REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0052.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; child development; dog bites; dog-borne zoonoses; dog ownership; dog welfare; human-animal interactions
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:13:49 CEST)
Our wellbeing is greatly influenced by our childhood and adolescence, and the relationships that we form during those phases of our development. The human-dog bond started thousands of years ago. The higher prevalence of dog ownership around the world, especially in households including children along with the growing number of people studying dogs most likely explain the growing literature focusing on child-dog interactions. We review the potential effects of child-dog interactions on the physical, mental, and social wellbeing of both species. A scoping search of the SCOPUS database found several hundred documents meeting selection criteria. It allowed us to define the numerous ways in which children and dogs can interact, be it neutral (e.g., sharing a common area), positive (e.g., petting), or negative (e.g., biting). Then, we found evidence for an association between interacting with dogs during childhood and an array of health and mental benefits like stress relief and the development of empathy. Walking a dog and playing with one are perfect physical activity opportunities. Additionally, interacting with a dog can help lower stress and may have a role in the development of empathy. Nonetheless, a number of detrimental outcomes have also been identified in both humans and dogs. Children are the most at-risk population regarding dog bites and dog-borne zoonoses, which may lead to a subsequent fear of dogs or even death. Moreover, pet bereavement is generally inevitable when living with a canine companion and should not be trivialized. In terms of dogs, children sometimes take part in caretaking behaviors toward them which include going on walks. They are opportunities for dogs to relieve themselves outside, but also to exercise and socialize. In contrast, a lack of physical activity can lead to the onset of obesity. Dogs may present greater levels of stress when in the presence of children. Finally, the welfare of assistance, therapy, and free-roaming dogs remains underexplored. Overall, the study of the effects, positive as well as negative, on both species still requires further development. We call for more longitudinal studies and hope for cross-cultural research in the future in order to better understand the impact child-dog interactions might have.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0715.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dog; ehrlichiosis; ELISA; Tick-borne; TRP19; TRP36
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:38:27 CEST)
Tandem repeat proteins of 36 kDa (TRP36) are major immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis, which have been used in the serological diagnosis of different genotypes of the microorganism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the American (USTRP36), Brazilian (BrTRP36) and Costa Rican (CRTRP36) genotypes of E. canis in Brazil, using ELISA assays. Serum samples of 815 dogs from 49 cities from all over Brazil were analyzed. Our results showed that 33.9% of the samples were reactive to the USTRP36 genotype and 32.6% to the BrTRP36 genotype. The two genotypes appeared to occur equally throughout Brazil, although the frequency of seropositivity was lower in the south than in the country’s other regions. Co-positivity for the American and Brazilian genotypes was also observed in 16% of samples. A few dogs (n=5; 0.6%) reactive to E. canis-TRP36 genotype (CRTRP36) were also detected in the northeast and southern regions. We conclude that the American and Brazilian genotypes of E. canis are distributed evenly in Brazil, especially in the tropical region, while the temperate region in the south presented the lowest prevalence values. This study offers the first report of dogs seropositive for the Costa Rican genotype in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0080.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: One Health; shelter dog; dog adoption; dog well-being; dog behavior
Online: 6 May 2022 (13:55:36 CEST)
Today, the kennel is considered one of the crucial concerns of the human-animal relationship, since it is very often regarded as animal dump where dogs exile, thus representing a burden on society. Therefore, drawing up strategies for a new “kennel conception”, as an added value for human society, environment, and dogs is still an unmet need. Here, we described the activities of a shelter dog in southern Italy, which faithfully meets criteria aimed at One Health perspective. It normally relies on an initial careful assessment by veterinary behaviorist, in order to guarantee the most suitable life conditions for the animals in the kennels, increase the chances of adoption and enroll them in projects tailored to their predispositions. Accordingly, dogs housed there are normally included in training courses to increase the skills to be used in different human social contexts, like support to the inmates, rescue in the rubble, animal-assisted interventions, as well as zooanthropology educational programs. The main strength for this groundbreaking shelter relies on the environmental protection schedule, where the purposes, employing technically and economically sustainable tools, point towards the continuous improvement and minimization of the environmental impact, promoting joint integrative projects for a sustainable One Health framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: dog-mediated rabies; transects; dog ownership; mass dog vaccination
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:59:58 CEST)
Estimates of dog population sizes are a prerequisite for delivering effective canine rabies control. However, dog population sizes are generally unknown in most rabies-endemic areas. Several approaches have been used to estimate dog populations but without rigorous evaluation. We compare post-vaccination transects, household surveys and school-based surveys to determine which most precisely estimates dog population sizes. These methods were implemented across 28 districts in southeast Tanzania, in conjunction with mass dog vaccinations, covering a range of settings, livelihoods and religious backgrounds. Transects were the most precise method, revealing highly variable patterns of dog ownership, with human: dog ratios ranging from 12.4:1 to 181.3:1 across districts. Both household and school-based surveys generated imprecise and sometimes inaccurate estimates, possible due to low sample size. Transect data were subsequently used to develop a predictive model for estimating dog populations in districts lacking transect data. We predicted a dog population of 2,316,000 (95% CI 1,573,000-3,122,000) in Tanzania and an average human: dog ratio of 20.7:1. Our modelling approach has the potential be applied to predicting dog population size in other districts where mass dog vaccination is carried out, given census and livelihood data. We recommend transects as a rapid and effective method to refine dog population estimates across large geographic areas and guide dog vaccination programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0821.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antioxidant; cryopreservation; dog; resveratrol; sperm
Online: 31 December 2020 (15:31:06 CET)
Antioxidants have multiple protective roles in cells and can be used as a supplement to protect cells against cryopreservation-induced detrimental effects, including protecting sperm fertility quality. The antioxidant resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene; RSV) has been shown to be a protective supplement for the cryopreservation of animal sperm, including human sperm. In this study, we assessed the effect of RSV supplementation on canine sperm cryopreservation. Semen was collected from four dogs and the effect of different concentrations of RSV (0, 100, 200, and 400 µM) on post-thaw quality of sperm was examined. After thawing, sperm motility was assessed using computer aided sperm analysis, and the structural integrity of the plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin were examined, as well as mitochondrial activity and gene expression were assessed. Dog sperm cryopreserved with 200 µM RSV showed significant improvement in motility and viability following thawing compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, RSV-supplemented samples showed significantly higher numbers of sperm with an intact plasma membrane, active mitochondria, and structural integrity of acrosomes and chromatin than that of control samples (p < 0.05). Furthermore, gene expression showed that RSV supplemented samples showed lower expression of pro-apoptotic (BAX) oxidative stress-related (ROMO1) and oxidative induced DNA damage repair (OGG1) whereas higher expression levels of anti‐apoptotic (BCL2) protamine-2 (PRM2), protamine-3 (PRM3) and sperm acrosome‐associated (SPACA3) genes than control. Our results suggest that RSV, at its optimum concentration, can be efficiently used as an alternative antioxidant in the cryopreservation of dog sperm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0061.v3
Online: 2 February 2018 (07:27:47 CET)
While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analysed advertisements (ads) on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats, gumtree.com.au. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on February 7, 16 and 24, 2016 and cats on February 9, 19 and 26, 2016 with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on gumtree.com.au per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using gumtree.com.au. The dog owners used gumtree.com.au because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4), and; they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). For cat owners it was because they had originally got the cat on gumtree.com.au (n = 2); they use gumtree.com.au for other things, and it works (n = 2), and; they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). The data collected will be valuable for implementation of policy and interventions to protect the welfare of un-wanted dogs and cats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: intestinal organoids; dog; practical applications
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:38:04 CEST)
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since organoids can be grown from various species, organs and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they create significant prospects for modelling development and diseases, for toxicology and drug discovery studies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report on intestinal stem cells, organoid culture, organoid disease modeling, transplantation, current and future uses of this exciting new insight model to veterinary medicine field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: canine vector-borne diseases; mosquito-borne diseases; dirofilariosis; ehrlichiosis; leishmaniosis; dogs; multi-modal prophylaxis; Corsica
Online: 8 July 2020 (12:03:53 CEST)
With a mild Mediterranean-type climate, Corsica is endemic for canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) such as dirofilariosis (a mosquitoes borne-diseases: MBDs), leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis. The aim of this present study was to evaluate a monthly multi-modal prophylactic strategy (MMP) against CVBDs occurring in Corsica. The study was conducted as a comparative field trial in which eighty dogs allocated into two groups were included: (i) Group 1 consisted of 25 dogs under the MMP [per-os administration of 1.5 tablet of milbemycine oxime-praziquantel and a topical line-on application of a 3.6 mL solution of dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen] and (ii) Group 2 under various real-life prophylactic treatment (RLP) based on the use of ectoparasiticide products [different formulations: deltamethrin, fluralaner, fipronil] and/or macrocyclic lactones based-products [milbemycin oxime/praziquantel, milbemycin oxime, moxidectin] during the period ranging from June to October 2017. All animals were followed for one year and had blood drawn at day 0, followed by follow-up at 6 and 12 months. Samples were screened for filariosis using molecular tools as well as for leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). At the end of the study, no new cases of CVBDs were recorded within Group 1. In Group 2, the cumulative incidence of CVBDs was 20.0% (n= 11; p= 0.015) including dirofilarioses due to Dirofilaria immitis and/or D. repens, with 16.4% (n= 9; p=0.027). Ehrlichiosis was 5.5% (n= 3; p=0.241). No new cases of leishmaniosis were detected in Group 2. The data illustrated that, unlike the RLP treatment which failed to protect at least 20% of dogs, the MMP based on the concurrent administration of milbemycine oxime-praziquantel and dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen is efficient to protect dogs against CVBDs in a high-risk area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: MicroRNAs; next generation sequencing; dog; melanoma
Online: 27 August 2019 (16:16:55 CEST)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation contribute the cancer pathogenesis. However, the miRNA profile of canine oral melanoma (COM), one of the frequent malignant melanoma in dog is still unrevealed. The aim of this study is to reveal the miRNA profile in canine oral melanoma. MicroRNAs profile of oral tissues from normal healthy dogs and COM patients were compared by next-generation sequencing. Along with tumour suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs), we report 30 oncogenic miRNAs in COM. Expression of miRNAs were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway analysis showed that deregulated miRNAs impact on cancer and signalling pathways. Three oncogenic miRNAs targets (miR-450b, 301a, and 223) from human study also were down-regulated in COM and had significant negative co-relation with their respective miRNA. Furthermore, we found that miR-450b expression is higher in metastatic cells and regulated MMP9 expression through a PAX9-BMP4-MMP9 axis. In silico analysis indicated that miR-126, miR-20b, and miR-106a regulated the highest numbers of differentially expressed transcription factors in respect to human melanoma. Chromosomal enrichment analysis revealed the X chromosome was enriched with oncogenic miRNAs. We comprehensively analyzed the miRNA’s profile in COM which will be a useful resource for developing therapeutic interventions in both species.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis; tick; Serbia; Switzerland; fatal
Online: 2 December 2022 (07:14:48 CET)
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is vaccine-preventable neglected zoonotic neuroinvasive disease, caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Many of the Central and Eastern European countries are affected by TBE, which is often poorly perceived by tourists visiting endemic territories. Here we are reporting a fatal case of imported TBE in Serbian resident who was exposed to tick bite during a visit to Switzerland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis; vaccination; NS1; vaccine; flavivirus
Online: 11 February 2020 (09:10:41 CET)
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is based on the use of formalin-inactivated, culture-derived whole-virus vaccines. Immune response following vaccination is primarily directed to the viral envelope (E) protein, the major viral surface antigen. In Europe, two TBE vaccines are available in adult and pediatric formulations, FSME-IMMUN® (Pfizer) and Encepur® (GlaxoSmithKline). Herein, we analyzed the content of these vaccines using mass spectrometry (MS). The MS analysis revealed that the Encepur vaccine contains not only proteins of the whole virus particle, but also viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1). MS analysis of the FSME-IMMUN vaccine failed due to the high content of human serum albumin used as a stabilizer in the vaccine. However, the presence of NS1 in FSME-IMMUN was confirmed by immunization of mice with six doses of this vaccine, which led to a robust anti-NS1 antibody response. NS1-specific western blot analysis detected anti-NS1 antibodies also in sera of humans who received multiple doses of either of these two vaccines; however, most vaccinees who received ≤3 doses were negative for NS1-specific antibodies. The contribution of NS1-specific antibodies to protection against TBE was demonstrated by immunization of mice with purified NS1 antigen, which led to a significant (p < 0.01) prolongation of the mean survival time after lethal virus challenge. This indicates that stimulation of anti-NS1 immunity by the TBE vaccines may increase their protective effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0370.v1
Online: 22 December 2021 (14:13:55 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of DìRelaxTM, a nutraceutical formulated to reduce anxiety in dogs. The CBARQ questionnaire, some clinical investigations, and the impossible task test were performed in dogs before and after the treatment. Results showed an ameliorative effect on the performances of treated dogs during the solvable phases, with a significant decrease of the time needed to solve the task. No behavioral difference was found between treated and untreated anxious dogs during the unsolvable phase. According to the results from the C-BARQ questionnaire, some of the behaviors appear improved. In general, this study suggests that DiRelaxTM can be safely administered with no adverse effects and can exercise a beneficial effect on anxious dogs by enhancing their cognitive abilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0302.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: overimitation; dogs; affiliation; relationship; dog-human interaction
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:07:01 CET)
Overimitation, the copying of causally irrelevant or non-functional actions, is well-known from humans but completely absent in other primates. Recent studies from our lab have provided evidence for overimitation in canines. Previously, we found that half of tested pet dogs copied their human caregiver's irrelevant action, while only few did so when the action was demonstrated by an unfamiliar experimenter. Therefore, we hypothesized that dogs show overimitation as a result of socio-motivational grounds. To test this more specifically, here we investigated how the relationship with the caregiver influenced the eagerness to overimitate. Given the high variability in the tendency to overimitate their caregiver, we hypothesized that not only familiarity, but also relationship quality influences whether dogs faithfully copy their caregiver. For this purpose, we measured on the one hand the overimitation tendency (with the same test as in the two studies before) and on the other hand the relationship quality between the dogs and their caregivers. Although not significant, results revealed that dogs who overimitated seemed to show more referential and affiliative behaviours towards the owner (like gazing, synchronization and greeting) than dogs who showed less or no copying of the irrelevant action. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0197.v1
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:53:05 CET)
Gelatinization of starch content in pet foods can be impacted by several factors including moisture, retention time, and ingredients used. Starch gelatinization has been associated with digestibility but isn’t well studied using ingredients common in non-traditional canine diets. The objective of this research was to examine the impacts of dietary ingredient profile (traditional vs non-traditional) and assess impacts to total starch content and starch gelatinization. Traditional diets (n = 10) utilizing meat-based ingredients including chicken, chicken by-product meal, meat and bone meal and plant-based ingredients including rice, barley, oats, and corn were examined in comparison with non-traditional diets (n = 10) utilizing meat-based ingredients including alligator, buffalo, venison, kangaroo, squid, quail, rabbit, rabbit and salmon along with plant-based ingredients including tapioca, peas, chickpeas, lentils, potato, and pumpkin. Representative samples were collected via grab sample technique (5 samples/diet) and were assessed for total starch content as well as percent starch gelatinization. Difference between ingredient type was assessed using a Students t-test in SAS 9.4. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Distribution of total starch content based on ingredient type (traditional vs non-traditional) revealed that mean total starch content was higher in traditional diets as compared to non-traditional diets (P <0.0001). Conversely, starch gelatinization was found to be higher in non-traditional diets (P < 0.0001). Total starch content and total gelatinized starch had a strong negative correlation (P < 0.01) in traditional diets, though no correlation was observed in non-traditional diets. This negative correlation indicates a decrease in total gelatinized starch associated with increased total starch content. These novel data reveal important differences between starch content and gelatinization and could impact manufacturing processes for ingredient types as well as feeding recommendations. Unpredicted variation between ingredient formulations could potentially lead to decreased digestibility and absorption and may result in nutrient deficiencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: dog; ST131; ESBL; fecal colonization; Escherichia coli
Online: 18 September 2020 (07:15:23 CEST)
Background: Most drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in dogs come from diseased dogs. Prior to this study, the prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage drug-resistant E. coli and epidemic clone sequence type (ST) 131 (including subtypes) isolates in dogs were unknown. Methods: Rectal swabs were used for E. coli isolation from 299 dogs in a veterinary teaching hospital in Taiwan. Antibiotic resistance and multiplex PCR analyses of E. coli for major STs were performed. Result: There were 43.1% cefazolin-resistant, 22.1% fluoroquinolone-resistant, and 9.4% extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli in our cohort. In the phylogenetic study, B2 was the predominant group (30.1%). The cefazolin-resistant group and ciprofloxacin-resistant group had greater antibiotic exposure in the last 14 days (P < 0.05). The age, sex, and dietary habits of the antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible groups were similar. In the seven isolates of ST131 in fecal colonization, the most predominant subtypes were FimH41 and FimH22. Conclusion: Recent antibiotic exposure was related to the fecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates. Three major subtypes (FimH41, H22, and H30) of ST131 can thus be found in fecal carriage in dogs in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0082.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: dog; prostatic tissue; extracellular matrix; picrosirius; immunohistochemistry
Online: 21 February 2019 (06:52:00 CET)
This study aimed to investigate Coll-I, III, IV and elastin in canine normal prostate and PC, using Picrosirius red (PSR) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Eight normal prostates and 10 PC from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were used. Collagen fibers area was analyzed with ImageJ software. The distribution of Coll-I and Coll-III was approximately 80% around prostatic ducts and acini, 15% among smooth muscle and 5% surrounding blood vessels, in both normal prostate and PC. There was a higher median area of Coll-III in PC, when compared to normal prostatic tissue (p=0.001 for PSR and p= 0.05 for IHC). Immunostaining for Coll-IV was observed in the basal membrane of prostate acini, smooth muscle, blood vessels, and nerve fibers of normal and PC samples. Although there was no difference in Coll-IV area between normal tissue and PC, tumors with Gleason score 10 showed absence of Coll-IV, when compared to scores 6 and 8 (p=0.0095). Elastic fibers were found in the septa dividing the lobules and around the prostatic acini of normal samples, and was statistically higher in PC, compared to normal tissue (p=0.00229). Investigation of ECM components brings new information and should be correlated with prognosis in future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0606.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: virology; emerging viruses; vector-borne diseases; climate change
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:49:40 CET)
Three decades have now passed since the first papers linking climate change to issues in human disease and healthcare. One of the most active topics in this area has been the implication of climate change events, particularly temperature and humidity fluctuations, in the northward spread of vector-borne viruses from more tropical regions into Europe and North America. However, some detailed studies of one such emerging disease, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEv), have called the connection into question, concentrating the debate on the investigation of precise mechanisms for the spread of viral disease. More recently, firmer statistical correlations have been made between climate variables, the presence of insect vectors and the prevalence of viral disease, particularly for West Nile Virus (WNV). These insights suggest avenues for mechanistic confirmation of the involvement of climate change in other diseases where the connection remains conjectural.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0103.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: beta-lactamase; cephalosporin; cefotaxime; transconjugation; plasmid-borne resistance
Online: 9 October 2019 (11:03:44 CEST)
Clinical pathogens especially Gram-negative bacteria developing resistance to third-generation cephalosporins are making the clinical outcome more complicated and serious. This study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Tamil Nadu regions in India. For this study, clinical samples were collected from five different hospitals located in Tamil Nadu and ESBL producing Gram-negative isolates were characterized. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed using cefotaxime and ceftazidime. The blaESBL producing genes were screened using multiplex PCR for the genes, CTX-M group-1,-2,-8,-9,-26. Conjugation studies were performed using E. coli AB1157 as a recipient for the isolates harbouring plasmid-borne resistance following broth-mating experiment. In total, 1500 samples were collected and 599 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated that included Escherichia coli (n=233), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=182), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=79), Citrobacter spp. (n=30), Proteus mirabilis (n=28), Salmonella spp. (n=21), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=12), Serratia spp. (n=6), Shigella spp. (n=4), Morganella morganii (n=3) and Providencia spp. (n=1). MIC results showed that 358 isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Further, ESBL gene amplification results showed that 19 isolates had CTX-M group-1 gene including E. coli (n=16), K. pneumoniae (n=2) and P. aeruginosa (n=1) whereas one M. morganii isolate had CTX-M group-9 gene in their plasmid. Through conjugation studies, 12/20 isolates were found to be involved in the transformation of its plasmid-borne resistance gene. Our study highlighted the role of horizontal gene transfer in the dissemination of plasmid-borne blaCTX-M resistance genes among ESBL producing isolates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Built Environment, Design Decisions, Vector Borne Diseases, Malaria
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:01:08 CET)
Although significant efforts have been made to combat the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), they still account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were 216 million estimated cases in 2016, which is a 9.3% decrease from the estimated cases reported one decade earlier. It is known that the built environment, through features such as openings, can propagate the spread of malaria. There have been some significant efforts directed at addressing this risk. This notwithstanding, there are some knowledge gaps that have resulted in a missed opportunity for synergistically tackling the problem of vectors through leveraging design decisions made by built environment professionals. This work assesses the extent to which design decisions in the built environment can have a positive impact on the efforts directed at mitigating the risk of malaria based on selected cases from East Africa. Secondary data derived from relevant urban health journals as well as repositories curated by leading health agencies such as WHO were synthesized and analyzed using a web of causation approach. The outcome of the analysis is a schema of primary and secondary source (risk) factors. The use of the web of causation approach revealed the existing factor-to-factor interactions that could have a reinforcing effect. This information was used to identify the critical linkages and interdependencies across different factors. The outcome of the analysis was mapped against risk factors that can be linked to decisions made during the six primary phases of the construction life cycle: preliminary phase, conceptual design, detailed design, construction, facilities management, and end of life/disuse. The findings of the research have established that 1) there is, in fact, a built environment–related opportunity that can be leveraged to advance the impact of malaria mitigation effort; 2) cross-disciplinary synergies are critical to managing the interdependencies and complexity of malaria risk factors that have a reinforcing effect; and 3) a knowledge-management framework that serves as a decision support tool would be valuable for sharing data under a push-and-pull mechanism, in which data shared in real time can address the timeliness of mitigating the spread of malaria at the earliest stages for the greatest impact. Based on the findings, a conceptual architecture for a decision support framework has been proposed. This will be developed into a knowledge-management platform in subsequent efforts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0378.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Yellow fever virus; flavivirus; vector-borne transmission, emergence
Online: 20 July 2018 (05:54:00 CEST)
As revealed by the recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV) activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America, YFV control measures need urgent rethinking. Over the last decade, most reported outbreaks occurred in, or eventually reached, areas of low vaccination coverage but suitable for virus transmission, with an unprecedented risk of expansion to densely populated territories in Africa, South America and Asia. As reflected in the World Health Organization’s initiative launched in 2017, it is high time to strengthen epidemiological surveillance to monitor accurately, viral dissemination and redefine vaccination recommendation areas. Vector-control and immunisation measures need to be adapted and vaccine manufacturing must be reconciled with an increasing demand. We will have to face more YF cases in the upcoming years hence, improving disease management through the development of efficient treatments will prove most beneficial. Undoubtedly, these developments will require in-depth descriptions of YFV biology at molecular, physiological and ecological levels. This second section of the two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at the individual, local and global levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0099.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: yellow fever virus; Flavivirus; vector-borne transmission, emergence
Online: 7 May 2018 (05:19:50 CEST)
The recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV) activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America has sparked renewed interest in this infamous arboviral disease. YFV had been a human plague for centuries prior to the identification of its urban transmission vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito species, and the development of an efficient live-attenuated vaccine, the YF-17D strain. The combination of vector-control measures and vaccination campaigns drastically reduced YFV incidence in humans on many occasions, but the virus never ceased to circulate in the forest, through its sylvatic invertebrate vector(s) and vertebrate host(s). Outbreaks recently reported in Central Africa (2015-2016) and Brazil (since late 2016), reached considerable proportions in terms of spatial distribution and total numbers of cases, with multiple exports, including to China. In turn, questions regarding the likeliness of occurrence of large urban YFV outbreaks in the Americas or of a successful import of YFV to Asia are currently resurfacing. This two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology and transmission dynamics of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at the individual, local and global levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0142.v2
Online: 8 February 2018 (15:21:11 CET)
Since the water-borne iodine excessive goiter was firstly found and reported in 19 in Hebei Province, it was confirmed successively. The national water-borne investigation carried out in 2005 demarcated the water-borne iodine excess areas and water-borne iodine excess endemial areas. The high iodine water well was found In 129 counties of 11 provinces, about 30.98 million people of threatened population lived in water-borne iodine excess areas and water borne iodine excess endemial areas. In these areas, the measures of prevention and control was effectively implemented. In 2016, the new standard of iodine excess area was issued, the iodine excess areas redrawed, and in these areas, non-iodized salt should be supplied and the drinking water should be gradually improved of water, and to control the damage of water-borne iodine excess at an early date
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cat; cutaneous lymphocytosis; dog; immunohistochemistry; lymphoma; PARR; skin
Online: 14 December 2021 (13:01:19 CET)
Cutaneous lymphocytosis (CL) is an uncommon and controversial lymphoproliferative disorder described in dogs and cats. CL is generally characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation and histological features that may overlap with epitheliotropic lymphoma. Therefore, its neoplastic or reactive nature is still debated. Here, we describe clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and clonality features of a retrospective case series of 19 cats and 10 dogs with lesions histologically compatible with CL. In both species, alopecia, erythema and scales were the most frequent clinical signs. Histologically, a dermal infiltrate of small to medium-sized lymphocytes, occasionally extending to the subcutis, was always identified. Conversely, when present, epitheliotropism was generally mild. In cats, the infiltrate was consistently CD3+; in dogs, a mixture of CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes was observed only in 4 cases. The infiltrate was polyclonal in all cats, while BCR and TCR clonal rearrangements were identified in dogs. Overall, cats had a long-term survival (median overall survival=1080 days) regardless of the treatment received, while dogs showed a shorter and variable clinical course, with no evident associations with clinicopathological features. In conclusion, our results support a reactive nature of the disease in cats, associated with prolonged survival; despite a similar histological picture, canine CL was associated with a more heterogeneous lymphocytic infiltrate, clonality results, and response to treatment.
Online: 18 March 2021 (10:56:35 CET)
We report the first detection of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus from a dog in Connecticut during February 2021. Complete genome sequencing and phylo-genetic analysis of the hCoV-19/USA/CT-CVMDL-Dog-1/2021 (CT_Dog/2021) virus were con-ducted to identify the origin and lineage of the virus. The CT_Dog/2021 virus belonged to the GH/B1.2. genetic lineage and was genetically close to SARS-CoV-2 identified from humans in the U.S. during the winter of 2020-2021. However, it was not related to other SARS-CoV-2 identified from companion animals in the U.S. It contained both D614G in spike and P323L in nsp12 substitutions which have become the dominant mutations in the United States. The continued sporadic detections of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals warrant public health concerns about their potential to become a new reservoir species of SARS-CoV-2.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: female dog; cell culture; mammary cancer; veterinary; oncology
Online: 15 April 2020 (07:59:18 CEST)
Mammary neoplasm affects a population of intact and elderly female dogs and 50% are malignant. In order to study this disease, cell culture is as a promising preclinical model, creating the opportunity to deposit cell lines at a cell bank, allowing a great reproducibility of the assays and making the validation of the results more reliable. Another important aspect is the possibility to establish models for better understanding tumour characteristics, such as vasculogenic mimicry. Due the importance of cancer cell lines in preclinical models, this study aimed to establish and characterize primary cell lines from canine mammary gland tumours according to immunophenotype and tumorigenicity, and with its ability to form vasculogenic mimicry-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Cell cultures were evaluated for morphology, phenotype, vasculogenic mimicry and tumorigenicity abilities. We collected 17 primary mammary carcinoma and 3 metastasis and had a satisfactory result in 10 of them. All cell lines presented spindle shape or polygonal morphology and expressed concomitant pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 8/18. Four cell lines had vasculogenic mimicry ability in vitro and two of them showed in vivo tumorigenic potential and forming VM in the xenotransplant tumour. Cell characterization of those lines will help to create a database for more knowledge of mammary carcinomas in dogs, including studies of tumour behaviour and new therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antibody titre; vaccination; dog; canine distemper virus; Jos
Online: 20 September 2016 (10:14:26 CEST)
Determination of antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos North and South local Government Areas of Plateau State was carried out by collection of sera of vaccinated dogs and administration of well-structured questionnaires to dog owners. The samples collected were analyzed using the immune-blot ELISA Kit to determining the antibody titre (immunoglobulin G). It indicated that dogs vaccinated against the disease mounted adequate protective immunity. The result revealed that 54 (90.0%) of the sampled dogs have protective immunity, with those given more than one dose having higher level of protective antibody. Statistically, the result showed that the antibody titre did not differ significantly in relation to immunity and sex, breed, age and location but significant difference was seen in relation to number of primary vaccination. The result also revealed that those dogs that received booster doses (secondary vaccination) had more protective antibody. The study was aimed at evaluating the antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos, Plateau State.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis virus; vaccine; non-structural protein 1
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:48:01 CEST)
The presence of a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccines and the possible induction of an NS1-specific immune response in vaccinated individuals remains a somewhat controversial topic. Previously, we detected the presence of NS1 in Encepur TBE vaccine by mass spectrometry and found the induction of NS1-specific IgG antibodies in mice vaccinated with FSME-Immun TBE vaccine. Here, in this follow-up study, we examined the dynamics and extent of the NS1-specific IgG response in mice vaccinated with these two vaccines in more detail and compared it with the IgG response to the whole virus (WV). Mice were vaccinated at two-week intervals with a total of six doses of each vaccine, and levels of IgG antibodies to TBE virus WV and NS1 were measured by ELISA after each dose. Both vaccines elicited a robust anti-WV IgG response after two doses. The Encepur vaccine did not elicit NS1-specific IgG even after all six doses. In contrast, FSME-Immun vaccine triggered production of NS1-specific IgG after four doses. The results indicate that FSME-Immun is the only vaccine that elicits an NS1-specific antibody response in mice. However, compared to WV-specific IgG, the NS1-specific response is weaker, and a higher number of doses is required to induce detectable levels of NS1-specific IgG antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0087.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Rickettsia parkeri; Rhipicephalus sanguineus; dogs; tick-borne disease; rickettsiosis
Online: 11 April 2022 (03:37:16 CEST)
Of the documented tick-borne diseases infecting humans in Mexico, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the gram-negative bacterium Rickettsia rickettsia, is responsible for most fatalities. Given recent evidence of brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, as an emerging vector of human RMSF, we aimed to evaluate dogs and their ticks for rickettsiae infections as an initial step in assessing the establishment of this pathosystem in a poorly studied region of northeastern Mexico while evaluating the use of dogs as sentinels for transmission/human disease risk. We sampled owned dogs living in six disadvantaged neighborhoods of Reynosa, Northern Mexico to collect whole blood and ticks. Of 168 dogs assessed, tick infestation prevalence was 53%, comprised of exclusively R. sanguineus s. l. (n=2,170 ticks). Using PCR and sequencing, we identified an overall rickettsiae infection prevalence of 4.1% (n=12/292) in ticks, in which eight dogs harbored at least one infected tick. Rickettsiae infections included R. amblyommatis and R. parkeri, both of which are emerging human pathogens, as well as candidatus R. andeanae. This is the first documentation of pathogenic Rickettsia in R. sanguineus s.l. collected on dogs from northeastern Mexico. Domestic dog infestation with Rickettsia-infected ticks indicates ongoing transmission, thus humans are at risk for exposure and underscores the importance of public and veterinary health surveillance for these pathogens.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Coxiella burnetii; Rickettsia; Q fever; rickettsiosis; tick-borne pathogens
Online: 31 March 2020 (09:54:07 CEST)
Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens that can cause febrile illnesses with or without other symptoms in humans but may cause subclinical infections in animals. There are only a few reports on the occurrence of these pathogens in cattle and water buffaloes in Southeast Asia, including the Philippines. In this study, molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. and C. burnetii in the blood and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks of cattle and water buffaloes from five provinces in Luzon Island of the Philippines was done. A total of 620 blood samples of cattle and water buffaloes and 206 tick samples were collected and subjected to DNA extraction. After successful amplification of control genes, nested PCR was performed to detect gltA of Rickettsia and com1 of C. burnetii. No samples were positive for Rickettsia while 10 (cattle – 7, water buffaloes - 3) or 1.6% of blood and 5 or 1.8% of tick samples were C. burnetii-positive. Sequence analysis of the positive amplicons showed 99-100% similarity to reported C. burnetii isolates. This molecular evidence on the occurrence of C. burnetii in Philippine ruminants and cattle ticks and its zoonotic nature should prompt further investigation and surveillance to facilitate its effective control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: synthetic aperture radar (sar); space-borne sar; deceptive jamming
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:49:31 CET)
Due to the advantages such as low power consumption and higher concealment, deceptive jamming against synthetic aperture radar (SAR) receives extensive attention during the past decades. However, the large scene deception jamming is still a challenge because of the huge computing burden. In this paper, we propose a new large scene deceptive jamming algorithm. First, the time-delay and frequency-shift (TDFS) algorithm is introduced to improve the jamming processing speed. The system function of jammer (JSF) for a fake scatter is simplified to the multiplication of the scattering coefficient, a time-delay term in range dimension and a frequency-shift term in azimuth dimension. Then, in order to solve the problem that the effective region of the TDFS algorithm is limited, the scene deceptive jamming template is divided into several blocks according to the SAR parameters and imaging quality control factor. The JSF of each block is calculated by the TDFS algorithm and added together to achieve the large scene jamming. Finally, the correction algorithm in squint mode is derived. The simplification and parallel block processing could improve the calculation efficiency significantly. The simulation results verified the validity of the algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0617.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: refinement; pain; nociceptive threshold; horse; cat; dog; sheep; camel
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:20:22 CEST)
Nociceptive threshold (NT) testing is widely used for the study of pain and its alleviation. The end point is a normal behavioural response which may be affected by restraint or unfamiliar surroundings leading to erroneous data. Remotely controlled thermal and mechanical NT testing systems were developed to allow free movement during testing and were evaluated in cats, dogs, sheep, horses and camels. Thermal threshold (TT) testing incorporated a heater and temperature sensor held against the animal’s shaved skin. Mechanical threshold (MT) testing incorporated a pneumatic actuator attached to a limb containing a 1 - 2mm radiused pin pushed against the skin. Both stimuli were driven from battery powered control units attached on the animal’s back, controlled remotely via infra-red radiation from a hand held component. Threshold reading was held automatically and displayed digitally on the unit. The system was failsafe with a safety cutout at a preset temperature or force as appropriate. The animals accepted the equipment and behaved normally in their home environment enabling recording of reproducible TT (38.5 – 49.8°C) and MT (2.7 – 10.1N); precise values depended on species, the individual and the stimulus characteristics. Remote controlled NT threshold testing appears to be a viable refinement for pain research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0231.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Mosquito; arthropod-borne; vector; RNA virus; mycovirus; Chrysoviridae; sequencing; Serbia
Online: 15 July 2022 (11:44:59 CEST)
Mosquitoes are widespread arthropods that serve as vectors for a broad spectrum of viruses, many of which pose a substantial threat to humans. Conversely, some viruses may seemingly present with beneficial implications for the health of man whilst impinging on other domains of life, such as the fungi-infecting mycoviruses. This study is only the second one so far to describe the exceptionally scarcely identified Xanthi chryso-like virus (XCLV), member of the mycopathogenic Chrysoviridae family, in a new geographical area and a novel potential arthropod vector, the Culex pipiens mosquito. Interestingly, the XCLV was initially fortuitously detected by West Nile virus-specific primers directed at a conserved part of the NS5 gene, possibly indicative of a genetic resemblance and shared ancestry reflected in the NS5 evolutionary heritage. Detection and characterization of the virus and insect alike was done via PCR and Sanger sequencing. This investigation draws attention to our knowledge of viral pervasiveness – be it topographical or vectorial – and how humble it truly is. Additionally, we would propose that more attention be given to arthropod-borne viral pathogens that might prove advantageous to human health.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0462.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: roe deer; Tick-Borne Encephalitis; neurologic disease; pathology; genetic characterization
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:21:18 CET)
Tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the causative agent of Tick borne encephalitis in humans, a severe zoonosis occurring in the Paleartic region mainly transmitted through ticks belonging to the genus Ixodes. In Italy, TBEV is restricted to few foci in the north-eastern part of the country. This report describes for the first time a case of clinical TBE in a roe deer, occurred in the Belluno province, Veneto region, an area highly endemic for the presence of the virus. The affected roe deer showed ataxia, staggering movements, muscle tremors and persistent teeth grinding causing hypersalivation. At necropsy, the macroscopic picture was inconclusive. RNA of TBEV was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship to TBEV of the European subtype, and 100% similarity with a virus from the bordering Trento Province. The histological examination of the midbrain confirmed the viral etiology and specific immunofluorescence indicated the presence of a Flavivirus infection and characterized the pattern of infection in the neurons. This report underlines for the first time the occurrence of clinical encephalitic manifestations due to TBEV in a roe deer, thussuggesting to include this pathogen in the frame of differential diagnosis in this species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0596.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Climate change; Urban Heat Islands; Mosquito-borne Disease; Mitigation Strategies
Online: 26 February 2021 (08:27:16 CET)
Cities worldwide are facing ever-increasing pressure to develop mitigation strategies for all sectors to deal with the impacts of climate change. Cities are expected to house 70% of the world’s population by 2050 and developing related resilient health systems is a significant challenge. Because of their physical nature, cities’ surface temperatures are often substantially higher than that of the surrounding rural areas, generating the so-called Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Whilst considerable emphasis has been placed on strategies to mitigate against the UHI-associated negative health effects of heat and pollution, the World Health Organization estimates that one of the main consequences of global warming will be an increased burden of such vector-borne diseases. Many of the major mosquito-borne diseases are urban and thus the global population exposed to these pathogens will steadily increase. Mitigation strategies beneficial for one sector may, however, be detrimental for another. Implementation of inter-sectoral strategies that can benefit many sectors (such as water, labour and health) do exist and would enable optimal use of the meagre resources available. Discussion among inter-sectoral stakeholders should be actively encouraged.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0368.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Raccoon dog parvovirus; Epidemiology; VP2 gene; NS1 gene; Evolutionary analysis.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:52:50 CET)
To understand the epidemiological status of parvovirus (RDPV) in raccoon dogs, intestinal tissues of raccoon dogs in Liaoning Province of China were collected and evaluated. Three strains of raccoon dog parvovirus were successfully isolated from 12 intestinal tissues. Nine samples were positive for RDPV, with a positive rate of 75%. The VP2 and NS1 genes of the viruses were cloned and subjected to sequencing for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of the VP2 gene showed 99.94% similarity to the CPV-2a/Racoon dog/QHD/2/19(MT183665) strain, and the nucleotide sequences of the NS1 gene showed 99.75% similarity to RDPV-DP1 NS1(MF996335) strain. The three isolates belonging to the CPV-2a cluster were further confirmed by amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Our study enriched the epidemiological data of parvovirus in raccoon dogs in the investigating region, and the results will be helpful for future investigation of the variations and transmission of raccoon dog parvoviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0488.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: neurodegeneration; serum; spinal cord; dog; Degenerative myelopathy; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:26:13 CEST)
Blood-based biomarkers are much-needed diagnostic and prognostic tools for ALS. Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is recognized animal disease model to study the biology of human ALS. Serum derived exosomes are potential carrier that transport intercellular hormone-like messengers, together with their stability as carrier of proteins and RNA, make them ideal as biomarkers for a variety of diseases and biological processes. We study exosomal TDP-43 pattern as a surrogate biomarker that reflects biochemical changes in central nervous system. We isolated exosomes from canine serum using commercial exosome isolation reagents. TDP-43 and SOD1 profile in spinal cord homogenate lysate and that of serum-derived exosomes were found elevated in dogs with DM. We conclude levels of spinal cord TDP-43 and serum-derived exomes were similar in TDP-43 profiling, which warrant further investigation of disease sensitivity and specificity for establishing as a blood-based biomarker in canine DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pseudomonas; antibiotic resistance; dog; infection; skin, otitis externa, perianal abscess.
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:02:48 CEST)
Treating infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is increasingly difficult due to high antimicrobial resistance, materialized through the presence of multiple resistance strains, as well as due to rapid development of resistance throughout treatment. The present survey was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogens, in two University Veterinary hospitals from different geographical regions of Romania (i.e., south-west - Timisoara county and north-east – Iasi county) involved in canine superficial infections. A total of 142 swab specimens were collected from dogs with superficial infections (superficial skin infections, otitis externa, perianal abscess), with the aim of assessing the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on phenotypic and molecular characterization. Fifty-eight samples (40.84%; 58/142) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (according to their confirmed morphological and molecular features). Susceptibility to usual antibiotics used in the treatment of canine skin conditions was tested for all Pseudomonas strains that were isolated from canine superficial infections, using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Drug resistance was observed in the case of all tested antibiotics. The susceptibility rate of P. aeruginosa strains that were tested in this study was in the following order: ampicillin sulbactam (55.17%; 32/58), followed by ceftazidime (53.44%; 31/58), aztreonam (51.72%; 30/58), amikacin (44.82%; 26/58), azithromycin (41.37%; 24/58), gentamycin (37.93%; 22/58), cefepime (36.20%; 21/58) meropenem (25.86%; 13/58), piperacillin-tazobactam (25.86%; 13/58) imipenem (22.41%; 13/158), ciprofloxacin (17.24%; 10/58) tobramycin (8.62; 5/58), and polymyxin B (1.72; 1/58) respectively. The results highlight the importance of antibiotic susceptibility testing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs with superficial infections, in order to use an adequate treatment plan for the management of the skin condition, and other pathology (otitis externa and perianal abscesses).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: dog theft; pet theft; dogs; pets, crime; animal geography; GIS
Online: 28 March 2019 (06:40:57 CET)
Dogs are considered property under UK law, while current discourses of pet ownership place canine companions as part of an extended family. This means sentences for those who steal dogs are not reflective of a dogs’ sentience and agency, rather reflecting the same charges for those who steal a laptop or wallet. This is particularly problematic as dog theft is currently on the rise in England and Wales and led to public calls to change the law. Recognizing that a more robust analysis of dog theft crime statistics is required, we gathered dog theft data for 2015, 2016 and 2017 from 37 of 44 police forces through FOI requests. This paper uses this data to examine how dog theft crime statistics are constructed; assesses the strengths and weaknesses of this data; and categorizes, maps and measures dog theft changes temporally per police force in England and Wales. Our findings reveal there has been an increase in dog theft crimes, 1,294 in 2015, 1,525 in 2016 (+17.85%), and 1,678 in 2017 (+10.03%); and a decrease in court charges related to dog theft crimes, 62 (4.7%) in 2015, 48 (3.14%) in 2016, 37 (2.2%) in 2017. There were police force inconsistencies in recording dog theft crime which meant some data was unusable or could not be accessed or analysed. There is a need for a qualitative study to understand dog theft crime in different areas, and standardised approach to recording the theft of a dog by all forces across England and Wales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0210.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Food safety; Fresh-cut produce; salads; Food borne pathogens; Microbiological safety
Online: 29 June 2022 (09:47:27 CEST)
The consumption and sale of fresh-cut products and salads have been growing tremendously in the present era. Therefore, the microbial safety of such products is of great concern. In the current study, a survey of general microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and salads at quick-service restaurants (QSR) was undertaken across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These findings were compared with microbiological criteria for foodstuffs by Saudi standards, metrology, and quality organization SASO-GSO-1016. Of the 82 samples of fresh-cut produce, 7% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits. TPC count was unsatisfactory at 22%, coliform at 48%, and Staphylococcus aureus at 4%. For 108 samples for fresh salads, 11% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits,13%, 27%, 4%, and 27% of samples showed an unsatisfactory range of TPC, coliforms, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli, respectively. The fresh-cut produce and salads were microbiologically safe in the central region compared to the eastern region followed by the western region. The relatively higher count was found in green pepper, mixed vegetables, and lettuce followed by fresh-cut onions and coleslaw salads. No Salmonella was detected in both fresh-cut produce and salads. The restaurants should be more stringent in their processing to ensure the consumer safety. Washing and sanitization of produce is the only way to reduce the diffusion of food borne pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0702.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dog; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; PD-1; PD-L1; RNAscope
Online: 28 May 2021 (13:26:41 CEST)
Immune checkpoints are a set of molecules dysregulated in several human and canine cancers and aberrations of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis are often correlated with a worse prognosis. To gain insight into the role of immune checkpoints in canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (cDLBCL), we investigated PD-L1, PD-1 and CD8A expression by RNAscope. Results were correlated with several clinico-pathological features, including treatment, Ki67 index and outcome. A total of 33 dogs treated with CHOP (n=12) or CHOP plus APAVAC (n= 21) were included. PD-L1 signal was diffusely distributed among neoplastic cells, whereas PD-1 and CD8A were localized in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. However, PD-1 mRNA was also retrieved in tumor cells. An association between PD-L1 and PD-1 scores was identified and a higher risk of relapse and lymphoma-related death was found in dogs treated with chemotherapy alone and dogs with higher PD-L1 and PD-1 scores. The correlation between PD-L1 and PD-1 is in line with the mechanism of immune checkpoints in cancers, where neoplastic cells overexpress PD-L1 that, in turn, binds PD-1 receptors in activated TIL. We also found that Ki67 index was significantly increased in dogs with the highest PD-L1 and PD-1 scores, indirectly suggesting a role in promoting tumor proliferation. Finally, even if the biological consequence of PD-1+ tumor cells is unknown, our findings suggest that PD-1 intrinsic expression in cDLBCL might contribute to tumor growth escaping adaptive immunity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0238.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: dog domestication; human self-domestication; aggression; prosociality; language evolution; cognitive disorders
Online: 15 March 2020 (02:24:16 CET)
Different factors seemingly account for the emergence of present-day languages in our species. Human self-domestication has been recently invoked as one important force favouring language complexity mostly via a cultural mechanism. As a consequence, evolutionary changes impacting on aggression levels are expected to have fostered this process. Here we hypothesise about a positive effect of dog-human interactions on aggression management and more generally, on our self-domestication, ultimately, contributing to aspects of language evolution. We review evidence of diverse sort (ethological mostly, but also archaeological, genetic, and physiological) supporting a positive feedback loop between dog domestication and human-self domestication that might have favoured the mechanisms promoting structural complexity in human languages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0024.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: flavivirus; tick-borne encephalitis; electron microscopy; EELS; nanoparticle tracking analysis; cryo-EM
Online: 1 September 2022 (10:54:41 CEST)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a RNA-containing enveloped virus, a member of the Flaviviridae family. Here we describe a detailed analysis of the size and structure of inactivated TBEV (the Sofyin-Chumakov TBEV strain, used in vaccines). Four analytical methods were used to analyze individual TBEV particles—negative staining TEM, cryo-EM, AFM, and NTA. All methods confirmed that the particles were monodisperse, and their mean size was ~50 nm. Cryo-EM data were used to obtain a 3D electron density model of the virus with clearly distinguishable E-proteins. STEM-EELS analysis detected phosphorous in the particles, which was interpreted as the RNA signal. Altogether, the described analytical procedures can be valuable for the further analysis of vaccine inactivated virus samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0170.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: dromedary camels, ticks, heartwater, zoonosis, tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:39:26 CEST)
Ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are major constraints to camel health and production, yet epidemiological data on their diversity and impact on dromedary camels are limited. We sur-veyed the diversity of ticks and TBPs associated with camels and co-grazing sheep at 12 sites in Marsabit County, northern Kenya. We screened blood and ticks (858 pools) collected from 296 camels and 77 sheep for bacterial and protozoan TBPs by high-resolution melting analysis and sequencing of PCR products. Hyalomma (75.7%), Amblyomma (17.6%) and Rhipicephalus (6.7%) spp. ticks were morphologically identified and confirmed by molecular analyses. We detected TBP DNA in 80.1% of blood samples from 296 healthy camels. “Candidatus Anaplasma camelii”, “Candidatus Ehrlichia regneryi” and Coxiella burnetii were detected in both camels and associ-ated ticks, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii and Coxiella endo-symbionts were detected in camel ticks. We also detected Ehrlichia ruminantium, responsible for heartwater disease in ruminants, in Amblyomma ticks infesting camels and sheep and in sheep blood, indicating its endemicity in Marsabit. Our findings also suggest that camels and/or the ticks infesting them are reservoirs of zoonotic Q fever (C. burnetii), ehrlichiosis (E. chaffeensis), and rickettsiosis (R. africae), which pose a public health threat to pastoralist communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0234.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Chytridiomycosis; Amphibian pathogen; Amphibian disease; Culex quinquefasciatus, vector-borne disease
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:01:02 CET)
The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an infectious disease responsible for the worldwide decline of amphibian species. To mitigate these declines, it is necessary to identify the various vectors by which the fungus can be transmitted between individuals and populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether adult female mosquitoes can carry and transfer Bd fungal cells. Mosquitoes were exposed to net soaked in a live Bd zoospore suspension to determine whether they are able to externally acquire the fungus. Another group was placed into containers with a sterile and Bd-inoculated agar plate to determine whether mosquitoes could transfer Bd between these surfaces. Bd DNA was found to be present on mosquito legs exposed to inoculated netting and agar plates suggesting that Bd can be transmitted by the mosquito over short distances This is the first study to demonstrate that an insect host may be a mechanical vector of Bd and suggests that we should begin to consider the role of mosquitoes in the dissemination and control of the fungus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Zoonoses, food-borne, disease control, public health, domestic livestock, pigs, One health
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:59:03 CET)
Non-typhoid salmonellosis is a common and problematic foodborne zoonotic disease in which pork and pork products can be an important potential source of infection. In order to prevent this disease important efforts to monitor the situation in the main source, livestock, are conducted in most developed countries. In the European Union EFSA and ECDC compile information at the member state level, even though important differences in production systems and surveillance systems exist. Here, Salmonella surveillance systems in one of the main sources of foodborne salmonellosis, swine, and humans in Spain were reviewed to identify potential gaps and discuss potential ways of integration under a One Health approach. Despite the extensive information generated through the surveillance activities source attribution can be only routinely performed through ad-hoc outbreak investigations, and national reports on human outbreaks do not provide sufficiently detailed information to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the pathogen. Human and animal monitoring of Salmonella would benefit from a better exchange of information and collaboration. Analysis of spatio-temporal trends in livestock and humans could help to identify likely sources of infection and to target surveillance efforts in areas with higher prevalence or where specific strains are found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: dog; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; IL-1R8; TLR7; TLR9; qRT-PCR
Online: 11 April 2022 (09:15:27 CEST)
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common haematological malignancy in humans and dogs. Several studies disclosed some similarities between the two species, including the constitutive activation of NF- κB pathway as a fundamental underlying pathogenetic mecha-nism. In humans, downregulation of IL-1R8 is implicated in DLBCL development, but its role in dogs has not been explored so far. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of this tumor in dogs, we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of IL-1R8 in 12 hyperplastic lymph nodes ob-tained from dogs not bearing tumors and from 50 dogs with DLBCL. Moreover, we analysed through qRT-PCR the expression of TLR7, TLR9, MYC, and p52 genes that are known to be in-volved in the IL-1R8 regulatory network. IL-1R8 and p52 were downregulated in DLBCLs com-pared to control lymph nodes (p<0.001), while a higher expression of TLR7, TLR9 and MYC was observed in tumors (p<0.01). Immunohistochemistry confirmed gene expression results, reveal-ing a significantly lower IL-1R8 staining score in DLBCLs compared to control lymph nodes (p<0.0001). Taken together, these results suggest that IL-1R8 downregulation may represent one of the mechanisms driving DLBCL pathogenesis in dogs, mainly through dysregulation of the Toll-like/Interleukin receptors signalling cascade and the aberrant activation of classical NF-κB pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0573.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Borrelia miyamotoi, Ixodes, Lyme disease, relapsing fever, reservoir species, tick-borne disease, vector
Online: 30 December 2022 (08:08:13 CET)
Borrelia miyamotoi is an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the Northern hemisphere and is the causative agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD). B. miyamotoi is vectored by the same hard-bodied ticks as Lyme disease Borrelia, yet phylogenetically groups with relapsing fever Borrelia, and thus has been uniquely labeled a hard tick-borne relapsing fever Borrelia. Burgeoning research has uncovered new aspects of B. miyamotoi in human patients, nature, and the lab. Of particular interest are novel findings on disease pathology, prevalence, diagnostic methods, ecological maintenance, transmission, and genetic characteristics. Herein we review recent literature on B. miyamotoi, discuss how findings adapt to current Borrelia doctrines, and briefly consider what remains unknown about B. miyamotoi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0543.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Francisella tularensis; Dermacentor variabilis; Amblyomma americanum; Haemaphysalis longicornis; tick-borne disease; Tularemia; Chitinase
Online: 20 November 2020 (12:21:26 CET)
Tick-borne tularemia was first described in 1924. Nearly 100 years later, questions remain about the tick vector(s) that pose(s) the greatest risk for transmitting Francisella tularensis (Ft), the causative agent of tularemia. Additionally, few studies have identified genes/proteins required for Ft to infect, persist, and replicate in ticks. To answer questions about vector competence and Ft transmission by ticks, we infected Dermacentor variabilis (Dv), Amblyomma americanum (Aa), and Haemaphysalis longicornis (Hl; invasive species from Asia) ticks with Ft, finding that although Aa ticks initially become infected with 1-log higher Ft, Ft replicated more robustly in Dv ticks, and did not persist in Hl ticks. In transmission studies, both Dv and Aa ticks efficiently infected naïve mice, causing disease in 57% and 46% of those mice, respectively. We identified a putative Ft chitinase, FTL1793, generated a FTL1793 mutant, and found that FTL1793 was deficient in tick infection, persistence, and replication in ticks. Recombinant FTL1793 exhibited chitinase activity in vitro, suggesting that this chitinase may provide an alternative energy source for Ft in ticks. Taken together, Dv ticks appear to pose a greater risk for harboring and transmitting tularemia and FTL1793 plays a major role in promoting tick infections by Ft.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: climate change; vector-borne disease; artificial intelligence; explainable AI; geospatial modeling; infectious disease; arbovirus
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:21:32 CEST)
As recent history has shown, changing climate not only threatens to increase the spread of known disease, but also the emergence of new and dangerous phenotypes. This occurred most recently with West Nile virus: a virus previously known for mild febrile illness rapidly emerged to become a major cause of mortality and long-term disability throughout the world. As we move forward, into increasingly uncertain times, public health research must begin to incorporate a broader understanding of the determinants of disease emergence – what, how, why, and when. The increasing mainstream availability of high-quality open data and high-powered analytical methods presents promising new opportunities. Up to now, quantitative models of disease outbreak risk have been largely based on just a few key drivers, namely climate and large-scale climatic effects. Such limited assessments, however, often overlook key interacting processes and downstream determinants more likely to drive local manifestation of disease. Such pivotal determinants may include local host abundance, human behavioral variability, and population susceptibility dynamics. The results of such analyses can therefore be misleading in cases where necessary downstream requirements are not fulfilled. It is therefore important to develop models that include climate and higher-level climatic effects alongside the downstream non-climatic factors that ultimately determine individual disease manifestation. Today, few models attempt to comprehensively address such dynamics: up until very recently, the technology simply hasn’t been available. Herein, we present an updated overview of current perspectives on the varying drivers and levels of interactions that drive disease spread. We review the predominant analytical paradigms, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight promising new analytical solutions. Our focus is on the prediction of arboviruses, particularly West Nile virus, as these diseases represent the pinnacle of epidemiological complexity – solution to which would serve as an effective “gatekeeper”. We present the current state-of-the-art with respect to known drivers of arbovirus outbreak risk and severity, differentially highlighting the impact of climate and non-climatic drivers. The reality of multiple classes of drivers interacting at different geospatial and temporal scales requires advanced new methodologies. We therefore close out by presenting and discussing some promising new applications of AI. Given the reality of accelerating disease risks due to climate change, public health and other related fields must begin the process of updating their research programs to incorporate these much needed, new capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: mast cell tumor; dog; canine; proliferation indices; grade; prednisone; Ki67; AgNOR; mitotic count; mitotic index
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:22:20 CEST)
Glucocorticoid administration is a common clinical practice in attempt to decrease inflammation associated with, and improve resectability of, canine mast cell tumors (MCTs). However, the impact of neoadjuvant glucocorticoids on histological features and proliferation indices of canine MCTs is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in tumor grade, mitotic count, Ki67, AgNOR, and AgNORxKi67 scores following short-course, anti-inflammatory neoadjuvant prednisone in canine patients with MCTs. This was a prospective, single-arm pilot study. Client-owned dogs with treatment-naïve, cytologically-confirmed MCTs were enrolled. Patients underwent an initial incisional biopsy followed by a 10-14 day course of anti-inflammatory prednisone, and surgical resection. All histological samples were randomized, masked, and evaluated by a single pathologist. Unstained paired pre- and post-treatment samples were submitted to a commercial laboratory for Ki67 and AgNOR immunohistochemical analysis. There were 11 dogs enrolled with 11 tumors. There were no statistical differences between the pre- and post-treatment histological parameters of mitotic index, Ki67, AgNOR, or Ki67xAgNOR. There were no clinically-significant alterations between pre-treatment and post-treatment in the assignment of tumor grades. A short-course of anti-inflammatory prednisone does not appear to alter the histological parameters that affect grade-determination, nor significantly alter the proliferation indices in canine MCTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0315.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Tick-borne encephalitis virus; Yellow fever virus; vaccine strain; chimeric virus; infectious subgenomic amplicons; candidate vaccines
Online: 16 November 2022 (16:35:12 CET)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most threatening pathogens which affects the human central nervous system (CNS). TBEV circulates widely in Northern Eurasia. According to ECDC the number of TBE cases increase annually. There is no specific treatment for the TBEV infection, thus vaccination is the main preventive measure. Despite the existence of several inactivated vaccines currently being licensed, the development of new TBEV vaccines remains a leading priority in countries endemic to this pathogen. Here we report new recombinant virus made by infectious subgenomic amplicon (ISA) approach using TBEV and yellow fever virus vaccine strain (YF17DD-UN) as a genetic backbone. The recombinant virus is capable of effective replication in mammalian cells and induce TBEV-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Unlike the original vector based on the yellow fever vaccine strain chimeric virus became neuroinvasive in doses of 107-106 PFU and can be used as a model of Flavivirus neuroinvasiveness, neurotropism and neurovirulence. These properties of hybrid structures are the main factors limiting their practical use as vaccines platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0110.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: associative learning; molecular circuits; synthetic biology; mathematical modeling; Hill equation; Pavlov’s dog; reinforcement; dissociation; non-dimensionalization
Online: 7 July 2022 (04:38:20 CEST)
The development of synthetic biology has enabled us to make massive progress on biotechnology and to approach research questions from a brand new perspective. In particular, the design and study of gene regulatory networks in vitro, in vivo and in silico, have played an increasingly indispensable role in understanding and controlling biological phenomena. Among them, it is of great interest to understand how associative learning is formed at the molecular circuit level. Noticeably, mathematical models have been increasingly used to predict the behaviors of molecular circuits. The Fernando’s model, which is thought to be one of the first works in this line of research using the Hill equation, attempted to design a synthetic circuit that mimics Hebbian learning in the neural network architecture. In this article, we carry out in-depth computational analysis of the model and demonstrate that the reinforcement effect can be achieved by choosing the proper parameter values. We also construct a novel circuit that can demonstrate forced dissociation, which was not observed in the Fernando’s model. Our work can be readily used as reference for synthetic biologists who consider implementing the circuits of this kind in biological systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0001.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis virus; cryo-electron microscopy; TBEV; envelope protein; membrane protein; lipid factor; glycoprotein; quasi-equivalence
Online: 1 April 2022 (03:24:38 CEST)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a pathogenic, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae. Structural studies of flavivirus virions have primarily focused on mosquito-borne species with only one cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a tick-borne species published. Here, we present a 3.3 Å cryo-EM structure of the TBEV virion of the Kuutsalo-14 isolate, confirming the overall organisation of the virus. We observe conformational switching of the peripheral and transmembrane helices of M protein, which can explain the quasi-equivalent packing of the viral proteins and highlights their importance in stabilizing the membrane protein arrangement in the virion. The residues responsible for the M protein inter-actions are highly conserved in TBEV but not in the structurally studied Hypr strain, nor in mosquito-borne flaviviruses. These interactions may compensate for the lower number of hydrogen bonds between E proteins in TBEV compared to the mosquito-borne flaviviruses. The structure reveals two lipids bound in the E protein, which are important for virus assembly. The lipid pockets are comparable to those recently described in mosquito-borne Zika, Spondweni, Dengue, and Usutu viruses. Our results thus advance the understanding of tick-borne flavivirus architecture and virion-stabilising interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0584.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS); retinal degeneration; primary cilia; ciliopathy; dog; BBS8; TTC8; progressive retinal atrophy (PRA); retinitis pigmentosa
Online: 26 August 2020 (12:24:47 CEST)
In golden retriever dogs, a 1 bp deletion in the canine TTC8 gene has been shown to cause progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), the canine equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa. In humans, TTC8 is also implicated in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). To investigate if the affected dogs only exhibit a non-syndromic PRA or develop a syndromic ciliopathy similar to human BBS, we recruited ten affected dogs to the study. The progression of PRA for two of the dogs was followed for two years, and a rigorous clinical characterization allowed a careful comparison with primary and secondary characteristics of human BBS. In addition to PRA, the dogs showed a spectrum of clinical and morphological signs similar to primary and secondary characteristics of human BBS patients, such as obesity, renal anomalies, sperm defects, and anosmia. We used Oxford Nanopore long-read cDNA sequencing to characterize retinal full-length TTC8 transcripts in affected and non-affected dogs, the results of which suggest that three isoforms are transcribed in the retina, and the 1 bp deletion is a loss-of-function mutation, resulting in a canine form of Bardet-Biedl syndrome with heterogeneous clinical signs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: spinal disc herniation, dog, NADPH diaphorase, the aging-related NADPH diaphorase body, megaloneurite, homogeneous formazan globule, intermedial collateral pathway
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:47:26 CET)
Neuronal lesion or injury is a traditional approach to investigate neural circuit. Is any new neural pathway or new neurodegeneration related central nerve system injury? Spinal disc herniation can cause the spinal cord injury. However, the histological examination is still lack. It happened that a case of spinal disc herniation of a 10-year old dog was examined with NADPH diaphorase (N-d) histology. We did not find the N-d neurodegenerative aberrant in the tissue of the mid-rostral lumber segment besides the metamorphoses by the compression of the disc herniation. However, the severe neuropathological changes majorly occurred in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We found more diverse neurodegenerative alterations: the aging-related N-d body (ANB), megaloneurite and N-d homogeneous formazan globule in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We also found that a new circuit pathway (intermedial collateral pathway) showed by a megaloneurite between the lateral collateral pathway and the medial collateral pathway. The enormous notch caused by spinal disc herniation located at the mid-rostral lumber segments. The aging-related neurodegeneration occurred the specific lumbosacral segments. The homogeneous formazan globule was round or oval homogeneous N-d positivity which distributed in the gray matter and dorsal column. In the medulla oblongata, ANBs were revealed in the gracile nucleus, nucleus reticularis lateralis (ventrolateral spinal trigeminal nucleus) and middle of the spinal trigeminal nucleus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0299.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; Hyalomma marginatum; human cutaneous immune response; Langerhans cells; dermal dendritic cells; tick-borne virus; tick-virus-host interface
Online: 19 June 2018 (11:50:54 CEST)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is one the most important and wide spread tick-borne viruses. Very little is known about the transmission from the tick and the early aspects of pathogenesis. Here, we generate human cutaneous antigen presenting cells: dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, from umbilical cord progenitor cells. In order to mimic the environment created during tick feeding, tick salivary gland extract was generated from semi-engorged Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Our findings indicate that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells are susceptible and permissive to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection, however, to different degrees. Infection leads to cell activation and cytokine/chemokine secretion, although these responses vary between the different cell types. Hyalomma marginatum salivary gland extract had minimal effect on cell responses, with some synergy with viral infection with respect to cytokine secretion. However, salivary gland extract appeared to inhibit antigen presenting cell (APC) migration. Based on the findings here we hypothesize that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells serve as early target cells. Rather affecting Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus replication, tick saliva likely immunomodulates and inhibits migration of these APC from the feeding site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Animal study; beagle dog; β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP); immunohistochemistry; micro computed tomography (CT); periodontal tissue engineering; periostin; recombinant human collagen peptide (RCP); scaffold material; 3-wall intrabony defect
Online: 20 October 2022 (12:24:49 CEST)
Recombinant human collagen peptide (RCP) is a recombinantly created xeno-free biomaterial enriched in RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) sequences, with good processability that is being investigated for regenerative medicine applications. Recently, the biocompatibility and osteogenic ability of β-TCP/RCP (RCP granules combined with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) submicron particles) were demonstrated. In the present study, β-TCP/RCP was implanted into experimental periodontal tissue defects (three-walled bone defect) created in beagle dogs to investigate tissue responses and subsequent regenerative effects. Micro computed tomography image analysis at 8 weeks postoperatively showed that the amount of new bone after β-TCP/RCP graft was significantly greater (2.2 fold, P<0.05) than that of the control (no graft) group. Histological findings showed that the transplanted β-TCP/RCP induced active bone-like tissue formation including TRAP-positive and OCN-positive cells as well as bioabsorbability. Ankylosis did not occur, and periostin-positive periodontal ligament-like tissue formation was observed. Histological measurements revealed that β-TCP/RCP implantation formed 1.7-fold more bone-like tissue and 2.1-fold more periodontal ligament-like tissue than the control, and significantly suppressed gingival recession and epithelial downgrowth (P<0.05). These results suggest that β-TCP/RCP is effective as a periodontal tissue regenerative material.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0018.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); CRISPR/Cas9; exon skipping therapy; gene editing; human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); immortalized patient muscle cells; mdx mice; humanized dystrophic mouse models; deltaE50-MD dog model
Online: 2 November 2018 (05:14:23 CET)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked recessive neuromuscular disease prevalent in 1 in 3500 to 5000 males worldwide. As a result of mutations that interrupt the reading frame of the dystrophin gene (DMD), DMD is characterized by a loss of dystrophin protein which leads to decreased muscle membrane integrity, which increases susceptibility to degeneration. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has garnered interest as an avenue for DMD therapy due to its potential for permanent exon skipping, which can restore the disrupted DMD reading frame in DMD and lead to dystrophin restoration. An RNA-guided DNA endonuclease system, CRISPR/Cas9 allows for the targeted editing of specific sequences in the genome. The efficacy and safety of CRISPR/Cas9 as a therapy for DMD has been evaluated by numerous studies in vitro and in vivo, with varying rates of success. Despite the potential of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing for the long-term treatment of DMD, its translation into the clinic is currently challenged by issues such as off-targeting, immune response activation, and sub-optimal in vivo delivery. Its nature as being mostly a personalized form of therapy also limits applicability to DMD patients, who exhibit a wide spectrum of mutations. This review summarizes the various CRISPR/Cas9 strategies that have been tested in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of DMD. Perspectives on the approach will be provided, and the challenges faced by CRISPR/Cas9 in its road to the clinic will be briefly discussed.