ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0081.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: core stability; balance; agility
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:09:01 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if tests used to assess core stability could be used to determine success in physiological tests applied to assess dynamic balance and agility for a young active population. Methods: Pearson's r correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the core stability tests and the dynamic balance and agility tests. Evaluation of the tests was established using Cronbach's coefficient of variance as part of intra-rater reliability tests. An analysis of 18 active college aged students was conducted (males: n= 13, females: n= 5). The mean ± SD age for males was 19.2 years ± 3.22 years and for females was 19.4 years ± 1.14 years. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is no significant relationship between tests that assess core stability and tests conducted to assess dynamic balance in active young adults. With the exception of the abdominal flexion test, no significant relationship exists between the remaining core stability tests and agility T-Test. Core stability is not a determinant of balance and agility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0060.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: multi-layer core corrugated sandwich panel; three-point bending; 3D printing; core shape; number of core layers
Online: 2 August 2022 (10:00:47 CEST)
Single-layer core corrugated sandwich panels generally consist of a corrugated core and two layers of panels, while multi-layer core corrugated sandwich panels are formed by stacking multiple layers of panels with multiple layers of core layers. In this study, integrated multilayer core corrugated sandwich panels with different shapes of corrugated cores (triangular, trapezoidal, and rectangular) and the different number of core layers were fabricated using 3D printing technology, and the mechanical behavior of such multilayer core corrugated sandwich panels under quasi-static three-point bending was investigated using experiments and numerical simulations. The effects of core shape and number of core layers on the bending deformation process, damage mode, load carrying capacity, and bending energy dissipation capacity of multilayer core sandwich panels are discussed. Parametric design of multilayer triangular core corrugated sandwich panels was also carried out by finite element software ABAQUS. It was found that a new multilayer corrugated sandwich panel with a multi-layer core is better than the single core shape multilayer corrugated sandwich panel in terms of bending load capacity, energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity can be obtained through the combination design of different core shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1377.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: local energy velocity; vortex; Poynting vector; air – core modes; hollow – core fibers; losses
Online: 21 August 2023 (03:24:23 CEST)
In this paper, we consider the behavior of the local energy flow velocity of the fundamental air – core mode at the core – cladding boundary in two types of hollow – core fibers: hollow – core fibers with a negative curvature of the core boundary and single – capillary fibers with similar geometrical parameters. It is demonstrated that the behavior of both axial and radial components of the local energy velocity of the fundamental air – core mode is completely different for these two types of hollow – core fibers. The negative curvature of the core boundary leads to an alternating behavior of the radial projection of the local energy velocity and a decrease by two orders of magnitude compared to the values of this projection for a single capillary. In our opinion, this behavior of the local energy velocity of the fundamental air – core mode is caused by a periodic set of Poynting vector vortices that appear in the cladding capillary walls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0442.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: perovskite; core-shell; heterostructure; stability; photocatalyst
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:13:35 CEST)
Practical applications of CsPbX3 nanocrystals (NCs) are limited by their poor stability. The formation of heterojunction between CsPbX3 NCs and oxides is an effective means to protect perovskite from polar solvents and other external factors. Significantly improving the stability and photocatalytic properties of the core/shell perovskite is very important for its application in photoelectric and photocatalytic technology. Here, we report the synthesis of asymmetrical CsPbBr3/TiO2 core-shell heterostructure NCs at single particle level by hot injection liquid phase synthesis and sol-gel method, where each CsPbBr3 NCs is partially covered by titanium dioxide. It is shown that the type II arrangement is generated at the heterogeneous interface, which greatly facilitates the separation of electron-hole pairs and increases the carrier transport efficiency. More crucial, due to the protection of titanium dioxide shell, the product has higher long-term stability in humid air compared with bare CsPbBr3 NCs. The asymmetrical core-shell heterostructure prepared in this study not only improves the stability of CsPbX3 NCs, but also provides some ideas for optoelectronic device applications and TiO2-based photocatalysts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; core protein; TNFα
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:38:14 CEST)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is a multifunctional protein that is involved in proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis mechanism of hepatocytes. HCV core protein genetic variability has been implicated in various outcomes of HCV pathology and treatment. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the role of HCV core protein in tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced death under the viewpoint of HCV genetic variability. Immortalized hepatocytes (IHH), and not the Huh7.5 hepatoma cell line, stably expressing HCV subtype 4a and HCV subtype 4f core proteins showed that only HCV 4a core protein could increase sensitivity to TNFα-induced death. Development of two transgenic mice expressing the two different core proteins under the liver-specific promoter of transthyretin (TTR) allowed for the in vivo assessment of the role of core in TNFα-induced death. Using the TNFα-dependent model of lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/Dgal) we were able to recapitulate the in vitro results in IHH cells in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing HCV 4a core protein were more susceptible to the LPS/Dgal model while mice expressing HCV 4f core protein had the same susceptibility as their littermate controls. Transcriptome analysis in liver biopsies from these transgenic mice gave insights into HCV core molecular pathogenesis, while linking HCV core protein genetic variability to differential pathology in vivo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0463.v1
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:51:41 CET)
Core-shell particles are heterogenous micro- or nanoparticles with solid, liquid or gas core encapsulated by a protective solid shell. The unique composition of core and shell materials imparts smart properties to the particles. Core-shell particles are gaining increasing attention as tuneable and versatile carriers for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications including targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and biosensing. This review first provides an overview of fabrication methods for core-shell particles, followed by a brief discussion on their application and a detailed analysis on manipulation including assembly, sorting, and triggered release. We compile current methodologies employed for manipulation of core-shell particles and demonstrate how existing methods of assembly and sorting micro/nanospheres can be adopted or modified for core-shell particles. Various triggered release approaches for diagnostics and drug delivery are also discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0185.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: paper core; impregnation; elastic properties; experiment; FEM
Online: 12 April 2020 (08:28:02 CEST)
The research hypothesis states that the impregnation of the honeycomb paper core of lightweight sandwich panels with modified starch, sodium silicate and LiquidWood® resin has a significant effect on the elastic properties of it. In the study, a recycled paper was used in three thicknesses, seven types of cell shapes, including two after numerical optimization and three types of impregnating agents. The method of digital image analysis determined the elastic constants of manufactured paper cores, which were subjected to axial compression in two directions. Based on the experimental results, elastic constants of the cores were calculated and compared with the results of numerical calculations. It has been shown that each of the impregnating solutions used improves the stiffness of the paper core. The best results were obtained for LiquidWood® epoxy resin and modified starch. An important parameter of cell geometry affecting their rigidity is the angle of the cell wall φ, as well as the arrangement of the common cell wall in relation to the direction of load. The numerical models developed were positively verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: mercury; landfill; core sampling; hgcA; merA; merB
Online: 16 May 2018 (10:05:58 CEST)
Mercury is a neurotoxin, with certain organic forms of the element being particularly harmful to humans. The Minamata Convention was adopted to reduce the intentional use and emission of mercury. Because mercury is an element, it cannot be decomposed. Mercury-containing products and mercury used for various processes will eventually enter the waste stream, and landfill sites will become a mercury sink. While landfill sites can be a source of mercury pollution, the behavior of mercury in solid waste within a landfill site is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the depth profile of mercury, the levels of methyl mercury (MeHg), and the factors controlling methylation in an old landfill site that received waste for over 30 years. Three sampling cores were selected, and boring sampling was conducted to a maximum depth of 18 m, which reached the bottom layer of the landfill. Total mercury (THg) and MeHg were measured in the samples to determine the characteristics of mercury at different depths. Bacterial species were identified by 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing, because the methylation process is promoted by a series of genes. It was found that the THg concentration was 19–975 ng/g, with a geometric mean of 298 ng/g, which was slightly less than the 400 ng/g concentration recorded 30 years previously. In some samples, MeHg accounted for up to 15–20% of THg, which is far greater than the general level in soils and sediments, although the source of MeHg was unclear. The genetic data indicated that hgcA was present mostly in the upper and lower layers of the three cores, merA was almost as much as hgcA, while the level of merB was hundreds of times less than those of the other two genes. A significant correlation was found between THg and MeHg as well as between MeHg and MeHg/THg. In addition a negative correlation was found between THg and merA. The coexistence of the three genes indicated that both methylation and demethylation processes could occur, but the lack of merB was a barrier for demethylation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1210.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sediment; pollution; core; geoaccumulation index; estuary; SW Spain
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:31:33 CEST)
Estuaries are excellent environments of identifying pollution episodes that have affected river basins, as their sediments are the final destination of some of the pollutants. This paper studies the geochemical evolution of five elements (As, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn) in a core extracted from the middle estuary of the Tinto River (SW Spain). Results are based on facies interpretation, ICP Atomic Emission Spectrometry analysis, the application of a regional background to obtain the geoaccumulation index and dating. Four pollution episodes have been detected at ~5.8 cal. kyr BP (acid mine drainage?), 4.7-4.5 kyr BP (first mining activities), the 1850-1960 interval (intensive mining) and the second half of the 20th century (intensive mining and industrial inputs). All episodes show an increase in one or more of these elements, as well as changes in their geochemical classes deduced from the geoaccumulation index.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: core training; exercises; flexibility; fitness; periodization
Online: 28 October 2021 (09:44:29 CEST)
This conceptual review aimed to investigate whether "functional training" (FT) programs are different from traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs. A search for the twenty most recent papers published involving FT was performed in the PubMed/Medline database. Definition, concepts, benefits, and the exercises employed in FT programs were analyzed. The main results were: 1) there is no agreement about a universal definition for FT; 2) FT programs aim at developing the same benefits already induced by traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs; 3) exercises employed are also the same. The inability to define FT makes differentiation difficult. Physical training programs can be easily described and classified as strength, power, flexibility, endurance, and the specific exercises employed (e.g., traditional resistance training, ballistic exercises, plyometrics and Olympic-style weightlifting, continuous and high-intensity interval training). This proper description and classification may improve communication in sports science and improve interdisciplinary integration. Aiming to avoid confusion and misconceptions, and based on the current evidence, we recommend that the terms FT, high-intensity FT, and functional fitness training no longer describe any physical training program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1671.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fermentation; sour bamboo shoots; volatile compounds; core microbiota
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:43:09 CEST)
Fermented bamboo shoots are a distinctive ingredient in Southern cuisine. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology (HTS) were employed to investigate the relationship among physicochemical properties, characteristic volatile compounds, and core microbial communities. The results show that the chewiness, fracturability, hardness, and pH decreased, while total acidity increased during 60d-fermentation. The contents of reducing sugar and nitrite reached the peak on the 14th day of fermentation and then decreased. A total of 80 volatile compounds were detected during sour bamboo shoot fermentation, with 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol having the highest concentration. Among them, 12 volatile compounds (VIP ≥ 1) were identified as characteristic aroma substances of sour bamboo shoots. The dominant bacterial phyla in sour bamboo shoots were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, while Bacillus and Acinetobacter were the dominant genus. Correlation analysis showed that Firmicutes positive correlation with 3,6-Nonadien-1-ol, (E,Z)-, Oxalic acid, isobutyl hexyl ester ,(-)-O-Acetylmalic anhydride, TA Bacillus was negative correlation with Silanediol, dimethyl-, and Oxime-, methoxy-phenyl-. This study provides a theoretical basis for screening flavor-enhancing microorganisms as fermentation agents in sour bamboo shoots, which can contribute to the improvement of their quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0131.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Core-shell nanoparticles; Optimization; Surface properties; Perfluorosilyl methacrylate
Online: 8 May 2018 (15:15:15 CEST)
In this study, the coating order of two monomers in the shell polymerization process of core–shell nanoparticles was altered to facilitate easy coating and optimize the properties of the coated surface to simplify the additional coating formulation process. To obtain a glass transition temperature suitable for coating, a core was synthesized by the copolymerization of an acryl monomer. A perfluoro monomer and silane monomer were additionally added to synthesize nanoparticles exhibiting both water–oil repellency and anchoring properties. In order to realize various surface properties, the nanoparticles underwent surface modification and cellulose fiber was introduced. Through the various data described in this text, the surface properties improved with the order of introduction of the two monomers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0206.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: numerical relativity; many-core architectures; Knight Landing; vectorization
Online: 26 March 2018 (07:53:06 CEST)
A simple optimization strategy for the computation of 3D finite-differencing kernels on many-cores architectures is proposed. The 3D finite-differencing computation is split direction-by-direction and exploits two level of parallelism: in-core vectorization and multi-threads shared-memory parallelization. The main application of this method is to accelerate the high-order stencil computations in numerical relativity codes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1110.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: needs; schema therapy; attachment; core emotional needs; schemas
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:41:45 CEST)
Several theories have been proposed on the subject of fundamental psychological human needs. A brief overview was given for some of these major theories. A more recent theory on core emotional needs, derived from the vantage point of schema therapy, was also proposed and comparisons were drawn with the other models, each with different psychological boundaries. Implications and what these psychological needs mean to parents were also discussed covering cultural norms that may inadvertently inflict harm on young children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: petroleum; metagenomics; core microbiota, functional potential, oil fields
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:29:57 CEST)
Microorganisms inhabiting subsurface petroleum reservoirs are key players in biochemical transformations. The interactions of microbial communities in these environments are highly complex and still poorly understood. This work aimed to assess publicly available metagenomes from oil reservoirs and implement a robust pipeline of genome-resolved metagenomics to deci-pher metabolic and taxonomic profiles of petroleum reservoirs worldwide. Analysis of 301,2 Gb of metagenomic information derived from heavily flooded petroleum reservoirs in China and Alaska to non-flooded petroleum reservoirs in Brazil enabled us to reconstruct 148 MAGs of high and medium quality. At the phylum level, 74% of MAGs belonged to bacteria and 26% to ar-chaea. The profiles of these MAGs were related to the physicochemical parameters and recovery management applied. The analysis of the potential functional core in the reservoirs showed that the microbiota was specialized for each site, with 31.7% of the total KEGG orthologies annotated as functions (1,690 genes) common to all oil fields, while 18% of the functions were site-specific, i.e., present only in one of the oil fields. The oil reservoirs with lower level of intervention were the most similar to the potential functional core, while the oil fields with longer history of water in-jection had greater variation in functional profile. These results show how key microorganisms and their functions respond to the distinct physicochemical parameters and interventions of the oil field operations such as water injection and expand the knowledge of biogeochemical trans-formations in these ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Self-compacting concrete; core specimens; freeze-thaw; compressive strength
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:06:10 CEST)
This study investigated the effects of freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties of hardened self-compacting concrete for varying column heights. A column (100×20×300 cm) was fabricated by C30 self-compacting concrete in the laboratory and 10 cube samples (10x10x10 cm) were taken from fresh concrete as the references. After a period of 28 days, 160 core specimens (Ø67 mm in diameter) were taken from different column heights. Unit weight, water absorption, compressive strength, and freeze-thaw tests were performed on these 170 (10 reference cubic and 160 core) samples. The mechanical properties of the core specimens before freeze-thaw and after 8-56 freeze-thaw cycles were reported for varying column heights. The average compressive strength value of the reference cubic samples was determined as 40.28 MPa, while the compressive strengths of the core specimens before freeze-thaw were ranged from 40.25 MPa to 49.62 MPa, impying an increase in compressive strength values up to 23.18% compared to the reference cubic samples. Compressive strengths of the specimens subjected to 8 and 56 freeze-thaw cycles varied between 38.71‒48.07 MPa and 31.72‒39.11 MPa, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the compressive strength of the concrete exposed to 56 freeze-thaw cycles was significantly different from that of the other specimens.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: self-compacting concrete; core specimens; freeze-thaw; compressive strength
Online: 6 May 2020 (04:10:11 CEST)
This study investigated the effects of freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties of hardened self-compacting concrete for varying column heights. A column (100×20×300 cm) was fabricated by C30 self-compacting concrete in the laboratory and 10 cube samples (10x10x10 cm) were taken from fresh concrete as the references. After a period of 28 days, 160 core specimens (Ø67 mm in diameter) were taken from different column heights. Unit weight, water absorption, compressive strength, and freeze-thaw tests were performed on these 170 (10 reference cubic and 160 core) samples. The mechanical properties of the core specimens before freeze-thaw and after 8-56 freeze-thaw cycles were reported for varying column heights. The average compressive strength value of the reference cubic samples was determined as 40.28 MPa, while the compressive strengths of the core specimens before freeze-thaw were ranged from 40.25 MPa to 49.62 MPa, impying an increase in compressive strength values up to 23.18% compared to the reference cubic samples. Compressive strengths of the specimens subjected to 8 and 56 freeze-thaw cycles varied between 38.71‒48.07 MPa and 31.72‒39.11 MPa, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the compressive strength of the concrete exposed to 56 freeze-thaw cycles was significantly different from that of the other specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0379.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: core affect; emotion; semantics; process cycle; quantum cognition; qubit
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:04:58 CET)
The paper describes model of human affect based on quantum theory of semantics. The model considers emotion as subjective representation of behavioral context relative to a basis binary choice, organized by cyclical process structure and an orthogonal evaluation axis. The resulting spherical space, generalizing well-known circumplex models, accommodates basic emotions in specific angular domains. Predicted process-semantic structure of affect is observed in the word2vec data, as well as in the previously obtained spaces of emotion concepts. The established quantum-theoretic structure of affective space connects emotion science with quantum models of cognition and behavior, opening perspective for synergetic progress in these fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0400.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Pangenome; horizontal gene transfer (HGT); core genome; accessory genome
Online: 19 July 2021 (10:19:29 CEST)
Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes (Psi) is a causative agent of leafspot of foxtail millet and pearl millet; however, novel strains were recently identified that are pathogenic on onion. Our recent host range evaluation study identified two pathovars; P. stewartii subsp. indologenes pv. cepacicola pv. nov. and P. stewartii subsp. indologenes pv. setariae pv. nov. that are pathogenic on onion and millets or on millets only, respectively. In the current study we developed a pan-genome using the whole genome sequencing of newly identified/classified Psi strains from both pathovars [pv. cepacicola (n= 4) and pv. setariae (n=13)]. The full spectrum of the pan-genome contained 7,030 genes. Among these, 3,546 (present in genomes of all 17 strains) were the core genes that were a subset of 3,682 soft-core genes (present in ≥16 strains). The accessory genome included 1,308 shell genes and 2,040 cloud genes (present in ≤ 2 strains). The pan-genome showed a clear liner progression with >6,000 genes, suggesting the pan-genome of Psi is open. Comparative phylogenetic analysis showed differences in phylogenetic clustering of Pantoea spp. using PAVs/wgMLST approach in comparison to core genome SNP-based phylogeny. Further, we conducted a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) study including four other Pantoea species namely, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii LMG 2715T, P. ananatis LMG 2665T, P. agglomerans LMG L15, and P. allii LMG 24248T. A total of 317 HGT events among four Pantoea species were identified with most gene transfers observed between Psi pv. cepacicola and Psi pv. setariae. Pan-GWAS analysis predicted a total of 154 genes including seven cluster of genes associated with the pathogenicity phenotype on onion. One of the clusters contain 11 genes with known functions and are found to be chromosomally located.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0014.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Core-shell microparticles; ultrasound; amphiphilic polymer; magnetic microparticles; doxorubicin
Online: 3 June 2020 (08:53:12 CEST)
Hybrid microparticles based on an iron core and amphiphilic shell have been prepared to respond simultaneously to external (magnetic and ultrasounds field) and internal (pH) stimuli for delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. The microparticles have been prepared in three main steps; including surface modification of the iron core followed by conjugation with the amphiphilic chitosan and drug loading. The particles demonstrate spherical shape and dimension in the range 1-3 m with tunable surface charge by changing the pH of surrounding environment. The microparticles demonstrate good stability in simulated physiological solutions and able to allocate up to 400 g of drug per mg of bare carrier. The response to ultrasound and the changes in the shell structure when exposed to different pH allows to control the doxorubicin release. In vitro cytotoxicity tests performed on fibloblast NIH/3T3 demonstrate a reduction in the cell viability when doxorubicin was administrated by microparticles compared to the free formulation; in particular when ultrasound were applied. The bare microparticles demonstrate cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility up to 50g/mL and 60 g/mL, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0326.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: electrospinning; core-shell structure; coaxial nanowire; ferrite; magnetic reversal
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:48:59 CEST)
In this study, we investigate the magnetization behavior of coaxial nanowires fabricated through the sol-gel electrospinning method. Our analysis uncovers a significant reduction in coercivity for CoFe2O4 nanowires when BaTiO3 is used as the shell material, effectively transforming them from hard to soft magnetic. This intriguing behavior is attributed to the magnetization reversal effect at the interface between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regions, and it is also observed in NiFe2O4 and Fe2O3 nanowires. Surprisingly, introducing a GdBa2Cu3O7 shell induces a similar effect. Additionally, we employ magnetic impedance measurements on the coaxial nanowires, unveiling their potential for magnetic field sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0221.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: 2,5-bis((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)carbamoyl)terephthalic acid (PMDA-Si), core-shell composite; core-shel-shell composite; silica shell; photoluminescence; lifetime
Online: 22 January 2019 (12:01:07 CET)
Two novel core-shell composites SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb, SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb-phen with SiO2 as the core and terbium organic complex as the shell, were successfully synthesized. The terbium ion was coordinated with organic ligand forming terbium organic complex in the shell layer. The bi-functional organosilane ((HOOC)2C6H2(CONH(CH2)3Si(OCH2CH3)3)2 (abbreviated as PMDA-Si) was used as the first ligand and phen as the second ligand. Furthermore, the silica-modified SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb@SiO2, SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb-phen@SiO2 core-shell-shell composites were also synthesized by sol–gel chemical route. An amorphous silica shell was coated around the SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb and SiO2@PMDA-Si-Tb-phen core-shell composites. The core-shell and core-shell-shell composites both exhibited excellent luminescence in solid state. The luminescence of core-shell-shell composites was stronger than that of core-shell composites. Meanwhile, an improved luminescence stability property for the core-shell-shell composites was found in the aqueous solution. The core-shell-shell composites exhibited bright luminescence, high stability, long lifetime, and good solubility, which may present potential applications in the field of bio-medical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1757.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Solid core-PCF; Plasmonic materials; Refractive index sensing; Analytes
Online: 25 August 2023 (05:04:13 CEST)
In this study, we presented a simple highly sensitive sensor based on commercially available solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for measuring the refractive index (RI) of analytes. The numerical simulation based on the finite element method (FEM) has been examined to compute the optical properties such as confinement loss, power spectrum, and transmission intensity of the sensor. The most sensitive and inert plasmonic materials (gold and silver) have been assumed to be coated inside the fiber with the range of analytes RI from 1.32 to 1.40. The performance of the proposed sensor has been evaluated by tracing the several optical features like wavelength sensitivity, amplitude sensitivity, resolution of the sensor, and figure of merit. As a result, the comparative study between silver and gold elements has been carried out in which the maximum sensitivity received as 1.15 μm/RIU and 1.10 μm/RIU respectively. Whereas, on the base of power spectrum the obtained sensitivity was 513 μm/RIU for the gold layer. Moreover, the effect of other structural parameters (air holes and plasmonic layers thickness) on the sensing performance has been taken into an account. According to the simulation analysis and results, this sensor would have a great potential in various sensing applications of biomedical and liquid refractive index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Soil Core Microbiota; Countryside and Metropolis; Huabei Plain; Central China
Online: 20 January 2021 (14:35:12 CET)
Soils harbor diverse bacteria, and these bacteria play important roles in soil nutrition cycling and carbon storage. Numerous investigations of soil microbiota had been performed, and the core microbiota in different soil or vegetation soil types had been described. However, the complexity of soil environments and relatively limited information of many geographic areas had attracted great attention on comprehensive exploration of soil microbes in enormous types of soil. To reveal the core soil microbiota in Huabei plain, soil samples from metropolis and countryside regions in the Huabei plain were investigated using high-throughput sequencing strategy. The results showed that the most dominant bacteria are Proteobacteria (38.34%), Actinobacteria (20.56%), and Acidobacteria (15.18%). At the genus-level, the most abundant known genera are Gaiella (3.66%), Sphingomonas (3.6%), Acidobacteria Gp6 (2.1%), and Arthrobacter (2%). Moreover, several dominant operational taxanomy units (OTU), such as OTU_3 and OTU_17, were identified to be associated with the soil environment. Microbial distributions of the metropolis samples were different from the countryside samples, which may reflect the environments in the countryside were more diverse than in the metropolis. Microbial diversity and evenness were higher in the metropolis than in the countryside, which might due to the fact that human activity increased the microbial diversity in the metropolis. The soil core microbiota of the Huabei plain were complex, and microbial distributions in the Huabei plain might be mainly affected by the human activity and environmental factors, not by the distance. Our data highlights the soil core microbiota in Huabei Plain, and provides insights for future soil microbiota distribution studies in central China.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Bio-image Analysis; Core-Facility; Sustainability; FAIR-principles
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:03:53 CET)
Recent advances in microscopy imaging and image analysis motivate more and more institutes world-wide to establish dedicated core-facilities for bio-image analysis. To maximize the benefits research groups at these institutes gain from their core-facilities, they should be established to fit well into their respective environment. In this article, we introduce common collaborator requests and corresponding potential services core-facilities can offer. We also discuss potential conflicts of interests between the targeted missions and implementations of services to guide decision makers and core-facility founders to circumvent common pitfalls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: polycrystals; ultrasonics; scattering; characterization; microstructure; Earth's internal core
Online: 29 July 2019 (10:35:51 CEST)
This work is a natural extension of the author’s previous work: “Multiple scattering theory for heterogeneous elastic continua with strong property fluctuation: theoretical fundamentals and applications” (arXiv:1706.09137 [physics.geo-ph]), which established the foundation for developing multiple scattering model for heterogeneous elastic continua with either weak or strong fluctuations in mass density and elastic stiffness. Polycrystalline material is another type of heterogeneous materials that widely exists in nature and extensively used in industry. In this work, the corresponding multiple scattering theory for polycrystalline materials with randomly oriented anisotropic crystallites is developed. To validate the theory, the theoretical results for a series of materials such as OFHC copper, 304 stainless steel, and Inconel 600 are compared to experimental measurements and the numerical results obtained using finite element simulations. Detailed analysis shows that the new theory is capable of predicting the dispersion and attenuation of polycrystals with satisfactory accuracy. The results also show the new model can give an estimate on the average grain size with a relative error equal to or less than ten percent. As applications in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation, we calculated the dispersion and attenuation coefficient of one of the most important polycrystalline materials in aeronautics engineering: high-temperature titanium alloys. The effects of grain symmetry, grain size, and alloying elements on the dispersion and attenuation behaviors are examined. Key information is obtained which has significant implications for quantitatively evaluating the average grain size, monitoring the phase transition, and even estimating gradual change in chemical composition of titanium components in gas turbine engines. For applications in seismology, the velocities and Q-factors for both hexagonal and cubic polycrystalline iron models for the Earth’s uppermost inner core are obtained in the whole frequency range. Using the realistic material parameters of iron under the high temperature and high-pressure conditions calculated from ab initio simulations, the numerical results show that the Q-factors range from 0.001 to 0.05, which shows good agreement with that inferred from real seismic data. The new model predicts the velocity of longitudinal waves varies between ± 1% to ± 5 % relative to the Voight average velocity, while the velocity of transverse waves varies from ± 10% to ± 20%, which gives promising explanation to the abnormally slow transverse velocity observed in practical measurements. The numerical results support the conjecture that the Earth’s uppermost inner core is a solid polycrystalline medium. The comprehensive numerical examples show the new model is capable of capturing the most important scattering features of both ultrasonic and seismic waves with satisfactory accuracy. This work provides a universal, quantitative model for characterization of a large variety of polycrystalline materials. It also can be extended to incorporate more complicated microstructures, including ellipsoidal grains with or without textures, and even multi-phase polycrystalline materials. The new model demonstrates great potential of applications in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and inspection of aerospace and aeronautic structures. It also provides a theoretical framework for quantitative seismic data explanation and inversion for the material composition and structural formations of the Earth’s inner core.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: core microbiota; ecosphere; streptomyces; strawberry; three kingdom partnership
Online: 24 May 2019 (11:55:22 CEST)
Microbe-plant interactions are linked with the core microbiota, and both the plant and the microbial partners depend on one other to thrive in nature. However, why and how the below-ground core microbiota become established aboveground is poorly understood. We tracked the movement of a probiotic Streptomyces endophyte throughout a managed strawberry ecosystem. Probiotics in the rhizosphere and anthosphere were genetically identical, yet these niches were segregated in space and time. The probiotic in the rhizosphere moved upward via the vascular bundle, relocated to aboveground plant parts, and protected against Botrytis cinerea. It also moved from flowers to roots, and among flowers via pollinators that were protected against pollinator pathogens. Our results reveal a solid evidence in tripartite interaction with Streptomyces exploiting plant and pollinator partners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0014.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: algal pigment; fossil diatom; sediment core, climate change
Online: 2 January 2018 (12:13:28 CET)
The overarching aim of this paper is to investigate the lake ecosystem response to different drivers over a long term period by a paleolimnological study in Lake Narlay (46°64N, 5°91E) located in the Jura Mountains of France. It is a small, hard-water lake with a maximum water depth of 40 m and extended anoxic condition of the bottom water. Previous results on sediments analysis have documented a differential response of the lake to the environmental changes that occurred in AD 1600 when major shift in the trophic reliance on methane of the benthic food web were observed. From 1920 with intensification of modern agriculture, animal farming and the construction of a cheese making facility, the lake become eutrophic, with Oscillatoria rubescens bloom. However, the lake showed pronounced changes in an older period that remained unanswered. In this paper we aim at reconstructing in more detail the limnological conditions of this Lake over the last 1200 yrs. using combined analyses of specific algal carotenoids and subfossil diatom remains. A comparison with other proxies (chironomid, pollen, and instrumental climatic reconstruction) will be used to better identify, between the complex combination of climate and anthropogenic pressure, the driving factors that determined the ecological trajectory of Lake Narlay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0435.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Core-Shell; Spacer; Host-Medium; Bimetallic; Enhancement Factor; Dielectrics Function
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:45:14 CEST)
This studies the plasmonic properties of the bimetallic quantum dot Ag@Au core-shell nanostructures embedded in the non-absorbent host medium. Local field enhancement factor and coefficient of absorption of Ag-core and Au-shell are primarily studied based on quasi-static approximation of classical electrodynamics for 6-10 nm composite radius. In this quantum dot geometry, two set of plasmonic resonances in visible spectral region are observed: the first resonance associated with inner interface of gold (Ag@Au) and the second resonance associated with outer interface of gold (Au@medium). The two plasmonic resonances are close each other and enhanced when the size of composite decreased for a fixed core size while shifted to in opposite direction and the amplitude of peak decreased when the core size is increased for a fixed composite size. For the optimized size of core/composite or shell thickness and other parameters to the desired values, such type of composites are recommended for various applications like; photocatalysis, biomedical, nano-optoelectronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0202.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: abrasive flow machining; a helical passageway; surface roughness, mold core
Online: 29 May 2017 (18:54:24 CEST)
Due to the fact that abrasive media can deform flexibly in abrasive flow machining (AFM) making this method easily to polish the complex holes and the curved surface of the hard machining shapes. Although abrasive media dominate the polishing behavior in AFM process, the mechanism of the abrasive media are not easy to understand because of the high viscous gels, therefore, many finishing works need lots of time to design AFM process. Power laws of the abrasive gels is studied here to evaluate the non-Newtonian flow of abrasive gels in complex holes polishing firstly, at the mean time different abrasive gels are utilized to finish the complex holes to follow the results by non-Newtonian flow calculation. Moreover, traditional AFM has difficulty to achieve a uniform roughness of radial distribution in the complex holes polishing because of the non-uniform abrasive forces. So a helical passageway is proposed to create a multiple motion of abrasive medium and to obtain the even surface of the complex holes in AFM process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0037.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: magnetic covalent organic frameworks; nanocomposite; core-shell; p-nitrophenol; reduction
Online: 4 February 2020 (05:09:06 CET)
In this work, magnetic CuFe2O4/Ag nanoparticles activated by porous covalent organic frameworks (COF) was fabricated to evaluate the heterogenous reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The core-shell CuFe2O4/Ag@COF was successfully prepared by polydopamine reduction of silver ions on CuFe2O4 nanoparticles, followed by COF layer condensation. With integrating the intrinsic characteristics of the magnetic CuFe2O4/Ag core and COF layer, the obtained nanocomposite exhibited features of high specific surface area (464.21 m2 g-1), ordered mesoporous structure, strong environment stability, as well as fast magnetic response. Accordingly, the CuFe2O4/Ag@COF catalyst showed good affinity towards 4-NP via π-π stacking interactions and possessed enhanced catalytic activity compared with CuFe2O4/Ag and CuFe2O4@COF. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of CuFe2O4/Ag@COF (0.77 min-1) is 3 and 5 times higher than CuFe2O4/Ag and CuFe2O4@COF, respectively. The characteristics of bi-catalytic CuFe2O4/Ag and the porous COF shell of CuFe2O4/Ag@COF made a contribution to improve the activity of 4-NP reduction. The present work demonstrated a facile strategy to fabricate COF activated nano-catalysts with enhanced performance in the fields of nitrophenolic wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0364.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: RSM; LES; DNS; Simulation/Numerical investigation; Air-core; Vortex; Grade efficiency
Online: 30 June 2020 (10:12:33 CEST)
Due to the accuracy of numerical calculation of fluid flow inside a hydrocyclone can be obtained using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), highly modified super computers are used to simulate the fluid flow and track particle motion inside a hydrocyclone. This paper deals with the numerical study using three multiphase models viz. Volume of fluid, Mixture and Eulerian model. The dimensions of the hydrocyclone taken into consideration for numerical analysis is same as considered by Rajamani. Validation of axial and tangential velocities at different strategically decided axial stations, RMS axial and tangential velocity profiles of the hydrocyclone is done using Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The hydrocyclone model has been designed in Creo 3.0 using the same dimensions which later was imported to CFD for meshing. Fine hexagonal mesh numbering up to 5 lacs were constructed to obtain optimum results. Fluid flow was allowed to be developed in ANSYS FLUENT 16.2. Entire simulation took 96 hours to generate results and track particle movements inside the hydrocyclone. The particle tracking has been done using three multiphase model. The first being the volume of fluid was used for validation purposes and the comparison of the Mixture and Eulerian model are the basic focus of this research work. Conclusive results indicate that usage of different multiphase model does not result in variation in particle motion. The slight variation in grade efficiency values are hardly noticeable. The Mixture model and Eulerian model predict lower separation efficiency as compared with Volume of fluid multiphase model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0018.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Diclofenac; nanoformualtion; lipid-core nanocapsules; adjuvant arthritis; stereology; cartilage; synovial membrane
Online: 1 May 2023 (04:46:33 CEST)
Introduction: Diclofenac is the most prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug worldwide and used to reliev pain and inflammation for inflammatory arthritis. Diclofenac do not slows disease progression and cartialge damage of Rheuamtoid Arthritis individuals. Moreover, it associated with seriuos adverse effects even using regular dose regimens. Drug delivery systems can overcome this issues reducing adverse effects and optmizing efficacy. Objectives: to evaluate the activity of a lipid-core nanocapsule loaded of Diclofenac (DIC-LNC) in an experimental model of adjuvant-induced arthritis and its anti-arthritic properties at the joint components. Methods: The diclofenac nanoformulation was obtained by self-assembling methodology. The stereology analysis aproach was applied for morphological quantification of the volume, density and cellular profile count of the metatarsophalangeal joints of rats induced to adjuvant arthritis. Proinflamatory cytokines and biochemical profile was also obtained. Results: DIC-LNC is able to reduce arthitis compared to control group (p<0.0001) and DIC group (p=0.009). The TNF and IL1 cytokine as well as C-reative protein and Xanthine-oxidade were efficiently reduced by DIC-LNC. Additionally, DIC-LNC reduces synovites and condrocytes lossing compared to DIC (p<0.05)and control group (p<0.05). The synovial space volume was higher for DIC-LNC compared to DIC (p<0.05) and Control (p<0.05). These data are suggesting that DIC-LNC is showing anti-arthritic actvity preserving deep joint components. Conclusion: DIC-LNC is a promissing nanoformulation for clinical use, since is able to reduce joint inflamation and synovits, avoiding damage of cartilage and synovial space at advjuvant athrits. Further studies and developments are necessary to achieve future clinical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0080.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: core-spring-shell system; gravitating system; negative mass; Coulomb-like forces
Online: 8 April 2022 (11:12:34 CEST)
The effect of the negative effective mass emerging in the gravitating core-spring-shell system is considered. The effect appears when the entire system is exerted to the external harmonic force and the frequency of external force approaches to the critical frequency from above. The critical frequency depends on the density of the self-gravitating system only. The scaling law predicting the value of for condensed phases is derived. The generalization of the effect for the Coulomb-like forces is reported
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Universal Design; Mobility; Old Core Cities; Walkability; Central Kolkata; Architectural Planning
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:26:00 CET)
In this research, users’ perception towards Universal Mobility in old core cities of India has been critically analyzed. Despite Universal Design guidelines from the United Nations and Union Government of India, old cities in India are seldom having Universal Mobility, in effect endangering the lifestyle of senior citizens and differently-abled people. The core of Kolkata Municipal Corporation in Kolkata, India has been considered as a case example for this research. This research has considered three types of data sets for analysis. First, the authors interviewed 310 respondents from the Indian design fraternity, with the objective of understanding their opinion on the concept of Universal Design. In the next investigative study of 125 respondents from different wards of Kolkata Municipal Corporation, the purpose was to comprehend people’s perception about walkability and mobility in an old Indian city. In the last visual survey of a stretch in Central Kolkata, the focus was identifying the hindrance in Universal Mobility in an old city core of Indian origin. Significant dissatisfaction was found in walkability amongst all user groups; which is linked to poor infrastructural conditions. Furthermore, accessing public transportation is difficult due to improper waiting facilities. However, the design fraternity in India suggests the need of separate accessibility guidelines for old and new cities in India. The design fraternity also recommends a customized rating system for accessing Universal Design. The result of this study indicates a need of recognizing the difficulty in imparting Universal Mobility in old core cities in India. This information can be used for preparing an Access Audit Checklist through Architectural Planning, which is the first step in proposing a framework for Universal Mobility in old core cities in India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0343.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: haemoglobin detection; SPR spectroscopy; biosensors; computer simulation; core-shell Fe3O4@Au
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:02:27 CEST)
A theoretical analysis of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration detection is presented in this work with the objective of achieving more sensitive detection and monitoring low concentrations. Surface-enhanced SPR spectroscopy on silver nanoparticles was employed for recording Hb concentrations less than 10 g/L. In this paper, Fe3O4@Au core-shell, nanocomposite spherical nanoparticle consisting of a spherical Fe3O4 core covered by Au shell, was used as an active material for biomolecules detection in the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based biosensor in the wavelength 632.8 nm. We present the simulation of detection amplification technique through Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectrum in the Kretschmann configuration. The system consists of a four-layer material i.e prism/Ag/Fe3O4@Au+Hb/air. Dielectric function determination of the core-shell nanoparticle (Fe3O4@Au) and the composite (Fe3O4@Au+Hb) was done by applying the Effective Medium Theory approximation and the calculation of the reflectivity is carried out by varying the size of core-shell (r0). In this simulation, the refractive index of the BK7 prism is 1.51; the refractive index of Ag thin film is 0.13455+3.98651i with the thickness of 40 nm, and the refractive index of the composite is varied depending on the size of nanoparticle core-shell. Our results show that by varying the radius of the core and the shell thickness, the dip of the reflectivity (ATR) spectrum is shifted to the larger angle of incident light and the addition of core-shell in the conventional SPR-based biosensor leads to enhancement of the SPR biosensor sensitivity, for the core-shell radius 10 nm, the sensitivity increased by 1.35% for F = 0.1, and by 4.89% for F =0.8 compared to the sensitivity of the conventional SPR-based biosensor without core-shell addition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0255.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: spray dry; protein; encapsulation; formulation; excipient; core-shell; EISA
Online: 17 March 2022 (12:19:43 CET)
The encapsulation of proteins into core-shell structures is a widely utilised strategy for controlling protein stability, delivery and release. Despite the recognised utility of these microstructures, however, core-shell fabrication routes are often too costly or poorly scalable to allow for industrial translation. Furthermore, many scalable routes rely upon emulsion-techniques implicating denaturing or environmentally harmful organic solvents. Herein, we investigate core-shell protein encapsulation through single-feed, aqueous spray drying: a cheap, industrially ubiquitous particle-formation technology in the absence of organic solvents. We show that an excipient’s preference for the surface of the spray dried particle is well-predicted by its hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) under relevant feed buffer conditions (pH and ionic strength) and that the predictive power of Dh is improved when measured at the spray dryer outlet temperature compared to room temperature (R2 = 0.64 vs. 0.59). Lastly, we leverage these findings to propose an adaptable design framework for fabricating core-shell protein encapsulates by single-feed aqueous spray drying.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: sharing activity; Covid-19 impact; core elements; sustainable development
Online: 3 February 2022 (09:58:24 CET)
Sharing activity is getting higher attention due to increasing popularity in recent years. In the paper, the authors investigated the main elements affecting the sharing activity. (1) Literature review: The theoretical part starts from the revision of definitions of sharing activity; description of the links between sharing and sustainable development, policy recommendations and relevant regulation in the field; later on, the study emphasises the key elements important for sharing. Finally, the authors investigated how the Covid-19 pandemic affected sharing activity; (2) Methods: During empirical research, the authors revised the list of 37 variables. The study uses data for each of the 27 EU countries from 2011 to 2020. The authors investigated correlation between macroeconomics variables to determine key variables for the regression model; (3) Results: The authors constructed a dynamic regression model that can be applied to predict the number of participants visiting sharing platforms in the European Union (EU); (4) Conclusions: The study shows that seeking to forecast the number of visits to sharing platforms it is necessary to use values of main macroeconomic variables such as consumer price index, productivity index, total unemployment rate, the number of users and households connected to the Internet, etc.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0247.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Nd2Fe14B; FeCo; core-shell structure; galvanic substitution; electroless plating
Online: 17 January 2022 (17:35:23 CET)
Core-shell structured magnetic nanoparticles combine hard and a soft phases to improve energy efficiency. The mutual interaction of the two phases can lead to the exchange spring effect leading to higher magnetic energy. In this regard, synthesis of Nd2Fe14B based core-shell structured powders have proven to be elusive due to the relatively reactive nature of this phase. In this study, a process has been established for successfully coating the surface of Nd2Fe14B powders with FeCo layer using galvanic displacement method. Initially, a binary phase magnetic powder was synthesized containing Nd2Fe14B and Nd2Fe17 phase. Subsequently, the powders were coated using a Co precursor at 303 K. During coating the metastable Nd2Fe17 phase was dissolved and the Fe ions were released into the solution. Subsequently, the Fe ions deposited together with the Co ions on the surface of Nd2Fe14B powder to form a FeCo shell. The deposited layer thickness and composition was confirmed using TEM analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0480.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: surface plasmon resonance; core–shell nanoparticles; discrete-dipole approximation; aspect ratio
Online: 25 July 2018 (11:53:51 CEST)
In this work, numerical simulations for the absorption and scattering efficiencies of spheroid core–shell nanoparticles (CSNs) were conducted and studied using the discrete-dipole approximation method. The characteristics of surface plasmon resonances (SPR) depend upon shell thickness, the compositions of the core and shell materials, and the aspect ratio of the constructed CSNs. We used different core@shell compositions, specifically Au@SiO2, Ag@SiO2, Au@TiO2, Ag@TiO2, Au@Ag, and Ag@Au, for extinction spectra analysis. We also investigated coupled resonance mode wavelengths by adjusting the composition’s layer thickness and aspect ratio. In this study, we show that the extinction efficiency of the Ag@TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) was higher than that of the others, and we examined the impact of TiO2 shell thickness and Ag core radius on SPR peak positions. From the extinction spectra we found that the Ag@TiO2 nanoparticle had better refractive index sensitivity and figure of merit when the aspect ratio was set to 0.3. All of the experimental results proved that the tunability of these plasmonic resonances was highly dependent on the material used, the layer thickness, and the aspect ratio of the core@shell CSNPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0296.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: core training; abdominal muscle activity; head-neck posture; EMG; physical therapy
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:43:25 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the influence of cranio-cervical position on the electromyographical activity of the core muscles during the prone plank exercise. Twenty healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Muscle activation was registered using surface electromyography (sEMG) in the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and lumbar portion of erector spinae (LES). Three prone plank conditions were randomly evaluated, varying the position of the cranio-cervical segment during the prone plank performance (NEUTRAL, FLEXION and EXTENSION). sEMG signals of each individual muscle, Total Intensity (TI) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were analysed with statistical significance set at P<0.05. FLEXION revealed significantly higher TI values compared to NEUTRAL and EXTENSION (p = 0.000; effect size (ES) > 0.90). The RA presented larger activation in FLEXION compared to the other variations (p < 0.05; ES >0.70). FLEXION elicited a greater response compared to NEUTRAL for both sides of EO when compared to EXTENSION, and also for both sides of IO compared to the other conditions. Both FLEXION and EXTENSION reported higher RPE values compared to NEUTRAL. Cranio-cervical segment position influenced the electromyographical activation of core musculature, showing highest values when performing prone plank in a cranio-cervical flexion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0195.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification; AXL over expression; core-shell beads assay
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:57:31 CEST)
The upregulated expression of thyrosine kinase AXL has been reported in several hematologic and solid human tumors including gastric, breast, colorectal, prostate, and ovarian cancers. Thus, AXL can potentially serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for various cancers. This paper reports the first-ever use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the AXL gene as a diagnostic method for ovarian cancer. We demonstrated simple instrumentation toward a point-of-care device to perform LAMP. This paper also reports the first-ever use of core-shell beads as a microreactor to perform LAMP as an attempt to promote environmentally friendly laboratory practices.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0438.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomaterial; Dental composite; Luting agents; Core build-up materials; Application in dentistry
Online: 19 February 2021 (13:25:19 CET)
Composite materials are widely used in the dental field in clinics as biomaterials. For example, it has been used as a biomaterial to repair caries and restore masticatory function, and as a cement to adhere the restoration to the tooth substrate. In order to demonstrate its function, dental biomaterials are measured their mechanical strength. From such basic research, we explained the potential of dental biomaterials, especially flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Mechanical properties of dental biomaterials similar to those of the tooth, thermal stimulation, and aesthetic elements in the oral cavity. In this part, we will introduce the commercialized products of composites suitable for the characteristics and tooth quality, and provide the reader with the characteristics from the flexural characteristics of the composite materials used in clinical dentistry. In clinical performance, it might be advisable to delay polishing when composite biomaterials are used for luting materials, filling materials and core build-up materials since improved the flexural strength and the flexural modulus of elasticity were displayed after 1-day storage. And it is thought that flexural strength or characteristics is a significant important mechanical property of oral biomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Bragg grating sensor; auxtic sensor; silica helical core; wrap angle; braid angle
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:01:16 CEST)
This study's objective was to propose the use of textile braiding manufacturing methods, thus facilitating the application of the high precision and accurate measurability of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to various structures.The purpose of this study was to Combine 3d braid processing with the optical Bragg grating sensor's accurate metrology. Out of limits of the sensor's epoxy attachment methods, the textile braiding method can make applicable scope diversify. The braiding processing is capable of designing a 3D fabric module processing, multiple objective mechanical fiber arrangement, and material characteristics. Optical stress-strain response conditions were explored through the optimization of design elements between the Bragg grating sensor and braiding. For this study, Bragg grating sensors were located 75% apart from the fiber center. The sensor core structure is helical of 1.54 pitch. A polyurethane synthetic yarn was braided together with the sensor on the Weaving machine core part in a braiding.Prototyping results, a negative Poisson's ratio makes curled the braided Bragg grating sensor. The number of polyurethan string yarns has been conducted the role of wrap angle in braiding. The 12 strands condition showed an increase in double stress-strain response rate at a Poisson ratio of 1.3%, and 16 strands condition was found to affect the sensor with noise at a Poisson ratio of 1.5%. This study can suggest applying braid processing of the Bragg grating sensor, which is expected to create and develop a new monitoring sensor.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: metallic nanoparticle-polymer hybrids; seeded precipitation polymerization; core-shell nanomaterials; plasmonic nanomaterials
Online: 13 January 2021 (11:09:46 CET)
The implementation of gold-hydrogel core-shell nanomaterials in novel light-driven technologies requires the development of well-controlled and scalable synthesis protocols with precisely tunable properties. Herein, new insights are presented concerning the importance of using the concentration of gold cores as a control parameter in the seeded precipitation polymerization process to modulate – regardless of core size – relevant fabrication parameters such as encapsulation yield, particle size and shrinkage capacity. Controlling the number of nucleation points results in the facile tuning of the encapsulation process, with yields reaching 99% of gold cores even when using different core sizes at a given particle concentration. This demonstration is extended to the encapsulation of bimodal gold core mixtures with equally precise control on the encapsulation yield, suggesting that this principle could be extended to encapsulating cores composed of other materials. These findings could have significant impact on the development of stimuli-responsive smart materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: bragg grating sensor; auxetic sensor; silica helical core; wrap angle; braid angle
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:08:12 CEST)
This study's objective was to propose the use of textile braiding manufacturing methods, thus facilitating the application of the high precision and accurate measurability of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to various structures. The purpose of this study was to Combine 3d braid processing with the optical Bragg grating sensor's accurate metrology. Out of limits of the sensor's epoxy attachment methods, the textile braiding method can make applicable scope diversify. The braiding processing is capable of designing a 3D fabric module processing, multiple objective mechanical fiber arrangement, and material characteristics. Optical stress-strain response conditions were explored through the optimization of design elements between the Bragg grating sensor and braiding. For this study, Bragg grating sensors were located 75% apart from the fiber center. The sensor core structure is helical of 1.54 pitch. A polyurethane synthetic yarn was braided together with the sensor on the Weaving machine core part in a braiding. Prototyping results, a negative Poisson's ratio makes curled the braided Bragg grating sensor. The number of polyurethane string yarns has been conducted the role of wrap angle in braiding. The 12 strands condition showed an increase in double stress-strain response rate at a Poisson ratio of 1.3%, and 16 strands condition was found to affect the sensor with noise at a Poisson ratio of 1.5%. This study can suggest applying braid processing of the Bragg grating sensor, which is expected to create and develop a new monitoring sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0313.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Gliders; Altimetry; Mesoscale; Eddies; Warm-core rings; Potential Vorticity; Gulf of Mexico
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:27:59 CEST)
This study investigates the vertical structure of the dynamical properties of a warm-core ring in the Gulf of Mexico (Loop Current ring) using glider observations. We introduce a new method to correct the glider’s along-track coordinate which is, in general, biased by the unsteady relative movements of the glider and the eddy, yielding large errors on horizontal derivatives. Here, we take advantage of the synopticity of satellite along-track altimetry to apply corrections on the glider’s position, by matching in situ steric height with satellite-measured sea surface height. This relocation method allows to recover the eddy’s azimuthal symmetry, to precisely estimate the rotation axis position, and to compute reliable horizontal derivatives. It is shown to be particularly appropriate to compute the eddy’s cyclo-geostrophic velocity, relative vorticity, and shear strain, which are otherwise out of reach when using the glider’s raw traveled distance as an horizontal coordinate. The Ertel potential vorticity (PV) structure of the warm core ring is studied in details, and we show that the PV anomaly is entirely controlled by vortex stretching. Sign reversal of the PV gradient across the water column suggests that the ring might be baroclinically unstable. The PV gradient is also largely controlled by gradients of the vortex stretching term. We also show that the ring’s total energy partition is strongly skewed, with available potential energy being 3 times larger than kinetic energy. The possible impact of this energy distribution on the Loop Current rings longevity is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0523.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Isotope; Oxygen-17; Ice Core; Paleothermometry; Stratsophere; Brewer-Dobson Circulation
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:14:50 CEST)
Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes (18O and 2H) in polar ice offer strong evidence of both long-term and abrupt climate changes. However, reliably estimating surface air temperatures from past climates has proven difficult because the relationship between 18O and temperature cannot be calibrated. In this study, we investigated the 17O and 18O of modern rain and ice cores using published data. We found that precipitation 17O is influenced by two factors: mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) that occurs during ocean evaporation, and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) that happens in the stratosphere. The MDF contribution remains constant and can be understood from studying tropical rain, as the overall movement of mass in the tropics is upward towards the stratosphere. On the other hand, the MIF effect comes from the mixing of stratospheric air in the troposphere, which is a result of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. This MIF effect on precipitation 17O increases from the tropics towards the poles. Therefore, the relative 17O and 18O composition, denoted as '17O, in modern precipitation can be calibrated with surface air temperature, creating a new, independent tool for estimating past temperatures. We used this calibration along with '17O of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores and our results for past temperatures are in excellent agreement with those from borehole thermometry or gas phase analysis of air trapped in the ice. The 17O method overcomes the problems associated with using 18O for paleothermometry. Our findings align with climate models that suggest a weakening of the Brewer-Dobson circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum. Furthermore, our method could be used to monitor future changes in response to a warming climate caused by increasing greenhouse gases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2147.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: FUT8 knockdown; core fucosylation; TRAIL-induced apoptosis; DR4; colorectal cancer
Online: 30 June 2023 (02:17:17 CEST)
Epithelial cells can undergo apoptosis by manipulating the balance between pro-survival and apoptotic signals. In this work, we show that TRAIL-induced apoptosis can be differentially regulated by the expression of α(1,6)fucosyltransferase (FucT-8), the only enzyme in mammals that transfers the (1,6)fucose residue to the pentasaccharide core of complex N-glycans. Specifically, in the cellular model of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression formed using the human syngeneic lines SW480 and SW620, knockdown of the FucT-8-encoding FUT8 gene significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in SW480 cells. However, FUT8 repression did not affect SW620 cells, which suggests that core fucosylation differentiates TRAIL-sensitive premetastatic SW480 cells from TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. In this regard, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 kinases can dynamically regulate TRAIL-dependent apoptosis and that core fucosylation can control the ERK/MAPK pro-survival pathway in which SW480 and SW620 cells participate. Moreover, the depletion of core fucosylation sensitises primary tumour SW480 cells to the combination of TRAIL and low doses of 5-FU, oxaliplatin, irinotecan or mitomycin C. In contrast, combination of TRAIL and oxaliplatin, irinotecan or bevacizumab reinforces resistance of FUT8-knockdown metastatic SW620 cells to apoptosis. Consequently, FucT-8 could be a plausible target for increasing apoptosis and drug response in early CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Vernier effect; Strain Sensor; Hollow core fiber; Fabry-Perot interferometers
Online: 20 September 2022 (13:32:24 CEST)
A highly sensitive strain sensor based on tunable cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Cascaded FPIs consist of a sensing FPI and a reference FPI which effectively generate the Vernier Effect (VE). The sensing FPI comprises a hollow core fiber (HCF) segment sandwiched between single-mode fibers (SMFs), and the reference FPI consists of a tunable air reflector, which is constituted by a computer programable fiber holding block to adjust the desired cavity length. Simulation results predict the dispersion characteristics of modes carried by HCF. The sensor’s parameters are designed corresponding to a narrow bandwidth range, i.e., 1530 nm to 1610 nm. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensor exhibits optimum strain sensitivity of 23.9 pm/με in the range of 0 to 3000 με which is 13.73 times higher than the single sensing FPI strain sensitivity of 1.74 pm/με. The strain sensitivity of the sensor can be further enhanced by extending the source bandwidth. The proposed sensor exhibits ultra-low temperature sensitivity of 0.49 pm/°C in the wider temperature range of 25 °C to 135 °C, providing good isolation for eliminating cross-talk between strain and temperature. The sensor is very robust, cost-effective, easy to manufacture, repeatable, and shows a highly linear and stable response in the wider range of axial strain. Based on the sensor’s performance, it may suit plenty of practical applications in the real sensing world
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: clay ball; asphalt pavement; pattern and density; infrared image collection system; field core
Online: 16 January 2018 (05:00:02 CET)
Clay ball is a pavement surface defect which refers to a clump in which clay or dirt is mixed with hot asphalt mixture. Clay ball is typically caused by a combination of aggregate contamination of clay or soil, high aggregate moisture, and low production temperature at the asphalt plant. It usually appears a few weeks or months after paving under traffic load, after being liquefied and knocked from the pavement surface. Clay balls can be the source of potholing, raveling, and other issues such as moisture infiltration and reduced ride quality. This paper presents an investigation of the clay balls on US-31 one winter after construction in Hamilton County, Indiana. In order to understand the pavement condition, their severity was measured using both visual observation and infrared image collection system. In addition, a clay ball distribution pattern, its density, and cores condition were evaluated. A precipitation effect on clay ball formation was investigated for finding a cause of the clay balls. The investigation found that infrared image collection system was appropriate in detecting the clay balls. The clay balls were elliptic in shape with 1 inch to 4 inches in diameter, and the maximum clay ball depth is almost penetrating the entire surface course. It was also found that the asphalt paving on the raining days or right after raining could increase the potential of clay balls. Monitoring of aggregate moisture during construction on or after raining days should be able to reduce the risk of clay balls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: genome; accessory; core genome; Fusarium circinatum; structural variants; inversions; indels; pangenome
Online: 29 April 2022 (10:47:31 CEST)
Fusarium circinatum is an important global pathogen of pine trees. Genome plasticity has been observed in different isolates of the fungus, but no genome comparisons are available. To address this gap, we sequenced and assembled to chromosome level five isolates of F. circinatum. These genomes were analysed together with previously published genomes of F. circinatum isolates FSP34 and KS17. Multi-sample variant calling identified a total of 461683 micro variants (SNPs and small indels) and a total of 1828 macro structural variants of which 1717 were copy number variants and 111 were inversions. Variant density was higher on sub-telomeric regions of chromosomes. Variant annotation revealed that genes involved in transcription, transport, metabolism and transmembrane proteins were overrepresented in gene sets affected by high impact variants. A core genome representing genomic elements conserved in all the isolates and a non-redundant pangenome representing all genomic elements is presented. Whole genome alignments showed that an average of 93% of the genomic elements are present in all isolates. The results of this study reveal that some genomic elements are not conserved within the isolates and some variants are high impact. The described genome-scale variations will help inform novel disease management strategies against the pathogen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0049.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: core/shell nanowires; GaN; Ga2O3; metal-oxide semiconductor; gas sensor devices
Online: 3 July 2019 (08:33:38 CEST)
The development of sensors for monitoring Carbon Monoxide (CO) in a large range of temperature is of crucial importance in areas as monitoring of industrial processes or personal tracking using smart objects. Devices integrating GaN/Ga2O3 core/shell nanowires (NWs) is a promising solution allowing combining the high sensitivity of the electronic properties to the states of GaN-core surface; and the high sensitivity to CO of Ga2O3-shell. Because the performances of sensors primarily depend on the material properties composing the active layer of the device, it is essential to control these properties and in first time its synthesis. In this work, we investigate the synthesis of GaN/Ga2O3 core-shell NWs with a special focus on the formation of the shell. The GaN NWs grown by Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, are post-treated following thermal oxidation to form Ga2O3-shell surrounding the GaN-core. We establish that the Ga2O3-shell thickness can be modulated from 1 up to 14 nm by changing the oxidation conditions, and follows the diffuse-controlled reaction. By combining XRD-STEM and EDX analysis, we also demonstrate that the oxide shell formed by thermal oxidation is crystalline and presents the β-Ga2O3 crystalline phase, and is synthesized in epitaxial relationship with the GaN-core.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0286.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: conducting polymer; poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene); PEDOT; core-shell particles; polystyrene; NIR shielding film
Online: 29 January 2019 (04:51:28 CET)
We prepared poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-coated sulfonated polystyrene copolymer particles as efficient heat-shielding agents, which showed strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption, with high solid contents and good solution stability. The poly(styrene sulfonate -co-styrene) (P(SS-co-St)) copolymers were successfully synthesized via radical solution polymerization, and PEDOT-coated P(SS-co-St) (PEDOT:P(SS-co-St)) was synthesized via Fe+-catalyzed oxidative polymerization. PEDOT:P(SS-co-St) was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The particle size and morphology of PEDOT:P(SS-co-St) were examined using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. The maximum NIR-shielding efficiency of the film was 92.0% with 40% transmittance. The high solution stability of PEDOT:P(SS-co-St) make it an ideal candidate for heat-insulating materials that find application in semi-transparent heat-insulator-coated windows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV-protease inhibitors; pseudo-symmetric core; heteroaryl carboxyamides; synthesis; biological screening; molecular modeling
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:44:16 CEST)
New series of compounds containing both heterocycle moieties and pseudo-symmetric hydroxyethylamine core were obtained using a simple synthetic path that can provide a library of compounds in few steps and high yields. Furthermore, diversity-oriented synthesis was studied to change different functionalities according to needs. The in vitro inhibition activity against recombinant HIV-1 protease was evaluated. A beneficial effect of this class of compounds can be obtained either for the presence of a bis-benzyl group into the core and for the heterocyclic moiety in P1, specifically the indole ring. Docking analysis was also reported.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0406.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: fuel debris; corium; thermal conductivity; molten core; ZrO2; ZrSiO4; (U,Zr)SiO4; UO2
Online: 23 February 2023 (09:40:22 CET)
The thermal conductivity of the products of the interaction of molten core with concrete was derived using number theory. A formula has been found that describes the thermal conductivity of ZrO2, ZrSiO4, (U,Zr)SiO4 and UO2 over a wide temperature range. Formula is expressed in terms of the atomic numbers of elements, their valencies, the crystal structure of substances, and the thermal conductivities of individual chemical elements of the corium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0213.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: double emulsion; core-shell droplet; microfluidics; tri-axial capillary; computational fluid dynamics; dripping regime.
Online: 14 October 2022 (13:19:39 CEST)
We investigated experimentally, analytically and numerically the formation process of double emulsion formations under dripping regime in a tri-axial co-flow capillary device. The results show that mismatches of core and shell droplets under a given flow condition can be captured both experimentally and numerically. We propose a semi-analytical model using the match ratio between the pinch-off length of the shell droplet and the product of the core growth rate and its pinch-off time. The mismatch issue can be avoided if the match ratio is lower than unity. We considered a model with the wall effect to predict the size of the matched double emulsion. The model shows slight deviations with experimental data if the Reynolds number of continuous phase is lower than 0.06, but asymptotically approaches to good agreement if the Reynolds number increases from 0.06 to 0.14. The numerical simulation generally agrees with the experiments under various flow conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0624.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Bibliometrics; Outbreak; pandemic; Web of Science Core Collection; WoS
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:34:07 CET)
COVID-19 breakout calls for immediate research explorations. The objective of this study is to perform a bibliometric analysis of all COVID-19-related publications in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) in the early stage of the outbreak. Analysis parameters include performances of authors, institutes, and countries as well as distributions of Web of Science categories, journals, languages, and types of publications. Results show that 32% of total papers were published as editorial materials and an overwhelming production from Chinese research institutes. An association of research indexes with the number of cases was also found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0386.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Nematic liquid crystal MBDA; core/shell QDs (CSQDs); Dielectric, electro optical parameters; photonic displays
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:41:41 CET)
We report the effect of doping Cd1-xZnxS/ZnS core/shell quantum dot (CSQDs) in nematic liquid crystal p-methoxybenzylidene p-decylaniline (MBDA) at 0.05 wt/wt%, 0.1 wt/wt%, 0.15 wt/wt%, 0.2 wt/wt%, 0.25 wt/wt% and 0.3 wt/wt% concentrations of CSQDs in MBDA. Dielectric parameters with and without bias with respect to frequency has been investigated. The change in electro - optical parameters with temperature has also been demonstrated. The increase in the mean dielectric permittivity has been found due to large dipole moment of CSQDs which impose stronger interactions with the liquid crystal molecules. The dielectric anisotropy changes sign on doping CSQDs in MBDA liquid crystal. It was concluded that the CSQDs doping noticeably increases the dielectric permittivity of nematic MBDA in the presence of electric field. The doping of CSQDs in nematic MBDA liquid crystal reduces the ion screening effect effectively. This phenomenon is attributed to the competition between the generated ionic impurities during assembling process and the ion trapping effect of the CSQDs. The rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystal decreases with increasing concentration of the CSQDs with faster response time observed for 0.05 wt/wt% concentration. The birefringence of the doped system increases with the inclusion of CSQDs in MBDA. These results find application in the field of display devices, phase shifters, industries and projectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: laser dynamics; parallel computing; cellular automatas; GPUs and Multi-Core processors performance
Online: 17 December 2019 (09:48:23 CET)
In this paper we show how to efficiently implement parallel discrete simulations on Multi-Core and GPU architectures through a real example of application: a cellular automata model of laser dynamics. We describe the techniques employed to build and optimize the implementations using OpenMP and CUDA frameworks. We have evaluated the performance on two different hardware platforms that represent different target market segments: high-end platforms for scientific computing, using an Intel Xeon Platinum 8259CL server with48cores and also an NVIDIA Tesla6V100 GPU, both running on Amazon Web Server (AWS) Cloud, and on a consumer-oriented platform, using an Intel Core i9 9900k CPU and an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050 TI GPU. Performance results are compared and analysed in detail. We show that excellent performance and scalability can be obtained in both platforms, and we extract some important issues that imply a performance degradation for them. We also found that current Multi-Core CPUs with large core numbers can bring a performance very near to that of GPUs, even similar in some cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0321.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lithium-ion battery; safety; separator; coaxial electrospinning; dual-nozzle; core-shell nanofiber
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:00:49 CEST)
Though the energy density of lithium-ion batteries continues to increase, safety issues related with the internal short-circuit and the resulting combustion of highly flammable electrolyte impede the further development of lithium-ion batteries. It has been well-accepted that a thermal stable separator is important to postpone the entire battery short-circuit and thermal-runaway. Traditional methods to improve the thermal stability of separators includes surface modification and/or developing alternate material systems for separators which may always affect the battery performance negatively. Herein, a thermostable and shrink-free separator with little compromise in battery performance is prepared by coaxial electrospinning and tested. The separator consists of core-shell fiber networks where poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) layer serves as shell and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the core. This core-shell fiber network exhibits little or even no shrinking/melting at elevated temperature over 250 °C. Meanwhile, it shows excellent electrolyte wettability and can take large amount of liquid electrolyte three times more than that of conventional Celgard 2400 separator. In addition, the half-cell using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as cathode and the aforementioned electrospun core-shell fiber network as separator demonstrates superior electrochemical behavior, stably cycling for 200 cycles at 1 C with a reversible capacity of 130 mAh g-1 and little capacity decay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0656.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: intraband energy transitions; optical absorption coefficients; hexagonal quantum well wires; GaAs/AlGaAs; core/shell structure
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:20:23 CEST)
Intraband energy transitions of an electron in GaAs/AlGaAs hexagonal quantum well wires in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields are presented. We consider the effects of the revolve of the quantum well wires via a geometric factor that converts the quantum wires straight and symmetric with respect to the z−axis, into a curved wires that no longer has this symmetry. In addition, the influence of having a shallow donor impurity on (off) is calculated. The shape of this quantum string corresponds to the core/shell structure. The energy levels and wave functions of the electron in the heterostructure with a finite potential between the shells are calculated using the effective mass approximation and the finite element method. The calculations of the optical properties are obtained from the compact density matrix and an iterative method. The direction of the applied external fields is parallel (anti-parallel) to the z−direction. The results reveal a significant dependence of the physical properties calculated with the deformation parameter, the dimensions of the quantum well wires and the presence or not of the impurity. The electronic transitions are in a range between 4.90 meV to 41.50 meV under the effect of the electric field, this corresponds to a range of frequencies of optical responses between 1.20 to 10 THz, that is, the mid-infrared. For the magnetic field the range is between 1.24 meV to 14 meV, that is, in frequencies from 0.36 to 3.38 THz, that is, in the far-infrared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0106.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: air- or iron-core coil; Cartesian coordinates; Fourier analysis; two-dimensional; saturation effect; subdomain technique
Online: 27 September 2016 (11:18:35 CEST)
The most significant assumptions in the subdomain technique (i.e., based on the formal resolution of Maxwell's equations applied in subdomain) is defined by: “The iron parts (i.e., the teeth and the back-iron) are considered to be infinitely permeable so that the saturation effect is neglected”. In this paper, the author presents a new scientific contribution on improving of this method in two-dimensional (2-D) and in Cartesian coordinates by focusing on the consideration of iron. The subdomains connection is carried out in the two directions (i.e., x- and y-edges). The improvement was performed by solving magnetostatic Maxwell's equations for an air- or iron-core coil supplied by a direct current. To evaluate the efficacy of the proposed technique, the magnetic flux density distributions have been compared with those obtained by the 2-D finite-element analysis (FEA). The semi-analytical results are in quite satisfying agreement with those obtained by the 2-D FEA, considering both amplitude and waveform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0648.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae; whole genome sequencing; core genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis; molecular epidemiology
Online: 9 May 2023 (11:57:43 CEST)
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is a serious public health issue. Aim of the study was to identify the antimicrobial resistance and accessory genes, the clonal relatedness and the evolution dynamics of selected CRKP isolates recovered in an adult and a pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Greece. Methods: Twenty-four CRKP isolates recovered during 2018-2022 were included in the study. Next-generation sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent PGM Platform. The identification of the plasmid content, MLST and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as the comparison of multiple genome alignments and the identification of core genome single-nucleotide polymorphism sites, were performed applying various bioinformatics software. Results: The isolates belonged to eight sequence types 11, 15, 30, 35, 39, 307, 323, and 512. A variety of carbapenemases (KPC, VIM, NDM and OXA-48) and resistance genes were detected. CRKP strains shared visually common genomic regions with the reference strain (NTUH-K2044). ST15, ST323, ST39, and ST11 CRKP isolates presented on average 17, 6, 16 and 866 recombined SNPs, respectively. All isolates belonging to ST15, ST323 and ST39 were classified in distinct phylogenetic branches, while ST11 isolates were assigned to a two-subclade branch. For large CRKP sets, the phylogeny seems to change approximately every seven SNPs. Conclusion: The current study provides insight into the genetic characterization of CRKP isolates in the ICUs of a tertiary hospital. Our results indicate clonal dispersion of ST15, ST323, and ST39 and highly diverged ST11 isolates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0829.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: magnetic core; silica shell; titnaia shell; water treatment; methylene blue; solvo-thermal process; adsorption
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:41:16 CEST)
Water pollution with dyes is a critical environmental issue because off the huge amount of dyes disbarred annually which cause severe damage for the ecosystem and human life. On the other hand, the core-shell based magnetic materials have showed amazing character for controlling the material synthesis with targeted structure to enhance the adsorptive-removal of pollutants. Herein, Fe3O4 core-TiO2/mesoSiO2 and Fe3O4 core-mesoSiO2/TiO2 double shell nanoparticles were prepared by first (R1) and second (R2) routes. The preparation procedure is controlled to prepare the magnetic core with further coating layers from silica and titania for the uptake of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The reported adsorption capacities for R1-0.2, R1-0.4 and R2 samples were 46, 38 and 50 mg/g respectively at pH 6 after 80 min contact time form 50 ppm methylene blue solution. The adsorption process of methylene blue onto Fe3O4core-meso SiO2/TiO2 double shell was well fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlish isotherm which suggested the quick and multilayer adsorption mechanism. In addition, results of thermodynamic investigation indicated that the surfaces of Fe3O4 core-mesoSiO2/TiO2 and Fe3O4 core-TiO2/mesoSiO2 double shell exhibit spontaneous tendency to adsorb methylene blue from the aqueous solutions. These results will encourage the further application of Fe3O4 core-meso SiO2/TiO2 and Fe3O4 core-TiO2/meso SiO2 double shell for removal of other dyes and pollutants from wastewater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0085.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: The Sun; Solar Flare; Solar Core; Solar Interior layers; Radiative Zone; Convection Zone
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:59:45 CEST)
The Sun is a huge gaseous body. However, we cannot observe events in the inner Sun due to the convection zone opacity according to previous models. Therefore, the flares originate from the front surface of the Sun. But the current study relied on the distance distribution of X-Ray solar flares, which concluded that the inner layers have much lower opacity than expected. It is even less than what was expected by the latest models based on helioseismology. This means that the flares may originate from the solar interior or solar core, and perhaps from the backside surface, and even appear to us from the frontside surface. Which the re-estimate and correct the currently listed solar flare’s location is needed. Additionally, the flare’s distance illustrations the solar interior layers and appears their boundaries from the core to the photosphere. This method allows us to monitor the variation of the core’s radius with time. The model of the flare’s distance has been developed in current study. But this needs to redevelopment after re-estimating the solar flares locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0413.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: bauxite residue; red mud; scandium; acid leaching; kinetics; shrinking core model; waste utilization.
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:07:23 CET)
One of the potential sources of rare-earth elements (REEs) is the solid waste from alumina industry - bauxite residue, known as “red mud” (RM). The main REEs from the raw bauxite are concentrated in RM after the Bayer leaching process. The earlier worldwide studies were focused on the scandium (Sc) extraction from RM by concentrated acids to enhance the extraction degree. This leads to the dissolution of major oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3) from RM. This article studies the possibility of selective Sc extraction from alkali fusion red mud (RMF) by diluted nitric acid (HNO3) leaching at pH ≥ 2 to prevent co-dissolution of Fe2O3. RMF samples have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sc extraction has been found to be 71.2 % at RMF leaching by HNO3 at pH=2 and at 80 °C during 90 min. The kinetic analysis of experimental data by the shrinking core model has shown that Sc leaching process is limited by the interfacial diffusion and the diffusion through the product layer. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was 19.5 kJ/mol. We have established that according to EPMA of RMF, Sc is associated with iron minerals; it could act as the product layer. The linear dependence of Sc extraction of magnesium (Mg) extraction has been revealed. This fact indicates that Mg can act as a leaching agent of Sc presented in RMF by ion-exchangeable phase.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: micro – structured optical fibers; hollow core waveguides; optical vortices; Poynting vector; phase dislocations.
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:44:42 CEST)
This paper discusses the basic concepts of phase dislocations and vortex formation in the electric fields of fundamental air core mode of hollow core waveguides with specific types of rotational symmetry of the core – cladding boundary. Analysis of the behavior of the electric field phase in the transmission bands shows that the mechanism of light localization in the hollow core waveguides with discrete rotational symmetry of the core – cladding boundary cannot be completely described by the ARROW model. For an accurate description of the phase behavior, it is necessary to account for phase jumps of the magnitude of π when passing through the phase dislocations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; fiber optic sensor; accelerometer; hetero-core; low-frequency vibration measurement
Online: 21 June 2018 (07:53:45 CEST)
In this paper, a novel pendulum-type accelerometer based on hetero-core fiber optics has been proposed for structural health monitoring targeting large-scale civil infrastructures. Vibration measurement is a non-destructive method for diagnosing the failure of structures by assessing natural frequencies and other vibration patterns. The hetero-core fiber optic sensor utilized in the proposed accelerometer can serve as a displacement sensor with robustness to temperature changes in addition to immunity to electromagnetic interference and chemical corrosions. Thus the hetero-core sensor inside the accelerometer measures applied acceleration by detecting the rotation of an internal pendulum. A series of experiments showed that the hetero-core fiber sensor linearly responded to the rotation angle of the pendulum ranging within ±5°, and furthermore the proposed accelerometer could reproduce the waveform of input vibration in a frequency band of several Hz order.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: core-shell; disinfection; Escherichia coli; nanoparticles; pathogens; silver; solar-photocatalysis; Staphylococcus aureus; water; zinc oxide
Online: 4 May 2017 (11:32:16 CEST)
Water borne pathogens present a threat to human health and their disinfection from water poses a challenge, prompting search for newer methods and newer materials. Disinfection of Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram-positive coccal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in aqueous matrix was achieved within 60 and 90 minutes respectively at 35⁰C using solar-photocatalysis mediated by sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The efficiency of the process increased with increase in temperature and at 55⁰C the disinfection could be achieved in 45 and 60 min respectively for the two bacteria. A new ultrasound assisted chemical precipitation technique was used for the synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The characteristics of the synthesized material were established using physical techniques. The material remained stable even at 400o C. Disinfection efficiency of the Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles was confirmed in case of real world water samples from pond, river, municipal tap and was found to be better than that of pure ZnO and TiO2 (Degussa P25). When the nanoparticle based catalyst was recycled and reused for subsequent disinfection experiments, its efficiency did not change remarkably even after three cycles. The sonochemically synthesized Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles have a good potential for application in solar photocatalytic disinfection of water borne pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1963.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Core-shell nanogels; nonlinear PEG; anisole; biocompatible; thermo-responsive; curcumin stability, high loading capacity; drug delivery
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:08:45 CEST)
Curcumin, a nontoxic and cheap natural medicine, has high therapeutic efficacy for many diseases including diabetes and cancers. Unfortunately, its exceedingly low water-solubility and rapid degradation in the body severely limit its bioavailability. In this work, we prepare a series of biocompatible poly(vinyl anisole)@nonlinear poly(ethylene glycol) (PVAS@PEG) core-shell nanogels with different PEG gel shell thickness to provide high water solubility, good stability, and controllable sustained release of curcumin. The PVAS nanogel core is designed to attract and store curcumin molecules for high drug loading capacity and the hydrophilic nonlinear PEG gel shell is designed to offer water dispersibility and thermo-responsive drug release. The obtained nanogels are monodispersed in spherical shape with clear core-shell morphology. The size and shell thickness of the nanogels can be easily controlled by changing the core-shell precursor feeding ratios. The optimized PVAS@PEG nanogels display a high curcumin loading capacity of 38.0 wt%. The nanogels can stabilize the curcumin from degradation at pH =7.4 and release the curcumin in response to heat in the physiologically important temperature range. The nanogels can enter cells effectively and exhibit negligible cytotoxicity to both the B16F10 and HL-7702 cells at a concentration up to 2.3 mg/mL. Such designed PVAS@PEG nanogels have a great potential to be used for delicate drug delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0314.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: hepatitis B virus (HBV); cccDNA; basal core promoter; X promoter; single nucleotide polymorphisms; logo analyses; genotype alignments
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:03:06 CEST)
Over 250 million people are infected chronically with hepatitis B virus (HBV), the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide. HBV persists due in part to its compact, stable minichromosome, the covalently-closed, circular DNA (cccDNA), which resides in the hepatocytes’ nuclei. Current therapies target downstream replication products, however, a true virological cure will require targeting the cccDNA. Finding targets on such a small, compact genome is challenging. For HBV, to remain replication-competent, it needs to maintain nucleotide fidelity in key regions, such as the promoter regions, to ensure that it can continue to utilize the necessary host proteins. HBVdb (HBV database) is a repository of HBV sequences spanning all genotypes (A-H) amplified from clinical samples, and hence implying an extensive collection of replication-competent viruses. Here, we analyzed the HBV sequences from HBVdb using bioinformatics tools to comprehensively assess the HBV core and X promoter regions amongst the nearly 70,000 HBV sequences for highly-conserved nucleotides and variant frequencies. Notably, there is a high degree of nucleotide conservation within specific segments of these promoter regions highlighting their importance in potential host protein-viral interactions and thus the virus’ viability. Such findings may have key implications for designing antivirals to target these areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: scandium; REEs; bauxite residue; selective leaching; process design aspects; thin film diffusion model; unyielding core; specific recovery
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:50:01 CET)
Aiming at the industrial scale development of a Scandium (Sc)-selective leaching process of Bauxite Residue (BR), a sufficiently numerous set of process design aspects has been investigated, by appropriate exploitation of available experimental data. The interpretation of experimental data for Sc leaching yield, with sulfuric acid as the leaching solvent, has shown significant impact from acid feed concentration, mixing residence time, liquid to solids ratio, and times of leachate re-usage onto fresh BR. The thin film diffusion model, as the fundamental theory for leaching, either with constant particle size for selective leaching, or with shrinking particle size for less-, or non-, selective leaching, interprets sufficiently well the relevant experimental data. In both cases, a concept for an unyielding core supplements the basic model. Especially for the selective leaching mild conditions, the simplest model version keeps step with the experiments, since both prove 1st order kinetics, while especially for the extreme conditions including very low solvent excess, it is proposed a combined conversion rate model with diffusion and chemical reaction inside particles. The maximization of Sc recovery per unit of consumed solvent (i.e., specific recovery) emerged as highly critical for the process economics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Random filling; slate rock; core; wheel impression test; topographic settlement test; plate bearing test
Online: 18 August 2021 (08:23:11 CEST)
The construction of random fillings from the excavation of medium hardness rocks, with high particle sizes, presents limitations in compaction control. This research applies new control techniques with revised test procedures in the construction of the random fillings core, which constitutes the main part of the embankment, with the bigger volume and provides the geotechnical stability to the infrastructure. The maximum layer thickness researched was 800mm. As there are many types of rocks, this research is applied to metamorphic slates. Quality control has been carried out by applying new research associated with the revision of wheel impression test, topographic settlements and plate bearing test (PBT). A statistical analysis of the core of 16 slate random fillings has been carried out, with a total of 2250 in situ determination of density and moisture content, 75 wheel impression tests, 75 topographic settlement control and 75 PBT. The strong associations found between different tests have allowed to simplify the quality control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Rhizobium; species complex; bacterial taxonomy; core genes; housekeeping genes; average nucleotide identity; speciation; genospecies
Online: 12 December 2020 (11:51:22 CET)
Bacteria currently included in Rhizobium leguminosarum are too diverse to be considered a single species, so we can refer to this as a species complex (the Rlc). We have found 429 publicly available genome sequences that fall within the Rlc and these show that the Rlc is a distinct entity, well separated from other species in the genus. Its sister taxon is R. anhuiense. We constructed a phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 120 universal (core) genes, and calculated pairwise average nucleotide identity (ANI) between all genomes. From these analyses, we concluded that the Rlc includes 18 distinct genospecies, plus 7 unique strains that are not placed in these genospecies. Each genospecies is separated by a distinct gap in ANI values, usually at around 96% ANI, implying that it is a 'natural' unit. Five of the genospecies include the type strains of named species: R. laguerreae, R. sophorae, R. ruizarguesonis, "R. indicum" and R. leguminosarum itself. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence is remarkably diverse within the Rlc, but does not distinguish the genospecies. Partial sequences of housekeeping genes, which have frequently been used to characterise isolate collections, can mostly be assigned unambiguously to a genospecies, but alleles within a genospecies do not always form a clade, so single genes are not a reliable guide to the true phylogeny of the strains. We conclude that access to a large number of genome sequences is a powerful tool for characterising the diversity of bacteria, and that taxonomic conclusions should be based on all available genome sequences, not just those of type strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0376.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: thermal infrared; reflectance spectroscopy; emissivity; surface roughness; geological sample preparation; hyperspectral; drill core scanning
Online: 17 October 2018 (07:51:17 CEST)
High-resolution laboratory-based thermal infrared spectroscopy is an up-and-coming tool in the field of geological remote sensing. Its spatial resolution allows for detailed analyses at centimeter to sub-millimeter scale. However, this increase in resolution creates challenges with sample characteristics such as grain size, surface roughness and porosity that can influence the spectral signature. This research explores the effect of rock sample surface preparation on the TIR spectral signatures. We applied three surface preparation methods (split, saw and polish) to determine how the resulting differences in surface roughness affects both the spectral shape as well as the spectral contrast. The selected samples are a pure quartz sandstone, a quartz sandstone containing a small percentage of kaolinite, and an intermediate-grained gabbro. To avoid instrument or measurement type biases we conducted measurements on three TIR instruments, resulting in directional hemispherical reflectance spectra, emissivity spectra and bi-directional reflectance images. Surface imaging and analyses were performed with scanning electron microscopy and profilometer measurements. We demonstrate that surface preparation affects the TIR spectral signatures influencing both the spectral contrast as well as the spectral shape. The results show that polished surfaces predominantly display a high spectral contrast while the sawed and split surfaces display up to 25% lower reflectance values. Furthermore, the sawed and split surfaces display spectral signature shape differences at specific wavelengths, which we link to mineral transmission features, surface orientation effects and multiple reflections in fine-grained minerals. Hence, the influence of rock surface preparation should be taken in consideration to avoid an inaccurate geological interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0327.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Melanoma; Core regulatory network; in silico perturbationSystems pharmacology; Boolean model; Small molecule inhibitors; Virtual screening; ADME; E2F1
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:22:29 CEST)
Skin melanoma presents increasing prevalence and poor outcomes. Progression to aggressive stages is characterized by overexpression of the transcription factor E2F1 and activation of downstream prometastatic gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Appropriate therapeutic manipulation of the E2F1-governed GRNs holds the potential to prevent metastasis however, these networks entail complex feedback and feedforward regulatory motifs among various regulatory layers, which make it difficult to identify druggable components. To this end, computational approaches such as mathematical modeling and virtual screening are important tools to unveil the dynamics of these signaling networks and identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Herein, we integrated a well-established E2F1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) map with transcriptomics data from E2F1-expressing melanoma cells to reconstruct a core regulatory network underlying aggressive melanoma. Using logic-based in silico perturbation experiments of a core regulatory network, we identified that simultaneous perturbation of Protein kinase B (AKT1) and oncoprotein murine double minute 2 (MDM2) drastically reduces EMT in melanoma. Using the structures of the two protein signatures, virtual screening strategies were performed with the FDA-approved drug library. Thus, by combining drug repurposing and computer-aided drug design techniques, followed by molecular dynamics simulation analysis identified two potent drugs (Cialis and Finasteride) that can efficiently inhibit AKT1 and MDM2 protein signatures respectively, and with better therapeutic properties. We proposed that these two drugs could be considered for the development of therapeutic strategies for the management of aggressive melanoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0304.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: core-shell particles; liquid interfaces; triangular lattice; thermodynamics; ground states; structure; line tension; phase coexistence; competing interaction; fluctuations.
Online: 14 October 2020 (11:02:23 CEST)
A triangular lattice model for pattern formation by core-shell particles at fluid interfaces is introduced and studied for the particle to core diameter ratio equal to 3. Repulsion for overlapping shells and attraction at larger distances due to capillary forces are assumed. Ground states and thermodynamic properties are determined analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations for soft outer- and stiffer inner shells, with different decay rates of the interparticle repulsion. We find that thermodynamic properties are qualitatively the same for slow and for fast decay of the repulsive potential, but the ordered phases are stable for temperature range depending strongly on the shape of the repulsive potential. More importantly, there are two types of patterns formed for fixed chemical potential - one for a slow and another one for a fast decay of the repulsion at small distances. In the first case two different patterns - for example clusters or stripes - occur with the same probability for some range of the chemical potential. For fixed concentration, an interface is formed between two ordered phases with the closest concentration, and the surface tension takes the same value for all stable interfaces. In the case of degeneracy, a stable interface cannot be formed for one out of four combinations of the coexisting phases, because of a larger surface tension. Our results show that by tuning the architecture of a thick polymeric shell, many different patterns can be obtained for sufficiently low temperature.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1419.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc); HBV; HIV; Botswana; Africa
Online: 20 June 2023 (09:42:20 CEST)
: (1) Background: Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) are a marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) exposure; hence a normal HBV serology profile is characterized by HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBc positivity. However atypical HBV serologies occur and we aimed to determine the prevalence of an atypical profile (HBsAg+/anti-HBc-) in a cohort of people with HIV-1 (PWH) in Botswana. (2) Methods: Plasma samples from an HIV-1 cohort in Botswana (2013-2018) were used. Samples were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc. Next generation sequencing was done using the GridION platform. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Chi-squared tests were used for comparison of continuous and categorical variables respectively. (3) Results: HBsAg+/anti-HBc- prevalence was 13.7% (95% CI 10.1 – 18.4) (36/263). HBsAg+/anti-HBc- participants were significantly younger (p<0.001), female (p=0.02), ART naïve (p=0.04) and had detectable HIV viral load (p=0.02). There were no mutational differences in sequences isolated from participants with HBsAg+/anti-HBc- versus those with HBsAg+/anti-HBc+ serology. (4) Conclusions: We report a high HBsAg+/anti-HBc– atypical serology profile prevalence among PWH in Botswana. We caution against HBV testing algorithms that consider only anti-HBc+ samples for HBsAg testing as they are likely to underestimate HBV prevalence. Studies to elucidate the mechanisms and implications of this profile are warranted.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: molecular dynamics simulations; gold; nanoparticles; core-shell; grafted; structural and dynamical properties of polymers; polyethylene
Online: 7 December 2020 (09:27:17 CET)
Metal nanoparticles are used to modify/enhance the properties of a polymer matrix for a broad range of applications in bio-nanotechnology. Here, we study the properties of polymer/gold nanoparticle (NP) nanocomposites through atomistic molecular dynamics, MD, simulations. We probe the structural, conformational and dynamical properties of polymer chains at the vicinity of a gold (Au) NP and a functionalized (core/shell) Au NP, and compare them against the behavior of bulk PE. The bare Au NPs were constructed via a systematic methodology starting from ab-initio calculations and an atomistic Wulff construction algorithm resulting in the crystal shape with the minimum surface energy. For the functionalized NPs the interactions between gold atoms and chemically adsorbed functional groups change their shape. As a model polymer matrix we consider polyethylene of different molecular lengths, from the oligomer to unentangled Rouse like systems. By computing the different properties the concept of the interface, and the interphase as well, in polymer nanocomposites with metal NPs are critically examined. Results concerning polymer density profiles, bond order parameter, segmental and terminal dynamics show clearly that the size of the interface / interphase, depends on the actual property under study. In addition, the anchored polymeric chains change the behavior/properties, and especially the chain density profile and the dynamics, of the polymer chain at the vicinity of the Au NP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0280.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: phonagnosia, acquired, developmental, apperceptive, associative, voice-identity processing, speaker recognition, core-voice system, extended system
Online: 4 December 2018 (16:31:48 CET)
The voice contains elementary social communication cues, conveying speech, as well as paralinguistic information pertaining to the emotional state and the identity of the speaker. In contrast to vocal-speech and vocal-emotion processing, voice-identity processing has been less explored. This seems surprising, given the day-to-day significance of person recognition by voice. A valuable approach to unravel how voice-identity processing is accomplished is to investigate people who have a selective deficit in recognising voices. Such a deficit has been termed phonagnosia. In the present chapter, we provide a systematic overview of studies on phonagnosia and how they relate to current neurocognitive models of person recognition. We review studies that have characterised people who suffer from phonagnosia following brain damage (i.e. acquired phonagnosia) and also studies, which have examined phonagnosia cases without apparent brain lesion (i.e. developmental phonagnosia). Based on the reviewed literature, we emphasise the need for a careful behavioural characterisation of phonagnosia cases by taking into consideration the multistage nature of voice-identity processing and the resulting behavioural phonagnosia subtypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0135.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncom; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 21 November 2017 (03:33:00 CET)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of bacterial strains from the endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0031.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncomm; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 8 September 2017 (14:02:56 CEST)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of hundreds bacterial isolates obtained from endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1912.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Advanced oxidation process; Core-shell structure; Fenton chemistry; Fe@Fe3O4 interface; Methyl orange decomposition; Oxygen vacancy
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:05:52 CEST)
Iron-based materials are widely applied in Fenton chemistry and they have promising prospects in the processing of wastewater. The composition complexity and rich chemistry of iron and/or oxides, however, hamper the precise understanding on the active sites and the working mechanism which still remain highly controversial. Herein, iron oxides of four different model systems are designed through a conventional precipitation method plus H2 reduction treatment. These systems feature Fe@Fe3O4 with abundant oxygen vacancy, Fe0 and Fe3O4 particles with interface structures, and Fe3O4-dominated nanoparticles of different sizes. These materials are applied in the decomposition of methyl orange as a model reaction to assess the Fenton chemistry. The Fe@Fe3O4 with core-shell structures exhibited significantly higher decomposition activity than the other Fe3O4-rich nanoparticles. A thin Fe3O4 layer formed by auto-oxidation of iron particles when exposing to air can boost the activity as compared with the Fe0 and Fe3O4 particles with interface structures but poor oxygen vacancy. The unique hetero-structure with the co-existence of both metallic iron and oxygen vacancy displayed excellent redox propensity which might account for the superior Fenton activity. This finding provides a new perspective to understand and design highly efficient iron-based Fenton catalysts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0079.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: EGS; crustal permeability; finite element flow modelling; crustal wellbore temperatures; wellbore injection; well logs; well core
Online: 18 September 2017 (12:01:16 CEST)
We use Matlab 3D finite element fluid flow/transport modelling to simulate localized wellbore temperature events of order 0.05-0.1oC logged in Fennoscandia basement rock at ~ 1.5km depths. The temperature events are approximated as steady-state heat transport due to fluid draining from the crust into the wellbore via naturally occurring fracture-connectivity structures. Flow simulation is based on the empirics of spatially-correlated fracture-connectivity fluid flow widely attested by well-log, well-core, and well-production data. Matching model wellbore-centric radial temperature profiles to a 2D analytic expression for steady-state radial heat transport with Peclet number Pe ≡ r0φv0/D (r0 = wellbore radius, v0 = Darcy velocity at r0, φ = ambient porosity, D = rock-water thermal diffusivity), gives Pe ~ 10-15 for fracture-connectivity flow intersecting the well, and Pe ~ 0 for ambient crust. Darcy flow for model Pe ~ 10 at radius ~ 10 meters from the wellbore gives permeability estimate κ ~ 0.02Darcy for flow driven by differential fluid pressure between least principal crustal stress pore pressure and hydrostatic wellbore pressure. Model temperature event flow permeability κm ~ 0.02Darcy is related to well-core ambient permeability κ ~ 1µDarcy by empirical poroperm relation κm ~ κ exp(αmφ) for φ ~ 0.01 and αm ~ 1000. Our modelling of wellbore temperature events calibrates the concept of reactivating fossilized fracture-connectivity flow for EGS permeability stimulation of basement rock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0132.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: dispersed titanium and zirconium; mechanical mixture; galvanic replacement; metal systems Ti-Ni and Zr-Ni; core-shell structure, precursors of intermetallics
Online: 2 June 2023 (05:01:36 CEST)
The article focuses on the galvanic replacement synthesis of Ti-Ni and Zr-Ni metal systems with the "core-shell" structure which are potential precursors for intermetallics. The authors defined the effective synthesis parameters and the formation features of polymetallic systems character-ized by granulometric, phase and elemental composition. The X-ray fluorescence and X-ray phase analysis methods showed that the deposition of nickel on dispersed titanium and zirconium leads to the production of test samples with phase composition representing a mechanical mixture of Ni and Ti, Ni and Zr. The method of X-ray fluorescence analysis showed that the presence of hy-drofluoric acid with a 0.5-1.5 M concentration results in the formation of fixed quantitative ratios of elements in the precipitate, which allows the quantitative composition of dispersed systems "titanium - nickel", "zirconium - nickel" to be regulated within a relatively wide range. Scanning electron microscopy proved that all synthesized systems are characterized by a highly porous structure that follows the titanium and zirconium particle surface contour and the presence of spherical nanoscale subunits on the formed particle surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: synthesized Chitosan-TiO2 nanocomposite; Core-Shell Method; Room Temperature Vulcanization (RTV) maxillofacial silicone; color stability; accelerated aging conditions
Online: 19 July 2023 (11:35:06 CEST)
The present study sought to determine the effect of incorporating a Chitosan-TiO2 nano-composite on the color stability of pigmented Room Temperature Vulcanization (RTV) maxillofacial silicone subjected to a variety of accelerated aging conditions. The experimental setup consisted of one hundred groups of five disk-shaped specimens (22mm diameter, 2mm thick) each, created using RTV silicon elastomer type A-2186, with the total sample distributed into four groups based on the pigments combined with the silicon—specifically, brilliant red, blue, and yellow dry intrinsic pigments (at 0.2% concentration by weight) and a fourth group that remained non-pigmented. Each of these primary groups was further subdivided into five categories corresponding to the silicon variants treated with different nanoparticles—2% TiO2, 3% Chitosan, a hybrid nano-combination of 1% TiO2/Chitosan, 1% synthesized Chitosan-TiO2 Nanocomposite, and a control group devoid of nanoparticle additions. The synthesized Chitosan-TiO2 Nanocomposite was effectively prepared using the core-shell method. The color stability of each silicon category, irrespective of whether pigmented or non-pigmented was evaluated by calculating the color difference (ΔE) pre- and post-subjection to five distinct accelerated aging conditions: 30 hours in an antibacterial cleaning solution, six months in sebum, six months in sweat, UV-accelerated aging for 720 hours, and outdoor weathering for six months. Color measurements were taken using a Colorimeter within the CIELAB color system. Statistical analyses, including one-way ANOVA at a significance level of p < 0.05, were employed to discern significant differences among the various accelerated aging conditions across the five silicon categories. Further comparisons were made using Dennett's T3 multiple comparison test, Tukey HSD multiple comparisons, and a t-test, with SPSS for Windows version 27.0 as the software platform. Results indicated that all silicon types, whether pigmented or not, exhibited varying degrees of color change under different aging conditions. Red-colored samples, across all silicon categories, demonstrated significant color alterations after 720 hours of UV-accelerated aging, with the most pronounced change in the 3% Chitosan samples and the least in the 2% TiO2 samples. Six months of outdoor weathering led to a marked increase in ΔE values across all categories. The blue-pigmented silicon samples treated with 2% TiO2 showed the highest color modification, while the yellow-pigmented silicon and non-pigmented silicon also underwent significant color shifts, particularly in the control and Chitosan-TiO2 categories, respectively. The study underscores the pervasive influence of outdoor weathering on color stability across all silicon categories. It also demonstrates that while nanoparticle incorporation offers some resilience against accelerated aging, it fails to provide adequate protection against the specific effects of UV radiation encountered during outdoor weathering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1654.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Anomaly detection; Information system; High-dimensional data; Dominance relation; CORE of attribute set; Distance function; k-means algorithm
Online: 23 May 2023 (12:00:44 CEST)
Finding anomalies in the real-time system is recognized as one of most challenging study in information security. It has so many applications like IoT, and Stock-Market. In any IoT system the data generated are real-time, and temporal in nature. Since due to the extreme exposure to Internet and interconnectivity of devices, the IoT systems often face issues like fraud, anomalies, intrusions etc. Discovering anomaly in such domain can be interesting. Clustering and rough set theory have been tried in many cases. Considering the time-stamp associated with IoT data, time-dependent patterns like periodic clusters can be generated which could be helpful for the efficient detection of anomalies by providing more in-depth analysis of the system. In this paper, a mixed method comprising of nano topology, a modified k-means clustering and an interval superimposition technique is used for finding fuzzy periodic clusters in the subspace generated by the nano topology. For every clusters there will be an associated sequence of time-intervals where it exists. The sequence time-intervals accompanying with each clusters may exhibit some remarkable patterns. For example, there may exist different types of periodicity namely yearly, monthly, daily, and hourly etc. For finding such fuzzy periodicity, an operation called interval-superimposition has been used. The time-intervals associated with each cluster are superimposed if they have reasonable overlapping. Each superimposed time-interval generates a fuzzy time-interval. The data instances are thought to be anomalous if they either belong to sparse clusters or don't belong to any clusters. The efficacy of the method can be assessed by means of both time-complexity analysis and comparative studies with existing clustering-based anomaly detection algorithms with a real-life and a synthetic dataset. It can been found experimentally that our method can extract anomaly with 98% of accuracy and it runs cubic time approximately.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Large power transformer; condition monitoring; transformer fault diagnosis; diagnostic techniques; mechanical or electrical integrity of the core and windings
Online: 21 March 2022 (10:47:56 CET)
Large power transformers are generally associated with a maximum capacity rating of 100 MVA or higher. These large liquid dielectric power transformers are a custom-built piece of equipment, thus very expensive, and a backbone element of the power grid. In extreme cases as, for example, severe geomagnetic disturbances, permanently monitoring their condition will enhance their electrical reliability and resilience to guarantee efficient management of its life cycle. However, some traditional monitoring/diagnosis techniques have singular features when applied to large power transformers and their interlinked subsystems. In this context, and since that information is hardly put in evidence and compiled in the literature, this paper reviews the particularities of monitoring and diagnosing those assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0203.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Dark matter; no dark matter; halo-curves; gravity-forces; galactic core; third Kepler-law; centripetal force; stellar halo- velocity
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:20:04 CET)
Since several years there is the discussion about dark matter in the halos of galaxies. This is aconsequence of observation of halo-velocity curves in dependence of distance which don‘t fulfillthe third Kepler-law. Maybe the ansätze are wrong. Shown is a simple physical model in classicalNewton-dynamics which fits qualitative the form of observation curves. Additional Parameters canbe used to fit the curves quantitative exactly without the hypothesis of dark matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0647.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Lung condition; COVID-19; Machine learning; Custom Vision; Core ML; Auto ML; AI; Pneumonia; Smartphone application; Real-time diagnosis
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:14:39 CEST)
AI is leveraging all aspects of life. Medical services are not untouched. Especially in the field of medical image processing and diagnosis. Big IT and Biotechnology companies are investing millions of dollars in medical and AI research. The recent outbreak of SARS COV-2 gave us a unique opportunity to study for a non interventional and sustainable AI solution. Lung disease remains a major healthcare challenge with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The predominant lung disease was lung cancer. Until recently, the world has witnessed the global pandemic of COVID19, the Novel coronavirus outbreak. We have experienced how viral infection of lung and heart claimed thousands of lives worldwide. With the unprecedented advancement of Artificial Intelligence in recent years, Machine learning can be used to easily detect and classify medical imagery. It is much faster and most of the time more accurate than human radiologists. Once implemented, it is more cost-effective and time-saving. In our study, we evaluated the efficacy of Microsoft Cognitive Service to detect and classify COVID19 induced pneumonia from other Viral/Bacterial pneumonia based on X-Ray and CT images. We wanted to assess the implication and accuracy of the Automated ML-based Rapid Application Development (RAD) environment in the field of Medical Image diagnosis. This study will better equip us to respond with an ML-based diagnostic Decision Support System(DSS) for a Pandemic situation like COVID19. After optimization, the trained network achieved 96.8% Average Precision which was implemented as a Web Application for consumption. However, the same trained network did not perform like Web Application when ported to Smartphone for Real-time inference, which was our main interest of study. The authors believe, there is scope for further study on this issue. One of the main goals of this study was to develop and evaluate the performance of AI-powered Smartphone-based Real-time Applications. Facilitating primary diagnostic services in less equipped and understaffed rural healthcare centers of the world with unreliable internet service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0230.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: thin slab casting direct rolling, austenite grain coarsening, grain growth control, liquid core reduction, secondary cooling, two phase pinning
Online: 23 January 2019 (08:44:19 CET)
Thin Slab Casting and Directing Rolling (TSCDR) has become a major process for flat- rolled production. However, the elimination of slab reheating and limited number of thermomechanical deformation passes leave fewer opportunities for austenite grain refinement resulting in some large grains persist in the final microstructure. In order to achieve excellent Ductile to Brittle Transaction (DBTT) and Drop Weight Tear Test (DWTT) properties in thicker gauge high strength low alloy products, it is necessary to control austenite grain coarsening prior to the onset of thermomechanical processing. This contribution proposes a suite of methods to refine the austenite grain from both theoretical and practical perspective including: increasing cooling rate during casting, liquid core reduction, increasing austenite nucleation sites during the delta ferrite to austenite phase transformation, controlling holding furnace temperature and time to avoid austenite coarsening, and producing new alloy with two phase pinning to arrest grain coarsening. These methodologies can not only refine austenite grain size in the slab center, but also improve the slab homogeneity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: pasmo resistance, pasmo severity, quantitative trait loci (QTL), quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs), fiber, linseed, core collection, flax, Linum usitatissimum
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:45:20 CET)
Pasmo is one of the most widespread diseases threatening flax production. To identify genetic regions associated with pasmo resistance (PR), a genome-wide association study was performed on 370 accessions from the flax core collection. Evaluation of pasmo severity was performed in the field from 2012 to 2016 in Morden, MB, Canada. Genotyping-by-sequencing has identified 258,873 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed on all 15 flax chromosomes. Marker-trait associations were identified using ten different statistical models. A total of 692 unique quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) associated with 500 putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected from six phenotypic PR datasets (five individual years and average across years). Different QTNs were identified with various statistical models and from individual PR datasets, indicative of the complementation between analytical methods and/or genotype × environment interactions of the QTL effects. The single-locus models tended to identify large-effect QTNs while the multi-loci models were able to detect QTNs with smaller effects. Among the putative QTL, 67 had large effects (3-23%), were stable across all datasets and explained 32-64% of the total variation for PR in the various datasets. Forty-five of these QTL spanned 85 resistance gene analogs including a large toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (TNL) type gene cluster on chromosome 8. The number of positive effect QTL (NPQTL) in accessions was significantly correlated with PR (R2=0.55), suggesting additive effects. NPQTL was also significantly associated with morphotype (R2=0.52) and major positive effect QTL were present in the fiber type accessions. The 67 large effect QTL are suited for marker-assisted selection and the 500 QTL for effective genomic prediction in PR molecular breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1675.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry; gold nanoshell; nanogap; surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization; silica core nanoparticle; small-molecule analysis
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:40:39 CEST)
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF MS) is a commonly used technique for analyzing large biomolecules. However, the utilization of organic matrices limits the small-molecule analysis because of the interferences in the low-mass region and reproducibility issues. To overcome these limitations, a surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI), which utilizes nanostructured metallic surfaces, has been developed. Herein, a novel approach for SALDI–MS was proposed using nanoengineered gold shell with nanogaps on the silica core (SiO2@Au NGS), which is an emerging material due to its excellent heat-generating capabilities. The gold shell thickness was controlled by adjusting the concentration of gold precursor for the growth of gold nanoparticles. SALDI-MS measurements were performed on a layer formed by drop-casting a mixture of SiO2@Au NGS and analytes. At the optimized process, the gold shell thickness was observed to be 17.2 nm, which showed the highest absorbance. The ion desorption efficiency was confirmed with a survival yield upon fragmentation. Based on the enhanced SALDI capability, SiO2@Au NGS was utilized to detect various small molecules including amino acids, sugars, and flavonoids. The limits of detection, reproducibility, and salt tolerance of SiO2@Au NGS demonstrate its potential as an effective and reliable SALDI material for small-molecule analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: computational neutronics; European Pressurised Reactor; Monte Carlo simulation; nuclear physics; nuclear reactor core modelling; nuclear energy; nuclear power; nuclear safety; Shannon entropy; thermal hydraulics
Online: 5 August 2020 (05:24:13 CEST)
Computationally modelling a nuclear reactor startup core for a benchmark against the existing models is highly desirable for an independent assessment informing nuclear engineers and energy policymakers. This work presents a startup core model of the UK’s first Evolutionary Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) based on Monte Carlo simulations of particle collisions using Serpent 2, a continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup code. Coupling between neutronics and thermal-hydraulic conditions with the fuel depletion is incorporated into the multi-dimensional branches, obtaining the thermal flux and fission rate (power) distributions radially and axially from the three dimensional (3D) single assembly level to a 3D full core. Shannon entropy is employed to characterise the convergence of the fission source distribution, with 3 billion neutron histories tracked by parallel computing. Source biasing is applied for the variance reduction. Benchmarking the proposed Monte Carlo 3D full-core model against the traditional deterministic transport computation suite used by the UK Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), a reasonably good agreement within statistics is demonstrated for the safety-related reactivity coefficients, which creates trust in the EPR safety report.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0359.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Core set; Climate change; Nitrogen use efficiency; Omic approaches; Plant genetic resources; Stress; Systems biology; Water use efficiency
Online: 15 July 2021 (13:28:14 CEST)
Germplasm is a long-term resource management mission and investment for civilization. For both food and nutritional health, the present changing environmental scenario has become an urgent universal concern. Multiple excellent studies have been previously performed, although the advancement and innovation of practices will require the exploration of the potentiality of crop germplasm. In this study, we emphasized (i) germplasm activates, current challenges and ongoing trends of the crop germplasm, and (ii) how the system biology will be helpful to understand the complex traits such as water use efficiency (WUE), and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) to mitigate challenges for sustainable development under growing food requirement and climate change conditions. We focused on a vision for transforming PGR into a bio-digital resource system, for the development of climate-smart crops for sustainable food production. Moreover, this review attempted to address current challenges, research gaps and describe the advanced integrated strategies that could provide a platform for future crop improvement research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0282.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: PADC; poly(allyl diglycol carbonate); latent track; track core radius; G value; layered structure; REFIT; NISE; detection threshold; chemical criterion
Online: 13 July 2021 (09:34:32 CEST)
Modified structure along latent tracks and track formation process have been investigated in poly(allyl diglycol carbonate), PADC, which is well recognized as a sensitive etched track detector. This knowledge is essential to develop novel detectors with improved track registration property. The track structures of protons and heavy ions (He, C, Ne, Ar, Fe, Kr and Xe) have been examined by means of FT-IR spectrometry, covering the stopping power region between 1.2 to 12,000 eV/nm. Through a set of experiments on low-LET radiations – such as gamma ray -, multi-step damage process by electron hits was confirmed in the radiation-sensitive parts of the PADC repeat-unit. From this result, we unveiled for the first-time the layered structure in tracks, in relation with the number of secondary electrons. We also proved that etch pit was formed when at least two repeat-units were destroyed along the track radial direction. To evaluate the number of secondary electrons around tracks, a series of numerical simulations were performed with Geant4-DNA. Therefore, we are proposing new physical criterions to describe the detection thresholds. Futhermore, we propose a present issue of the definition of detection threshold for semi-relativistic C ions. And as a possible chemical criterion, formation density of hydroxyl group is suggested to express the response of PADC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0451.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML); childhood; Core-binding factor (CBF); KMT2A/11q23 rearrangement; acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)
Online: 6 September 2023 (15:38:49 CEST)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second common hematologic malignancy in children. The incidence of childhood AML is much lower than acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which makes the childhood AML a rare disease in children. The role of genetic abnormalities in AML classification, management and prognosis prediction is much more important than before. The WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) classification were both revised in 2022. The application of the new information in childhood AML will be upcoming in the next few years. The frequency of each genetic abnormality in adult and childhood AML is different, therefore, in this review we emphasize in well-known genetic subtypes in childhood AML, including Core-binding factor AML (CBF AML), KMT2Ar (KMT2A/11q23 rearrangement) AML, normal karyotypes AML with somatic mutations, unbalanced cytogenetic abnormalities AML, NUP98 11p15/NUP09 rearrangement AML and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Current risk group classification, management algorithm in childhood AML and novel treatment modalities, such as targeted therapy, immune therapy, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy are reviewed. Finally, the indications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in AML are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1343.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Performing Arts; Core; Star Excursion Balance Test; Balance; Push-ups; Planks; Single Leg Hops; Dancers; Training; Performance; Health; Physical Fitness; collegiate
Online: 19 June 2023 (10:13:45 CEST)
Dance is physically demanding, requiring physical fitness(PF) that includes upper body, lower body, core fitness, and balance for successful performance. Whether PF changes as dancers advance from when they enter(freshmen) to when they graduate from their collegiate program(seniors) is unclear. We prospectively compared collegiate dancers’ freshman-to-senior PF. We recorded PF of the upper body strength-endurance(push-ups, n=number), core strength-endurance(front, left-side, right-side, and extensor plank hold times, s=seconds), lower body power(Single-leg-hop-SLH distances % Height; Leg Symmetry Index: LSI=higher/lower*100, %), and balance(Anterior Reach Balance,%Leg-Length, LL; LSI balance=higher/lower*100, %) in 25 collegiate dancers(23 females, 2 males; freshmen age=18.2±0.6yrs). Paired t-tests(p<.05) compared measures from freshmen-senior years. Across their collegiate programs, dancers’ PF remained unchanged: upper body strength-endurance push-ups numbers(p=.93), core strength-endurance plank times(left:p=.44, right:p = .67, front:p=.60, p=.22), SLH distances(left: p =.44, right:p =.85) and SLH symmetry(p=0.16). Dancers’ right leg balance(p =.08) remained similar, while the left balance(p =.02) improved with better symmetry(p<.001) in senior balance scores. Overall, dancers’ PF did not change across their collegiate programs, except for greater left leg balance scores. Findings suggest that practitioners can use collegiate dancers’ freshmen baseline PF when devising rehabilitation programs and making return to activity decisions post injury throughout their dance programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0370.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: GADV hypothesis; origin of life; protein 0th-order structure; origin of protein; [GADV]-microsphere; origin of gene: the core life system
Online: 28 June 2022 (03:41:15 CEST)
One of the problems, which make it difficult to solve the mystery of the origin of life, would be how life emerged in chemically complex messy environments on the primitive Earth. It is considered that three main points contributed to open the way to the emergence of life. (1) A characteristic inherent in [GADV]-amino acids, which are easily produced with prebiotic means. (2) Protein 0th-order structure or [GADV]-amino acid composition generating water-soluble globular protein with some flexibility, which can be produced even by random joining of [GADV]-amino acids. (3) Formation of versatile [GADV]-microspheres, which can grow, divide, proliferate even without genetic system, was the emergence of proto-life. (4) [GADV]-microspheres with a higher proliferation ability than others could be selected. The proto-Dawin evolution made it possible to proceed forward to creation of the core life system composed of (GNC)n gene, anticodon stem-loop tRNA or AntiC-SL tRNA (GNC genetic code) and [GADV]-protein. (5) Eventually, the first genuine life with the core life system emerged. Thus, the formation processes of [GADV]-protein and (GNC)n gene in chemically complex messy environments were the steps to the emergence of genuine life.