with short time breaks of very light activity could be a feasible strategy to limit the deleterious effects of sedentary behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0179.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Physical Education; knowledge; proper exercise; back care; adolescents
Online: 8 September 2020 (07:55:23 CEST)
The aim of this study was to analyze the level of specific back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge. This is a cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 1500 students were recruited with a confidence level of 95% and an accepted standard error of ±2.53%. Individuals were aged between 13 and 18 years old (mean age= 15.18; SD = ±1.446). Self-reported questionnaires were used to record back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge concerning back care in adolescents. The level of specific knowledge of back health education related to physical activity and exercise in adolescents was low (X = 2.05, SD = ±2.264). Only 10.9% of the students passed the specific knowledge test, achieving a grade equal or superior to 5. The boys average score was higher (X = 2.17, SD = ±2.312) than the girls (X = 1.94, SD = ±2.212) with statistically significant differences (p = .048). The level of specific knowledge increased with age (F = 11.531; p < .001). High school students have a low level of specific knowledge. Physical Education teachers should apply the conceptual content properly. Knowledge is the first step towards changing behavioral habits. Back care education in the school curriculum is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: protein; exercise; muscle damage; creatine kinase; myoglobin; inflammation
Online: 16 July 2020 (06:33:18 CEST)
This randomized trial compared pea protein, whey protein, and water-only supplementation on muscle damage, inflammation, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), and physical fitness test performance during a 5-day period after a 90-minute eccentric exercise bout in non-athletic, non-obese males (n=92, ages 18-55 years). The two protein sources (0.9 g protein/kg divided into three doses/day) were administered under double blind procedures. The eccentric exercise protocol induced significant muscle damage and soreness, and reduced bench press and 30-second Wingate performance. Whey protein supplementation significantly attenuated post-exercise blood levels for biomarkers of muscle damage compared to water-only, with large effect sizes for creatine kinase and myoglobin during the 4th and 5th days of recovery (Cohen's d >0.80); pea protein versus water supplementation had an intermediate, non-significant effect (Cohen's d <0.50); and no significant differences between whey and pea protein were found. Whey and pea protein compared to water supplementation had no significant effects on post-exercise DOMS and the fitness tests. In conclusion, high intake of whey protein for 5 days after intensive eccentric exercise mitigated efflux of muscle damage biomarkers, with intake of pea protein having an intermediate effect in part due to the 24% lower leucine amino acid content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0061.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes; saffron; turmeric; food supplements; supplementation; physical exercise
Online: 7 June 2020 (06:01:12 CEST)
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world and one of its main features is chronic hyperglycemia. Among the therapeutic forms used to control the pathology are pharmacotherapy and the use of other alternatives such as regular exercise, which participates in glycemic control and the ingestion of plant extracts with antioxidant effects in the body. Among the different plants used, curcumin is a possible plant to be used to attenuate the hyperglycemic picture triggered by Diabetes Mellitus. Some studies suggest that this plant is antioxidant and hypoglycemic. The review aimed to know the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of curcumin supplementation in DM. The search was performed considering articles published between 2010 to 2019, in English and Portuguese, and a theoretical survey of relevant information was conducted in the main databases of scientific publications: Virtual Health Library and its indexed databases as Pubmed, LILACS, Scielo and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The associated use Turmeric and Physical Exercise demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activity caused by Diabetes Mellitus. We may suggest that these are potential therapeutic ways to improve the quality and survival of diabetic patients.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: coronavirus; fevers; pneumonia; nutrients; sauna baths; physical exercise
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
The recent outbreak and spread of the COVID-19 virus infection across the world has seen a massive global system-wide shutdown of human social and economic activity. Both developed and developing nations have been forced to contain and isolate their citizens as much as possible. However, the continuous rising cases in both categories of nations, especially those with poor or nonexistent testing facilities and healthcare systems pose a hidden danger. The seemingly lack of and access to a truly global concerted research effort in both temporary but effective symptom mitigation may lead to more deaths in infected cases. We propose that a fusion of both technological and home-grown solutions can be utilized effectively to manage symptoms. This would add to the preventive methods of social distancing, isolation, quarantine and frequent handwashing to halt the impact of the disease. We also hope to spur further research in such drug/non-drug combination therapy-based methods with emphasis on effectiveness based on quality of nutrient sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0196.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: motor evoked potential; MEP; arm cranking; pedaling; exercise
Online: 13 February 2019 (09:54:08 CET)
Background: The present study compared corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii muscle during arm cycling at a self-selected and a fixed cadence (SSC and FC, respectively). We hypothesized that corticospinal excitability would not be different between the two conditions. Methods: The SSC was initially performed and the cycling cadence was recorded every 5 seconds for one minute. The average cadence of the SSC cycling trial was then used as a target for FC of cycling that the participants were instructed to maintain. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex were recorded from the biceps brachii during each trial of SSC and FC arm cycling. Results: Corticospinal excitability as assessed via normalized MEP amplitudes (MEPs were made relative to a maximal compound muscle action potential) were not different between groups. Conclusions: Focusing on maintaining a FC cadence during arm cycling does not influence corticospinal excitability as assessed via TMS-evoked MEPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0189.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: beta-alanine; carnosine; oxidative stress; antioxidant; physical exercise
Online: 12 November 2018 (06:48:00 CET)
The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the articles that addressed the effect BA or carnosine supplementation on Physical exercise (PE)-induced oxidative stress (OS). We searched throughout PubMed, CAPES Periodic and SPORTDiscus human model peer review, randomized control studies with chronic BA or carnosine supplementation on PE-induced OS. We search papers published before May 2018. A total of 128 citations were found. Only four articles met criteria for inclusion. All four studies used healthy young (21y) sedentary, recreationally active or athletic participants. After a chorionic BA (~30 days) or carnosine (14 days) supplementation, the studies evaluated PE-induced OS both immediately and several hours after exercise (0.5 to 48 h). In response to PE-induced OS, when compared to placebo, BA/carnosine supplementation increased total antioxidant capacity [TAC; Effect Size (ES) = 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.06 to 0.65, p = 0.02] and glutathione (GSH; ES = 0.75, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.19, p = 0.0007) concentrations while decreased pro-oxidant markers (ES = −1.19, 95% CI −1.48 to -0.80, p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (ES = −0.58, 95% CI −1.10 to −0.06, p = 0.03). BA or carnosine supplementation did not prevent the increase in peroxidation markers (ES: −0.20, 95% CI −0.59 to 0.20, p = 0.33). In humans, following PE-induced OS, initial treatment trials of BA or carnosine supplementation seemed to increase TAC and GSH concentrations, while decreasing SOD activity. Also, albeit mitigating the acute increase in pro-oxidants, treatment did not decrease measured values of peroxidation markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: exercise; cigarette; smokeless tobacco; substance use; health behavior
Online: 16 October 2018 (09:49:28 CEST)
Background: Exercise is increasingly understood as an important resource for people with harmful substance use, including those in prison. Little is known about how inmates adopt various health behaviors during incarceration, without interventions. Methods: This study analyzed self-reports from 1468 inmates in Norwegian prisons, compared them according to harmful substance use pre-incarceration, and explored changes in exercise and nicotine use during incarceration. Results were presented in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Results: Inmates with harmful substance use reported higher rates of smoking, smokeless tobacco, and physical inactivity pre-incarceration than inmates without harmful use. However, inmates with harmful use also exhibited more behavioral changes: they adopted exercise, ceased smoking, and adopted smokeless tobacco at higher rates during incarceration than the non-harmful group. Conclusions: Exercise is being taken up by a significant proportion of inmates, and may in particular be a replacement behavior for substance use. However, unhealthy behaviors are also begun or maintained. If prisons were used as an arena to facilitate healthy behaviors, the public health benefits to a marginalized group such as substance-using inmates could be substantial.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: aerobic capacity, graded‑exercise test, total work-load
Online: 27 August 2018 (16:31:45 CEST)
The aim of this study was to clarify effects of 3-week work-matched high-intensity intermittent cycling training (HIICT) with different cadences on VO2max in university athletes. Eighteen university athletes performed HIICT with either 60 rpm (n = 9) or 120 rpm (n = 9). HIICT consisted of eight sets of 20-s exercise with a 10-s passive rest between each sets. The initial training intensity was set at 135% of VO2 max and was decreased by 5% every two sets. Athletes in both groups performed 9 sessions of HIICT during 3-week. The total work-load and achievement rate of the work load calculated before experiments in each group were used for analysis. VO2max was measured pre and post-training. After 3-week of training, no significant differences in the total work-load and achievement rate of the work load were found between the two groups. VO2max similarly increased in both groups from pre to post training (p = 0.016), with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.680). These results suggest that cadence during HIICT is not training variable affecting effect of VO2max.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dietary intervention; multilevel intervention; diet & exercise; health outcomes
Online: 16 July 2018 (09:59:19 CEST)
There is a growing need to utilize community interventions to address modifiable behaviors that lead to poor health outcomes like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Poor health outcomes can be tied to community-level factors such as food deserts (identified areas with low access to fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful whole foods) and individual behaviors like sedentary lifestyles, consuming large portion sizes, and eating high-calorie fast food and processed foods. Through a social ecological approach with family, organization and community, the Faithful Families Cooking and Eating Smart (FFCES) intervention was created to address these concerns in a rural South Carolina community. FFCES used gatekeepers to identify 18 churches and 4 apartment complexes in low-income areas. 176 participants completed both pre- and post- survey measures. Student’s t-test measures found statistically significant change in participant perception of food security (0.39, p-value=0.005), self-efficacy with physical activity and healthy eating (0.26, p-value=000), and cooking confidence (0.17, p-value=.01). There was not significant change in cooking behaviors as assessed through the Cooking Behaviors Scale. FFCES shows that a social ecological approach can be effective at increasing and improving individual healthy behaviors and addressing community-level factors in low-income rural communities.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: physical activity; depression; elderly people living alone; Patient Health Questionnaire-10; flexibility exercise; muscular strength exercise; complex sample logistic regression
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:10:17 CET)
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity and depression in the elderly living alone and to provide basic data for the prevention of depression in the elderly. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 256 elderly people living alone aged 65 years or older who completed the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depression was defined as a score of 10 or higher using Patient Health Questionnaire-10(PHQ-9). This study investigated walking per week, days of muscular strength exercise performance in the past one week, days of flexibility exercise in the past one week, mean hours in a sitting position per day, the numbers of days and hours conducting a high intensity physical activity in the past one week, and numbers of days and hours conducting a medium intensity physical activity in the past one week to define physical activity. Our study presented prevalence odds ratios (pOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using complex sample logistic regression analysis in order to identify the relationship between physical activity and depression. Results: The results of complex sample logistic regression analysis showed that flexibility exercise was significantly related to depression (p <0.05). On the other hand, the mean hours in a sitting position per day, aerobic physical activity, walking, and muscular strength exercise were not significantly related to geriatric depression. Conclusions: The results of our study implied that persistent flexibility exercise might be more effective to maintain a healthy mental status than muscular strength exercise. A longitudinal study is required to prove the causal relationship between physical activity and depression in the old age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: virtual reality; exercise; overweight; body mass index; depression; immersion
Online: 29 December 2022 (03:52:25 CET)
Background: This study explored the effects of a virtual reality exercise program on overweight middle-aged women. Methods: This randomized controlled trial included women 4065 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 kg/m2 or more living in D city. The virtual reality environment was set up by attaching an IoT sensor to an indoor bicycle and linking it with a smartphone, enabling exercise in an immersive virtual reality through a head-mounted display. Results: In the virtual reality exercise group, the BMI was significantly decreased after the 8-week intervention compared with the baseline value (F=100.806, p<.001). The depression scores were significantly different among the three groups, with the intervention effect being more significant in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and con-trol groups (F=3.462, p<.001). Furthermore, the levels of exercise fun (F=12.373, p<.001) and exer-cise immersion (F=14.629, p<.001) were significantly higher in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and control groups. Conclusions: The virtual reality exercise program positively affected the BMI and the levels of depression, exercise fun, and exercise im-mersion in overweight middle-aged women. It is an effective home exercise program for obesity management in this population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0127.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: youth; adiposity; psychopathology; anxiety; depression; physical activity; exercise; MRI
Online: 7 November 2022 (14:34:46 CET)
Obesity during childhood has been associated with many important physiological and neurological health considerations. Specifically concerning are the associations between youth obesity and declines in mental health, as shown with increasing rates of adolescent depression and anxiety worldwide. The emergence of mental health disorders commonly arises during adolescent development, and approximately half the global population satisfy the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, suggesting a need for early intervention. Adolescence is critical time whereby brain structure and functions are not only negatively associated with obesity and declines in mental health, while also coinciding with significant declines in rates of physical activity among individuals in this age group. Physical activity is thus a prime candidate to address the intersection of obesity and mental health crises occurring globally. This review addresses the important considerations between physiological health (obesity, aerobic fitness, physical activity), brain health (structure and function), and mental wellbeing symptomology. Lastly, we pose a theoretical framework which asks important questions regarding the influence of physiological health on the association between brain health and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: public health; physical activity; rural resident; physical exercise; epidemiology
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:51:36 CEST)
Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Sufficient physical activity (PA) is essential for the prevention of NCDs and thus it is imperative to study the current status of PA and its influencing factors among rural residents in China. A population-based survey was conducted in rural areas of Shandong, Shanxi and Yunnan Provinces using a stratified random sampling method. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to collect the data on PA. A total of 3780 rural residents participated in the survey. The result showed that 22.2% of rural residents were physical inactivity. The proportion of rural residents reporting practice of physical exercise was 54.4%. The most frequently performed physical exercise was walking/brisk walking(78.3%).Binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female, people at age between 15 to 34 years or 60 years old and above, employees of governmental departments/retirees, school students, the unemployed, people with NCDs were risk factors of PA and ethnic minority groups,smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors of physical exercise. Health promotion programme aiming at increasing people’s PA in rural China is needed and it should focus on the populations groups of the female, people at age 60 years and above ,school students, the unemployed, and people with NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0040.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: jump header shooting; soccer, trunk muscle activity; stabilization exercise
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:38:08 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to clarify trunk muscle activity during jump header shooting and examine the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercises on trunk muscle activity. Methods: Nineteen male college students who had played soccer in junior high and high school clubs and youth sports teams for over 5 years were assigned to either the trunk stabilization exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 9). Muscle activity during jump header shooting was measured before and after intervention. The intervention in the trunk stabilization exercise group was trunk muscle training, whereas that in the control group was sitting. The phases of jump header shooting and the effects of the interventions were compared. Results: The internal oblique activity during the push-off phase and early floating phase was significantly greater than that during the late floating phase. The muscle activity of the internal oblique increased from the push-off phase, prior to the increase in muscle activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique, whereas the muscle activity of all abdominal muscles increased immediately after take-off. The trunk stabilization exercise intervention decreased the muscle activity of the erector spinae during jump header shooting. Conclusions: These results provide useful coaching-related insights for jump header shooting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0081.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Critical speed; exercise prescription; team sports; thresholds; shuttle running
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:05:08 CET)
The overarching purpose of this review was to highlight the utility of different aerobic field tests in terms of the parameters they provide, with a specific focus on shuttle running and all-out testing. Various field tests are discussed in detail and are categorised according to linear continuous running tests (e.g. 12-minute Cooper Test, University of Montreal Track Test [UMTT], 1200/1600 m time trials, 3-minute all-out test for running [3MT]), intermittent shuttle running tests (e.g. yo-yo inter-mittent recovery test level 1 [YYIR1], 30-15 intermittent fitness test [IFT], and the intermittent all-out shuttle test [IAOST]), and continuous shuttle running tests (e.g. 1.2 km shuttle run test [1.2SRT], maximal multi-stage 20-m shuttle test [MSR], 25-m, 30 m and 50-m 3-minute all-out shuttle test [AOST]). Readers will be guided through the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the 3MT methodology, where the all-out testing methodology is stationed within the testing paradigm, and how to practically implement and interpret the results thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0666.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: hydrogen supplement; acid status; muscle deoxygenation; ventilation; incremental exercise
Online: 25 December 2020 (14:13:30 CET)
We investigated effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) supplementation on acid-base status, pulmonary gas exchange responses, and local muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise. Eighteen healthy, trained subjects in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design received H2-rich calcium powder (HCP) (1500 mg/day, containing 2.544 µg/day of H2) or H2-depleted placebo (1500 mg/day) for 3 consecutive days. They performed cycling incremental exercise starting at 20-watts work rate, increasing by 20 watts/2 min until exhaustion. Breath-by-breath pulmonary ventilation (VE) and CO2 output (VCO2) were measured and muscle deoxygenation (deoxy[Hb + Mb]) was determined via time-resolved-NIRS in the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Blood gases' pH, lactate, and HCO3− concentrations were measured at rest and 120-, 200-, and 240-watt work rates. At rest, the HCP group had significantly lower VE, VCO2, and higher HCO3−, PCO2 versus placebo. During exercise, a significant pH decrease and greater HCO3− continued until 240-watts work rate in HCP. The VE was significantly lower in HCP versus placebo, but HCP did not affect the gas exchange status of VCO2 or oxygen uptake (VO2). HCP increased absolute values of deoxy[Hb + Mb] at the RF but not VL. Thus, HCP-induced hypoventilation would lead to lower pH and secondarily impaired balance between O2 delivery and utilization in the local RF during exercise, suggesting that HCP supplementation, which increases the at-rest antioxidant potential, affects the lower ventilation and pH status during incremental exercise. HPC induced a significantly lower O2 delivery/utilization ratio in the RF but not the VL, which may be because these regions possess inherently different vascular/metabolic control properties, perhaps related to fiber-type composition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0700.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: physical fitness; exercise self-efficacy; quality of life; adulthood
Online: 29 July 2020 (12:57:08 CEST)
Background: The aim of the present work is the elaboration of a systematic review of existing research on physical fitness, self-efficacy for physical exercise, and quality of life in adulthood. Method: Using the PRISMA statement guidelines, and based on the findings in 396 articles, the final sample was composed of 31 articles, which were reviewed to show whether self-efficacy has previously been studied as a mediator in the relationship between physical fitness and quality of life in adulthood. Results: The results indicate that little research exists in relation to healthy, populations with the majority being people with pathology. Physical fitness should be considered as a fundamental aspect in determining the functional capacity of the person. Conclusions: We discuss the need to investigate the mediation of self-efficacy in relation to the value of physical activity on quality of life and well-being in the healthy adult population in adult life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: olive nutraceuticals; functional foods; exercise; nutrition; type-2 diabetes
Online: 26 June 2018 (09:37:44 CEST)
Lifestyle is the primary prevention of diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes (T2D). Nutritional intake of olive oil (OO), the key Mediterranean diet component has been associated with the prevention and management of many chronic diseases including T2D. Several OO bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated fatty acids, and key polyphenols including hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have been associated with preventing inflammation and cytokine-induced oxidative damage, glucose lowering, reducing carbohydrate absorption and increasing insulin sensitivity and related gene expression. However, research into the interaction of OO nutraceuticals with lifestyle components, especially physical activity is lacking. Promising postprandial effects have been reported when OO or other similar monounsaturated fatty acids was the main dietary fat compared with other diets. Animal studies have shown a potential anabolic effect of oleuropein. Such effects could be further potentiated via exercise, especially strength training, which is an essential exercise prescription for individuals with T2D. There is also an evidence from in vitro, animal and limited human studies for a dual preventative role of OO polyphenols in diabetes and cancer, especially that they share similar risk factors. Putative anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and associated gene expressions resulting from OO phenolics, have produced paradoxical results making suggested inferences from dual prevention T2D and cancer outcomes difficult. Well-designed human interventions and clinical trials are needed to decipher such a potential dual anti-cancer and anti-diabetic effects of OO nutraceuticals. Exercise combined with OO consumption, individually or as part of a healthy diet is likely to induce reciprocal action for T2D prevention outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, anti-inflamatory cytokines, resistance exercise
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:30:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β during an acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) in young resistance trained men. Ten resistance-trained men in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover study, were administered a 7-day HMB supplementation (3×1 g.d-1 of HMB) and placebo (3×1 g.d-1 of Maltodextrin) with a 7 days washout period. After supplementation periods, subjects performed three sets of bench press, lat pull down, leg extension, leg curl, biceps curl, triceps curl and shoulder press to failure with 85% of one repetition to maximum (1RM). Blood samples were obtained before- (Pre), immediately post- (IP) and 1 hour-post RE (1h P) to assess serum concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1. The data were analyzed using 2 (treatment: HMB and PL) × 3 (time points: Pre, IP and 1hP) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test with a significant level of p<0.05. Serum IL-4 was significantly higher at IP resistance exercise in HMB compared to placebo. Circulating IL-4 and TGF-β1 were significantly raised at IP compared to Pre in both HMB and placebo treatments. No significant differences between treatments were observed for IL-10 and TGF-β1at any time points. In conclusion, HMB supplementation increased the circulating level of IL-4 during RE in resistance-trained men, which may attenuate inflammation and facilitate adaptation to RE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; physical activity; physical exercise; sedentarism; quality of life
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:39:54 CET)
Obesity is related to the establishment of chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases, but it can be positively influenced by the regular practice of physical activity. The study aimed to compare the anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters of physically active Military Police Officers (MPOs) with those who are less physically active. Sixty male MPOs, low activity (n=28) and physically active (n=32) participated. The following parameters were measured: plasma cytokine levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, circulating glucose triglyceride (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and plasma glutamic oxalacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities. The physically active group presented lower body fat and reduced TAG and IL-8 levels compared to the low activity group. Moreover, a negative correlation between SPE and SBP, DBP, BPM was detected for the physically active group (p<0.05) but not in the low activity group. Furthermore, the physically active group's work time (WT) values were not correlated with the important metabolic markers SBP, DBP, BPM, GLU, TAG (p>0.05) but could be in the low activity group (p<0.05). These findings highlight the fundamental protective role of physical activity in controlling body composition, subclinical inflammation, and cardiovascular risk in MPOs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Athlete´s heart; Cardiac biomarkers; Echocardiography; Exercise; Functional cardiac capacity.
Online: 13 August 2021 (09:23:48 CEST)
This single-blind and cross-sectional study evaluated the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) as a biomarker of the cardiovascular remodelling process assessed by echocardiography in competitive long-distance runners (LDR) during the training period before a marathon race. Thirty-six healthy male LDR (37.0±5.3 years; 174.0±7.0 height; BMI: 23.8±2.8; VO2-peak: 56.5±7.3 mL·kg-1·min-1) were separated into two groups according to previous training level: high-training (HT, n=16) ≥100 km·week-1 and low-training (LT, n=20) ≥70 and <100 km·week-1. Also, twenty-one healthy nonactive subjects were included as a control group (CTR). A transthoracic echocardiography was performed and ROCK activity levels in circulating leukocytes were measured at rest (48-hr without exercising) the week before the race. HT group showed higher left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and left atrial volume index (LAVi) than other groups (p<0.05, for both), also higher levels of ROCK activity were found in LDR (HT=6.17±1.41 vs CTR=1.64±0.66 (p<0.01); vs LT=2.74±0.84; (p<0.05)). In LDR a direct correlation between ROCK activity levels and LVMi (r=0.83; p<0.001), and LAVi (r=0.70; p<0.001) were found. In conclusion, in male competitive long-distance runners, the load of exercise implicated in marathon training is associated with ROCK activity levels and the left cardiac remodelling process assessed by echocardiography.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0267.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer dormancy; Low-grade chronic inflammation; Healthy aging; Physical exercise
Online: 11 August 2021 (17:57:09 CEST)
The paradigm of the Somatic Mutation Theory (SMT) is failing and a new paradigm is in the making but not yet established. What is being challenged is a conceptual approach that involves the entire human biology and the development of chronic diseases. The behavior of breast cancer is well compatible with the concept that the primary tumor is able to control its microscopic metastases, in the same way that an organ (e.g., the liver) is able to control its physiological size. This finding suggested that breast cancer and its metastases may behave as an organoid. The new paradigm under construction considers the origin of tumors as a disturbance in the communication network between tissue cell populations and between cells and extracellular matrix, and supports a systemic approach to the study of both healthy and pathologic tissues. The commentary provides a rationale for the role of physical exercise in the control of tumor dormancy according to a human evolutionary perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0450.v1
Subject: Keywords: tDCS; cycling time trial; exercise performance; prefrontal cortex; muscle oxygenation
Online: 17 June 2021 (08:21:49 CEST)
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low levels of a constant current via scalp electrodes to specifically targeted areas of the brain. The effects of tDCS on whole-body exercise performance has been of interest in recent literature. The purpose of the current investigation was to investigate if tDCS, administered via Halo Sport, influences time trial performance in trained cyclists, and if changes in exercise performance are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation and/or muscle oxygenation (SmO2). Methods: Twelve recreationally trained cyclists volunteered to participate in two 10-kilometer time trials following 20 minutes of tDCS or a sham condition. Results: T-tests showed there was no significant difference in performance (time to completion) or physiological measures (BLa-, HR, SmO2, PFC oxygenation) between the Halo and sham conditions. Conclusions: These results indicate that the application of tDCS via Halo Sport does not induce changes in exercise performance or related physiological parameters during a 10-kilometer cycling time trial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Philippines; Cebu city; physical activity; Zumba, exercise; non-communicable diseases
Online: 5 April 2021 (15:57:11 CEST)
The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the adult population in the Philippines has doubled in the past 20 years. Zumba exercise has recently been implemented throughout the Philippines. However, there is scarce information on the effects of Zumba on obesity and Zumba participants’ characteristics in the Philippines. This study described the current practice of Zumba in the Philippines, along with the practitioners’ characteristics, and identified factors associated with Zumba participation. In this observational, cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was used to survey 10 Zumba locations in September 2019. Anthropometric measurements of participants were assessed. Respondents included 171 women (88.6%) and 22 men (11.4%), with a mean (±SD) age of 44.1 (± 8.9) years. All respondents answered that Zumba was enjoyable, and some answered “very enjoyable.” Determinants of frequent participation were as follows: being older than the mean age of participants, starting Zumba to enjoy dancing, starting Zumba not to lose weight, shopping mall location, and participation fee required. “To enjoy dance” being a motivation for Zumba practice was identified as a determinant of frequent participation, rather than “to lose weight.” The element of “enjoyable” may strongly influence continuation and frequent participation of Zumba exercise in the Philippines.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Exercise; Angiotensin-converting enzyme; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Ecology
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:45:12 CEST)
We hypothesize that the reason severe COVID-19 is closely linked to a limited number of conditions such as obesity, hypertension, older age and diabetes is that these conditions are characterized by a pro-inflammatory state in general and an angiotensin converting enzyme-1-bias in particular. We review recent evidence that this pro-inflammatory state can be reversed via regular exercise and a healthy diet. Studies are suggested that could test this hypothesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0282.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Physical Activity; Exercise; Sedentary Behaviour; Hyperpalatable Food; Obesity; Food Addiction
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:52:42 CET)
Obesity is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, and food addiction has been considered one of its phenotypes. The study aims to determine the effectiveness of physical activity (PA), exercise, and sedentary behaviour management in attenuating food addiction in obese and overweight healthy adults. A search strategy was undertaken using MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and CINAHL until April 2019. A total of 295 studies were found from which seven studies, after duplicates were removed, were included. The acute effect of PA of moderate intensity had an effect on attentional bias, craving, and sweet taste perception, although no difference was observed between genders and body mass index groups. No effect was observed on the hedonic and reward value. The acute effects of PA of moderate intensity may be a useful tool to control the levels of food addiction. More research is needed to clarify if this effect also occurs during chronic application, at different doses and types of PA, and for all populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0070.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: albumin; oxidative stress; exercise; ultra-marathon mountain race; protein oxidation
Online: 17 February 2017 (15:02:03 CET)
The aim of this study was to examine the oxidation of human serum albumin (HSA) caused by oxidative stress after an exhaustive exercise such as ultra-marathon race. Thus, blood samples from 12 adult runners who underwent a 103 km mountain ultra-marathon race were collected pre- and 24, 48 and 72 h post race. HSA was partially purified using affinity chromatography and then was subjected to Western blot analysis for disulfide dimers determination, indicating oxidation. The results were correlated with those from a previous study in which the same samples were analyzed using different oxidative stress markers and a good correlation with protein carbonyls (PC) at all time points was observed. Moreover there was a significant correlation with static oxidation-reduction potential (sORP) at 24 h, and a negative correlation with capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP) at 24 and 48 h. In addition, an individual analysis of albumin dimers exhibited great inter-individual differences. This inter-individual variability in the oxidation of HSA may suggest different interventions (e.g. through diet) in order to confront the effects on athletes’ organism after a strenuous exercise. In conclusion, this study supported the importance of the assessment of albumin dimers as a predictive marker for exercise-induced oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: neuromuscular fatigue; muscle bioelectrical activity; rating of perceived exertion; cycling exercise
Online: 1 June 2022 (06:23:30 CEST)
This study explored the development of neuromuscular fatigue responses during progressive cycling exercise. The sample comprised 32 participants aged 22.0 ± 0.54 years who were assigned into three groups: endurance-trained group (END, triathletes, n = 10), strength-trained group (STR, body-builders, n = 10), and control group (CON, recreationally active students, n = 12). The incremental cycling exercise was performed using a progressive protocol starting with a 3 min resting measurement and then 50 W workload with subsequent constant increments of 50 W every 3 minutes until 200 W. Surface electromyography (SEMG) of rectus femoris muscles was recorded during the final 30 s of each of the four workloads. During the final 15 s of each workload, participants rated their overall perception of effort using the 20-point RPE scale. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD testing showed significant differences between END and STR groups in MF and MPF across all workloads (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Athletes from END group had significantly lower AEMG responses than those from STR (p = 0.0093) and CON group (p = 0.0006). Increasing RPE points from 50 to 200 W were significantly higher in STR than in END group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, there is a significant variation in neuromuscular fatigue profiles between athletes with different training backgrounds when a cycling exercise is applied. The approximately linear trend of the SEMG and RPE values of both groups of athletes with increasing workload support the increased skeletal muscle recruitment with perceived exertion or fatiguing effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: aerobic threshold; anaerobic threshold; exercise prescription; threshold detection; threshold-based training
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:01:01 CET)
The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the Tyme Wear smart shirt is as reliable and valid in detecting personalized ventilatory thresholds when compared to the Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400. In this validation study, 19 subjects were recruited to conduct two graded exercise test (GXT) trials. Each GXT trial was separated by seven to ten days of rest. During the GXT, gas exchange and heart rate data were collected by the TrueOne 2400 (TRUE) in addition to the ventilation data collected by the Tyme Wear smart shirt (S-PRED). Gas exchange data from TRUE was used to detect VT1 and VT2. TRUE and S-PRED VT1 and VT2 were compared to determine the reliability and validity of the smart shirt. Of the 19 subjects, data from 15 subjects were used during analysis. S-PRED exhibited excellent (ICC > 0.90) reliability for detection of VT1 and VT2 utilizing time point and workload and moderate (0.90 > ICC > 0.75 ) reliability utilizing heart rate. TRUE exhibited excellent reliability for detection of VT1 and VT2 utilizing time point, workload, and heart rate. When compared to TRUE, S-PRED appears to underestimate the VT1 workload (p > 0.05) across both trials and heart rate (p < 0.05) for trial 1. However, S-PRED appears to underestimate VT2 workload (p < 0.05) and heart rate (p < 0.05) across both trials. The result from this study suggests that the Tyme Wear smart shirt is less valid but is comparable in reliability when compared to the gold standard. Moreover, despite the underestimation of S-PRED VT1 and VT2, the S-PRED detected personalized ventilatory thresholds will provide an adequate training workload for most individuals. In conclusion, the Tyme Wear smart shirt provides easily accessible testing to establish threshold-guided training zones but does not devalue the long-standing laboratory equivalent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0090.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Airflow restriction, Physical exercise, Respiratory Muscle Training, Endurance performance, VEGF, EPO
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:04:27 CEST)
Introduction: The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) has been introduced as a novel tool to allow for respiratory muscle training and altitude exposure during exercise that can improve performance and hematological markers in elite and well-trained athletes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of wearing ETM while training on erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance in elite Kayaking girls. Methods: Thirty elite Kayaking girls (14 to 18-year-old) were equally and randomly assigned into mask, no mask, and control groups. The mask and no-mask groups completed 8 weeks of repeated sprint training, while the control group performed their routine kayaking training programs. Pre- and post-training tests included EPO, VEGF, VO2max, lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance. Results: 1000-m time trial significantly decreased for mask (p < 0.001) and control (p = 0.035) groups, and was significantly lower in mask group than control (p = 0.014) and no mask (p = 0.009) groups. EPO did not show any significant changes for all groups. VEGF was increased significantly for mask (p = 0.04) and no mask (p = 0.014) groups. Lactate was decreased significantly for mask group (p = 0.025). VO2max increased significantly for no mask group (p = 0.021). Conclusion: Wearing the ETM while participating in 8 weeks of repeated sprint training might improve specific blood markers and endurance performance, especially anaerobic pathways. Performing repeated sprint training while wearing ETM has the potential to enhance performance in Kayak racing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Tele-exercise; physical activity; rural; older adults; knee osteoarthritis; clinical trial
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:36:22 CEST)
Enhance®Fitness (EF) is an evidence-based exercise program recommended for management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, access to EF is limited in rural areas. Accordingly, we evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of remotely delivered EF in rural, community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee OA. A single arm pilot trial of remotely delivered EF classes was conducted. Videoconferencing was used to livestream the instructor-led, 1-hour EF classes 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention. A total of 15 participants were enrolled with a median age of 70 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67-75) and 14 (93%) were women. Median EF class attendance rate was 91% (IQR: 85-94%). Knee pain, as measured by the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), improved significantly from baseline to 12-week endpoint (mean difference=-11.4 [95% CI:-20.9, -2.0); P=0.02). In addition, participants’ self-reported knee function improved significantly (mean difference in KOOS Function score=-11.8 [95% CI:-18.4, -5.2]; P<0.01) as well as their physical capacity (mean difference in Timed Up and Go test time=1.8 seconds [95% CI: 0.2, 3.4]; P=0.03). All participants (100%) were very satisfied with remotely delivered EF classes and there were no serious adverse events. Findings from this pilot trial indicate that remotely delivered EF is feasible and acceptable in rural older adults with knee OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0106.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus; pandemic; exercise; depression; anxiety; wellness; physical distancing; lifestyle behavior change
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:27:25 CEST)
Strategies implemented worldwide to contain COVID-19 outbreaks varied in severity across different countries, and established a new normal for work and school life (i.e. from home) for many people, reducing opportunities for physical activity. Positive relationships of physical activity with both mental and physical health are well recognised, therefore the aim was to ascertain how New Zealand’s lockdown restrictions impacted physical activity and mental health and wellbeing. Participants (n=4007; mean±SD: age 46.5±14.7y, 72% female, 80.7% New Zealand European) completed (10–26 April 2020) an online amalgamated survey (Qualtrics): International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Short Form; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-9; World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index; Stages of Change Scale. Positive dose response relationships between physical activity levels and wellbeing scores were demonstrated for estimates that were unadjusted (moderate activity OR 3.79, CI 2.88-4.92; high activity OR 8.04, CI 6.07-10.7) and adjusted (confounding variables: age, gender, socioeconomic status, time sitting, co-morbidities) (moderate activity 1.57, CI 1.11-2.52; high activity 2.85, CI 1.97-4.14). The study results support previous research demonstrating beneficial effects of regular physical activity on mental health and wellbeing. Governments may use such results to promote meeting physical activity guidelines in order to protect mental health and wellbeing during the ongoing COVID-19 and future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Surgical mask; exercise; treadmill test; stress test; Oxygen saturation; Covid19; ECG
Online: 5 February 2021 (10:03:09 CET)
In the context of the COVID-19 Pandemic, the use of surgical masks has become the new normal. The use of these devices in exercise and medical situations has been advocated with the purpose of reducing contagions, but some concerns exist regarding its safety. We performed maximal treadmill stress tests in 12 healthy young subjects, with and without surgical mask use, and measured exercise capacity, oxygen saturation (rest, peak exercise and post-exercise) and electrocardiographic changes. Exercise capacity and Oxygen saturation levels decreased in peak exercise vs rest in a statistically significant manner when mask was used. ECG changes, although not significant, were present in 3 subjects when mask was used and disappeared when the test was made unmasked. We conclude that masked exercise has the potential to cause decreased exercise load and oxygen saturation and potentially cause diagnostic errors in medical exams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; pediatric exercise; motor control; motor coordination; motor competence; movement competence
Online: 12 November 2020 (12:16:12 CET)
This study investigated the relationship between functional movement (FM) and adiposity in adolescents (16-17 years). This research is a part of the CRO-PALS study conducted in a random sample of adolescents (n=652, mean age±SD: 16.6±0.4). Body mass index (BMI), a sum of four skinfolds (S4S), waist and hip circumference were measured, and FM was assessed via Functional Movement Screen™ (FMSTM). Multilevel analysis were employed to determine the relationship between different predictors and total FMS score. After controlling for age, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and socioeconomic status, relationship between variables of adiposity and total FMS score was significant and negative among boys (BMI:β=-0.18, p<0.0001; S4S:β=-0.04, p<0.0001; waist circumference:β=-0.08, p<0.0001; hip circumference:β=-0.09, p<0.0001). However, among girls, in adjusted models, only S4S showed a significant and negative effect on total FMS score (β=-0.03, p<0.0001), while other coefficients failed to reach significance (BMI:β=-0.05, p=0.23; waist circumference:β=-0.04, p=0.06; hip circumference:β=-0.01, p=0.70). Results showed that the effect of adiposity on FM in adolescence is sex-specific, suggesting that boys with overweight and obesity could be more prone to develop dysfunctional movement patterns. Therefore, exercise interventions directed toward correcting dysfunctional patterns should be sex-specific, targeting more boys with overweight and obesity rather than adolescent girls with overweight and obesity.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Diabetic Cardiomyopathy; Hyperglycemia; Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Remote Conditioning; Exercise
Online: 17 March 2020 (08:52:25 CET)
Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and ischemic heart disease are among the leading causes of death and disability in Western countries. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is responsible for the most severe signs and symptoms. An important strategy for reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease is regular exercise. Remote ischemic conditioning has some similarity with exercise, and can be induced by short periods of ischemia and reperfusion of a limb, and it can be performed in people who cannot exercise. There is abundant evidence that exercise is beneficial in diabetes and ischemic heart disease, but there is a need to elucidate the specific cardiovascular effects of emerging and unconventional forms of exercise in people with diabetes. Also, remote ischemic conditioning may be considered among the options to induce beneficial effects in these patients. The characteristics and interactions of diabetes and ischemic heart disease, and the known effects of exercise and remote ischemic conditioning in the presence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, are analyzed in this brief review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0142.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: total knee arthroplasty; rehabilitation program; knee osteoarthritis; exercise rehabilitation; postoperative care
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:50:41 CET)
This multi-center, single-blinded, randomized controlled study assessed the efficacy of phased exercise rehabilitation programs in patients who underwent a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and investigated suitable exercise types, intensities, and frequencies for patients undergoing postoperative rehabilitation. Between January and March 2018, 494 patients who had undergone TKA were treated at two medical centers. Patients were randomized and allocated to the rehabilitation group (n=330) or the control group (n=164; treated with postoperative care). The 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), range of motion, and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) scores were assessed and compared between the two groups. The average WOMAC score was 84.40±15.20 in the rehabilitation group and 108.30±3.90 in the control group (p=0.009). The mean VAS score was 2.54±0.16 in the rehabilitation group and 2.87±0.31 in the control group (p=0.024). Furthermore, the range of motion was 125.02±6.20 in the rehabilitation group and 116.40±1.40 in the control group (p=0.017). The mean SF-36 score was 105.40±21.50 in the rehabilitation group and 83.70±5.01 in the control group (p=0.043). This study suggests that the phase rehabilitation program could be more effective at improving pain, knee function, and quality of life than condition postoperative care after TKA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0323.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: vascular; omega-3; exercise; cerebral blood flow; middle cerebral artery; supplements
Online: 23 February 2020 (13:05:55 CET)
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) decreases across the lifespan, and chronic conditions such as dementia and stroke accelerate this decline. Impaired CBF results in reduced delivery of oxygen and nutrients, which can damage the brain over time. Thus, there is a need to identify lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise to maintain CBF with aging and in the presence of chronic disease. In the present study, we used transcranial Doppler ultrasound to record middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), a surrogate measure of CBF, during moderate-intensity exercise in sedentary, cognitively-normal older adults (N = 90). A multiple linear regression model (F(4, 85) = 3.21, p = 0.02) showed self-reported omega-3 supplement use significantly moderated the association between age and mean exercising MCAv in these individuals (p = 0.01). Older age was associated with lower exercising MCAv in the group not taking omega-3 supplements, while exercising MCAv showed no decline with increasing age in the group who reported omega-3 supplement use. These findings suggest omega-3 supplementation may have an important role in the preservation of CBF with aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: exercise; marriage; sedentary behavior; gender; age groups; behavioral risk factors surveillance system
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:44:23 CET)
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify the age and sex-related associations between marital status with PA and TV time. We used data from Vigitel, an annual telephone survey started in 2006 in Brazil. We applied a complex sample logistic regression model to estimate the odds for PA and TV time comparing marital statuses according to age and sex subgroups, independent of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, self-assessed poor health, and smoking. Our sample included 561,837 individuals with a TV time > 3 h/day (prevalence = 25.2%) and PA > 150 min/week (prevalence = 35%). Compared to single individuals, married men and women were less likely to watch TV more than 3 h/day in participants > 30 years old. When compared to single, married participants were less likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups. Married women older than 40 years were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week than the single ones, while there were no differences among married men by age group. In conclusion, married individuals are less likely to spend more than 3 hours a day watching TV than single individuals. Single men and women were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups and married women older than 40 years were more likely to do 150 min of PA/week than single women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: sex differences; fundamental motor skill; motor skills; physical activity; exercise effects; pediatrics
Online: 14 August 2021 (14:45:07 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine gender differences in the level of motor skills and effects of a multi-year exercise program on the level of motor skills in 161 preschool children (5-6 yo). Patricipants were deployed into one control and three experimental groups. Motor skills were assessed with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2). To determine difference in scores for each BOT-2 tests between control and experimental groups, one-way ANOVA was used for girls and boys separately while two-way ANOVA was employed to determine difference between the gender in the overall BOT-2 score. The results indicates that one-year multilateral exercise program has a positive effect on the level of motor skills in preschool children. Interestingly, additional years of participation in exercise program yielded in maintenance of acquired motor skills level. Also, exercise program affected more girls than preschool boys considering both individual and composite BOT-2 scores. According to the findings of this study, presented exercise program could have potential benefits on multilateral development of the motor skills in preschool children which could facilitate balance of locomotor and manipulative skills. Therefore, integration of multilateral program intended for preschool children could be considered for implementation within the kindergarten curriculum.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0692.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Ryanodine receptor; skeletal muscle; cardiac muscle; exercise and injury; heart function; diet
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:37:53 CEST)
The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscles and plays a key role in excitation-contraction coupling. The activity of the RyR is regulated by many intracellular factors such as divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nucleotides, associated proteins, and reactive oxygen species. Since these intracellular factors change depending on the condition of the muscle, e.g., exercise, fatigue, or disease states, the RyR channel activity will be altered accordingly. In this review, we describe how the RyR channel is regulated under various conditions and discuss the possibility that the RyR acts as a sensor for change in the cellular environment of muscles.
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: exhaustive exercise; oxidative stress; regular physical activity; saliva; peroxidase; catalase; superoxide dismutase
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:27:32 CEST)
Acute intense exercise causes significant oxidative stress and consequently an increase in total antioxidant capacity; however, the mechanisms and combined effects of intense exercise and smoking on oxidative stress among active and non-active smokers are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute intense exercise on antioxidant enzyme activity responses in active and non-active individuals exposed to cigarette smoke. The study included 40 subjects who were equally classified as: smokers that did exercise (SE), smokers that did not do exercise (SnE), non-smokers that did exercise (NSE), and non-smokers that did not do exercise (NSnE). The adjusted Astrand test was used to exhaust the subjects. Salivary enzymes of peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured, by spectrophotometry methods, at 3 different time points: pre-test (TP1), post-test (TP2), and one hour after finishing the test (TP3). Significant (p<0.05) group x time interactions were found for the three enzymes. Salivary POX, CAT and SOD increased in all groups from TP1 to TP2 and decreased from TP2 to TP3. Only the NSE showed a significant difference between TP1 to TP3 in POX and SOD by +0.011 ± 0.007 and +0.075 ± 0.02 (U/ml), respectively. The NSE showed significantly higher levels of POX, CAT and SOD in TP2 compared to the other groups. Furthermore, NSE and NSnE had higher levels of POX, CAT and SOD in TP1 and TP3 (p<0.05) compared with SE and SnE. Only in the NSnE, were no differences observed in CAT compared with SE and SnE in TP3. These results showed that the antioxidant level at rest and in the recovery time after the acute intense exercise was lower in SE and SnE compared with NSE and NSnE, suggesting that smoking habit may reduce the ameliorating effect of regular physical activity on acute exercise-induced oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0427.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: ageing; methods; frailty; exercise; nutrition; psychosocial intervention; mental health; life style; guidelines
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:33:51 CEST)
The World Health Organization has developed the Integrated Care of Older People (ICOPE) strategy, a program based on the measurement of intrinsic capacity (IC) as “the composite of all physical and mental attributes on which an individual can draw”. Multicomponent interventions appear to be the most effective approach to enhance IC and to prevent frailty and disability, since adapted physical activity is the preventive intervention that has shown most evidence in the treatment of frailty and risk of falls. Our paper describes the development of a multi-domain group-based intervention addressed to older people living in the community, aimed at improving and/or maintaining intrinsic capacity by means of promoting physical activity, healthy nutrition, and psychological wellbeing in older people. The process of intervention development is described following the Guidance for reporting intervention development studies in health research (GUIDED. The result of this study is the AMICOPE intervention (Aptitude Multi-domain group-based intervention to improve and/or maintain IC in Older PEople) built upon the ICOPE framework and described following the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) guidelines. This study represents the first stage of the UK Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating a complex intervention. The next step should be carrying out a feasibility study for the AMICOPE intervention, and in a later stage, assessing the effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial.
Subject: Keywords: Aerobic exercise; Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion; autophagy; SIRT3; SOD2; NF-κB; Biochemical indicators
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:28:32 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on myocardial injury induced by I/ R in rats by regulating SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB signaling pathway, and to provide theoretical guidance for clinical treatment of myocardial I/R injury.Methods:SPF Male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: Sham operation group(n=10), I/R group(n=10), Aerobic exercise group(n=10)and Aerobic exercise+κ-receptor antagonist group(Pro DTC group，n=10). The left anterior descending coronary artery(LAD) of rats was ligated and re-canalized to establish I/R rat model. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to examine histological morphology in myocardial tissues of each group. The biological analysis was performed to measure cTnI、CK-MB、BNP levels in blood samples of each group. The expression levels of SOD2, TLR4, and p65 in myocardial tissues were measured by immunohistochemical assay. The influence of aerobic exercise on Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、SIRT3, TLR4, and phosphorylated p65 was measured by Western blotting.Results: The result of histological morphology examination revealed that Aerobic exercise group exhibited integrated cardiac myofilament, less inflammatory cell infiltration, as much as significantly decreased cellular edema. Measurement of cTnI、CK-MB、BNP revealed that oxycodone post-treatment reduces the injury of myocardial tissues(P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that aerobic exercise clearly decreased the expression of TLR4 and p65, and increased the expression of SOD2(P<0.05). Besides, Western blotting revealed that aerobic exercise down-regulated the expression of Beclin-1 、LC3II/I、TLR4 and phosphorylated p65, up-regulated the expression of SIRT3(P<0.05).Conclusions: Aerobic exercise significantly improved myocardial I/R injury. The mechanisms may be associated with activating κ-receptor to regulate SIRT3/SOD2/NF-κB pathway.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0225.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: astrocyte; ATP; brain; exercise; glucose; glycogen; McArdle's disease; muscle, neuron; phosphocreatine; seizure
Online: 19 November 2019 (04:09:47 CET)
Key features of glycogen metabolism in excitable tissues are not well-explained by current concepts. Glycogen stores in brain and skeletal muscle are generally considered to function as local glucose reserves, to be utilized during transient mismatches between glucose supply and demand; however, quantitative measures show that blood glucose supply is likely never rate-limiting for energy metabolism in either brain or muscle under physiological conditions. These tissues nevertheless do normally utilize glycogen during intervals of increased energy demand, despite the availability of free glucose, and despite the ATP cost of cycling glucose through glycogen polymer. This seemingly wasteful shunt can be explained by considering the effect of glycogenolysis on the amount of energy derived from ATP (ΔG’ATP). ΔG’ATP is diminished by elevations in Pi, such as occur at sites of rapid ATP hydrolysis and net phosphocreatine consumption. Glycogen utilization counters this effect by sequestering Pi in glycolytic metabolites (glycogenn + Pi → glycogenn-1 + glucose-1-phosphate → phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates), and thereby maintains the amount of energy obtained from ATP at sites of rapid ATP consumption. This thermodynamic effect may be particularly important in the narrow, spatially constricted astrocyte processes that ensheath neuronal synapses. This effect can also explain the co-localization of glycogen and cytosolic phosphocreatine in brain astrocytes, glycolytic super-compensation in brain when glycogen is not available, and aspects of exercise physiology in muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency (McArdle’s disease).
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; exercise; motor activity; lung diseases; classificatory approach; sitting
Online: 21 August 2019 (09:59:39 CEST)
This study applies a cluster analysis to identify typical physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) patterns in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) before starting pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). We implemented an observational design which assessed baseline data on objectively measured PA and SB from the STAR (Stay Active after Rehabilitation) study. 355 persons wore a accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3X) for seven days before the start of their PR. Sociodemographic and disease-related parameters were assessed at the start of PR. We applied cluster analysis and compared groups applying univariate variance analyses. Data was available for 326 persons (31.6% women; age ø = 58 yr.). Cluster analysis revealed four movement clusters with distinct PA and SB patterns: sedentary non-movers (28.5%), sedentary occasional movers (41.7%), sedentary movers (19.6%), and sedentary exercisers (10.1%). The four clusters showed very different levels of moderate PA before rehabilitation (Ø daily minutes: 9; 28; 38; 70). Notably, all four clusters displayed considerably long average sitting time per day (Ø daily minutes: 644; 561; 490; 446). The groups differed significantly in disease-related parameters of GOLD severity, FEV1, CAT, and 6-Min-Walk-Test. In addition to PA promotion, PR programs should consider the reduction of sitting time as a valuable goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0058.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: pediatric patient with T1DM; physical activity; muscle strength exercise; self-rated health
Online: 5 June 2018 (10:00:16 CEST)
Background: Even though a number of studies have verified the positive effect of physical activity (PA) on self-related health (SRH) no previous research has examined this association among pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between regular physical activity (PA) and self-rated health (SRH) in pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who lacked diabetes care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care and were enrolled in a diabetes education program between January 2011 to January 2015 at the endocrinology clinic of Seoul National University Children’s Hospital in South Korea. The eligible participants for this study were 37 pediatric patients with T1DM aged 9 to 17 years. PA was divided into regular PA and muscle strength exercise to analyze the relationship with SRH using binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: The results showed SRH of pediatric patients with T1DM who did not engage in regular PA was significantly lower than those who did (OR in regular PA = .199 [95% CI: .040, .995]; OR in regular muscle strength exercise = .097 [95% CI: .023, .825]). Conclusions: In conclusion, regular PA and muscle strength exercise in pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care were effective in improving their SRH. A systematic plan is required to enhance regular PA for pediatric patients with T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Interdisciplinary co-design; healthcare design; exercise; low-back pain; older adult patients; rehabilitation
Online: 30 August 2021 (15:12:45 CEST)
This study presents three forms of interdisciplinary expertise in the healthcare design context to approach a particular multifaceted problem around the current healthcare for older adult patients with chronic low-back pain (LBP). Using an interdisciplinary co-design framework, first, our design approach performs the role of an initiator to define the problem by exploring the current context of healthcare. Second, it facilitates the experiences of experts and patients to reach the roots of the problem by functioning as a mediator. Third, our approach fulfills the primary role of healthcare design in producing new meanings considering the principles of patient-centeredness. These roles significantly contributed to the design of healthcare innovations. Our framework transformed the distributed disciplinary knowledge developed while tackling the multifaceted problem into new forms of expertise for collaboration in healthcare innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: pandemic; lockdown; physical activity; exercise; sport; well-being; dietary behavior; quality of life
Online: 19 March 2021 (08:59:58 CET)
Adolescents’ daily life has dramatically changed during the COVID-19 era due to the social restrictions that have been imposed, including closures of schools, leisure centers and sport facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of well-being and mood and their relations with physical (in)-activity and eating behaviors in adolescents during a lockdown period in Greece. A total of 950 adolescents (Mean Age = 14.41years ± 1.63) participated in a web-based survey while education was online and organized sport activities were interrupted. Participants showed poor well-being, insufficient physical activity levels and moderate scores of healthy eating behavior. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, after controlling for the effect of gender and body mass index, increased physical activity and healthier eating behavior predicted better well-being, whereas sedentariness predicted worse well-being. Furthermore, it was revealed that days of physical activity per week was a stronger predictor of well-being than minutes of physical activity per week, and that both in-house and out-of-house physical activity were beneficial. Considering that well-being was below the threshold recommended by the WHO as indicative of possible depressive symptoms, measures to increase physical activity and improve eating behavior should become a priority for communities and policy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0547.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; irisin; whole-body vibration; exercise; weight loss; rehabilitation; weight management; muscle strength
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:27:26 CET)
The use of whole-body vibration (WBV) for therapeutic purposes is far from being standardized and only very recently an empirical foundation for reporting guidelines for human WBV studies has been published. Controversies about safety and therapeutic dosage stll exist. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic and mechanical effects of low-intensity WBV in according to the ISO 2631 norm on subjects with obesity. 41 obese subjects (BMI≥ 35 kg/mˆ2) were recruited to participate in a 3-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program including fitness training and WBV training. During WBV the posture was monitored with an optoelectronic system with 6 infrared cameras (Vicon, Vicon Motion System, Oxford, UK). The primary endpoints were: variation in body composition, factors of the metabolic syndrome, functional activity (sit-to-stand and 6-min walking test), muscle strength, and quality of life. Secondary endpoints were: modification of irisin, testosterone, growth hormone, IGF1 levels. We observed significant changes in salivary irisin levels, Group 2 (p<0.01) as compared to the control group, while muscle strength, function, and other metabolic and hormonal factors did not change after a 3-week low-intensity WBV training respect control group. Future studies are needed to deeper investigate the potential metabolic effect of low-intensity WBV in managing weight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0021.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: the reference group theory; life satisfaction; exercise adherence; personal investment; strategic and cultural fit
Online: 4 October 2022 (11:06:17 CEST)
To expand the application area of the reference group and enrich exercise theoretical research, based on Stimulus-Organism-Response (S–O-R) framework, this study examines the factors that motivate for adherence to exercise from the external. Taking reference group and strategy and cultural fit as the main stimulus, and personal investment and life satisfaction as mediating variables, this study try to explore the influence of external stimulus on residents’ exercise behavior. In order to enrich the sample size, two surveys of 734 Chinese residents in two cities (Xiamen vs. Fuzhou) were conducted using factor analyses, regression analysis, and T-test analysis. The results indicated that the reference group and strategic and cultural fit as external stimulus have impact on residents’personal investment, life satisfaction and exercise adherence, personal investment and life satisfaction as the organism has impact on residents’ exercise adherence. Personal investment and life satisfaction play a chain mediating role between the reference group and exercise adherence, strategy and cultural fit, and exercise adherence. Moreover, the T-test determined the differences between Xiamen and Fuzhou residents’ exercise adherence and life satisfaction. Residents’ surroundings affect their exercise behavior and life satisfaction. These findings have implications for policymaking aimed at promoting national exercise, which could gradually improve residents’ physical fitness, particularly in light of the current coronavirus emergency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0016.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: keyword 1; Hapkido 2; Service Quality 3; Quality on Exercise Continuation 4; Recommendation Intentions
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:37:51 CET)
This research analyzed the impact of quality of service as perceived by Hapkido students on their exercise continuation and recommendation intentions. It also identified the measures to reduce the rate of student dropout, strengthen competitiveness, and create more efficient marketing strategies for consumer patterns that are rapidly diversifying Hapkido. A questionnaire survey method was conducted with 300 middle and high school students aged 14–19 years having Hapkido training of three months to two years in Incheon and Bucheon during March–April 2019. Frequency, factor, reliability, correlation, and standard multiple regression analyses were conducted on the surveyed data. The conclusions are as follows. First, considering the impact of service quality on exercise continuation intention, service quality positively affects reliability, personification, and perceptual openness; in terms of possibility, it positively affects typicality, personification, and perceptual openness; and in terms of reinforcement, it positively affects reliability and perceptual openness. Second, examining the impact of service quality on recommendation intention positively affects reliability, personification, and perceptual openness. Third, exercise continuation intention positively affects recommendation intention.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: periodontal disease; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; exercise; clinical trial; oral microbiota; saliva components
Online: 14 January 2021 (13:13:47 CET)
Exercise can be hypothesized to play an important role in NAFLD treatment by changing the oral bacterial flora and in the mechanism underlying periodontal disease. We performed salivary component analysis before and after an exercise regimen, and genome analysis of the oral bacterial flora to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Obese middle-aged men with NAFLD and periodontal disease were allocated to 12-week exercise (n=49) or dietary restriction (n=21) groups. We collected saliva to compare the oral microflora; performed predictive analysis of metagenomic functions; and measured the salivary immunoglobulin A, cytokine, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lactoferrin concentrations. The exercise group showed improvements in clinical indices of oral environment. Salivary component analysis revealed significant reductions in LPS, and lactoferrin during the exercise regimen. Diversity analysis of oral bacterial flora revealed higher alpha- and beta-diversity after the exercise regimen. Analysis of the microbial composition revealed that the numbers of Campylobacter (+83.9%), Corynebacterium (+142.3%), Actinomyces (+75.9%), and Lautropia (+172.9%) were significantly higher and that of Prevotella (−28.3%) was significantly lower. The findings suggest that an exercise regimen improves the oral environment of NAFLD patients by increasing the diversity of the oral microflora and reducing the number of periodontal bacteria that produce LPS and its capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0068.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: wearable device; physical activity; behavior; COVID-19; pandemic; exercise habits; analysis; objectively-measured physical activity
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:49:56 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in government restrictions that altered the lifestyle of people worldwide. Studying the impact of these restrictions on exercise behaviors will improve our understanding of environmental factors that influence individuals’ PA. We conducted a retrospective analysis using an index of government pandemic stringency developed by Oxford and a wearable device for runners to compare strictness of lockdowns and exercise habits, using digitally-logged PA data from more than 7,000 runners on a global scale. Additionally, time-of-day of PA globally and levels of PA in 14 countries are compared between the pre-pandemic year of 2019 and the first pandemic year of 2020. We found that during the pandemic the time-of-day that people exercised experienced a major shift, with significantly more activities logged during standard working hours on workdays (p<0.001) and fewer during the same time frame on weekends (p<0.001). Of the countries examined, Italy and Spain had among the most strict lockdowns and suffered the largest decreases in activity counts, whereas France experienced a minimal decrease in activity counts despite enacting a similarly strict lockdown. This study suggests that there are several factors affecting PA, including government policy, workplace policy, and cultural norms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0306.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Fear of missing out; FoMO; social media; Social networking sites; addiction; depression; anxiety; sleep; exercise
Online: 29 April 2022 (13:50:46 CEST)
The fear of missing out (FoMO) is characterized in the literature as a fear that others are having rewarding experiences while one is missing out, and a constant need to keep connected with one’s social network. Driven by Social Determination Theory (SDT) FoMO has been linked with Problematic Social Networking Sites use (PSNSU), negative affectivity (NA), self-esteem (SE) and sleep disturbances. The present study reports findings from 512 individuals (79.1% women, mean age 30.5 years, SD= 8.61). Structural equation modelling (SEM) suggests that the duration of SNSs use and the numbers of SNSs platforms actively used partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and PSNSU. In turns, PSNSU partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA. Furthermore, the present study has extended the literature by incorporating the Vulnerability Model in the FoMO concept, identifying that SE partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA, while NA fully mediated the relationship between FoMO and sleeping disturbances. Accordingly, the present has extended previous research findings in showing exercise as a potential protective factor to prevent against FoMO. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: low intensity exercise; intestine; sodium-dependent glucose transporter; glucose transporter 2; glucagon like peptide 2
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:48:02 CEST)
Exercise affects various organs. However, its effects on nutrient digestion and absorption in the intestinal tract are not well understood. A few studies have reported that exercise training in-creases the expression of carbohydrate digestion and absorption molecules. Exercise was also shown to increase the concentration of blood glucagon like peptide-2(GLP-2), which regulates carbohydrate digestion and absorption in small intestinal epithelium. Therefore, we investigated the effects of exercise on intestinal digestion and absorption molecules and the levels of GLP-2. 6-wk-old of male mice were divided into 2 groups; sedentary (SED) and low-intensity exercise (LEx). LEx mice were required to run on a treadmill (12.5 m/min, 60 min), whereas SED mice rested. All mice were euthanized 1 h after exercise or rest and plasma, jejunum, ileum, and colon were sampled. Samples were analyzed using EIA and immunoblotting. The levels of plasma GLP-2 and the expression of the GLP-2 receptor, sucrase-isomaltase (SI), and glucose transporter (GLUT2) in the jejunum were increased in LEx group. We showed that acute low-intensity exer-cise affects the intestinal carbohydrate digestion and absorption molecules via GLP-2. Our results suggest that exercise might provide new benefits to the small intestine for people with intestinal frailty.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0299.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Lactate Shuttle; Lactate; Exercise; Postabsorptive Metabolism; Postprandial Metabolism; Gene Adaptation; Muscle; Fiber Type; Gluconeogenesis; Glycogenolysis
Online: 13 September 2020 (16:31:28 CEST)
After a Century it is time to turn the page on understanding of lactate metabolism and appreciate that lactate shuttling as an important component of intermediary metabolism in vivo. Cell-Cell and intracellular Lactate Shuttles fulfill purposes of energy substrate production and distribution as well as cell signaling under fully aerobic conditions. Recognition of lactate shuttling came first in studies of physical exercise where roles of driver and recipient cells and tissues were obvious. Moreover, the presence of lactate shuttling as part of postprandial glucose disposal has been recognized. Mitochondrial respiration creates the physiological sink for lactate disposal in vivo. Repeated lactate exposure from regular exercise results in adaptive processes such as mitochondrial biogenesis and other healthful circulatory and neurological characteristic such as improved physical work capacity, metabolic flexibility and cognition. The importance of lactate and lactate shuttling in healthful living is further emphasized when lactate signaling and shuttling are dysregulated as occur in illness and injury. Like a Phoenix, lactate rises again in importance in 21st Century Biology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0076.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: low-income Hispanics; type 2 diabetes; diet and exercise intervention; older adults; Health Belief Model
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:45:46 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to present the challenges faced when implementing a diet and exercise intervention for low-income older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes with an observational study of recruitment, attendance, and characteristics of Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes in a community congregate meal site pre and post administration of a diet and exercise intervention. This report evaluates retentions and diabetes self-management beliefs Hispanic adults ≥60 years with type 2 diabetes (n=17) at baseline, and completion of the six-month intervention in terms of the Health Belief Model. There was limited interest in controlling diabetes with diet and exercise. Major barriers included lack of perceived vulnerability to diabetes complications and a belief that medication alone is sufficient to stabilize blood glucose. Environmental barriers included lack of transportation, access to exercise groups, access grocery stores, and limited ability to pay for healthy foods. A lesson learned from this intervention was that the diet and exercise intervention given was insufficient as a cue to action for this population interventions to engage low-income, older Hispanics with diabetes in diet and exercise need to consider strategies to overcome barriers such as health beliefs, transportation issues, lack of access to nutritious food and group exercise classes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Multiple myeloma; myeloma bone disease; pathophysiology; osteolysis; imaging; zoledronic acid; denosumab; vertebral augmentation; rehabilitation; exercise
Online: 5 July 2020 (04:19:18 CEST)
The lytic bone disease is a hallmark of multiple myeloma, being present in about 80% of patients with newly diagnosed MM, and in more during the disease course. The myeloma associated bone disease (MBD) severely affects the morbidity and quality of life of the patients. MBD defines treatment demanding MM. In recent years, knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology has increased, and novel imaging technologies, medical and non-pharmaceutical treatments have improved. In this review, we highlight the major achievements in understanding, diagnosing and treating MBD. For diagnosing MBD, low-dose whole-body CT is now recommended over conventional skeletal survey, but also more advanced functional imaging modalities, such as diffusion-weighted MRI and PET/CT are increasingly important in the assessment and monitoring of MBD. Bisphosphonates have, for many years, played a key role in management of MBD, but denosumab is now an alternative to bisphosphonates, especially in patients with renal impairment. Radiotherapy is used for uncontrolled pain, for impeding fractures and in treatment of impeding or symptomatic spinal cord compression. Cement augmentation has been shown to reduce pain from vertebral compression fractures. Cautious exercise programs are safe and feasible and may have the potential to improve the status of patients with MM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0495.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: appetite; energy intake; appetite-related hormones; energy balance; exercise; physical activity; energy compensation; weight control
Online: 25 July 2018 (16:20:17 CEST)
Exercise facilitates weight control, partly through effects on appetite regulation. Single bouts of exercise induce a short-term energy deficit without stimulating compensatory effects on appetite, whilst limited evidence suggests that exercise training may modify subjective and homeostatic mediators of appetite in directions associated with enhanced meal-induced satiety. However, large variability in responses exists between individuals. This article reviews the evidence relating to how adiposity, sex and habitual physical activity modulate exercise-induced appetite, energy intake and appetite-related hormone responses. The balance of evidence suggests that adiposity and sex do not modify appetite or energy intake responses to acute or chronic exercise interventions, but individuals with higher habitual physical activity levels may better adjust energy intake in response to energy balance perturbations. The effect of these individual characteristics and behaviours on appetite-related hormone responses to exercise remains equivocal. These findings support the continued promotion of exercise as a strategy for inducing short-term energy deficits irrespective of adiposity and sex, as well as the ability of exercise to positively influence energy balance over the longer term. Future well-controlled studies are required to further ascertain potential mediators of appetite responses to exercise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Blood Pressure; Rope Exercise; physical activity; Lifestyle Modification; Adolescents; BMI; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factors; Academic Performance
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
There are evidences of shared biological mechanisms between obesity and hypertension during childhood in the adulthood, and loads of research literatures have proven that, it will cost the economies and health of nations profoundly if neglected. The Prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and hypertension is an essential strategy for control, effective treatment and prevention of its’ complications. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of school based Exercise and Life style Motivation Intervention (SEAL-MI) on adolescent's cardiovascular risk factors and academic performance. An experimental study was conducted among 1005 adolescents - 520 and 485 adolescents were randomly selected for control and study group, respectively. Demographic details and the data related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep quality were collected by a structured interview questionnaire. The study group adolescents were given the SEAL-MI for six months which includes a school based rope exercise for 45 minutes per day for 5 days a week and a motivation intervention related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep. Post-test 1 and 2 were done after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was 28.73% and prehypertension was 9.26%. Among overweight adolescents, the prevalence of prehypertension was found to be very high (32.25%). In post intervention, there was a significant reduction in weight, BP (p=0.000) and improvement in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep (p=0.000) and academic performance. A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and SBP (p=0.000) and BMI and academic performance (p=0.003). The linear regression analyses revealed that the gender (ß: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81), age (ß: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.46), family income (ß: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.5), residence (ß: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and type of family (ß: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.02) had the strongest correlate with the BMI of the adolescents. Also, Mother’s education Mother’s education (ß: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.59) had the strongest correlate with the SBP of the adolescents. In contrast, the DBP was negatively persuaded by age (ß: -0.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 0.29) and gender (ß: -0.26, 95% CI: 1.34, 0.12) of the adolescents. Regular practice of rope exercise and lifestyle modification such as diet, physical activity and sleep quality among adolescents prevent and control childhood CVD risk factors like overweight, hypertension. The SEAL-MI may lead to age appropriate development of adolescents and improves their academic performance and quality of life. Giving importance to the adolescents from urban habitat, from affluent nuclear family and catching them young will bring significant change in the disease burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: cancer, cancer survivor, exercise, athletes, competition, long-term effects, late effects, living with and beyond cancer
Online: 31 May 2021 (14:02:13 CEST)
Athletes living with and beyond cancer can continue to train and, in some cases, compete during treatment. Following cancer treatment, athletes can return to competitive sport but need to learn to adapt their physical strength and training to lingering effects of cancer. It is critical for oncology healthcare providers to use the principles of assess, refer and advise to exercise oncology programs that are appropriate for the individual. Managing side effects of treatment is key to being able to train during and immediately following cancer treatment. Keen attention to fatigue is important at any point in the cancer spectrum to avoid overtraining and optimize the effects of training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0257.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Schizophrenia, cognitive dysfunction, neural plasticity, inflammation, cognitive biomarker, pharmacological treatment, cognitive remediation, aerobic exercise, brain stimulation
Online: 12 May 2021 (07:26:36 CEST)
Pervasive and wide-ranging cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia and an important determinant of long-term functional outcome. The lack of sufficiently effective treatments for cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) represents a major unmet need and a central roadblock towards recovery. This is partly due to the current therapeutic focus on clinical symptoms, and the relative neglect of cognitive impairments despite their functionally disabling effects. Furthermore, effective treatment is impeded by our limited knowledge of the complex pathophysiology, which gives rise to perturbed information processing. Here, we review mechanisms and effectiveness of available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CIAS. Current evidence indicates, that while techniques which broadly enhance neural plasticity show the greatest therapeutic potential, effect sizes are at best moderate. Among other reasons, this is due to a considerable heterogeneity of responses to individual interventions. Furthermore, we discuss how recent conceptual advances in operationalizing cognitive impairments based on cognitive neuroscience have the potential to address these issues and facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies for CIAS. This includes more clearly elucidating pathophysiological mechanisms in both humans and animal models, identifying new treatment targets as well as establishing biomarkers for a better prediction of treatment responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0268.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Keywords Exercise; osteoarthritis; osteoporosis; mesenchymal stem cells; hematopoietic stem cells; stem cell transplantation; chondroblasts; chondrocytes; cytokines.
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:00:10 CET)
Abstract: This article provides a brief review of the ontogeny of chondrocytes and the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA), and details how physical exercise improves the health of osteoarthritic joints and enhances the potential of mesenchymal stem cells for successful transplantation therapy. In response to exercise chondrocytes increase their production of glycosaminoglycans, bone morphogenic proteins and antiinflammatory cytokines and decrease their production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading metalloproteinases. These changes are associated with improvements in cartilage organization and reductions in cartilage degeneration. Studies in humans indicate that exercise increases peripheral blood recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) and upregulates BM-MSC expression of osteogenic and chondrogenic genes, osteogenic micro-RNAs, and osteogenic growth factors. Rodent experiments are uniform in demonstrating that exercise enhances the osteogenic potential of BM-MSC while diminishing their adipogenic potential, and that exercise done after stem cell implantation may benefit stem cell transplant viability. Physical exercise also exerts a beneficial effect on the skeletal system by decreasing immune cell production of osteoclastogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (INF)-γ while increasing their production anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. In conclusion, physical exercise done both by stem cell donors and recipients may improve the outcome of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: PGC-1α; exercise; metabolism; epigenetics; histone modification; DNA methylation; micro RNA; gene regulation; thermogenesis; metabolic diseases
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:23:31 CEST)
Epigenetic changes are a hallmark of short- and long-term transcriptional regulation, and hence instrumental in the control of cellular identity and plasticity. Epigenetic mechanisms leading to changes in chromatin structure, accessibility for recruitment of transcriptional complexes, and interaction of enhancers and promoters all contribute to acute and chronic adaptations of cells, tissues and organs to internal and external perturbations. Similarly, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is activated by stimuli that alter the cellular energetic demand, and subsequently controls complex transcriptional networks responsible for cellular plasticity. It thus is of no surprise that PGC-1α is under the control of epigenetic mechanisms, and constitutes a mediator of epigenetic changes in various tissues and contexts. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the link between epigenetics and PGC-1α in health and disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: antioxidants; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; type 2 diabetes; pediatrics; redox; glycemic control; exercise; vitamin E; glutathione
Online: 19 January 2023 (15:10:23 CET)
The worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prediabetes is rapidly increasing, particularly in children, adolescents, and young adults. Oxidative stress (OxS) has emerged as a likely initiating factor in T2D. The role of natural antioxidant products in combating T2D is best evaluated in the context of the complex physiological processes that modulate T2D-OxS such as glycemic control and exercise. The role of natural antioxidant compounds such as vitamin E in T2D must likewise be considered beyond their roles as inhibitors of OxS. In addition to antioxidant properties, vitamin E vitamers (tocopherols and tocotrienols) also exhibit distinct abilities to regulate cellular signal transduction pathways important to T2D progression. Most research on the role of vitamin E in T2D or prediabetes has been limited to tocopherols (Ts) but emerging trials with tocotrienols (T3s) show promise. Minimizing factors that induce chronic damaging OxS and maximizing natural antioxidant protective factors may provide a means of preventing or slowing T2D progression. This “optimal redox” (OptRedox) approach also provides a framework in which to discuss the potential benefits of natural antioxidant factors such as antioxidant products. Since early, effective intervention is critical, the OptRedox strategy would be optimally effective if implemented in the pediatric population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0141.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: low back pain; women; exercise; physical activity; health education; Oswestry Disability Index; Back Pain Functional Scale; ergonomics
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:07:50 CEST)
Back pain is a common symptom that affects all age groups across the globe, when left untreated may eventually lead to disability. A convenient sample selection method was used in this study due to the global Covid-19 pandemic lockdown which was effective in Turkey during the investigation period. Thus, virtual data collection and health education including some health risks were employed. A total population of two hundred adult women was involved in the study but one hundred and twenty-one responses were collected. Findings show that, for socio-demographic characteristics, the pain was found highest in women between the ages of 41-50 and obese/overweight individuals. Although, there was no significant difference recorded in the marital status category. Moreover, statistical mean differences were detected between the scales for ODI (4.18) and BPFS (6.09). Also, p<0.05, paired sample t-test was 0.001 ODI and 0.001 BPFS after the training exercise. This suggests that exercise training is inversely correlated with pain severity which implies that training has a significant influence on pain intensity. Thus, it could be concluded that there is a relationship between the training exercise and ODI/BPFS.