ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0206.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Laser Communications; Platform Jitter; Beam-pointing stability; Drone; CubeSat
Online: 11 August 2022 (03:38:22 CEST)
Adaption of laser communication terminals to airborne and lean-satellite platforms is now a vogue, made possible due to the progressing advancements in lightweight components and compactness of onboard electro-optical transceivers and control systems. This enables highly secured and superior data-transmission rates beyond multiple Gigabit/second on CubeSats and drones compared to Megabit/second rates offered by similar radio-transceivers form factors. However, laser-transmission links require a very stringent beam-pointing stability because they are easily perturbed by attitude variations and micro-vibrations generated by the host platform’s propulsion system or other mechanically active subsystems in proximity with the transmitter’s optical head. Severe line-of-sight jitter causes the downlink laser beam to drift from the targeted receiving system’s field-of-view, inducing pointing errors, increasing signal outage probability and information loss. We experimentally examine the platform jitter generated by the propellers of an hexacopter drone during ground operation and the attitude-control unit’s reaction wheels in a 6U CubeSat structure. We determined the vibration spectrum unique to these platforms and accordingly prescribe requirements for applicable optical fine pointing and disturbance isolation or suppression systems needed to achieve a high-fidelity laser-communication link.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0189.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Cab market; platform; business model
Online: 11 May 2020 (08:38:57 CEST)
This research discusses the business model challenges faced by cag aggregator platform models in developing countries. Technology-based platforms have been disrupting traditional businesses and rewriting the rules of the game. Ola cabs has been instrumental in shaping the Indian platform business landscape in a big way. Using case methodology the author analyses the situation and business model to present the salient features of Ola’s model. However, this paper also puts the spotlight on the inherent challenges in this model and warns the need for continuous business model innovation and service quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0167.v1
Online: 21 March 2017 (04:23:40 CET)
Diagnosing melanocytic lesions is among the most challenging problems in the practice of pathology. The difficulty of physically masking melanin pigment and the similarity of its color to commonly used chromogens often complicate examination of the cytomorphology and immunohistochemical staining results for tumor cells. Melanin bleach can be very helpful for histopathological diagnosis of heavily pigmented melanocytic lesions. Although various depigmentation methods have been reported, no standardized methods have been developed. This study developed a fully automated platform that incorporates hydrogen peroxide-based melanin depigmentation in an automated immunohistochemical analysis. The utility of the method was tested in one cell block of malignant melanoma cells in pleural effusion, ten ocular melanoma tissue samples, and ten cutaneous melanoma tissue samples. Our results demonstrated that the proposed method, which can be performed in only 3 hours, effectively preserves cell cytomorphology and immunoreactivity. The method is particularly effective for removing melanin pigment to facilitate histopathological examination of cytomorphology and for obtaining an unmasked tissue section for immunohistochemical analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0284.v1
Online: 20 September 2022 (02:44:31 CEST)
The change of tire groove depth will have a huge impact on tire performance, and the use of excessively worn tires is not conducive to the driving safety of automobiles. Tire groove depth detection has become one of the annual inspection items of automobiles, but the research on its related detection technology is still relatively backward. Based on the principle of monocular vision ranging (MVR), image processing technology and cloud platform technology, this paper develops a tire groove depth detection system, which realizes non-destructive detection of tire groove depth. In addition, the system uses the cloud platform to store the test results, and builds a multi-level data management system, allowing car owners to keep track of the tire wear status and historical changes, which is of great significance to ensuring driving safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: innovation platform; ecosystem; stakeholder engagement; challenge landscapes
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:48:45 CEST)
Background: South Africa’s public healthcare sector is overburdened, especially its under-resourced primary healthcare delivery system. This burden could be relieved by alleviating the population’s ill-health, focusing on the social determinants of health. These include living conditions and levels of social cohesion. In an attempt to address the aforementioned ‘challenge landscape’, this article considers socio-economic empowerment of those marginalised members of society living at the base of the pyramid (BOP) to improve factors contributing to poor health. We propose that Innovation Platforms (IPs) offer opportunities to achieve this by drawing diverse stakeholders together, which should include marginalised individuals, to pool resources and knowledge and collaborate around a specific set of challenges. Method: A Grounded Theory approach is utilised to develop the framework comprising concept definition from a systemized literature review. It is evaluated through various progressive stages through three phases of evaluation: 1) the initial framework was subjected to scrutiny in a theoretical case study, 2) a first-pass semi-structured interview and later four more semi-structured interviews with subject matter experts, and 3) an instrumental case study to refine the framework and to understand its application in a particular situation (this included four stakeholder interviews and a workshop and feedback session with the project champion). Results: This article contributes to the extant literature by addressing the lack of guidance on stakeholder engagement practices critical to the proper functioning of IPs in the context of overcoming the complex challenges associated with social determinants of health. The final output of the study is a refined management tool for stakeholder engagement in IPs. The tool provides practical recommendations to support policy makers, researchers and practitioners in 1) establishing IPs, 2) identifying areas for improvement and 3) identifying reasons for an IP’s failure and lessons to learn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: open microcontrolled platform; data acquisition; remote measurement
Online: 8 March 2018 (15:21:13 CET)
The commercial equipment that carries out the measurement of temperature has a high cost. Therefore, this article describes the development of a temperature measurement equipment, which uses a microcontrolled platform, responsible for managing the data of the collected temperature signals and making available the acquired information, so that they can be verified in real time at the measurement site, or remotely. The construction of the temperature measurement equipment was performed using open platform hardware / software, where performance tests were carried out with the objective of developing a temperature measurement equipment that has measurement quality and low cost.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: geographies of disruption; data analytics; policy intervention; Uber; disruptive technology; disruptive innovation; path dependency; platform development; platform economics
Online: 27 November 2018 (06:52:38 CET)
The topic of technology development and its disruptive effects has been the subject of much debate over the last 20 years with numerous theories at both macro and micro scale offering potential models of technology progression and disruption. This paper focuses on how the potential theories of technology progression can be integrated and considers whether suitable indicators of this progression and any subsequent disruptive effects (particularly considering these geographically) might be derived, based on the use of big data analytic techniques. Given the magnitude of the economic, social and political implications of many disruptive technologies, the ability to quantify disruptive change at the earliest possible stage could deliver major returns by reducing uncertainty, assisting public policy intervention and managing the technology transition through disruption into deployment. However, determining when this stage has been reached is problematic because small random effects in the timing, direction of development, the availability of essential supportive technologies or “platform” technologies, market response or government policy can all result in failure of a technology, its form of adoption or optimality of implementation. This paper reviews some of the key models of technology evolution and their disruptive effect including, in particular, the geographical spread of disruption. It suggests a methodology for utilising the recent explosion of open and web-discoverable data to determine a methodology to achieve this earlier determination and considers the potential exploitation of big data modelling and predictive analytical techniques to achieve this goal.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: UAV; Drone; monitoring; Multisensor; platform; software framework; beacons
Online: 19 August 2016 (10:42:58 CEST)
This paper present a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source , is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of their exploration and data-collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility of the system are illustrated by mapping the location of Bluetooth beacons (iBeacons) on a ground field and by measuring water temperatures in a lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0429.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: IoT platform; microservice; smart agriculture; irrigated crops; Agriculture 4.0
Online: 21 October 2020 (10:40:16 CEST)
Research has shown the multitude of applications that IoT, cloud computing and forecast technologies present in every sector. In agriculture, one application is the monitoring of factors that influence crop development to assist in making crop management decisions. Research on the application of such technologies in agriculture has been mainly conducted at small experimental sites or under controlled conditions. This research has provided relevant insights and guidelines for the use of different types of sensors, application of a multitude of algorithms to forecast relevant parameters as well as architectural approaches of IoT platforms. However, research on the implementation of IoT platforms at the commercial scale is needed to identify platform requirements to properly function under such conditions. This article evaluates an IoT platform (IRRISENS) based on fully replicable microservices used to sense soil, crop and atmosphere parameters, interact with third party cloud services, planning and scheduling irrigation as well as control of irrigation water control devices. The proposed IoT platform was evaluated during one growing season at four commercial scale farms on two different broadacre irrigated crops with very different water management requirements (rice and cotton). Five main requirements for IoT platforms to be used in agriculture at commercial scale were identified from implementing IRRISENS in rice and cotton production: scalability, flexibility, heterogeneity, robustness to failure and security. The platform addressed all these requirements. The results showed that the microservice approach followed in the platform is robust against both intermittent and critical failures in the field that could occur in any of the monitored sites. Further, processing or storage overload caused for any reason at one farm did not affect the performance of the platform regarding the other monitored farms. This paper also discusses how the microservice approach can address the data heterogeneity issue when crops with different management requirements are monitored. Since there are no shared microservices among farms, the IoT platform proposed here also provides data isolation maintaining data confidentiality for each user, which is relevant in a commercial farm scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0225.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles; logic integrated platform; laser pyrolysis; nanosized materials
Online: 19 September 2019 (15:28:46 CEST)
We propose a concept of hybrid nanoelectronic-magnetic device for logic integrated platforms made of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles deposited onto prepatterned Si (111) substrate with basic logic circuitry made of metallic conductive lines. The synthesis of magnetic material and the creation of nanoelectronic prepatterned interdigitated die is reported and its capabilities are demonstrated in terms of magnetotransport properties. The laser pyrolysis method is employed in order to synthesize magnetic core-shell Fe / FeC nanoparticles with sizes between 12 – 15 nm. E-beam lithography has been used in order to design and execute two different layouts of interdigitated die, prepatterned with logic capacity, one with two pads and 50 microns thick conductive metallic lines, another one with 4 pads and parallel 5 microns thick conductive lines separated by 5 microns thick spacer. The as-obtained structures are morphologically characterized by means of optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopies. As-synthesized core-shell nanoparticles have been magnetically characterized inasmuch as the hybrid device obtained by depositing centrifugated and dispersed core-shell nanoparticles from liquid carrier solutions. For the first time, a significant giant magnetoresistive (GMR) effect has been observed and measured for the hybrid architectured device made of Fe / FeC nanosized materials on pre-patterned interdigitated die. A ∆R/R of 8% at 4.2 K has been measured from conductivity-in-plane electron transport measurements. This opens possibilities for the use of such devices as arrays of nanosensors and in spintronic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0075.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Android permissions; Android IoT platform; Android update; Android application
Online: 9 May 2017 (04:30:47 CEST)
The Android-based IoT platform just like the existing Android provides an environment that makes it easy to utilize Google's infrastructure services including development tools and APIs through which it helps to control the sensors of IoT devices. Applications running on the Android-based IoT platform are often UI free and are used without the user’s consent to registered permissions. It is difficult to respond to the misuse of permissions as well as to check them when they are registered indiscriminately while updating applications. This paper analyzes the versions of before and after an application the update running on the Android-based IoT platform and the collected permission lists. It aims to identify the same permissions before and after the update, and deleted and newly added permissions after the update were identified, and thereby respond to security threats that can arise from the permissions that is not needed for IoT devices to perform certain functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0718.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: marketplace platform; consumer interest; ease of use; security; online shopping
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:09:38 CEST)
The obligation to keep a distance from other people due to the pandemic has changed human life patterns, especially in shopping for their primary needs, namely food. The presence of the food marketplace presents new hope in maintaining health and food availability without crowding with other people while shopping. The main problem that is often a concern of the public when shopping online is transaction security and the Ease of use of this food marketplace application. This research is the intensity of using the Food Marketplace in terms of Interest, transaction security, and Ease of use of this application. Researchers analyzed the relationship between variables with the Structural equation model. Respondents who became this sample were 300 application users spread across various major cities in Indonesia. This study's results provide a view that the intensity of the food marketplace's use has increased significantly during the new normal life. This paper's primary value lies in providing a better understanding of consumer behavior in the Indonesian food marketplace that has not been previously researched. By examining the determinants of the intensity of marketplace use in the food sector, it is hoped that this can become the basis for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: matching; data marketplace; data platform; data visualization; call for data
Online: 17 March 2020 (04:10:28 CET)
Improvements in web platforms for data exchange and trading are creating more opportunities for users to obtain data from data providers of different domains. However, the current data exchange platforms are limited to unilateral information provision from data providers to users. In contrast, there are insufficient means for data providers to learn what kinds of data users desire and for what purposes. In this paper, we propose and discuss the description items for sharing users’ call for data as data requests in the data marketplace. We also discuss structural differences in data requests and providable data using variables, as well as possibilities of data matching. In the study, we developed an interactive platform, treasuring every encounter of data affairs (TEEDA), to facilitate matching and interactions between data providers and users. The basic features of TEEDA are described in this paper. From experiments, we found the same distributions of the frequency of variables but different distributions of the number of variables in each piece of data, which are important factors to consider in the discussion of data matching in the data marketplace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bluff body; cascade, turbulence; ANSYS; and simulation; offshore energy platform
Online: 25 April 2017 (09:59:58 CEST)
Most of the structures in flowing water are a challenge to their stability and sustainable with different flow conditions. Recent, renewable energy research and development covers ocean and river energy platform in which flow of water drag considered in various conversion devices towards the offshore and onshore establishment. Various energy platforms have been suggested for offshore development. However, the stability of these platforms in water is a serious concern. To study the water interaction over circular and square cross-section cascade system under the water has been carried out. Water flow around the pillars or column of the energy platform are analyzed through simulation software. Very low velocity 0.5 m/s has been considered to analyze the system. Total fifteen numbers of cascade pillars having circular and square cross-section area were considered. K-ε turbulence model is adopted to calculate the flow interaction to the column. A velocity, pressure, and energy fields are found around the column.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MDOF isolation platform; geometrical nonlinearity; vibration suppression; adjustable stiffness property
Online: 12 April 2017 (04:29:06 CEST)
This study analyzes the modeling and dynamics of a novel passive in Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) vibration isolation platform which can achieve significant isolation effect. Symmetrical Scissor-Like structures (SLSs) are utilized in the proposed MDOF isolation platform as the supporting and isolation elastic components. Based on the mathematical modeling and theoretical analysis of the MDOF vibration isolation system with SLSs, the effect of structural parameter and joint friction on stiffness and damping properties is investigated. It is shown that due to geometric relations within the SLSs, the natural frequencies can be reduced via adjusting structural parameters of the SLS for different direction vibration isolation. Theoretical and experimental results show that the SLS isolation platform can achieve much better loading capacity and vibration isolation performance simultaneously by only using linear passive components because of the MDOF adjustable stiffness property. Therefore, with low costing and energy consumption, the proposed novel isolation platform can provide the improvement of vibration suppression in various engineering practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0519.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: WES analysis; POF; Galaxy platform; GEMINI tool; X-linked recessive; ClinVar
Online: 21 May 2021 (10:13:15 CEST)
An in-silico WES approach using the Galaxy platform was adopted in the current study to predict the genetic basis of Premature Ovarian Failure (POF), where three affected patients in a Saudi Arabian family of seven, found associated with X-linked recessive mutations. The current analysis discovered 518,054 variants using FreeBayes variant caller that had 1,461,864 effects on variable sites in the genome revealed by SnpEff software. The causal genetic mutations were filtered and annotated with the ClinVar database using the GEMINI tool. This tool retained 369 pathogenic mutations harboring 130 genes. Among the total, 268 variants positioned on 69 genes are shared with three affected individuals, 61 variants on 23 genes are shared by any two of the affected individuals, and 40 of the variants on 38 genes are present in any one of the affected sample. Two mutations in one of the already POF-associated, POF1B gene were also observed e.g. (i) g.84563135T>A; p.M349L and (ii) g.84563194C>T; p.R329Q in the two affected individuals i.e. IV-I-C & IV-6 in the current data. This gene consists of 17 exons that span the region of >100 kb. The putative function of this gene in regulating the actin cytoskeleton due to homology with myosin tail and maintains a number of oocytes during fetal ovary development. In a nutshell, this Galaxy pipeline facilitates all-in-one to pinpoint not only the known pathogenic gene mutations for this disorder but few other novel genetic variants as well, whose gene-disease association may be validated by further experimental studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0223.v1
Online: 13 May 2020 (05:10:48 CEST)
Abstract. The COVID-19 has turned in to a global human tragedy and economic devastation. Governments have implemented lockdown measures, blocked international travel, and enforced other public containment measures to mitigate the virus morbidity and mortality. As of today, no drug has the power to fight the infection and bring normalcy to the utter chaos. This leaves us with only one choice namely an effective and safe vaccine that shall be manufactured as soon as possible and available to all countries and populations affected by the pandemic at an affordable price. There has been an unprecedented fast track path taken in R&D by the World community for developing an effective and safe vaccine. Platform technology has been exploited to develop candidate vaccines in a matter of days to weeks and as of now, 108 such vaccines are available. Six of these vaccines have entered clinical trials. As clinical trials are ‘rate-limiting’ and ‘time-consuming’, many innovative methods are in practice for a fast track. These include parallel phase I-II trials and obtaining efficacy data from phase IIb trials. Human ‘challenge experiments’ to confirm efficacy in humans is under serious consideration. The availability of the COVID-19 vaccine has become a race against time in the middle of death and devastation. There is an atmosphere of tremendous hype around the COVID-19 vaccine and developers are using every moment to make claims, which remain unverified. However, concerns are raised about a rush to deploy a COVID-19 vaccine. Applying ‘Quick fix’ and ‘short cuts’ can lead to errors with disastrous consequences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0027.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: neuroscience; big data; functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI); pipeline; one platform system
Online: 8 April 2019 (05:46:55 CEST)
In the neuroscience research field, specific for medical imaging analysis, how to mining more latent medical information from big medical data is significant for us to find the solution of diseases. In this review, we focus on neuroimaging data that is functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) which non-invasive techniques, it already becomes popular tools in the clinical neuroscience and functional cognitive science research. After we get fMRI data, we actually have various software and computer programming that including open source and commercial, it's very hard to choose the best software to analyze data. What's worse, it would cause final result imbalance and unstable when we combine more than software together, so that's why we want to make a pipeline to analyze data. On the other hand, with the growing of machine learning, Python has already become one of very hot and popular computer programming. In addition, it is an open source and dynamic computer programming, the communities, libraries and contributors fast increase in the recent year. Through this review, we hope that can make neuroimaging data analysis more easy, stable and uniform base the one platform system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0002.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind prediction; wind estimation; UAS; wind shear; gust; multi-platform integration
Online: 18 January 2017 (09:44:54 CET)
This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain), was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz. Predictions show a convergence time with a 95% confidence interval of approximately 30 s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0127.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Actinobacillus succinogenes; Basfia succiniciproducens; succinic acid; lactose concentrate; yeast extract; platform chemical
Online: 6 July 2021 (09:28:31 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate succinic acid production from lactose concentrate, a by-product of cheese-making, using Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Although the capability of these strains to metabolize different sugars is already known, their application in the conversion of lactose bears high potential for optimization. With regard to B. succiniciproducens this approach is completely novel. In particular the influence of the mediums sugar concentration and its supplementation with yeast extract to prevent a lack of proteins and vitamins were examined. Lactose based media containing sugar concentrations between 20 and 65 g L-1 and 5 g L-1 yeast extract were fermented, whereby both strains showed comparable performances. The best results in succinic acid yield and acid concentration, 0.57 g g-1 initial sugar and 23 g L1, were achieved at an initial sugar concentration of 43 g L-1. The necessity of yeast extract was demonstrated using the sugar optimized medium without supplementation. As a result, yield and concentration of succinic acid dropped to 0.34 g g-1 and 13 g L-1, the sugar consumption decreased from more than 99 to less than 55 %. Therefore the supplementation amount of 5 g L-1 yeast extract can be regarded as well-balanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0314.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: creative thinking; mathematical creativity; response processes; digital learning environment; online learning platform
Online: 15 October 2020 (08:42:55 CEST)
Creative thinking is increasingly recognised as an essential ability that should be part of school curricula. Given the move towards online learning and assessment, we investigate whether mathematical creativity can be assessed at-scale in the Numbers game, an arithmetic game in Math Garden, a popular online math practice platform. In the Numbers game, a generalisation of the 24 Game, children are asked to figure out how to compute a target number using basic arithmetic operations and a given set of numbers. We argue that creative thinking is required when the search space is complex, and propose that the base-pattern, i.e., the sequence of the operations needed to solve a Numbers game item, indicates search space complexity. We then demonstrate that items with disordered base-patterns are more likely to require mathematical creativity to figure out. Specifically, our analysis shows that for items with only one solution sequence, those with disordered base-patterns are more difficult and take longer to solve compared to items with ordered base-patterns. For items where multiple solution sequences are possible, nine times out of ten children choose ordered over disordered base-patterns. We conclude that the Numbers game has potential for assessing mathematical creativity at-scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0269.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: IIoT; Platform Selection; Multi criteria analysis; MCDA; AHP; PROMETHEE-II; Cloud; Methodology
Online: 19 February 2020 (04:02:12 CET)
Industry 4.0 is having a great impact in all smart efforts. This is not a single product, but is composed of several technologies, being one of them Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Currently, there are very varied implementation options offered by several companies, and this imposes a new challenge to companies that want to implement IoT in their processes. This challenge suggests to use multi-criteria analysis to make a repeatable and justified decision, requiring a set of alternatives and criteria. This paper proposes a new methodology and comprehensive criteria to help organizations to take an educated decision by applying multi-criteria analysis. Here, we suggest a new original use of PROMETHEE-II with full example from weight calculation up to IoT platform selection, showing this methodology as an effective study for other organizations interested to select an IoT platform. The criteria proposed outstands from previous work by including not only technical aspects, but economic and social criteria, providing a full view of the problem analyzed. A case of study was used to prove this proposed methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: environmental noise monitoring; noise sensing; A-weighting; hardware platform; wireless sensor network
Online: 20 June 2018 (15:59:02 CEST)
Wireless sensor networks can provide a cheap and flexible infrastructure to support the measurement of noise pollution. However, the processing of the gathered data is challenging to implement on resource-constrained nodes, because each node has its own limited power supply, low-performance and low-power micro-controller unit and other limited processing resources, as well as limited amount of memory. We propose a sensor node for monitoring of indoor ambient noise. The sensor node is based on a hardware platform with limited computational resources and utilizes a number of simplifications to approximate more complex and costly signal processing stage. Furthermore, to reduce the communication between the sensor node and a sink node, as well as the power consumed by the IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) transceiver, we perform digital A-weighting filtering and non-calibrated calculation of the sound pressure level on the node. According to experimental results, the proposed sound level meter can accurately measure the noise levels of up to 100~dB, with the mean difference of less than 2~dB compared to Class 1 sound level meter. The proposed device can continuously monitor indoor noise for several days. Despite the limitations of the used hardware platform, the presented node is a promising low-cost and low-power solution for indoor ambient noise monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: aging offshore jacket platform; safety assessment; analytic hierarchy process; grey clustering method
Online: 20 August 2016 (05:26:34 CEST)
It is a significant task to assess the safety of the aging offshore jacket platform in order to extend the service life. This paper analyzes the multiple risk factors of an aging jacket platform in Bohai Bay, China and builds the safety evaluation index system, which includes three levels, namely, the target layer, the first-grade indicators layer and the second-grade indicators layer. The target layer consists of three first-grade indicators: ocean environments, structure status, and human and organizational factors. Each first-grade indicator is divided into three second-grade indicators. The weight of each indicator is calculated by analytic hierarchy process to weaken subjective effect. Grey clustering method is applied to estimate the failure risk of the platform in Bohai Bay qualitatively and quantitatively. The assessment standard is divided into five grades and the whitening function of each grey cluster is determined by the assessment scheme. The grey evaluation weight vector of each second-grade indicator is calculated by the table dispatching method. Through layer by layer calculation, the grey assessment value of the target layer is finally estimated by making the grey assessment weight vector single-value and the grey grade is determined according to the maximum principle. The evaluation results show quantitatively that the failure risk grade of the jacket platform in Bohai Bay is medium and the safety assessment method is reasonable and feasible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: aerial communication; FANET; not-spots; stratospheric communication platform; UAV; UAV-Assisted network; 5G
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:48:11 CEST)
Access to broadband communications in different parts of the world has become a priority for some governments and regulatory authorities around the world in recent years. Building new digital roads and pursuing a connected society includes looking for easier access to the Internet. In general, not all the areas where people congregate are fully covered, especially in rural zones, thus restricting access to data communications and bringing inequality. In the present review article, we have comprehensively surveyed the use of three platforms to deliver broadband services to such remote and low-income areas are proposed: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Altitude Platforms (APS), and Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. These novel strategies support the connected and accessible world hypothesis. Hence UAVs are considered a noteworthy solution since their efficient maneuverability can aboard the rural coverage issues or not-spots.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0280.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: scientific visualization; interactive data analysis; support for earth system science; cross-platform application
Online: 25 July 2019 (06:32:24 CEST)
Visualization is an essential tool for analysis of data and communication of findings in the sciences, and the Earth System Science (ESS) are no exception. However, within ESS specialized visualization requirements and data models --- particularly for those data arising from numerical models --- often make general-purpose visualization packages difficult, if not impossible, to effectively use. This paper presents VAPOR: a domain-specific visualization package that targets the specialized needs of ESS modelers, particularly those working in research settings where highly interactive exploratory visualization is beneficial. We specifically describe VAPOR’s ability to handle ESS simulation data from a wide variety of numerical models, as well as a multi-resolution representation that enables interactive visualization on very large data while using only commodity computing resources. We also describe VAPOR’s visualization capabilities, paying particular attention to features for geo-referenced data and advanced rendering algorithms suitable for time-varying, 3D data. Finally, we illustrate VAPOR's utility in the study of a numerically simulated tornado. Our results demonstrate both ease-of-use and the rich capabilities of VAPOR in such a use case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: data governance; data sovereignty; urban data spaces; ICT reference architecture; open urban platform
Online: 6 December 2018 (05:09:54 CET)
This paper presents the results of a recent study that was conducted with a number of German municipalities/cities. Based on the obtained and briefly presented recommendations emerging from the study, the authors propose the concept of an Urban Data Space (UDS), which facilitates an eco-system for data exchange and added value creation thereby utilizing the various types of data within a smart city/municipality. Looking at an Urban Data Space from within a German context and considering the current situation and developments in German municipalities, this paper proposes a reasonable classification of urban data that allows to relate the various data types to legal aspects and to conduct solid considerations regarding technical implementation designs and decisions. Furthermore, the Urban Data Space is described/analyzed in detail, and relevant stakeholders are identified, as well as corresponding technical artifacts are introduced. The authors propose to setup Urban Data Spaces based on emerging standards from the area of ICT reference architectures for Smart Cities, such as DIN SPEC 91357 “Open Urban Platform” and EIP SCC. Thereby, the paper walks the reader through the construction of an UDS based on the above mentioned architectures and outlines all the goals, recommendations and potentials, which an Urban Data Space can reveal to a municipality/city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0485.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy management; energy efficiency; small and medium enterprises; artificial intelligence techniques; decision support platform
Online: 28 April 2020 (08:17:22 CEST)
The paper presents a new vision on the energy consumption management in the case of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), integrated into an advanced decision support platform, with technical and economic benefits on increasing the energy efficiency, which contains modules for database management, profiling, forecasting, and production scheduling. Inside each module, Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining techniques were proposed to remove the uncertainties regarding the dynamic of technological flows. Thus, the data management module includes the Data Mining techniques, that extract the technical details on the energy consumption needed in the development of production scheduling strategies, the profiling module uses an original approach based on clustering techniques to determine the typical energy consumption profiles required in the optimal planning of the activities, the forecasting module contains a new approach based on an expert system to forecast the total energy consumption of the SMEs, and production scheduling module integrates a heuristic optimization method to obtain the optimal solutions in flattening the energy consumption profile. The testing was done for a small enterprise from Romania, belonging to the domain of trade and repair of vehicles. The obtained results highlighted the advantages of the proposed decision support platform on the decrease in the intensity of energy consumption per unit of product, reduction of the purchase costs, and modification of the impact whom the energy bills have on the operational costs.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Eclogite xenolith; kimberlite; zircon; U-Pb age; Hf isotopes; Ukrainian Shield; Devonian; East European Platform.
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:43:55 CEST)
The results of an LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and Hf isotope study of zircon crystals separated from small eclogite xenoliths found in Devonian kimberlites within the Prypyat horst, Ukraine, are reported. The studied area is located in the Central Belarusian Suture Zone, which represents a Paleoproterozoic belt extending along the boundary between the Sarmatian and Fennoscandian segments of the East European Platform. Four laser ablation sites on two zircon grains yielded Paleoproterozoic U-Pb ages between 1954 ± 24 Ma and 1735 ± 54 Ma. In contrast, three of four Hf sites revealed negative εHf values and Paleoarchean to Mesoarchean model ages, excluding the possibility that the eclogite xenoliths represent segments of a Paleoproterozoic subducted slab or younger mafic melts crystallized in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. A single laser ablation Hf spot yielded a positive εHf value (+3) and a Paleoproterozoic model age. Two models for eclogite origin can be proposed. The first foresees the extension of the Archean lower-crustal or lithospheric roots beneath the Central Belarus Suture Zone for over 200 km from the nearest known outcrop of Archean rocks. The second model is that the Central Belarus Suture Zone represents a rifted-out fragment of the Kola-Karelian craton that was accreted to Sarmatia before the actual collision of these two segments of Baltica.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0614.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: marine weather; characteristic wave height; storm surge; shore platform; overtopping wave; hydrodynamics equation; flooding hazard
Online: 25 June 2021 (10:12:06 CEST)
Boulder dynamics may provide essential data for the coastal evolution and hazards assessment and can be focused as a proxy for the onshore effect of intense storm waves. In this work, detailed observations of currently available satellite imagery of the Earth surface allowed to identify several coastal boulders displacements in the Southern Apulia coast (Italy), in a period between July 2018 and June 2020. Field surveys confirmed the displacements of several dozens of boulders up to several meters in size, also allowing the determination of the initial position for many of them. Archive weather analyses identified two possible causative storms during the same period, and calculations based on analytical equations are found in agreement with the displacement by storm waves for most of the observed boulders. The results help to give insights about the onshore effect of high storm waves on the coastal hydrodynamics and the possible future flooding hazard in the studied coast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0414.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural; Biocatalysis; 2,5-Di(hydroxymethyl)furan; Fusarium; Whole Cells; Biotransformation; Platform Chemical; Biomass; Bioreactor
Online: 21 January 2021 (10:14:47 CET)
2,5-Di(hydroxymethyl)furan (DHMF) is a high-value chemical block than can be synthesized from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a platform chemical that results from the dehydration of biomass-derived carbohydrates. In this work, the HMF biotransformation capability of different Fusarium species was evaluated and F. striatum was selected to produce DHMF. The effects of the inoculum size, glucose concentration and pH of the media over DHMF production were evalu-ated by a 23 factorial design. A substrate feeding approach was found suitable to overcome the toxicity effect of HMF towards the cells when added at high concentrations (>75 mM). The pro-cess was successfully scaled-up at bioreactor scale (1.3 L) with excellent DHMF production yields (95%) and selectivities (98%). DHMF was purified from the reaction media with high recovery and purity by organic solvent extraction with ethyl acetate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Vaccine platform; papaya mosaic virus (PapMV); rod shape nanoparticle; influenza M2e; influenza nucleocapsid, sortase (SrtA).
Online: 14 December 2020 (12:24:44 CET)
Background: The papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) vaccine platform is a rod-shape nanoparticle made of the recombinant PapMV coat protein (CP) self-assembled around a non-coding ssRNA template. The PapMV nanoparticle induces innate immunity through stimulation of the toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8. The display of the vaccine antigen at the surface of the nanoparticle, associated with the co-stimulation signal via TLR7/8, ensures a strong stimulation of the immune response, which is ideal for the development of candidate vaccines. In this study, we assess the impact of where the peptide antigen is fused, either at the surface or at the extremities of the nanoparticles, on the immune response directed to that antigen. Methods: Two different peptides from influenza A virus were used as model antigens. The conserved M2e peptide was chosen as the B-cell epitope, and a peptide derived from the nucleocapsid was chosen as the CTL epitope. These peptides were coupled at two different positions on the PapMV CP, the N- (PapMV-N) or the C-terminus (PapMV-C) using the transpeptidase activity of Sortase A (SrtA). The immune responses, both humoral and CD8+ T cell-mediated, directed to the peptide antigens in the two different fusion contexts were analyzed and compared. The impact of coupling density at the surface of the nanoparticle was also investigated. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that coupling of the peptide antigens at the N-terminus (PapMV-N) of the PapMV CP led to an enhanced immune response to the coupled peptide antigens as compared to coupling to the C-terminus. The difference between the two vaccine platforms is linked to the enhanced capacity of the PapMV-N vaccine platform to stimulate the TLR7/8. We also demonstrated that the strength of the immune response increases with the density of coupling at the surface of the nanoparticles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0071.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biosensor; S-layer protein; crystalline 2D protein lattice; lipid membrane platform; linking matrix; bioreceptor; biomimetics
Online: 9 March 2018 (12:10:28 CET)
The present Feature Paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S‑layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline 2D protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture, linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: marine hydrokinetic turbine; wind energy; floating offshore wind turbine; mooring lines; floating platform; vertical axis turbine
Online: 4 November 2019 (05:13:32 CET)
In April 2019, a team of Keio University and Bucknell University students was assembled to participate in Ericsson Innovation Awards with a novel concept for generating renewable energy. This conceptual system consists of a vertical axis wind turbine, a crossflow marine hydrokinetic turbine, a floating platform integrated with a quadcopter system, and three to four temporary mooring lines with ship-type anchors. The proposed designed aims to offer solutions to two current problems of floating offshore wind energy: high construction cost of floating platforms and difficulties in maintenance of mooring lines. The combination of two vertical-axis turbines into a single floating platform would enable the system, namely ESwift, to extract energy from both wind and current resources. Additionally, due to the utilization of vertical axis turbines, the center of gravity of the proposed concept is significantly lower with respect to water level, compared to that of existing floating horizontal axis wind turbines, which would potentially reduce the floater's size and construction cost. Lastly, the integrated quadcopter mechanism would assist the floater in terms of stability and mobility, and enables an array of ESwifts to automatically rearrange for maximal energy generation. The authors hope that readers would find the idea described in this open access letter worth pursuing and would further develop and commercialize the ESwift concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: motion sensors; seismic sensing; Wadati method; earthquakes; programmable; simulation; test bench; calibration; machine learning; IoT platform
Online: 29 July 2019 (03:11:41 CEST)
Natural calamities observation, study and simulation has always been a prime concern for disaster management agencies. Billions of dollars are spent annually to explore geo-seismic movements especially earthquakes but it has always been a unique accident. The real-time study of seismic waves, ground motions, and earthquakes always needed a programmable mechanical structure capable of physically producing the identical geo-seismic motions with seismology domain definitions. A programmable multi-parametric five degrees of freedom electromechanical seismic wave events simulation platform to study and experiment seismic waves and earthquakes realization in the form of geo-mechanic ground motions is exhibited in this work. The proposed platform was programmed and interfaced through an IoT cloud-based Web application. The geo-mechanics was tested in the range of i) frequencies of extreme seismic waves from 0.1Hz to 178Hz; ii) terrestrial inclinations from -10.000° to 10.000°; iii) velocities of 1km/s to 25km/s iv) variable arrival times 1us to 3000ms; v) magnitudes M1.0 to M10.0 earthquake; vi) epi-central and hypo-central distances of 290+ and 350+ kilometers. Wadati and triangulation methods have been used for entire platform dynamics design and implementation as one of key contributions in this work. This platform is as an enabler for a variety of applications such as training self-balancing and calibrating seismic-resistant designs and structures in addition to studying and testing seismic detection devices as well as motion detection sensors. Nevertheless, it serves as an adequate training colossus for machine learning algorithms and event management expert systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0177.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Nitric oxide delivery; mathematical modeling; Flow-mediated dilation; Inhaled NO therapy; Stem cell therapy; NO-releasing platform
Online: 12 October 2021 (11:40:24 CEST)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule in cardiovascular homeostasis and its abnormal delivery is highly associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The assessment and manipulation of NO delivery is crucial to the diagnosis and therapy of CVD, such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerotic progression, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiovascular manifestations of Coronavirus (COVID-19). However, due to the low concentration and fast reaction characteristics of NO in cardiovascular system, the clinical applications centered on the NO delivery are challenging. In this tutorial review, we first summarized the methods to estimate the in vivo NO delivery process based on the clinical images and mathematical modeling to assess the endothelial function and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. Then, the emerging bioimaging technologies that have the potential to directly measure the arterial NO concentration were discussed, including the Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical sensor. Aside from the diagnostic methods, therapies aimed at controlling NO delivery to regulate CVD were reviewed, including the inhaled NO therapy to treat the pulmonary hypertension and COVID-19, stem cell therapy and NO-releasing platform to treat endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cancer nodules detection; phantom; stiffness analysis; ultrasound analysis; visual analysis; automatic robotic platform; remote support for pathologists
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:26:13 CEST)
This study presents a platform for ex-vivo detection of cancer nodules, addressing automation of medical diagnoses in surgery and associated histological analyses. The proposed approach takes advantage of the property of cancer to alter the mechanical and acoustical properties of tissues, because of changes in stiffness and density. A force sensor and an ultrasound probe were combined to detect such alterations during force-regulated indentations. To explore the specimens, regardless of their orientation and shape, a scanned area of the test sample was defined using shape recognition applying optical background subtraction to the images captured by a camera. The motorized platform was validated using seven phantom tissues, simulating the mechanical and acoustical properties of ex-vivo diseased tissues, including stiffer nodules that can be encountered in pathological conditions during histological analyses. Results demonstrated the platform’s ability to automatically explore and identify the inclusions in the phantom. Overall, the system was able to correctly identify up to 90.3% of the inclusions by means of stiffness in combination with ultrasound measurements, paving pathway towards robotic palpation during intraoperative examinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal runaway; big-data platform; battery systems; electric vehicles; National Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicles
Online: 16 May 2017 (03:18:57 CEST)
This paper presents a thermal runaway prognosis scheme based on the big-data platform and entropy method for battery systems in electric vehicles. It can simultaneously realize the diagnosis and prognosis of thermal runaway caused by the temperature fault through monitoring battery temperature during vehicular operations. A vast quantity of real-time voltage monitoring data was collected in the National Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicles (NSMC-EV) in Beijing to verify the effectiveness of the presented method. The results show that the proposed method can accurately forecast both the time and location of the temperature fault within battery packs. Furthermore, a temperature security management strategy for thermal runaway is proposed on the basis of the Z-score approach and the abnormity coefficient is set to make real-time precaution of temperature abnormity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart scheduling; Smart Reservations; Reinforcement Learning; Electric vehicle charging; Electric Vehicle Charging Management platform; DQN Reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:20:13 CET)
Abstract: As the policies and regulations currently in place concentrate on environmental protection and greenhouse gas reduction, we are steadily witnessing a shift in the transportation industry towards electromobility. There are, though, several issues that need to be addressed to encourage the adoption of EVs at a larger scale. To this end, we propose a solution capable of addressing multiple EV charging scheduling issues, such as congestion management, scheduling a charging station in advance, and allowing EV drivers to plan optimized long trips using their EVs. The smart charging scheduling system we propose considers a variety of factors such as battery charge level, trip distance, nearby charging stations, other appointments, and average speed. Given the scarcity of data sets required to train the Reinforcement Learning algorithms, the novelty of the recommended solution lies in the scenario simulator, which generates the labelled datasets needed to train the algorithm. Based on the generated scenarios, we created and trained a neural network that uses a history of previous situations to identify the optimal charging station and time interval for recharging. The results are promising and for future work we are planning to train the DQN model using real-world data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0109.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Automated Fare Collection (AFC); Smart Card; Crowding; Practical Waiting Area; Subway Station Platform; Time-Varying; Late-Night Peak
Online: 6 March 2020 (09:02:01 CET)
Management of crowding at subway platform is essential to improving services, preventing train delays and ensuring passenger safety. Establishing effective measures to mitigate crowding at platform requires accurate estimation of actual crowding levels. At present, there are temporal and spatial constraints since subway platform crowding is assessed only at certain locations, done every 1~2 years, and counting is performed manually Notwithstanding, data from smart cards is considered real-time big data that is generated 24 hours a day and thus, deemed appropriate basic data for estimating crowding. This study proposes the use of smart card data in creating a model that dynamically estimates crowding. It first defines crowding as demand, which can be translated into passengers dynamically moving along a subway network. In line with this, our model also identifies the travel trajectory of individual passengers, and is able to calculate passenger flow, which concentrates and disperses at the platform, every minute. Lastly, the level of platform crowding is estimated in a way that considers the effective waiting area of each platform structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0085.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: passenger flow distribution model; simulation design; performance evaluation; passenger flow volume; service level; urban rail transit hub platform
Online: 2 December 2016 (07:52:00 CET)
Urban rail transit hub platform is the most important area for passenger flow distribution. In order to calculate passenger flow volume in platform and evaluate platform service level during rush hours, this paper presents a method for modeling and simulation of passenger flow distribution in platform. Passenger flow distribution model (PFDM) is proposed based on the basic analysis and the superposition principle of passenger flow. Simulation design for PFDM is proposed by Anylogic, which contains simulation process and simulation model. Experiment results show that PFDM and simulation design are effective and accordant with the reality scenario, and the simulation precision is comparatively ideal. This research could provide a beneficial reference for train scheduling and operation management under the viewpoint of traffic safety and service level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart scheduling; smart reservations; reinforcement learning; electric vehicle charging; electric vehicle charging management platform; neural network; DQN reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 8 March 2022 (08:54:48 CET)
The widespread adoption of electromobility constitutes one of the measures designed to reduce air pollution caused by traditional fossil fuels. However, several factors are currently impending this process, ranging from insufficient charging infrastructure, battery capacity, long queueing and charging time, to psychological factors. On top of range anxiety, the frustration of the EV drivers is further fueled by the lack the uncertainty of finding an available charging point on their route. To address this issue, we propose a solution that comes to bypass the limitations of the Reserve now function of the OCPP standard, enabling drivers to make charging reservations for the upcoming days, especially when planning a longer trip. We created an algorithm that generates reservation intervals based on the charging station's reservation and transaction history. Subsequently, we ran a series of test cases that yielded promising results, with no overlapping reservations.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Horizontal East-west velocity; LOS; vertical velocity; InSAR time series; Big Data; PSDS; TomoSAR platform; Sentinel-1; Ho Chi Minh City
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:04:39 CEST)
Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the most crowded city and economic hub of Viet Nam, has been experiencing land subsidence over the past decades. This effort aims to contribute the spatial distribution of subsidence in HCMC in its horizontal and vertical components using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) time series. To this purpose, an advanced Persistent Scatterers and Distributed Scatterers (PSDS) InSAR technique was applied to two European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 datasets consisting of 96 ascending and 202 descending images, acquired from 2014 to 2020 over the HCMC area. A time series of 33 COSMO-SkyMed ascending images was also used for comparison. The combination of ascending and descending satellite passes is used to decompose the light of sight velocities into horizontal east-west and vertical components. Taking into account the presence of east-west horizontal motion, our findings indicate that the accuracy of the decomposed vertical velocity can be improved by up to 3 mm/year for Sentinel-1 data. The obtained results revealed that subsidence is most pronounced in the areas along the Sai Gon River, in the northwest-southeast axis, and in the southwest of the city, with a maximum value of 80 mm/yr, which is in accordance with the findings of the literature. The amplitude of east-west horizontal velocities is relatively small and large-scale eastward movement can be observed in the west of the city at a rate of 3-5 mm/yr. This confirmed that the displacement in Ho Chi Minh City area is mainly vertical downward. Together, these results reinforced the remarkable suitability of ESA's SAR Sentinel-1 for subsidence applications, even for non-European countries such as Vietnam and Southeast Asia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells
Online: 23 August 2019 (03:33:49 CEST)
This article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic growth factors and how the technology can be used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected and irradiated protein packaging cell lines may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage matrix regeneration. We discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging cell lines are superior to bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new biological therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0078.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; vaccine development; vaccine discovery; systems biology; machine learning; platform technologies; adjuvants; smart clinical trials; human genetics; regulatory convergence; real world evidence; vaccines safety
Online: 7 June 2020 (10:11:02 CEST)
The urgency to develop vaccines against Covid-19 is putting pressure on the long and expensive development timelines which are normally required for development of lifesaving vaccines. There is a unique opportunity to take advantage of new technologies, smart and flexible design of clinical trials, and evolving regulatory science to speed up vaccine development against Covid-19 and transform vaccine development altogether.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0674.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells; TissueGene-C
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:16:51 CEST)
This review article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic and anabolic growth factors. We discuss how the currently available tools and emerging technologies can be used for the regenerative treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected protein packaging cell lines such as GP-293 cells may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage regeneration. However, when irradiated with gamma or x-rays, these cells lose their capacity for replication, which actually makes them safe for use as a live cell component of intra-articular injections. This innovation is already here, in the form of TissueGene-C, a new biological drug which consists of normal allogeneic primary chondrocytes combined with transduced GP2-293 cells that overexpress the growth factor transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). TissueGene-C has revolutionized the concept of cell therapy, allowing drug companies to develop live cells as biological drug delivery systems for direct intra-articular injection of growth factors whose half-lives are in the order of minutes. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging eukaryotic cell lines are superior to prokaryotic bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new humanized biological growth factor therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA, especially when injected directly into the joint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030071
Subject: Keywords: telescopes; lightweight telescope mirrors; adaptive optics; better resolution; increased accuracy; more bandwidth; cluster of satellites; innovative platform; more capabilities into smaller packages; far-shorter time from click to customer
Online: 9 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The use of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (i.e., LASERs or lasers) by the U.S. Department of Defense is not new and includes laser weapons guidance, laser-aided measurements, even lasers as weapons (e.g., Airborne Laser). Lasers in support of telecommunications is also not new. The use of laser light in fiber optics shattered thoughts on communications bandwidth and throughput. Even the use of lasers in space is no longer new. Lasers are being used for satellite-to-satellite crosslinking. Laser communication can transmit orders-of-magnitude more data using orders-of-magnitude less power and can do so with minimal risk of exposure to the sending and receiving terminals. What is new is using lasers as the uplink and downlink between the terrestrial segment and the space segment of satellite systems. More so, the use of lasers to transmit and receive data between moving terrestrial segments (e.g., ships at sea, airplanes in flight) and geosynchronous satellites is burgeoning. This manuscript examines the technological maturation of employing lasers as the signal carrier for satellite communications linking terrestrial and space systems. The purpose of the manuscript is to develop key performance parameters (KPPs) to inform U.S. Department of Defense initial capabilities documents (ICDs) for near-future satellite acquisition and development. By appreciating the history and technological challenges of employing lasers rather than traditional radio frequency sources for satellite uplink and downlink signal carrier, this manuscript recommends ways for the U.S. Department of Defense to employ lasers to transmit and receive high bandwidth, large-throughput data from moving platforms that need to retain low probabilities of detection, intercept, and exploitation (e.g., carrier battle group transiting to a hostile area of operations, unmanned aerial vehicle collecting over adversary areas). The manuscript also intends to identify commercial sector early-adopter fields and those fields likely to adapt to laser employment for transmission and receipt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0415.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Precision stage; Balanced platform; Balancing weight; Drive force offset; Yaw motion; Abbe er-ror; Error prediction; Low-cost stage; Open frame stage; Linear motion guide (LM Guide); Py-thon; GEKKO; ANSYS bushing joint
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:47:56 CET)
Recently, due to the miniaturization of electronic products, printed circuit boards (PCBs) have also become smaller. This trend has led to the need for high-precision electrical test equipment to check PCBs for disconnections and short circuits. The purpose of this study is to improve the position repeatability of the platform unit up to ±2.5 μm in a linear stage type test equipment. For this purpose, the causes of position errors of the platform unit are analyzed. The platform unit holding the PCB is driven by a single-axis linear ball screw drive system offset from its geometric center due to design constraints. The yaw rotation of the platform is found to have a dominant effect on position repeatability. To address this problem, the methods of adding balancing weights to the platform unit and adjusting the stiffness of LM Guides are proposed. This reduces the yaw rotation by moving the centers of mass and stiffness closer to the linear ball screw actuator. In the verification tests, the position repeatability was decreased to less than ±1.0 μm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI); Distributed Energy Resources (DER); Distribution Management System (DMS); Graph Reduction In Parallel (GRIP); Intelligent Electronic Device (IED); Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI); Service Oriented Architecture (SOA); Ultra Large Scale System (ULSS)
Online: 19 March 2018 (11:42:42 CET)
Smart grid software interconnects multiple Engineering disciplines (power systems, communication, software and hardware technology, instrumentation, big data, etc.). The software architecture is an evolving concept in smart grid systems in which systematic architecture development is a challenging process. The architecture has to realize the complex legacy power grid systems and cope up with current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The distributed generation in smart grid environment expects the software architecture to be distributed and to enable local control. Smart grid architecture should also be modular, flexible and adaptable to technology upgrades. In this paper, the authors have made a comprehensive review on architecture for smart grids. An in depth analysis of layered and agent based architectures is presented and compared under various domains.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: soft-core architecture; system on chip (SoC); radio frequency system on chip (RFSoC); adaptive compute acceleration platform (ACAP); scalar processing; vector processing; I/Q demodulator; odd order sampling; even order sampling; analogue to digital converter (ADC)
Online: 1 September 2019 (14:40:07 CEST)
Soft-Core architecture for Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC) sampling is useful for mixed signal applications. Soft-core architecture for cutting edge odd or even ADC sampling with interface to block RAM memory has not been found. Soft-core architecture as a concept has become popular due to the advantage of customization for different applications as compared to general-core architecture suited for single application. The latest generation of piece wise sampling is odd sampling and was introduced in the second decade of the 20th century. Odd and even order sampling techniques are analogue in nature driven by a tuned (tuned for odd or even) mixer. This paper proposes a third-generation piece wise sampling with soft-core architecture that enables an option to select both odd and even while interfacing to memory mapping. The proposed odd/even has superior SNR performance of 6 dB as compared to existing architecture such as Mod-∆ which recorded worst performance of 18 dB. Advances in soft-core technology have allowed a niche odd/even switching field to be identified and studied, the study has also been extended to include memory architecture.