BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0621.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: cyber-criminal; organization; Advanced Persistent Threat; undercover activities
Online: 25 June 2021 (12:13:47 CEST)
as the growth and popularity of technology has become simultaneous ascend in both impacts and numbers of cyber criminals thanks to the web. For many years, the organization has strived in ways of preventing any attacks from cyber-criminal with advanced techniques. Cybercriminals and intruders are developing a more advanced way to breach the security surface of an organization. Advanced Persistent Threats are also known as APT are new and a lot more sophisticated version for multistep attack scenarios that are known and are targeted just to achieve a goal most commonly undercover activities. this report, there will cover everything I know that tells us about APT with more word and brief explanations
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1811.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: advanced melanoma; pembrolizumab; immunotherapy
Online: 26 June 2023 (12:07:15 CEST)
Introduction: pembrolizumab showed to increase survival in patients with metastatic melanoma, Con-sidering the numerous oncoming studies, we decided to conduct a narrative review of the latest efficacy evidence regarding the use of pembrolizumab, alone or in combination, in patients with metastatic melanoma. (2) Methods: A search was conducted on Pubmed using "pembrolizumab," and "metastatic melanoma" as keywords, considering studies from 2022 onward. (3) results: we reviewed pembroli-zumab and associations, cost-effectiveness, virus, advanced acral melanoma, long-term outcomes, re-al-life data, biomarkers, obesity, and vaccines (4) Conclusions: pembrolizumab is a fundamental op-tion in the therapy of metastatic melanoma. However, a certain group of patients do not respond and therefore new combination options need to be evaluated. In particular, the use of vaccines tailored to tumor epitopes could represent a breakthrough in the treatment of resistant forms. Further studies with larger sample numbers are needed to confirm preliminary results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0927.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Poly/perfluoroalkyl substances; advanced reductive processes; advanced oxidation processes; nanomaterials; water treatment
Online: 25 April 2023 (11:46:29 CEST)
This review focus on a critical analysis of nanocatalysts for Advanced Reductive Processes (ARP) and Oxidation Processes (AOP) designed for the degradation of poly/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water. Ozone, ultraviolet and photocatalyzed ARP and/or AOP will be the basic treatment technologies. Besides the review of the nanomaterials with greater potential as catalyst for advanced processes of PFAS in water, the perspectives for its future development considering sustainability considerations will be discussed. Moreover, a brief analysis of the current state of the art of the ARP and AOP for the treatment of PFAS in water will be presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0075.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: hydrated multi-dimensional nanoparticles; advanced electronics
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:10:17 CEST)
The paper considers new effects of the nanoscale state of matter, which open up prospects for the creation of electronic devices using new physical principles. The contact of chemically homogeneous different sizes hydrated nanoparticles of yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide (ZrO2 – x %mol Y2O3, x=0, 3, 4, 8; YSZ) with particle sizes of 7.5 nm and 7,5 nm; 7.5 nm and 9 nm; 7.5 nm and 11 nm; 7.5 nm and 14 nm in the form of compacts obtained using high hydrostatic pressure (HP-compacts of 300MPa) was studied at direct and alternating current. A unique size effect of the nonlinear (semiconductor) dependence of the electrical properties (in the region U <2.5 V, I ≤ 2.7 mA) of the contact of different-sized YSZ nanoparticles of the same chemical composition is revealed, which indicates the possibility of creating semiconductor structures of a new type based on chemically homogeneous nanostructured systems. The electronic structure of the near-surface regions of nanoparticles of a special type of oxide materials and the possibility, on this basis, to obtain specifically rectifying properties of the contacts were studied theoretically. Models of surface states of the Tamm type are constructed, but considering the Coulomb long-range action. The discovered variance and its dependence on the curvature of the surface of nanoparticles made it possible to study the conditions for the formation of a contact potential difference in cases of nanoparticles of the same radius (synergistic effect), different radii (doped and undoped variants), as well as to discover the possibility of describing a group of powder particles from material within the Anderson model. The established effect makes it possible to solve the problem of diffusion instability of semiconductor heterojunctions and opens up prospects for creating electronics devices with a fundamentally new level of properties for use in various fields of the national economy and breakthrough critical technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0275.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: advanced therapy; aggressive; antisocial; behavior; MAOA
Online: 14 May 2018 (10:46:26 CEST)
Antisocial behavior is a behavior disorder inherited according to the inheritance of X-linked chromosome. This disorder derives from mutations in the MAOA gene. One of the mutations results in the MAOA-L allele activity. The MAOA-L allele activity can cause antisocial behavior in both healthy and unhealthy people. Antisocial behavior from healthy males can originate from maltreatment during childhood. Currently, MAOA inhibitor can reverse antisocial behavior to normal behavior in animal models. However, this disorder cannot be treated permanently; to treat it permanently in the future, technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9, iPSCs and ssODN are required. These technologies have succeeded to correct erroneous segments in the F8 gene and F9 gene. Both genes occupy the X chromosome. The MAOA gene also occupies the X chromosome. Therefore, it is reasonable to state that CRISPR/Cas9 and iPSCs technique for instance can be beneficial tools to edit the MAOA gene to treat antisocial behavior. CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in combination with iPSCs or ssODN for instance. This combination can greatly help the permanent healing of antisocial behavioral disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1855.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sarcoidosis; advanced pulmonary fibrosis; signaling; molecular pathway
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:55:01 CEST)
Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the formation of granulomas in various organs, especially lung and mediastinal hilar lymph nodes. The clinical course and manifestations are unpredictable: spontaneous remission can occur in approximately two thirds of patients; up to 20% of patients have chronic course of the lung disease (called Ad-vanced Pulmonary Sarcoidosis) resulting in progressive loss of lung function, sometimes life-threatening that can lead to respiratory failure and death. The immunopathology mechanism leading from granuloma formation to the fibrosis in APS still remains elusive. Recent studies have provided new insights into the genetics factors and immune components involved in the clinical manifestation of the disease. In this review we aim to summarize the clinical-prognostic charac-teristics and molecular pathways which are believed to be associated with the development of APS
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: MTS; MTO; logistics strategy; advanced industrial engineering
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:25:16 CEST)
Strategic management sets the direction of a company for several years ahead. Managers and business owners who create strategy must anticipate and have the ability to see systemically—the paper deals with creating a logistics strategy for a company operating in the industrial sector. The first section summarises the theoretical background for strategy and logistics and current trends affecting logistics processes. The second chapter analyses the current state of the art in logistics strategy development and summarizes its problem areas. The central part of the paper is the proposal of a methodology for logistics strategy development in the industrial area by a progressive approach. The methodology is divided into 5 phases - preparatory, analytical, formulation, implementation, and evaluation and control phases. The methodology is partially validated. The created variants of the logistics strategy include the introduction of such elements that will lead to the gradual development of the Industry 4.0 trend in the given company. This is mainly the first variant called "automation," which includes the introduction of an automatic tractor for material import, the introduction of an automatic system for transport and storage of work in progress, and the introduction of a new logistics information system that will make greater use of already established barcodes (transparency, data in real-time).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1812.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: predictive algorithms cybersecurity; machine learning; advanced persistent threats
Online: 27 September 2023 (02:38:03 CEST)
Cybersecurity plays a relevant role in the new digital age in aerospace industry. Predictive algorithms are necessary to interconnect complex systems within the cyberspace. In this context, where security protocols do not apply, challenges to maintain data privacy and security arise for the organizations. Thus, the need of cybersecurity is required. The four main categories to classify threats are interruption, fabrication, modification and interception. They all share a common thing, soften the three pillars which cybersecurity needs to guarantee. These pillars are confidentiality, availability and integrity of data (CIA). Data injection can contribute to this event by creation of false indicators which can lead to errors creation during the manufacturing engineering process. In this paper, the impact of data injection on existing dataset used on manufacturing process is shown. The design model synchronizes the following mechanisms developed within machine learning techniques which are, the risk matrix indicator to assess the probability of producing an error, the dendrogram to clusters the dataset in groups with similarities, the logistic regression to predict the potential outcomes and the confusion matrix to analyze the performance of the algorithm. The results presented in this study, which was carried out using a real dataset related to the electrical harnesses installed in a C295 military aircraft, estimate that injection of false data indicators increase the probability of errors creation in 24.22 % on the predicted outcomes required for the generation of the manufacturing process. Overall, implementing cybersecurity measures and advanced methodologies to detect and prevent cyberattacks are necessary.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1864.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: wastewater; petroleum refinery; treatment process; physiochemical; advanced; photocatalys
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:12:19 CEST)
The treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRWW) is of great interest in the field of industrial wastewater management. The wastewater contains a diverse concentration of contaminants such as oil and grease, petroleum hydrocarbons, phenol, ammonia, sulfides, as well as other organic and inorganic composites etc. The treatment of refinery wastewater has been treated through various processes including; physical, biological, chemical or hybrid methods which combine two or more techniques. Hence, the objective of this review is to summarize the recent research studies applied in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using conventional, advanced as well as integrated treatment techniques. Furthermore, critically highlight the efficiencies and major limitations of each technique as well as prospects for improvement. Several conventional treatment techniques (basically, the physicochemical and biological processes) were discussed. In this context, advanced oxidation processes (AoPs) especially electrochemical oxidation and photocatalysis as well as the integrated/hybrid processes are found effective to remove the recalcitrant fraction of organic pollutants because of their various inherent mechanisms. These techniques could effectively remove COD and phenols concentration with an average removal efficiency exceeding 90%. Hence, the review also presented an elaborate discussion of the photocatalytic process as one of the advanced techniques and highlighted some basic concepts to optimize the degradation efficiency of a photocatalyst. Finally, a brief recommendation for research prospects is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0634.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Advanced manufacture; Energy security; Heat exchange; Cleaan energy
Online: 20 April 2023 (08:40:32 CEST)
The spiral tube heat exchange is widely used in large-scale liquefaction process. However, the research on the friction pressure drop of the two-phase flow in the spiral tube is limited, especially for the offshore sloshing condition. In this paper, an experimental system is designed and built, and the effects of sloshing form (roll, pitch, heave), sloshing period (5-15s), mass flux (200-800 kg/(m2·s)), vapor quality (0.3-0.9) and operating pressure (2-4 MPa) on friction pressure drop of methane/ethane (C1/C2) mixture in spiral tube are studied. The result shows that the growth rate of time-averaged friction pressure drop during condensation under sloshing condition is less than 0, which indicates that sloshing will lead to drag reduction. And under the three sloshing parameters, the growth rate of time-averaged friction pressure drop of C1/C2 is reduced by-5.99%%, 5.97% and -6.70% respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: nursing home; advanced fire prevention; emergency response training
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:43:18 CEST)
Background: In long-term care facilities, there are many residents who do not have the ability to seek shelter by themselves in the case of an emergency. Thus, it is extremely important that the staff of nursing homes are equipped with correct disaster prevention concepts, emergency survival responses, and hazard mitigation measures. Purpose: Discuss the intervention effectiveness of different fire prevention and emergency response trainings at nursing homes and the relationship and predictivity of awareness to self-efficacy. Method: Recruit staff from two nursing homes through purposive sampling, using a two-team pre-and post-test design to collect results from 41 individuals in the experiment group and 40 individuals in the control group. The research tool is the “Nursing Home Fire Prevention and Emergency Response Awareness and Self-Efficacy Scale,” to compare the effectiveness of advanced and general fire safety trainings. Result: After receiving improved advanced fire safety training, the total score and the result of the experiment group on fire prevention and emergency response awareness and self-efficacy had both performed better than the control group who received general fire safety training (p < .001); fire prevention and emergency response awareness has significant and positive correlation with self-efficacy (r=.601, p < .001), and awareness is a significant predictor variable to self-efficacy (p < .001). Conclusion/Practical Application: This study finds that the key to improving learning effectiveness includes adding fire science concept chapter when creating fire safety training material in order to strengthen basic awareness; fire safety training should comprehensively introduce all related duty responsibilities of staff fire defense formation, in turn enabling mutual responsive support for the needs of the site; also, to become familiarized with the knowledge requires appropriate frequency of training and enhancing the staff’s awareness to fire prevention and emergency response, which is the most important key of learning effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Grief; Advance Care Planning; Advanced Cancer, Family Caregivers
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:51:17 CEST)
Cancer patients and their family caregivers experience various losses when patients become terminally ill, yet little is known about the grief experienced by patients and caregivers and factors that influence grief as patients approach death. Additionally, few, if any, studies have explored associations between advance care planning (ACP) and grief resolution among cancer patients and caregivers. To fill this knowledge gap, the current study examined changes in grief over time in patients and their family caregivers and whether changes in patient grief are associated with changes in caregiver grief. We also sought to determine how grief changed following completion of advance directives. The sample included advanced cancer patients and caregivers (n=98 dyads) from Coping with Cancer III, a federally funded, multi-site prospective longitudinal study of end-stage cancer care. Participants were interviewed at baseline and at follow-up roughly 2 months later. Results suggest synchrony, whereby changes in patient grief were associated with changes in caregiver grief. We also found that patients who completed a living will (LW) experienced increases in grief, while caregivers of patients who completed a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order experienced reductions in grief, suggesting that ACP may prompt “grief work” in patients while promoting grief resolution in caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0655.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: delayed-choice; causality; retrocausality; advanced action; numerical simulation
Online: 26 November 2020 (07:34:49 CET)
The conventional explanation of delayed-choice experiments seems to violate our causal intuition. This apparent violation is caused by a misinterpretation of the conventional formulation of quantum mechanics. I reanalyze these experiments using advanced and time-symmetric formulations of quantum mechanics. All three formulations give the same experimental predictions, but the advanced and time-symmetric formulations violate our causal intuition that effects only happen after causes. I explore reasons why our causal intuition may be wrong at the quantum level. I also suggest how conventional causation might be recovered in the classical limit, and speculate on cosmological boundary conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Cirrhosis; Advanced Chronic Liver Disease; Surgery; Postoperative risk; Mortality
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:24:16 CEST)
Patients with advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) or cirrhosis undergoing surgery have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in contrast to the general population. Retrospective, observational study of ACLD patients to evaluate the predictive capacity of previous surgical risk scores in a European cohort of patients. ACLD was defined by the presence of thrombocytopenia <150.000/uL and splenomegaly; AST-to-Platelet Ratio Index >2; nodular liver edge by ultrasound; transient elastography >15 kPa and/or signs of portal hypertension. We assessed variables related to 90-day mortality and the discrimination and calibration of current surgical scores (Child-Pugh, MELD-Na, MRS, NSQIP, and VOCAL-Penn). Only patients with ACLD and major surgeries included in VOCAL-Penn were considered (n=512). The mortality rate at 90 days after surgery was 9.8%. Baseline disparities between H. Mar and VOCAL-Penn cohorts were identified. Etiology, obesity, or platelet count not were associated with mortality. The VOCAL-Penn showed the best discrimination (C-statistic90D= 0.876) and overall predictive capacity (Brier90D= 0.054) but calibration was not excellent in our cohort. VOCAL-Penn was suboptimal in patients with diabetes (C-statistic30D= 0.770), without signs of portal hypertension (C-statistic30D= 0.555), or with an abdominal wall (C-statistic30D= 0.608) or urgent (C-statistic180D= 0.692) surgeries. Our European cohort has shown a mortality rate after surgery similar to those described in American studies. However, some variables included in the VOCAL-Penn score were not associated with mortality, and VOCAL-Penn’s discriminative ability decreases in patients with diabetes, without signs of portal hypertension, and with abdominal wall or urgent surgeries. These results should be validated in larger multicenter and prospective studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1798.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D/4D printing; advanced robotics systems; pneumatic muscles; actuators
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:49:15 CEST)
3D/4D printing technologies are currently among the fastest growing, cutting edge fabrication technologies. The scale of their applications is vast and applicable to nearly all industries. 3D printing technologies are particularly popular in robotics, and especially in advanced design innovative solutions for areas such as manufacturing, space technology and medicine. The development of robotics, and in particular of the precision of manufactured components, such as actuators, pneumatic muscles, power transmission units, etc., means that new prototypes are still being made, where the use of 3D printers reduces the production time severalfold and allows for completing the necessary simulations and tests. In addition, the use of 3D printers allows for the production of thin-walled and cellular structures, which is a great advantage compared to conventional fabrication technologies. In the range of 3D printers available on the market, only a few selected technologies allow for actual use in the construction of advanced robot elements (muscles, vibration dampers, etc.). In the era of rapid growth of the precision of the available 3D printers and modern materials, 3D printing may soon become a major tool in robotics. This article presents an overview of 3D printing technologies and materials in terms of their application in robotics and provides examples of the use of 3D and 4D printing in prototyping and fabrication of robotic elements with particular emphasis on the current state of the art. The study considered the possibilities of using 3D/4D printing in robotics with the use of polymeric materials. The review of the literature and the research work currently being carried out in this area is very promising and it seems that 3D/4D printing in robotics is widely used and is still developing, which allows to conclude that in the near future the number of research works in this field will increase rapidly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1773.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: HALEU; High-Assay LEU; Advanced Reactors; Validation; DOE; NRC
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:45:44 CEST)
Many advanced reactor concept designs rely on high-assay low-enriched uranium (HALEU) fuel, enriched up to approximately 19.75% 235U by weight. Efforts are underway by the US government to increase HALEU production in the United States to meet anticipated needs. However, very little data exists for validation of computational models that include HALEU, beyond a few fresh fuel benchmark specifications in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project. Nevertheless, there is other data with potential value available for developing into quality benchmarks for use in data and software validation efforts. This paper reviews the available evaluated HALEU fuel benchmarks and some of the potentially relevant benchmarks for fresh highly enriched uranium. It then introduces experimental data for HALEU fuel irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory, from relatively recent irradiation programs at the Advanced Test Reactor. Such data should be evaluated and, if valuable, collected into detailed benchmark specifications to meet the needs of HALEU-based reactor designers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0211.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: advanced vehicle safety; standard airbag; nanobag; frontal sled test
Online: 13 December 2021 (15:57:43 CET)
Objective: The future mobility challenges leads to considering new safety systems to protect vehicle passengers in non-standard and complex seating configurations. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a brand new safety system called nanobag and to compare it to the traditional airbag performance in the frontal sled test scenario. Methods: The nanobag technology is assessed in the frontal crash test scenario and compared with the standard airbag by numerical simulation. The previously identified material model is used to assemble the nanobag numerical model. The paper exploits an existing validated human body model to assess the performance of the nanobag safety system. Using both the new nanobag and the standard airbag, the sled test numerical simulations with the variation of human bodies are performed in 30 km/h and 50 km/h frontal impacts. Results: The sled test results for both the nanobag and the standard airbag based on injury criteria shows a good and acceptable performance of the nanobag safety system compared to the traditional airbag. Conclusion: The results show that the nanobag system has its performance compared to the standard airbag, which means that thanks to the design, the nanobag safety system has a high potential and extended application for multi-directional protection against impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0622.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Complex Regression, Least-Squares Techniques, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:46:32 CEST)
This paper uses the complex regression analysis method to establish the customer’s load regression models, which consider economic indicators, temperature and rainfall. Furthermore, the proposed models are used to study the forecasting feasibility of the future energy sales and summer peak load demand. At first, this paper used least-squares techniques to derive regression models for considering economic indicators and temperature of 34 customer energy sales and total energy sales. Besides, the AMI high voltage customer demand data and system generating capacity for 24 hours were adopted to forecast summer peak load. The above-mentioned data analysis tool is used by EViews software to achieve, in order to verify the feasibility of the research framework. The study found that although its forecasting model accuracy is low only when mixed with temperature and high voltage demands. So, when mixed with high voltage demand data and system generating capacity for 24 hours to forecast peak load, the average error is ± 0.87% and in the majority of its energy sales forecasting model of average error is ±3%. This result can provide power company as future reference.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0629.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: road safety; advanced driver assistance; safe system approach; LMIC
Online: 25 November 2020 (10:06:33 CET)
Abstract: Traffic collisions cause a huge problem of public health in low and middle income countries.. The safe system approach is generally considered as the leading concept on the way to road safety. Based on the fundamental premise that humans make mistakes, the overall traffic system should be ‘forgiving’. Sustainable safe road design is one of the key elements of the safe system approach. However, the road design principles behind the safe system approach are certainly not leading in today’s infrastructure developments in most LMICs. Cities are getting larger and road networks are expanding. In many cases, existing through-roads in local communities are up-graded, resulting in heavy traffic loads and high speeds on places, that are absolutely not suited for this kind of through-traffic. Furthermore a safe system would require that functional design properties of cars and roads would be conceptually integrated, which is not the case at all. Although advanced driver assistance systems are on their way of development for quite a long period, their potential role in the safe system concept is mostly unclear and at least strongly underexposed. The vision on future cars is dominated by the concept of automation. This paper argues that the way to self-driving cars, should take a route via the concept of guidance, i.e. vehicles that guide drivers, both on self-explaining roads and on more or less unsafe roads. Such an in-vehicle support system may help drivers to choose transport mode, route and speed, based on criteria related to safety and sustainability. It is suggested to develop a driver assistance system using relatively simple and cheap technologies, particularly for the purpose of use in LMICs. Such a GUIDE (Generic User Interface for Driving Evolution) may make roads self-explaining - not only by their physical design characteristics - but also by providing in-car guidance for drivers. In future the functional characteristics of both cars and roads should be conceptualized into one integrated safe system, in which the user plays the central role. As such GUIDE may serve as the conceptual bridge between vehicle and roadway characteristics. It is argued that GUIDE is necessary to bring a breakthrough in road safety developments in LMICs and also give an acceleration towards zero fatalities in HICs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: advanced lung cancer; network-meta analysis; combination therapy; chemotherapy
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:11:51 CEST)
Background: At present, the treatments for patients with advanced lung cancer focus on chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of multiple treatments. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to compare the various chemotherapy-based combination therapies and find the best one for patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods: Based on database (PubMed, EMBASE and Medline) for randomized controlled trials of advanced lung cancer with combination therapy from 2008 to 2020, we searched literatures with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse as outcome indicators and established a Bayesian mesh meta-analysis for multiple treatment strategies. Then, we combined the results of four outcome indicators to find out the best chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategy for patients with advanced lung cancer, further, we tried to screen out the best drugs of which were commonly used now. Results: It contained a total of 51 studies, including five combination therapies: Chemotherapy/Chemotherapy plus placebo (CT), chemotherapy plus one targeted therapy drug (CT+T), chemotherapy plus two targeted therapy drugs (CT+T+T), chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (CT+I) or chemotherapy combined with biotherapy (CT+B). In terms of four outcome indicators, CT+I showed the best therapeutic benefits. In the comparison of immunotherapy drugs, pembrolizumab showed the best effect. Conclusion: Our results showed that, among the multiple chemotherapy-based combination therapy strategies, chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy is the best choice for patients with advanced lung cancer, and pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy has the best effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0335.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: big data; maturity model; temporal analytics; advanced business analytics
Online: 18 August 2018 (11:05:24 CEST)
The main aim of this paper is to explore the issue of big data and to propose a conceptual framework for big data, based on the temporal dimension. The Temporal Big Data Maturity Model (TBDMM) is a means for assessing organization’s readiness to fully profit from big data analysis. It allows the measurement of the current state of the organization’s big data assets and analytical tools, and to plan their future development. The framework explicitly incorporates a time dimension, providing a complete means for assessing also the readiness to process temporal data and/or knowledge that can be found in modern sources, such as big data ones. Temporality in the proposed framework extends and enhances the already existing maturity models for big data. This research paper is based on a critical analysis of literature, as well as creative thinking, and on the case-study approach involving multiple cases. The literature-based research has shown that the existing maturity models for big data do not treat the temporal dimension as the basic one. At the same time, dynamic analytics is crucial for a sustainable competitive advantage. This conceptual framework was well received among practitioners, to whom it has been presented during interviews. The participants in the consultations often expressed their need of temporal big data analytics, and hence the temporal approach of the maturity model was widely welcomed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: CO2 storage; carbonate fractures; ENOS; operating parameters; advanced modelling
Online: 27 July 2018 (10:50:50 CEST)
CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers was recently developed at industrial scale mainly in sandstone formations. Experiences on CO2 injections in carbonates aquifers for permanent trapping are quite limited, mostly from US projects such as AEP Mountaineer, Michigan and Williston Basin. The behavior of fractures in carbonates plays a key role in those reservoirs in which porous matrix permeability is very poor, which drives the CO2 plume migration through the fracture network where hydromechanics and geochemical effects take place due to injection. Hontomín (Spain) is the actual on-shore injection pilot in Europe (EP Resolution of 14 January 2014), whose reservoir is comprised of fractured carbonates. Existing experiences from field scale tests conducted on site have supported to better understand the behavior of this type of reservoirs for CO2 geological storage. Innovative CO2 injection strategies are being carried out in ENOS Project (EU H2020 Programme, http://www.enos-project.eu). First results based on field tests conducted at Hontomín, and the advanced modelling developed so far will be analyzed and discussed in this article, as well as, the description of future works. The evolution of operating parameters such as flow rate, pressure and recovery term during the tests confirm the CO2 migration through the fractures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0410.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: solar windows; advanced glazings; diffractive elements; light trapping; photovoltaics
Online: 23 July 2018 (10:18:54 CEST)
We report on the study of energy-harvesting performance in medium-size (400 cm2) glass-based semitransparent solar concentrators employing edge-mounted photovoltaic modules. Systems using several different types of glazing system architecture and containing embedded diffractive structures are prepared and characterized. The technological approaches to the rapid manufacture of large-area diffractive elements suitable for use in solar window-type concentrators are described. These elements enable the internal deflection and partial trapping of light inside glass-based concentrator windows. We focus on uncovering the potential of pattern-transfer polymer-based soft lithography for enabling both the improved photon collection probability at solar cell surfaces, and the up-scaling of semitransparent solar window dimensions. Results of photovoltaic characterization of several solar concentrators employing different internal glazing-system structure and diffractive elements produced using different technologies are reported and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: ovalbumin, allergy; advanced glycation; fructose; fructositis; receptor for advanced glycation end products; inflammation; asthma; chlorogenic acid; Ilex paraguariensis; high fructose corn syrup
Online: 28 February 2017 (10:41:10 CET)
One mechanism by which fructose could exert deleterious effect in metabolism and inflammation is via its potency vis-à-vis de Maillard reaction. We employed simulated stomach and duodenum digestion of ovalbumin to test the hypothesis that indeed AGEs are formed by fructose during simulated digestion of an ubiquitous food protein with intrinsic allergenic potential and under model physiological conditions. Methods: OVA was subjected to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion using standard models, in presence of fructose or glucose (0-100 mM). Peptide fractions were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and intensity at Excitation: λ370 nm, Emission: λ 440nm. Results: AGE adducts form between fructose and OVA which can be found in peptide fractions (< 5 kDa) at times (30 min) and concentration ranges (10 mM) plausibly found in the intestines, whereas no reaction occurs with glucose. The reaction is inhibited by chlorogenic acid at concentrations compatible with those found in the gut. The reaction is inhibited by AG, a specific antiglycation agent. Conclusion: Our proof of principle study shows that fructose-AGE formation on an ubiquitous allergenic protein indeed occurs in one hour and thereby may pave the way for the study of yet another mechanism by which the excess fructose in our Western diets is contributing to disease: intestinal AGE formation, absorption and RAGE engagement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1514.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: multimodality imaging; advanced heart failure; extracorporeal cardiac support; cardiac transplant
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:49:59 CEST)
Advanced heart failure (AHF) presents a complex landscape with challenges spanning diagnosis, management, and patient outcomes. In response, the integration of multimodality imaging techniques has emerged as a pivotal approach. This comprehensive review delves into the profound significance of these imaging strategies within AHF scenarios. Multimodality imaging, encompassing echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), and cardiac computed tomography (CCT), stands as a cornerstone in the care of patients with both short- and long-term mechanical support devices. These techniques facilitate precise device selection, placement, and vigilant monitoring, ensuring patient safety and optimal device functionality. In the context of orthotopic cardiac transplant (OTC), the role of multimodality imaging remains indispensable. Echocardiography offers invaluable insights into allograft function and potential complications. Advanced methods, like speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), empower the detection of acute cell rejection. CMR and CCT further enhance diagnostic precision, especially concerning allograft rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. This comprehensive imaging approach goes beyond diagnosis, shaping treatment strategies and risk assessment. By harmonizing diverse imaging modalities, clinicians gain a panoramic understanding of each patient's unique condition, facilitating well-informed decisions. Thus, this review underscores the irreplaceable role of multimodality imaging in elevating patient outcomes, refining treatment precision, and propelling advancements in the evolving landscape of advanced heart failure management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0838.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: advanced oxidation processes; organic pollutants; wastewater pollution; antibiotics removal; photocatalysis
Online: 10 August 2023 (09:08:18 CEST)
Simultaneously with the development of industrial society, wastewater with organic pollutants has caused various environmental problems. The most majority of organic pollutants in water and wastewater are persistent, reason which can cause serious problems for human health, animal health, and for the whole environment. Therefore, efficient treatment methods for wastewater with highly concentration of organic compounds are immediately necessary. During the last years, the prescribed and non-prescribed consumption of antibiotics has grown a lot worldwide. Big quantities of antibiotics are discharged into wastewater because their incomplete absorption by living organisms, but at small concentrations present in aquatic environments represents a major risk for the human health and environment protection. The paper presents the main advantages and disadvantages of advanced oxidation processes, but also current state and new perspectives in the field of environment protection. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are often used in the field of treatment of different types of wastewater. AOPs are based on physicochemical processes that create significant structural changes in chemical species, their commercialization at a wide scale may result in cost reductions that are desirable for environmental applications. The majority of antibiotics may be eliminated using physicochemical processes, such as photo-Fenton, photolysis, ozonation, electrooxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, and other bio processes. In comparison to conventional chemical processes, AOPs provide superior oxidation efficiency, ideal operating costs, and zero secondary pollutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biomarkers; immunotherapy markers; advanced serous ovarian carcinoma; immunohistochemistry; p53; MSI
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:39:48 CEST)
Abstract: Advanced high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is a serious malignant neoplasm with a late diagnosis and high mortality rate. Even when treated with standard therapy, such as surgery followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy, the prognosis remains unfavorable. Im-munotherapy is a treatment alternative that requires further study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the expression of the immunotherapy markers: PD-1, PD-L1, CD8, MSI (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2), and p53 in the paraffin samples of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. A retrospective study of 28 southern Brazilian patients with advanced serous ovarian carcinoma (EC III or IV) was conducted between 2009 and 2020. The expression of these proteins was evaluated using im-munohistochemistry, and the results were correlated with the patients' clinicopathological data. At diagnosis, the mean age was 61 years, and the most common clinical stage (60%) was EC III. Among the cases, 84.6% exhibited p53 overexpression, 14.8% had MSI, 92.0% were sensitive to platinum, and more than 50.0% relapsed after treatment. Patients with MSI had a lower CD8/PD-1 ratio and more relapses (p=0.03). In conclusion, analysis of immunotherapeutic markers in paraf-fin-embedded samples of advanced serous ovarian carcinoma is feasible and may assist in prog-nosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0327.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: habitable planets; exo planets; advanced life; M stars; geophysical conditions
Online: 17 March 2023 (13:48:16 CET)
Using a simple model for internal heat evolution and mass-internal heat relations found for rocky exo planetary objects in the inner solar system we have inferred the phases of volcanism at earth ( EA) or host star ages (SA) in 52 potentially habitable rocky exo planets. We have also calculated the internal tidal heat contributions and magnetic moments of these exo planets. Based on these results we have inferred the probability of existence of life favouring geophysical conditions in the above exo planets at EA and SA. In M star associated exo planets, occurrences of super flares and long night periods may pose problems for the development of advanced life
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: advanced industrial engineering; strategy; management; business performance; key performance indicators
Online: 28 July 2022 (08:43:32 CEST)
The paper deals with the design of a systematic procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes for a project-oriented production type of organization. In the first part of the contribution, a summary of the theoretical starting points for the field of strategic management and change management is presented. In the second part, the contribution deals with the analysis of the current situation in the area of the impact of the change of strategy on the management of business processes. In the last part, the proposal of the procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes and the verification results are presented. The proposed procedure includes steps where the selection and verification of key performance indicators at individual levels of management plus the quantification of the impact of the change in strategy on the processes takes place. The management can thus monitor and evaluate the chosen processes in accordance with the fulfilment of the chosen strategy of the company. The last chapter presents the verification of the proposal for the systematic introduction of changes into the processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Advanced Oxidation Process, Antibacterial resistance, Disinfection, Persistence, ROS, Stress response
Online: 13 August 2020 (06:15:17 CEST)
Different water treatment regiments are revealed to have potential in enriching antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based disinfection techniques have been studied widely in the recent times due to their advantages over conventional treatment methods. However, bacterial response and adaptations against the hostile environments of AOPs is not clearly understood yet. Based on the existing knowledge on the ways in which bacteria surpass the antibiotic treatment, here we propose few important aspects of bacterial adaptation which could be true for AOPs as well since both antibiotics and AOPs generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their modes of action. We discuss the plausible role of ROS in the selection of ARB and bacterial heterogeneity as a strategy to bypass the lethal action of AOPs. Understanding bacterial adaptation during disinfection plays a vital role in devising strategies to outclass the bacterial survival. Hence, more importance should be given to such studies in the near future for the successful implementation of AOPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0016.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: solar windows; advanced glazings; low-emissivity spectrally-selective coatings; photovoltaics
Online: 2 May 2018 (08:23:36 CEST)
A study of photovoltaic solar window technologies is reported, focusing on their structural features, functional materials, system development, and suitability for use in practical field applications, e.g. public infrastructures and agricultural installations. Energy generation performance characteristics are summarized and compared to theory-limit predictions. Working examples of pilot-trial solar window-based installations are described. We also report on achieving electric power outputs of about 25 Wp/m2 from clear and transparent large-area glass-based solar windows.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: advanced melanoma; immunotherapy; target therapy; lysine histone methyl transferase inhibitors; UNC0642
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:35:45 CEST)
Advanced cutaneous melanoma is considered the most aggressive type of skin cancer with variable rates of treatment response. Nowadays, there are available some classes of immunotherapy and target therapy for its treatment. Immunotherapy can inhibit tumor growth and its recurrence by triggering host's immune system, while targeted therapy acts inhibiting specific molecules or signaling pathways. However, melanoma response to these treatments are highly heterogenous, and frequently become resistant. Epigenome (DNA/histone modification) contribute to cancer initiation and progression. Epigenetic alterations are divided into four levels of gene expression regulation: DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs regulation. The deregulation of lysine methyltransferase enzymes is associated with tumor initiation, invasion, development of metastases, changes in immune microenvironment and drug resistance. The study of lysine histone methyltransferase (KMT) inhibitors is important to cancer epigenetic mechanisms understanding and to biological processes. In addition to immunotherapy and target therapy, the research and development of KMT inhibitors is ongoing. Many studies are exploring the therapeutic implications and possible side effects of these compounds, besides their adjuvant potential to the approved current therapies. Importantly, as with any drug development, safety, efficacy, and specificity are crucial considerations when developing KMT inhibitors for clinical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0528.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Pyrolysis; combustion emissions; improved cookstoves; advanced boilers; CO detectors; catalyst impregnation
Online: 10 October 2023 (02:45:18 CEST)
There is a growing notion that biomass are the best resource to replace the declining fossil fuels, yet both share the long lived human threat: toxic combustion emissions. Among the toxic combustion products is carbon monoxide (CO) that not only causes acute but also chronic ailments. This brief review discusses the solid fuel processing technologies from combustion, thermochemical and biochemical processing to kinetics and thermodynamics including the mechanism for release of CO. It further expounds on the burden that CO has caused England and Wales in the last 25 years. The main gist are the systems that have been developed to minimize human exposure to CO including cooking, heating, catalytic and detection systems. Finally, alternative technologies are discussed that work by changing the chemical nature of solid fuels as a way to minimize CO emissions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0192.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: advanced materials; metal organic framework; electrochemical sensor; trace detection; emerging pollutants
Online: 4 September 2023 (11:48:55 CEST)
Metal-organic framework (MOF) is a porous hybrid material of metal ions connected by organic bridging ligands. The coordination bonds link the metal ions, metal-ion clusters, and organic ligands to create the MOFs, and the materials are a distinctive class of crystalline frameworks. These porous materials possess relatively large surface area, tunable pore sizes, various functionalities, and high thermal stability. Therefore, diverse area of research including electrochemical sensor development utilizes distinctive and engineered MOFs materials. The review critically analyzes the strategy adopted for synthesizing a variety of MOFs materials. The role of these engineered materials in the fabrication of a miniaturized device demonstrates the detection of various emerging water contaminants in an aqueous medium. The studies demonstrated an understanding of the insights of sensor and device development. Moreover, the challenges encountered utilizing the MOFs in the electrochemical sensor development are precisely included, along with future perspectives of these studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Advanced and metastatic gastric cancer; first-line systemic treatment; systematic review
Online: 6 July 2023 (02:24:35 CEST)
Globally, gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality, with a 5-year survival rate of 32% for locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer. This systematic literature review summarized the clinical, safety, and humanistic outcomes associated with systemic regimens given as first line therapy for locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer. The search included articles published in English in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting library, from inception to April 2022. Phase II and III randomized controlled trials conducted among western populations diagnosed with stage III and IV locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer were included. Two investigators independently reviewed the studies, conducted data extraction, and assessed risk of bias in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-four randomized controlled trials totaling 8,705 patients were included. Median overall survival ranged from 5.0-13.1 months, median progression-free survival ranged from 2.0-7.7 months, and objective response ranged from 13.0-64.1%. Two studies reported higher quality of life outcomes. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were reported in most studies. Improvement in clinical outcomes can be seen in recently published randomized controlled trials for locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1085.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Multi-stage attack; detection; Advanced Persistent Threats; cyberattack; defence mech- anisms
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:12:26 CEST)
The need for cohesive detection and defence methods against cyberattacks is significant now more than ever before to enforce security and privacy of user data and information. The inevitable increase in demand for home and flexible working from employees quite recently has meant there is a lack of awareness and training for cyberattacks. Hence, they have become prominent as attackers are aware of this and are benefitting from individuals’ lack of knowledge in how to better protect themselves and their confidential information. Employees are becoming more susceptible to such attacks and falling victim to these, resulting in economic losses for companies, data losses and decreased faith.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0786.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT); Systematic literature review; Implementation; Adoption; Critical Factors
Online: 12 June 2023 (07:30:13 CEST)
This paper presents a systematic literature review that identifies critical factors impacting the implementation of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) worldwide. The study utilizes two databases, ProQuest and Compendex, as well as Google Scholar. The study identified eight dimensions that illustrate the critical factors of AMT adoption and implementation: education, planning, top management know-how, technical know-how, business, economic impact, regulations, and social impact. The results highlight a research gap in understanding the need for effective integration among these eight dimensions in developed and developing economies. Consequently, the study recommends the adoption of a broader perspective that considers the role of integration and interaction between critical factors in each category and their impact on AMT implementation. The systematic literature review conducted in this study reviews several critical factors related to the adoption and implementation of AMT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0369.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: carbamazepine; adsorption; clay minerals; organoclays; advanced oxidation processes; photocatalysis; water reuse
Online: 27 May 2022 (04:42:22 CEST)
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most common emerging contaminants released to the aquatic environment through domestic and pharmaceutical wastewater. Due to its high persistence through conventional degradation treatments, is considered a typical indicator for anthropogenic activities. This study tested the removal of CBZ through two different clay-based purification techniques: adsorption of relatively large concentrations (20-500 μmol L-1) and photocatalysis of lower concentrations (<20 μmol L-1). The sorption mechanism was examined by FTIR measurements, exchangeable cations released, and colloidal charge of the adsorbing clay materials. Photocatalysis was performed in batch experiments under various conditions. Despite the neutral charge of carbamazepine, the highest adsorption was observed on negatively charged montmorillonite-based clays. Desorption tests indicate that adsorbed CBZ is not released by washing. The adsorption/desorption processes were confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis of the clay-CBZ particles. A combination of synthetic montmorillonite or hectorite with low H2O2 concentrations under UVC irradiation exhibits efficient homo-heterogeneous photodegradation at μM CBZ levels. The two techniques presented in this study suggest solutions for both industrial and municipal wastewater, possibly enabling water reuse.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Flexible sensors; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; self-healing; nanocomposites; advanced manufacturing
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:30:46 CEST)
The use of flexible sensors has tripled over the last decade due to the increased demand in various fields including health monitoring, food packaging, electronic skins and soft robotics. Flexible sensors have the ability to be bent and stretched during use and can still maintain their electrical and mechanical properties. This gives them an advantage over rigid sensors that lose their sensitivity when subject to bending. Advancements in 3D printing have enabled the development of tailored flexible sensors. Various additive manufacturing methods are being used to develop these sensors including inkjet printing, aerosol jet printing, fused deposition modelling, direct ink writing, selective laser melting and others. Hydrogels have gained much attention in the literature due to their self-healing and shape transforming. Self-healing enables the sensor to recover from damages such as cracks and cuts incurred during use and this enables the sensor to have a longer operating life and stability. Various polymers are used as substrates on which the sensing conductive material is placed. Polymers including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and Kapton are extensively used in flexible sensors. The most widely used nanomaterials in flexible sensors are carbon and silver, however, other nanomaterials such as iron, copper, manganese dioxide and gold are also used to provide controlled levels of conductivity or other functional properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer; locally advanced; COVID; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 15 April 2020 (09:50:21 CEST)
Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic is currently accelerating. Patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) may require treatment in locations where resources are limited and the prevalence of infection is high. Patients with LA-NSCLC frequently present with comorbidities that increase the risk for severe morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. These risks may be further increased by treatments for LA-NSCLC. Observation: We present expert thoracic oncology multidisciplinary (radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology) consensus of alternative strategies for the treatment of LA-NSCLC during a pandemic. The overarching goals of these approaches are to reduce the number of visits to a healthcare facility, reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and attenuate the immunocompromising effects of lung cancer therapies. Patients with resectable disease can be treated with definitive non-operative management if surgical resources are limited or the risks of perioperative care are high. Non-operative options include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy, and radiation therapy with sequential schedules. The order of treatments may be based on patient factors and clinical resources. Whenever radiation therapy is delivered without concurrent chemotherapy, hypofractionated schedules are appropriate. For patients who are confirmed to have COVID-19, usually cancer therapies may be withheld until symptoms have resolved with negative viral test results. Conclusions and Relevance: The risk of severe treatment-related morbidity and mortality is significantly elevated for patients undergoing treatment for LA-NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adapting alternative treatment strategies as quickly as possible may save lives and should be implemented through communication with the multidisciplinary cancer team.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0237.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: advanced high strength steels; hydrogen quenching; continuous annealing; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 23 August 2019 (04:48:06 CEST)
By using hydrogen quench continuous annealing technology, Stelco Inc. has developed a suite of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) grades with tensile strength greater than 1000MPa to meet standard automotive specifications and for unique customer requirements. These grades were optimized by correlating chemical composition and processing parameters with microstructures and mechanical properties. Dual-Phase 980 (Stelco trademarked STELMAXTM 980DP), Multi-Phase 1180 (STELMAXTM 1180MP), Martensitic Steel 1300 (STELMAXTM 1300M) and 1500 (STELMAXTM 1500M) products met strength and formability requirements with excellent flatness and surface quality. Hydrogen quench continuous annealing technology not only ensures all developed AHSS grades have consistent mechanical properties across the entire strip length (from strip head to tail) and width (from edge to edge), but also produces high product yield compared with other continuous annealing processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: advanced high strength steel; yield function; hardening model; springback; deformation mode
Online: 8 March 2017 (04:51:37 CET)
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of constitutive equations on the prediction accuracy for springback in cold stamping with various deformation modes. In this study, two types of yield functions—Hill’48 and Yld2000-2d—were considered to describe yield behavior. Isotropic and kinematic hardening models based on the Yoshida–Uemori model were also adopted to describe hardening behavior. Various material tests (such as uniaxial tension, tension- compression, loading-unloading, and hydraulic bulging tests) were carried out to determine the material parameters of the models. The obtained parameters were implemented in the finite element (FE) simulation to predict springback, and the results were compared with experimental data. U-bending and T-shape drawing were employed to evaluate the springback prediction accuracy. Obviously, the springback prediction accuracy was greatly influenced by constitutive equations. Therefore, it is important to choose appropriate constitutive equations for accurate description of material behaviors in FE simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1821.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Locally advanced rectal cancer; chemoradiotherapy; microRNA; circulating tumour cells; lymphocytes; predictive biomarkers.
Online: 26 June 2023 (14:09:03 CEST)
Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has traditionally been treated with trimodality therapy consisting of neoadjuvant radiation +/- chemotherapy, surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. There is currently a clinical need for biomarkers to predict treatment response and outcomes, especially during neoadjuvant therapy. Liquid biopsy in the form of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and circulating nucleic acids in particular microRNAs (miRNA) are novel, highly stable and clinically relevant regulators of disease. We studied a prospective cohort of 52 patients with LARC, and obtained samples at baseline, during treatment, and post-treatment. We enumerated CTCs during chemoradiation at these three time-points, using the IsofluxTM CTC Isolation and detection platform. We then subjected the isolated CTCs to miRNA expression analyses, using a panel of 106 miRNA candidates. We identified CTCs in 73% of patients at baseline, and numbers fell during treatment and miRNA expression profiles also changed during treatment. Between baseline and during treatment (week 3) time-points three microRNAs (hsa-miR-95, hsa-miR-10a and hsa-miR-16-1*) were highly differentially expressed. Importantly, hsa-miR-19b-3p and hsa-miR-483-5p were found to correlate with good response to treatment. The latter (hsa-miR-483-5p) was also found to be differentially expressed between good responders and poor responders. They represent potential predictive biomarkers and a potential miRNA-based treatment strategy. In this study, we demonstrate that CTCs are present and can be isolated in the non-metastatic early stage cancer setting, and their associated miRNA profiles can potentially be utilized to predict treatment response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1026.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Petrochemical; Continuous Process; Advanced Process Control; Change Point Detection; Model Parameter Estimation
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:11:16 CEST)
Most petrochemical plants still maintain a Proportional-Integral-Differential controller(PID) system, which is a feedback control system. However, gradually, the PID system is being extended and introduced to the Advanced Process Controller (APC) system, which is an integrated control system of feedforward and feedback that predicts external influences in advance. In the process of conducting on-site plant tests and calculating APC model parameter for the application of APC systems, a problem arises that Model Parameter are implemented differently depending on the proficiency of APC engineers. To minimize this problem, a technique for estimating APC model parameter without a plant test is required. In order to estimate the APC model parameter, it is necessary to train on dynamic interval data. In this paper, we use statistical techniques such as PELT, Linear Kernel, and Radial Basis Function Kernel of Change Point Detection (CPD) to extract dynamic data with minimum Mean Absolute Error (MAE) from time series data of a real petrochemical plant. Then, the hyper parameter is fixed and the APC model parameter is estimated by learning the dynamic section data. By applying the estimated APC model parameter to the APC Model Tool and measuring the fitting rate, it was confirmed that it is possible to estimate the APC model parameter with excellent control performance without plant test.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Advanced Hepatocellular carcinoma; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Low middle-income countries; Financial Toxicity
Online: 1 December 2022 (10:33:14 CET)
Advanced Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is no longer a terminal illness. This change was mainly attributed to the development of new treatments including tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) but the financial toxicity of treating advanced HCC is of a major concern specially in low middle-income countries (LMICs) where the patients are still battling for their most basic rights. Most of advanced HCC patients in LMICs have very limited accessibility to the new treatments including ICPIs. Searching for out of the box solutions to improve access to treatments -mainly ICPIs- is an utmost necessity for LMICs advanced HCC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes; Fenton reaction; sustainable agro-industrial sector; sewer connection permit
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:53:12 CET)
This study investigated the efficacy of advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the reduction of pollution loads in mixed agro-food industrial wastewaters (dairy and slaughterhouse) in Nablus city, Palestine. Bench-scale Jar tests using an advanced oxidation process (AOP) were performed as a pretreatment stage. Initial results on direct applications of Fenton’s process on mixed agro-food wastewater (COD: 15400-18200 mg/l) were unsatisfactory. Hence, the performance of the Fenton process was applied on three mixed wastewater samples with different pre-treatment trials: (A) coagulant (FeCl3.6H2O) addition, (B) settling (2h), and use of flocculent (lime Ca(OH)2) in sample (C). Preceded with lime, Fenton`s process (Sample C) was most effective in the removal of organic carbon and nitrogen (89% COD; 80% TKN). The removal efficiency in inorganic loads (91% TSS; 62% TS) were achieved under H2O2/COD (w/w ratio 2:1), H2O2/Fe+2 (w/w ratio 10:1) and acidic conditions (pH = 3). The adoption of AOP technology by agro-food industries could ensure compliance with municipal by-laws and acquire connection permits to sewerage networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0122.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: renewables; energy saving and generation; built environments; solar windows; advanced glazings; photovoltaics
Online: 11 August 2019 (02:40:57 CEST)
We report on the field testing datasets and performance evaluation results obtained from a commercial property-based visually-clear solar window installation site in Perth-Australia. This installation was fitted into a refurbished shopping centre entrance porch, and showcases the potential of glass curtain wall-based solar energy harvesting in built environments. In particular, we focus on photovoltaic (PV) performance characteristics such as the electric power output, specific yield, day-to-day consistency of peak output power, and the amounts of energy generated and stored daily. The dependencies of the generated electric power and stored energy on multiple environmental and geometric parameters are also studied. An overview of the current and future application potential of high-transparency, visually-clear solar window-based curtain wall installations suitable for practical building integration is provided.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: pest recognition; Tangerine; advanced deep learning; minimum classification error; Inception Module; CNN
Online: 7 November 2018 (13:09:30 CET)
To improve the tangerine crop yield, the work of recognizing and then disposing of specific pests is becoming increasingly important. The task of recognition is based on the features extracted from the images that have been collected from websites and outdoors. Traditional recognition and deep learning methods, such as KNN (k-nearest neighbors) and AlexNet, are not preferred by knowledgeable researchers, who have proven them inaccurate. In this paper, we exploit four kinds of structures of advanced deep learning to classify 10 citrus pests. The experimental results show that Inception-ResNet-V3 obtains the minimum classification error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: advanced glycation end products; glyoxal; hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase; methyl glyoxal; RCS-trapping
Online: 28 May 2018 (13:28:19 CEST)
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) represent a set of substances that contribute directly to the triggering and/or aggravation of pathologies associated with ageing. AGEs are produced by the reaction between reducing sugars (or α-dicarbonyl compounds) proteins and amino acid residues. Current methodologies require an incubation period of 1-3 weeks to generate AGEs. In this study the reaction time for the formation of AGEs (48 and 3 hours) is significantly reduced by coupling and adapting procedures already existing in the literature to the free radical generation system called the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. The capacity of different classes and chemical compounds (aminoguanidine, chlorogenic acid, rutin, extracts of Hancornia speciosa Gomes) were evaluated to inhibit the protein glycation process, acting as capturing agents of α-dicarbonyl species. Aminoguanidine, rutin and the leaf extracts of Hancornia speciosa Gomes show a high capacity to act as α-dicarbonyl compound scavengers (RCS-trapping) and resulting in the inhibition of AGEs formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1913.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Congestive heart failure; echocardiography; hand-held echocardiogram; heart failure; images, advanced practice providers
Online: 29 November 2023 (23:04:44 CET)
Objectives: Evaluate hand-held echocardiography (HHE) performed and interpreted by trained Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) on hospitalized CHF patients for image quality and interpretation, by comparing against expert echocardiographer and SE findings. Background: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with increased hospital admissions and mortality. While standard echocardiogram (SE) is the gold standard for cardiac assessment, it is not readily available. Hospitalized CHF patients require rapid assessment for expedited treatment. Methods: Over 6 months, five trained APPs performed HHE on hospitalized CHF patients and interpreted: a) Left ventricular (LV) size, b) LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and c) right atrial pressure (RAP). The study echocardiographer reviewed and blindly interpreted HHE images and compared with APPs and SE findings. Kappa-statistics determined the degree of agreement between APPs and study echocardiographer interpretation of HHE images and SE. Results: 80 CHF patients [age 73±14 years, 58% males; LVEF (by SE) 45±19%; 36.3% body mass indexes ≥30 kg/m2] were enrolled. HHE interpretation by APPs had good agreement for LVEF (kappa 0.79) with study echocardiographer and SE (kappa 0.74), and good agreement for RAP (kappa 0.67) with study echocardiographer. Correlation between absolute LVEF interpretation by study echocardiographer on HHE and SE was r=0.88 (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Trained APPs obtained diagnostic-quality HHE images and interpreted LV function and RAP in CHF patients, with good agreement with the study echocardiographer. LVEF by HHE correlated with LVEF by SE. Our study suggests trained APPs can use HHE to evaluate LVEF and RAP in CHF patients leading to expedited and optimized treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: advanced high-strength steel; complex-phase; atmospheric corrosion; cyclic corrosion test; iron oxide
Online: 3 November 2023 (09:14:54 CET)
This study delves into the atmospheric corrosion behavior of chromium-free complex-phase steel (CP), specifically investigating the influence of wet/dry frequency and ratio in cyclic corrosion tests (CCT). The study employs a modified ISO 14993 standard CCT method, which involves salt spray, dry, and wet stages. After 15 and 30 CCT cycles, mass loss, maximum corrosion depth, and corrosion products were analyzed to gain insights into corrosion mechanisms. In general, increasing the frequency and wet/dry stage ratio in CCT extends the time for autocatalytic reactions to occur, leading to accelerated localized CP corrosion and increased pitting factors. However, as the rust layer thickens, uniform corrosion may also intensify, so careful considerations are necessary. This study underscores the importance of controlling the frequency and ratio of wet/dry stages in CCT for effectively analyzing localized corrosion behavior in specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; biosecurity; animal diseases; ultraviolet light; advanced oxidation; filtration; environmental technology
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:05:44 CEST)
This study evaluated the use of filtration and UV-A photocatalysis for the reduction of particulate matter (PM) and airborne bacterial pathogens in swine barns. Two MERV filters (8 and 15) were used to mitigate PM concentrations measured at the PM 1, PM 2.5, respirable PM, and PM 10 ranges. Filtration was also used to generate different levels of airborne pathogens to be treated by UV-A. Results show that MERV 8 and 15 filters effectively reduced PM concentrations (96-98%) in air exhausted from a swine barn (p ranged from < 0.01 to 0.04). UV-A photocatalysis did not mitigate PM concentrations. UV-A photocatalysis treatment reduced measured colony-forming units (CFUs) by 15-95%. The CFU percent reduction was higher when airborne PM concentration was low. The numeric results suggested a real mitigation effect despite p-values that did not meet the usual statistical cut-off of <0.05 for significance due to the large variability of the CFU control samples. Normalization of measured airborne pathogen concentrations by smaller PM size range concentrations led to emerging significant treatment differences for CFUs. A significant decrease (~60% reduction; p < 0.03) in the concentration of viable airborne bacteria was shown for all PM below the 10-micron range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0608.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; odor; volatile organic compounds
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:58:47 CET)
Livestock production systems generate nuisance odor and gaseous emissions affecting local communities and regional air quality. Also, there are concerns about the occupational health and safety of farm workers. Proven mitigation technologies that are consistent with the socio-economic challenges of animal farming are needed. We have been scaling up the photocatalytic treatment of emissions from lab-scale, aiming at farm-scale readiness. In this paper, we present the design, testing, and commissioning of a mobile laboratory for on-farm research and demonstration of performance in real farm conditions. The mobile lab is capable of treating up to 1.2 m3·s-1 of air with TiO2-based photocatalysis and adjustable UV-A dose based on LED lamps. We summarize the main technical requirements, constraints, approach, and performance metrics for the mobile laboratory, such as the effectiveness (measured as the percent reduction) and cost of photocatalytic treatment of air. The commissioning of all systems with standard gases resulted in ~9% and 34% reduction of NH3 and butan-1-ol, respectively. We demonstrated that as the percent reduction of standard gases increased with increased light intensity and treatment time. These results show that the mobile laboratory was ready for on-farm deployment and evaluating the effectiveness of UV treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0313.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mechanical properties of advanced materials; magneto-rheological (MR); elastomer; stress relaxation; mathematical model
Online: 15 October 2020 (08:31:22 CEST)
Materials characterised by magnetorheological properties are non-classic engineering materials. A significant increase in the interest of scientific community in materials from this group can be observed over the recent several years. The results of research presented in this article are oriented on the examination of said materials’ mechanical properties. In order to do so, stress relaxation tests were conducted on cylindrical samples of magnetorheological elastomers loaded with compressive stress for various values of magnetic induction (B1 = 0 mT, B2 = 32 mT, B3 = 48 mT, and B4 = 64 mT) and temperature (T1 = 25° C, T2 = 30° C, and T3 = 40° C). The results of these tests indicate that the stiffness of examined samples increases along with the increase of magnetic field induction and decreases along with the increase of temperature. On this basis, it has been determined that: the biggest stress amplitude change caused by the influence of magnetic field was σ0ΔB = 12.7% and the biggest stress amplitude change caused by the influence of temperature was σ0ΔT = 11.3%. As a result of applying a mathematical model, it has been indicated that the stress relaxation in the examined magnetorheological elastomer for the adopted time range (t = 3600 s) has a hyperbolic decline nature. The collected test results point to examined materials being characterised by extensive rheological properties, which leads to a conclusion that it is necessary to conduct further tests in this scope.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0611.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart Grid (SG); Advanced Metering Infrastructures (AMI); Smart Meters (SM); Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
Online: 8 September 2023 (15:30:19 CEST)
The smart grid system, an improvised form of the traditional grid, is considered a critical cyber-physical system. Due to its complex combination of smart and legacy technologies, this technology is characterized by a wide range of features such as full duplex communication, advanced metering infrastructure, remote monitoring, and control. However, despite this system’s substantial environmental and socio-economic impact on modern life, it poses severe security vulnerabilities due to its integration and interconnected and interdependent cyber-physical components. Based on the rapid development of cyber-physical systems (CPS), academics and industries have investigated relevant techniques to enhance and strengthen the security measures of the SG system. The intrusion detection system is a countermeasure, a powerful safeguard against various cyber-attacks and threats. The contribution of the IDSs to the SG paradigm is examined in this study. A comprehensive review has been presented in this study, highlighting different techniques, basic ideas, and analyses. Besides discussing the contemporary pertinent research studies, the shortcomings of the existing IDS for the SG system are also identified with a recommendation for future research direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: advanced maintenance; condition monitoring; Internet of Things (IoT); Failure Mode Effect Anal-ysis (FMEA)
Online: 9 March 2023 (04:16:26 CET)
Technology-enabled maintenance via sensors and the internet of things (IoT) technologies is seen as the “new maintenance strategy”. The aim is to use these technologies to focus on unnecessary breakdowns and increase levels of asset availability where the existing of a dedicated team to maintain or data on asset condition is limited, useless or full of noise. This paper presents the integration of various sensing nodes within an automated laser cutting machine for monitoring of critical components’ conditions. The integrated system provides a centralised platform for data collection from various sensors and provides early failure detection mechanism based on specified set points with alert mechanisms utilising a custom dashboard for data visualisation. The research highlights the required stages for the identification of the appropriate components and sensory devices for the development of efficient monitoring environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0229.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomaterials; Nanotoxicology; Immunotoxicity; Genotoxicity; Epigenetics; Advanced in vitro models; In silico; Life Cycle Assessment
Online: 17 May 2022 (11:05:10 CEST)
The use of nanomaterials has been increasing in recent times, and they are widely used in industries such as cosmetics, drug, food, water treatment and agriculture. The rapid development of new nanomaterials demands a set of approaches to evaluate the potential toxicity and risks related to them. In this regard, nanosafety has been using and adapting already existing methods (toxicological approach), but the unique characteristics of nanomaterials demand new approaches (nanotoxicology) to fully understand the potential toxicity, immunotoxicity and (epi)genotoxicity. Also, new technologies, such as organ-on-chip and sophisticated sensors, are under development and/or adaptation. All the information generated is used to develop new in silico approaches trying to predict the potential effects of newly developed materials. The overall evaluation of how from the production to final disposition chain of nanomaterials is evaluated under Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which is becoming an important element of nanosafety considering sustainability and environmental impact. In this review we give an overview of all these elements of nanosafety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; volatile organic compounds; odor; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; UV
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:08:29 CET)
It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study's objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH3, and other gases (GHGs, O3 – sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. The manure emissions were treated in fast-moving air using a mobile lab equipped with UV-A and UV-C lights and TiO2-based photocatalyst. Treated gas airflow (0.25 to 0.76 m3/s) simulates output from a small ventilation fan in a barn. Through controlling the light intensity and airflow, UV dose was tested for techno-economic analyses. The treatment effectiveness depended on the UV dose and wavelength. Under UV-A (367 nm) photocatalysis, the percent reduction of targeted gases was up to i) 63% of odor, ii) 51%, 51%, 53%, 67%, and 32% of acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, p-cresol, and indole, respectively, iii) 14% of nitrous oxide (N2O), iv) 100% of O3, and 26% generation of CO2. Under UV-C (185+254 nm) photocatalysis, the percent reductions of target gases were up to i) 54% and 47% for p-cresol and indole, respectively, ii) 25% of N2O, iii) 71% of CH4, and 46% & 139% generation of CO2 & O3, respectively. The results proved that the UV technology was sufficiently effective in treating odorous gases, and the mobile lab was ready for farm-scale trials. The UV technology can be considered for the scaled-up treatment of emissions and air quality improvement inside livestock barns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0777.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes; Fenton reaction; agro-industrial wastewater; municipal by-laws; sewer connection permit
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:21:22 CET)
This study investigated the reduction of organic loads from mixed agro-food industrial wastewaters (dairy and slaughterhouse) of Nablus city using advanced oxidation process (AOP), a high- rate chemical oxidation reaction. Bench-scale Jar tests using an advanced oxidation process (AOP) were performed as a pretreatment stage. Direct applications of classical Fenton’s process on mixed raw agro-food wastewater samples (COD: 15400-18200 mg/l) revealed unsatisfactory results. The performance of the Fenton process was evaluated using three mixed samples with different pre-treatment trials: (A) coagulant (FeCl3.6H2O) addition, (B) settling (2h) allowed, and use of flocculent (lime Ca(OH)2) in sample (C). Compared with other partial treatments, sample (C), Fenton`s process lime preceded, was the most effective in the removal of organic (89% COD; 80% TKN) and inorganic loads (91% TSS; 62% TS) under H2O2/COD (w/w ratio 2:1), H2O2/Fe+2 (w/w ratio 10:1) and acidic conditions (pH =3). Obtained results comply with Nablus municipal by-law (COD below 2000 mg/l), which help decision-makers within the agro-food industries install pollution reduction systems. Investment in the Fenton-based peroxidation process, allow agro-food industries to obtain connection permits to sewage networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: adaptive security; evolutionary game; Internet of Things; Smart grid; advanced metering infrastructure; smart home
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:08:12 CET)
We applied evolutionary game theory to extend a resource constrained security game model for confidentiality attacks in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which is a component of IoT-enabled Smart Grids. The AMI is modelled as a tree structure where each node aggregates the information of its children before encrypting it and passing it on to its parent. As a part of the model, we developed a discretization scheme for solving the replicator equations. The aim of this work is to explore the space of possible behaviours of attackers and to develop a framework where the AMI nodes adaptively select the most profitable strategies. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of a population of attackers and defenders on various cases resembling the real life implementation of AMI. We discuss in depth how to enhance security in AMI using evolutionary game theory either by a priori analysis or as a tool to run dynamic and adaptive infrastructure defence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0337.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: advanced high-strength forging steel; hot-forging; microstructure; retained austenite characteristics; mechanical properties; applications
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:59:30 CET)
This paper presents the microstructural and mechanical properties of low and medium carbon advanced high-strength forging steels developed based on the third generation advanced high-strength sheet steels, in conjunction with those of conventional high-strength forging steels. Hot-forging followed by an isothermal transformation process considerably improved the mechanical properties of the forging steels. The improvement mechanisms of the mechanical properties were summarized by relating to the matrix structure, the strain-induced transformation of metastable retained austenite and/or a mixture of martensite and austenite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Advanced turbulence statistics, piezo-electric flow sensor, atmospheric boundary layer16 stability, laminar-turbulent transition
Online: 6 June 2018 (17:49:05 CEST)
To gain insight into the differences between onshore and offshore atmospheric turbulence, 2 pressure fluctuations were measured for offshore wind under different environmental conditions. 3 A durable piezo-electric sensor was used to sample turbulent pressure data at 50 kHz. Offshore 4 measurements were performed at 100 m height on Germany’s FINO3 offshore platform in the 5 German Bight together with additional meteorological data provided by Deutscher Wetterdienst 6 (DWD). The statistical evaluation revealed that the stability state in the atmospheric boundary has a 7 large impact on turbulent fluctuations. Therefore, we used higher statistical properties (described 8 by so-called shape factors) to the stability state. Data was classified to be either within the unstable, 9 neutral or stable stratification. We found that in case of stable stratification, the shape factor is 10 mostly close to zero, indicating that a thermally stable environment produces closer-to Gaussian 11 distributions. Non-Gaussian distributions were found in unstable and neutral boundary layer states 12 and an occurrence probability was estimated. Possible impact on laminar-turbulent transition on the 13 blade is discussed with application of so-called laminar aerofoils on wind turbine blades. Use of a 14 cut-off frequency to separate load and aerodynamic turbulence is proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: advanced glycation end products; fructose; glucose; lipogenesis; sphingolipids; NLRP3; Nrf2; mitochondrial dysfunction; oxidative stress
Online: 14 February 2017 (08:38:14 CET)
The rapid increase in metabolic diseases occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to modern nutrition is the role of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs). AGEs can be ingested with high temperature processed foods, but also endogenously formed as consequence of a high dietary sugars intake. Animal models of high sugars consumption, in particular fructose, have reported AGEs accumulation in different tissues in association with peripheral insulin resistance and lipid metabolism alterations. The in vitro observation that fructose is one of the most rapid and effective glycating agent when compared to other sugars has prompted the investigation of the in vivo fructose-induced glycation. In particular, the widespread employment of fructose as sweetener has been ascribed by many experimental and observational studies for the enhancement of lipogenesis and intracellular lipid deposition. Indeed, diet-derived AGEs have been demonstrated to interfere with many cell functions such as lipid synthesis, inflammation, antioxidant defences, and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, emerging evidences also in humans suggest that this impact of dietary AGEs on different signalling pathways can contribute to the onset of organ damage in liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and brain, affecting not only metabolic control, but global health. Indeed, the here reviewed most recent reports on the effects of high sugars consumption and diet-derived AGEs on human health suggest the need to limit the dietary sources of AGEs, including added sugars, to prevent the development of metabolic diseases and related comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2190.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: advanced water treatment; electrochemical filtering; doxorubicin; mesoporous Sb-doped SnO2 electrode; activated carbon; particulate electrode
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:52:28 CEST)
In this paper, mesoporous electrodes consisted of Sb-doped SnO2 deposited onto Ti plates controlled corroded under acidic medium were synthesized by spin-coating method, and morpho structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrodes were electrochemical testing in the degradation/mineralization by electrooxidation (EO) of doxorubicin (DOX) as single-component and multi-component together with capecitabine (CCB)-from cytostatic class and humic acid (HA)-from natural organic matter (NOM) class in the absence/the presence of activated carbon (AC) as particulate electrode. The best mineralization efficiency of 67 % was achieved for DOX mineralization using Sb-doped SnO2 deposited onto Ti plate controlled corroded with oxalic acid in electrooxidation process. The presence of AC within the electrolysis process generated a synergy effect of 52.75 % for TOC parameter removal, which is in accordance and quite better than the result reported in the literature. The aspects related to the complex mechanism of DOX degradation and mineralization are discussed. The superiority of AC assisted electrooxidation, as electrochemical filtering (EF), was proved considering simultaneous degradation and mineralization of mixture of doxorubicin, capecitabine and humic acid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1933.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: advanced glycation end-products (AGEs); glyceraldehyde (GA); glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs; toxic-AGEs (TAGE); p62/SQSTM1
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:53:35 CEST)
Toxic advanced glycation end-products (TAGE), formed by glyceraldehyde (GA) as an intermediate in the non-enzymatic reaction with intracellular proteins, are highly cytotoxic and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the degradation and removal of TAGE remain largely unknown. In the present study, we identified the checkpoint kinase-1 (CHK1) mutant, d270KD, which was rapidly degraded intracellularly by GA, and showed that its degradation was mainly mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The high-molecular-weight complexes formed by the GA stimulation of d270KD were abundant in the RIPA-insoluble fraction, which also contained high levels of TAGE. The knockdown of p62/SQSTM1 reduced the amount of high-molecular-weight complexes in the RIPA-insoluble fraction, indicating its involvement in the formation of TAGE aggregates. The present results suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and p62 play a role in the degradation and aggregation of intracellular TAGE formed by GA. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying TAGE metabolism and may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with TAGE accumulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0570.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Advanced glycation end-products; contact dermatitis; granuloma annulare; insulin; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; necrobiosis lipoidica; skin autofluorescence
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:24:01 CET)
Skin involvement is an overlooked aspect in the management of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. A comprehensive search of published literature using the PubMed database was carried out using the following key terms: “children”, “pediatric/paediatric patients”, “skin”, “skin disorders”, “type 1 diabetes”. Dermatological side effects are frequently observed among diabetic children and adolescents. Insulin-induced lipodystrophies and allergic contact dermatitis caused by insulin pumps or glycaemic sensors are the most common skin reactions in these patients. Furthermore, several diabetes-associated skin diseases such as necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, vitiligo, and bullosis diabeticorum may already be present in paediatric age. Paediatric diabetes specialists should pay attention to their patients’ skin so as to recognize these disorders, identify the potential causes, and choose the most suitable treatment. Finally, the evaluation of skin concentrations of advanced glycation end-products using non-invasive diagnostic techniques may be used to assess the risk of chronic complications of diabetes as early as adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1912.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Advanced oxidation process; Core-shell structure; Fenton chemistry; Fe@Fe3O4 interface; Methyl orange decomposition; Oxygen vacancy
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:05:52 CEST)
Iron-based materials are widely applied in Fenton chemistry and they have promising prospects in the processing of wastewater. The composition complexity and rich chemistry of iron and/or oxides, however, hamper the precise understanding on the active sites and the working mechanism which still remain highly controversial. Herein, iron oxides of four different model systems are designed through a conventional precipitation method plus H2 reduction treatment. These systems feature Fe@Fe3O4 with abundant oxygen vacancy, Fe0 and Fe3O4 particles with interface structures, and Fe3O4-dominated nanoparticles of different sizes. These materials are applied in the decomposition of methyl orange as a model reaction to assess the Fenton chemistry. The Fe@Fe3O4 with core-shell structures exhibited significantly higher decomposition activity than the other Fe3O4-rich nanoparticles. A thin Fe3O4 layer formed by auto-oxidation of iron particles when exposing to air can boost the activity as compared with the Fe0 and Fe3O4 particles with interface structures but poor oxygen vacancy. The unique hetero-structure with the co-existence of both metallic iron and oxygen vacancy displayed excellent redox propensity which might account for the superior Fenton activity. This finding provides a new perspective to understand and design highly efficient iron-based Fenton catalysts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0198.v4
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: carbamazepine; advanced oxidation process; pseudo-order; rate law; half life time; elementary steps; steady-state approximation
Online: 15 May 2023 (03:36:34 CEST)
Elucidating physicochemical processes in the degradation of pollutants may optimize their removal from water sources. This work presents a set of elementary steps in the photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), assuming a steady state approximation in an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) combining short-wave ultraviolet radiation (UVC), homogeneous reagent (H2O2) and heterogeneous (TiO2) catalyst. Elementary steps include excitation of both reagent/catalysts by UVC photons, adsorption of CBZ on the excited TiO2, or its oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. Assuming the steady state approximation on the intermediate products (excited TiO2, CBZ- excited TiO2 complex, and hydroxyl radicals), leads to rate laws for degradation of CBZ, in which UVC radiation, TiO2, and H2O2 are pseudo first order at all concentrations or intensities having no direct influence on CBZ pseudo-order, whereas CBZ shifts from pseudo first order at low concentrations to pseudo-zero order at high concentrations. Several experiments to test the mechanism were conducted, by varying CBZ, H2O2, and TiO2 concentrations, and UVC radiation intensities. Measured results indeed fit the suggested mechanism for the first three, but irradiation intensity appears to shift CBZ influence from pseudo-second to pseudo-first order with increased intensities. Corrected elementary steps are proposed to fit the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: advanced glycation end products; skin autofluorescence; pentosidine; d-ROMs; BAP; BAP/d-ROMs ratio; athlete; runner
Online: 30 September 2022 (07:30:22 CEST)
Chronic oxidative stress in long-distance runners adversely affects conditioning. Therefore, it is important to objectively assess and monitor oxidative stress but measuring oxidative stress can be invasive or require skill to measure. Therefore, this study aimed to verify whether skin autofluorescence (SAF), a noninvasive, rapid, and easily calculable metric for calculating advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is useful as an oxidative stress biomarker. The subjects were 50 young Japanese male long-distance runners (aged 20.2 ± 1.2 years); 35 average male university students (aged 19.8 ± 1.1 years) served as controls. The interactions and relationships between SAF and plasma pentosidine and oxidative stress markers (reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds [d-ROMs], biological antioxidant potential [BAP], and the BAP/d-ROMs ratio) in runners were examined, and SAF in the runners and controls was compared. The results suggest that plasma pentosidine in runners is associated with oxidative stress markers and that plasma pentosidine can assess oxidative stress. However, SAF was not validated as an oxidative stress marker because it was not associated with oxidative stress marker. In future, clarifying the factors affecting SAF may clarify the relationship between SAF, plasma pentosidine, and oxidative stress markers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0001.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Artificial intelligence; machine learning; data science; advanced analytics; intelligent computing; automation; smart systems; industry 4.0 applications
Online: 1 February 2022 (10:26:21 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a leading technology of the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR), with the capability of incorporating human behavior and intelligence into machines or systems. Thus AI-based modeling is the key to building automated, intelligent, and smart systems according to today's needs. To solve real-world issues various types of AI such as analytical, functional, interactive, textual, and visual AI can be applied to enhance the intelligence and capabilities of an application. However, developing an effective AI model is a challenging task due to the dynamic nature and variation in real-world problems and data. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on "AI-based Modeling" with the principles and capabilities of potential AI techniques that can play an important role in developing intelligent and smart systems in various real-world application areas including business, finance, healthcare, agriculture, smart cities, cybersecurity and many more. We also emphasize and highlight the research issues within the scope of our study. Overall, the goal of this paper is to provide a broad overview of AI-based modeling that can be used as a reference guide by academics and industry people as well as decision-makers in various real-world scenarios and application domains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0165.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: renewables; energy saving and generation; built environments; transparent concentrators; luminescent concentrators; solar windows; advanced glazings; photovoltaics
Online: 18 February 2019 (16:52:35 CET)
We present a review of the current state of the field for a rapidly evolving group of technologies related to solar energy harvesting in built environments. In particular, we focus on recent achievements in enabling the widespread distributed generation of electric energy assisted by energy capture in semi-transparent or even optically clear glazing systems and building wall areas. Whilst concentrating on the cutting-edge recent results achieved in the integration of traditional photovoltaic device types into novel concentrator-type windows and glazings, we compare the main performance characteristics reported with these achievable using more conventional (opaque or semi-transparent) solar cell technologies. A critical overview of the current status and future application potential of multiple existing and emergent energy harvesting technologies for building integration is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Modified FOLFIRINOX; Severe neutropenia; Overall survival; Overall response rate; Time to treatment failure; Advanced pancreatic cancer
Online: 27 September 2018 (10:12:08 CEST)
Modified FOLFIRINOX is effective for advanced pancreatic cancer but frequently causes severe neutropenia. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of severe neutropenia on clinical outcomes in advanced pancreatic cancer patients receiving modified FOLFIRINOX. Fifty-one advanced pancreatic cancer patients who received modified FOLFIRINOX during January 2014 and May 2018 were subjects of the present study. Adverse events, including neutropenia, were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Median overall survival (OS) was determined as the primary endpoint, while median time to treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), and the incidence of other adverse events were measured as secondary endpoints. Severe neutropenia (grade≥3) occurred in 39 patients (76.4%), in which high level of total bilirubin (>0.6mg/dL) was a significant risk as assessed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Median duration of OS was significantly longer in patients with severe neutropenia than in those without it (15.2 months versus 7.2 months, P=0.032). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between OS and the grade of neutropenia (R=0.306, P=0.029). ORR tended to be higher, though not significantly, in patients with severe neutropenia. In contrast, the incidence rates of other adverse events were not different between the two groups. Severe neutropenia is an independent predictor of prognosis in advanced pancreatic cancer patients received modified FOLFIRNOX therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0429.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: biomass, bio-energy, bio-chemicals, advanced technologies, agricultural production, trade, land use, economic modelling, MAGNET model
Online: 23 July 2018 (15:08:09 CEST)
As the EU is moving towards a low carbon economy and seeks to further develop its renewable energy policy, this paper quantitatively investigates the impact of plausible energy market reforms from the perspective of bio-renewables. Employing a state-of-the-art biobased variant of a computable general equilibrium model, this study assesses the perceived medium-term benefits, risks and trade-offs which arise from an advanced biofuels plan, two exploratory scenarios of a more 'sustainable' conventional biofuels plan and a 'no-mandate' scenario. Consistent with more recent studies, none of the scenarios considered present significant challenges to EU food-security or agricultural land usage. An illustrative advanced biofuels plan simulation requires non-trivial public support to implement whilst a degree of competition for biomass with (high-value) advanced biomass material industries is observed. On the other hand, it significantly alleviates land use pressures, whilst lignocellulose biomass prices are not expected to increase to unsustainable levels. Clearly, these observations are subject to assumptions on technological change, sustainable biomass limits, expected trends in fossil fuel prices and EU access to third-country trade. With these same caveats in mind, the switch to increased bioethanol production does not result in significant market tensions in biomass markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0011.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart grid (SG); smart meter (SM); clustering; load pattern; self-organizing map (SOM); advanced metering infrastructure (AMI)
Online: 13 July 2023 (07:31:00 CEST)
Life in the modern century is heavily reliant on an enormous amount of electricity consumption as technology has become the most integral part of daily life. In this context, smart grid systems play a pivotal role to maintain the uninterrupted power supply which needs to be monitored in a timely fashion to keep track of the electric consumers’ usage pattern. The smart meter is the one of smart applications of the smart grid that collects huge amounts of consumer load data on a daily basis which has become a focus for various researchers and analyzers to study load characterization. In this paper, an approach has been proposed to recognize the energy consumption patterns among diverse types of consumers ranging from residential to industrial levels. This approach is worth considering not only for load pattern recognition but also for involving customers in different events such as demand response or peak shaving. In such a way, this analytical mechanism certainly assists in reducing power wastage and saving costs. The proposed methodology is based on a two-fold clustering algorithm with the use of state-of-the-art technology, machine learning. The primary goal is to classify electric customers' data collected from smart meters. Then, analyzing the classified results with an aim to predict power consumption patterns for the customers in the future and making the right energy policy that will benefit both the grid operator and consumers as well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0442.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: data science; advanced analytics; machine learning; deep learning; smart computing; decision-making; predictive analytics; data science applications;
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:28:09 CEST)
The digital world has a wealth of data, such as Internet of Things (IoT) data, business data, health data, mobile data, urban data, security data, and many more, in the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR). Extracting knowledge or useful insights from these data can be used for smart decision-making in various applications domains. In the area of data science, advanced analytics methods including machine learning modeling can provide actionable insights or deeper knowledge about data, which makes the computing process automatic and smart. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on "Data Science'' including various types of advanced analytics methods that can be applied to enhance the intelligence and capabilities of an application through smart decision-making in different scenarios. We also discuss and summarize ten potential real-world application domains including business, healthcare, cybersecurity, urban and rural data science, and so on by taking into account data-driven smart computing and decision making. Based on this, we finally highlight the challenges and potential research directions within the scope of our study. Overall, this paper aims to serve as a reference point on data science and advanced analytics to the researchers and decision-makers as well as application developers, particularly from the data-driven solution point of view for real-world problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0472.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainability; advanced sustainability analysis (ASA); sustainable development goals (SDGs); indicators; demonstration study; Doughnut economy; Sustainability Window; Thailand
Online: 18 December 2020 (14:51:50 CET)
The Doughnut Economy is a new approach for the inclusion of planetary boundaries and social foundation in the development of societies. The Sustainable Development Goals of the UN determine another view for development targets. The developed Sustainability Window approach provides a means for operationalisation and quantification of the Doughnut Economy. The developed method calculates minimum economic development to guarantee sustainable social development and maximum economic development not to exceed environmental sustainability. The developed method, ASA Doughnut, is illustrated with case data from Thailand. The sustainability Doughnut for Thailand has been calculated for both weak and strong sustainability criteria. It seems that strong sustainability is a too strict requirement regarding several environmental dimensions of development while the weak sustainability criteria are fulfilled. The developed method and tool is flexible and can be used for comparative analysis of different countries or regions, for dynamic analysis of sustainability development, for gap analysis of the required improvement of environmental or social efficiency, and analysis of degrowth possibilities. The selection of indicators for the analyses and their reliability is crucial for the validity of the results and usefulness in policy planning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0048.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal desalination; reverse osmosis; advanced heat transfer fluids; sustainable desalination practices; integrated solar thermal nanofluids based desalination
Online: 9 January 2020 (08:39:19 CET)
Desalination accounts for 1% of the total global water consumption and is an energy-intensive process, with the majority of operational expenses attributed to energy consumption. Moreover, at present, a significant portion of the power comes from traditional fossil fuel-fired power plants and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with power production along with concentrated brine discharge from the process, pose a severe threat to the environment. Due to the dramatic impact of climate change, there is a major opportunity to develop sustainable desalination processes to combat the issues of brine discharge, greenhouse gas emissions along with a reduction in energy consumption per unit of freshwater produced. Nanotechnology can play a vital role to achieve specific energy consumption reduction as nanofluids application increases the overall heat transfer coefficient enabling the production of more water for the same size desalination plant. Furthermore, concentrated brine discharge harms the marine ecosystems, and hence, this problem must also be solved to support the objective of sustainable desalination. Several studies have been carried out in the past several years in the field of nanotechnology applications for desalination, brine treatment and the role of renewable energy in desalination. This paper aims to review the major advances in this field of nanotechnology for desalination. Furthermore, a hypothesis for developing an integrated solar thermal and nanofluid sustainable desalination system, based on the cyclic economy model is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: wind turbines; hydroelectric systems; nonlinear modelling; model--based control; data--driven approach; advanced control; robustness and reliability
Online: 9 August 2017 (04:42:58 CEST)
Increasingly, there is a focus on utilising renewable energy resources in a bid to fulfil increasing energy requirements and mitigate the climate change impacts of fossil fuels. While most renewable resources are free, the technology used to usefully convert such resources is not and there is an increasing focus on improving the conversion economy and efficiency. To this end, advanced control technologies can have a significant impact and is already a relatively mature technology for wind turbines. Though hydroelectric plants can use simple regulation systems, significant benefits have been shown to accrue from the appropriate use of the same control methods designed for wind turbine plants. This represents the key point of the paper. In fact, to date, the application communities connected with wind and hydraulic energies have had little communication, resulting in little cross fertilisation of control ideas and experience, particularly from the more mature wind area to hydrodynamic systems. Therefore, this paper examines the models and the application of control technology across both domains, both from a comparative and contrasting point of view, with the aim of identifying commonalities in models and control objectives, as well as potential solutions. Key comparative reference points include the articulation of the exployed models, specification of control objectives, development of high--fidelity simulators, and development of solution concepts. Not least, in terms of realistic system requirements are the set of physical and constraints under which such renewable energy systems must operate, and the need to provide reliable and robust control solutions, which respect the often remote and relatively inaccessible location of many onshore and offshore deployments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1488.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NSCLC; neoadjuvant therapy; overall survival; locally advanced; lymph nodal downstaging; induction therapy; thoracic surgery; chemotherapy; resectable; multimodal; age
Online: 22 September 2023 (02:57:46 CEST)
The aim of the study is to evaluate the predictive factors of response to induction chemotherapy in patients with resectable NSCLC, treated at the unit of Thoracic Surgery of Siena University Hospital with radical surgery. From January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2020, 78 patients were recruited. We analyzed the outcomes in terms of 5-years OS based on the Estimated Regression Rate, N2 downstaging and age; two patients’ subgroups were created by age (Group A: age <66 years-old; Group B: age >66 years-old). No 5-year OS difference was observed based on age, while it was observed in patients with N2 downstaging (p=0.031). Bewtween patients with N2 downstaging, only patients in Group A had a significantly increased 5-year OS (p=0.019), while this was not observed in Group B (p=0-321); the same result was observed with the Estimated Regression Rate > 50% (Group A p=0.005; Group B p=0.391). The percentage of disease regression and the N2 down-staging after induction chemotherapy have great value on the survival, although this advantage seems to be observed mostly in younger patients. A multidisciplinary oncologic discussion of clinical cases could provide support in the careful selection of the ideal patients to undergo neoadjuvant treatment before radical surgery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1241.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); drone; situational awareness (SA); advanced air mobility (AAM); beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS)
Online: 16 June 2023 (12:38:40 CEST)
The use of unmanned aerial aircrafts (UAVs) is governed by strict regulatory frameworks that prioritize safety. To guarantee safety, it is necessary to acquire and maintain situational awareness (SA) throughout the operation. Existing Canadian regulations require pilots to operate their aircrafts in visual line-of-sight. Therefore, the task of acquiring and maintaining SA primary falls to the pilots. However, the development of aerial transport is entering a new era with the adoption of a highly dynamic and complex system known as advanced air mobility (AAM), which involves UAV operating autonomously beyond visual line-of-sight. SA must therefore be acquired and maintained primarily by each UAV through specific technologies and procedures. In this paper, we review these technologies and procedures in order to decompose the SA of the UAV in the AAM. We then use the system modeling language to provide a high-level structural and behavioral representation of the AAM as a system having UAV as its main entity. In a case study, we analyze one of the flagships UAVs of our industrial partner. Results show that this UAV doesn’t have all the technologies and methodologies necessary to achieve all the identified SA goals identified for the safety of the AAM. This work is a theoretical framework intended to contribute to the realization of the AAM, and we also expect to impact the future design and utilization of UAVs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0736.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: advanced breast cancer; germline BRCA1/2 mutations; pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants; CDK4/6 inhibitors; Pi3Ka inhibitors; HER2-low
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:12:48 CEST)
We explored the outcomes of germline BRCA1/2 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (PVs/LPVs) in the endocrine-sensitive disease treated with first line standard of care cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors. Three studies retrospectively showed a reduction in overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in gBRCA1/2m patients compared to both germinal BRCA1/2 wild type (gBRCA1/2wt) and to the untested population. Regarding the efficacy of PI3K inhibitors, there are no subgroup or biomarker analyses in which germinal BRCA status was explored. However, the biological interactions between the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway and BRCA1/2 at a molecular level could help us to understand the activity of these drugs when used to treat BC in BRCA1/2 PVs/LPVs carriers. The efficacy of trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd), an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting HER2 for HER2-low and HER2-positive (HER2+) BC, has been increasingly described. Unfortunately, data on T-DXd in HER2+ or HER2-low metastatic BC harboring germinal BRCA1/2 PVs/LPVs is lacking. Including germinal BRCA1/2 status in the subgroup analysis of the registration trials of this ADC would be of great interest, especially in the phase III trial DESTINY-breast04. This trial enrolled patients with HER2-negative (HER2-) and both HR+ and HR- metastatic disease, which can now be categorized as HER2-low. The HER2-low subgroup includes tumors that were previously classified as triple negative, so it is highly likely that some women were germline BRCA1/2 PVs/LPVs carriers and this data was not reported. Germline BRCA1/2 status will be available for a higher number of individuals with BC in the near future and data on the prognostic and predictive role of these PVs/LPVs is needed in order to choose the best treatment options.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0576.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: methylglyoxal; glyoxalase; advanced glycation end products; MG-H1, metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus; cardiovascular disease; metformin; methylglyoxal scavengers
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:31:23 CEST)
Methylglyoxal (MGO) is the major compound belonging to reactive carbonyl species (RCS) responsible for the generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Its upregulation followed by deleterious effects at the cellular and systemic level is associated with metabolic disturbances (hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance/hyperlipidemia/inflammatory processes/carbonyl stress/oxidative stress/hypoxia). Therefore, it is implicated in a variety of disorders including metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In this review an interplay between pathways leading to MGO generation and scavenging is addressed, in regard to this system’s impairment in pathology. The issues associated with mechanistic MGO involvement in pathological processes, as well as the discussion on its possible causative role in cardiometabolic diseases are enclosed. Finally, the main strategies aimed at MGO and its AGEs downregulation with respect to cardiometabolic disorders treatment are addressed. Potential glycation inhibitors and MGO scavengers are discussed, as well as the mechanisms of their action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart water grid; advanced metering infrastructure; short-term water demand forecasting; end-use level; on-site sodium hypochlorite generator
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:20:08 CEST)
It is crucial to forecast the water demand accurately for supplying water efficiently and stably in a water supply system. In particular, accurately forecasting short-term water demand helps in saving energy and reducing operating costs. With the introduction of the Smart Water Grid (SWG) in a water supply system, the amount of water consumption is obtained in real time through an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) sensor, which can be used for forecasting the short-term water demand. The models widely used for water demand forecasting include the autoregressive integrated moving average, radial basis function-artificial neural network, quantitative multi-model predictor plus, and long short-term memory. However, there is a lack of research on assessing the performance of models and forecasting the short-term water demand by applying the data on the amount of water consumption by purpose and the pipe diameter of an end-use level of the SWG demonstration plant in each demand forecasting model. Therefore, in this study, the short-term water demand was forecasted for each model using the data collected from the AMI, and the performance of each model was assessed. The Smart Water Grid Research Group installed ultrasonic-wave-type AMI sensors in the block 112 located in YeongJong Island, Incheon, and the actual data used for operating the SWG demonstration plant were adopted. The performance of the model was assessed by using the residual, root mean square error (RMSE), normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) as indices. The water demand forecast was slightly underestimated in models that employed the assessment results based on the RMSE and NRMSE. Furthermore, the forecasting accuracy was low for the NSE due to a large number of negative values; the correlation between the observed and forecasted values of the PCC was not high, and it was difficult to forecast the peak amount of water consumption. Therefore, as the short-term water demand forecasting models using only time and the amount of water consumption have limitations in reflecting the characteristics of consumers, a water supply system can be managed more precisely if other factors (weather, customer behavior, etc.) influencing the water demand are applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: casein hydrolysate; Val-Pro-Pro; Ile-Pro-Pro; brachial ankle pulse wave velocity; advanced glycation end products; facial pigmentation
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:42:35 CEST)
Casein hydrolysate improves arterial stiffness, as estimated by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), in untreated hypertensive subjects. Facial pigmentation is a useful biomarker for arterial stiffness. This trial evaluated whether casein hydrolysate improves facial pigmentation in association with changes in arterial stiffness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 80 non-hypertensive Japanese participants randomly assigned to receive either active tablets containing casein hydrolysate or placebo for 48 weeks. Facial pigmentation and baPWV were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Other biochemical atherosclerosis-related parameters were also measured, including advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Changes in facial pigmentation showed a significant difference between the groups. Change in baPWV was significantly better in the active than in the placebo group. In contrast, no significant association was seen between changes in facial pigmentation and those in baPWV. Among other atherosclerosis-related factors, changes in advanced glycation products (AGEs) were significantly decreased in the active compared to the placebo group. Further, changes in facial pigmentation were positively correlated with those in AGEs. Changes in AGEs were independently associated with changes in facial pigmentation. Casein hydrolysate improves facial pigmentation in non-hypertensive participants. Casein hydrolysate may have beneficial effects on glycation stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Advanced Parkinson’s disease; Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus; L-dopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel Infusion; Continuous Subcutaneous Apomorphine Infusion
Online: 4 February 2022 (07:18:08 CET)
Background: Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI), levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion (LCIG), and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) have markedly changed the treatment landscape of advanced Parkinson’s disease (aPD). Despite a similar outcome of all device-aided therapies (DATs), some patients switch or combine DATs. The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the frequency and reasons for switching between or combining DATs in two movement disorders centres in Slovenia and Israel. Methods: We collected and analysed demographic and clinical data from aPD patients who switched between or combined DATs. Motor and non-motor reasons and their frequency for switching/combining were examined, as was the effect of DAT using the Global Improvement subscale of the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Non-parametric tests were used to analyse the data. Results: Of 505 aPD patients treated with DATs at both centres between January 2009 and June 2021, we identified in total 30 patients (6%), who either switched DAT (N=24: 7 LCIG-to-STN-DBS, 1 LCIG-to-CSAI, 5 CSAI-to STN-DBS, 8 CSAI-to-LCIG, 1 STN-DBS-to-LCIG, 1 LCIG-to-CSAI-to-STN-DBS, and 1 STN-DBS-to-CSAI-to-LCIG) or combined DATs (N=6: 5 STN-DBS+LCIG and 1 STN-DBS+CSAI-to-STN-DBS+LCIG). In most of these patients, inadequate control of motor symptoms was the main reason for switching or combining DATs, but non-motor reasons (related to the disease and/or DAT) were also identified. Conclusions: Switching between and combining DATs is uncommon, but in some patients brings substantial clinical improvement and should be considered in those who have either inadequate symptom control on DAT treatment or have developed DAT related complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0641.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aging; paternal exposure; sperm; advanced paternal age; epigenetics; DNA methylation; RRBS, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether; PBDE; BDE-47; perinatal; environment
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:37:14 CET)
Advanced paternal age at fertilization has been suggested to be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and other disorders in offspring. One emerging hypothesis suggests that altered offspring phenotype is linked with age-related accumulation of epigenetic changes in the sperm of fathers. Given that paternal age is increasing in the developed world, understanding aging-related epigenetic changes in sperm is needed as well as environmental factors that modify such changes. In this study, we characterize age-dependent changes in sperm DNA methylation profiles between young pubertal (postnatal day (PNDs) 65) and mature (PND120) Wistar rats. We also analyze these changes in rats exposed perinatally to 0.2 mg/kg of ubiquitous environmental xenobiotic 2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) libraries were prepared from caudal epididymal sperm DNA and differentially methylated regions (DMRs; ≥ 10x coverage depth, ≥ 3 CpGs per cluster, ≥ 5% methylation change, q < 0.05) were identified via MethPipe package. In control animals, 5,319 age-dependent DMRs were identified, with 99.3% DMRs hypermethylated in mature animals compared to young pubertal rats. These age-related DMRs were enriched for functional categories essential for embryonic development, such as pattern specification, forebrain and sensory organ development, Hippo and Wnt pathways. Age-related changes in sncRNA, reported in different study, target similar list of genes and biological categories.In BDE-47 exposed rats, sperm DNA methylation was higher in young pubertal and lower in mature animals when compared to controls, which resulted in a significant attenuation in the number of age-dependent DMRs (N = 189) identified in the exposed group. In conclusion, our results indicate that the natural aging process has profound effects on sperm methylation levels and this effect may be modified by environmental exposures. Moreover, our results further support the role of epigenetic mechanisms as a likely link betwen paternal age and offspring health and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: advanced nuclear fuel cycles; waste management; resource utilization; economics; performance comparison; multi-criteria decision analysis; sensitivity/uncertainty analysis; environmental footprint
Online: 30 August 2017 (12:35:24 CEST)
Is it true that the nuclear technology applied to electric energy generation offers a clean, safe, reliable and affordable i.e. sustainable alternative? Yes it is, but its impact on the environment strongly depends on the implementation bearing residual risks due to a human factor, technical failures or natural catastrophes. A full response is therefore difficult and can first be given when the wicked multi-disciplinary problems get well formulated and “solved”. These problems have multi-dimensional nature lying at the interface between: necessary R&D effort, the industrial deployment and the technology impact in view of the environmental sustainability including the management of produced hazardous waste. This enormous complexity indicates that just a description of the problem might represent a problem. The paper proposes a holistic approach to assess the nuclear energy systems potential with respect to sustainable performance applying Multi-criteria decision analysis with a suitable objective tree and a multi-level criteria structure and examines the trading-off techniques for ranking of the alternatives. The framework proposes a multi-criteria and multi-stakeholders treatment which can be used as a pre-decisional support towards an implementation of nuclear fuel cycles adapted to national preferences and priorities. Proposed approach addresses some aspects of the environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles, previously investigated by the NEA/OECD expert group WASTEMAN, are analyzed as a case study. Sustainability facets of waste management, resource utilization and economics are in focus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: modelling and simulation for control; advanced control design; model–based and data-driven approaches; artificial intelligence; thermal unit nonlinear system
Online: 9 December 2016 (03:17:38 CET)
The paper presents the design and the implementation of different advanced control strategies that are applied to a nonlinear model of a thermal unit. A data–driven grey–box identification approach provided the physically meaningful nonlinear continuous–time model, which represents the benchmark exploited in this work. The control problem of this thermal unit is important since it constitutes the key element of passive air conditioning systems. The advanced control schemes analysed in this paper are used to regulate the outflow air temperature of the thermal unit by exploiting the inflow air speed, whilst the inflow air temperature is considered as an external disturbance. The reliability and robustness issues of the suggested control methodologies are verified with a Monte–Carlo analysis for simulating modelling uncertainty, disturbance and measurement errors. The achieved results serve to demonstrate the effectiveness and the viable application the suggested control solutions to air conditioning systems. The benchmark model represents one of the key issues of this study, which is exploited for benchmarking different model–based and data–driven advanced control methodologies through extensive simulations. Moreover, this work highlights the main features of the proposed control schemes, while providing practitioners and heating, ventilating and air conditioning engineers with tools to design robust control strategies for air conditioning systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0954.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Material Design-for-eXcellence; Material Design-for-X; M-DfX; Advanced Materials; Material Performance Assessment; Eco-efficiency; Sustainability; Material Life Cycle
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:14:40 CEST)
Advanced composite materials have drawn significant interest in the last years as an alternative to traditional materials due to their higher performance. However, industry struggle to provide low-cost, higher occupational safety, lower footprint with composites, making them suitable for holistic analyses. Therefore, the material design becomes an essential element that can impact the competitiveness, particularly in terms of productivity, circularity, safety, sustainability, and quality of the value chain. The Material Design-for-eXcellence is a state-of-art methodology for material performance multi-dimensional assessment along its life cycle phases, either useful to support ma-terial selection for new products or also to new material design support optimizing resource effi-ciency. In this methodology, the material behaviour and its multiple characteristics assessment, and the manufacturing processes efficiency are evaluated. The framework considers the analogy of product design holistic approaches, as Lean Design-for-X, to organize and assess the mul-ti-dimensional performance for each “X” Material Property. In this work, it was possible to observe that the bio-based composites solutions could be a good sustainable alternative for several sectors. Every day researchers are creating more new materials, having a diversity of properties at different scales, Material Design-for-eXcellence must also in the near future consider other factors. Hence, additional studies are thus foreseen to explore and develop this new tool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart factory; advanced manufacturing; intelligent manufacturing; Cyber Manufacturing; Cyber Physical Systems; Internet of Things; Industry 4.0; Artificial Intelligence; data driven manufacturing
Online: 9 June 2022 (04:05:14 CEST)
In a dynamic and rapidly changing world, customers’ often conflicting demands plus fluid economic requirements, often driven by geo-politics, have continued to evolve, out-striping the capability of existing production systems. With its inherent shortcomings, the traditional factory has proven to be incapable of addressing these modern-day manufacturing challenges. Recent advancements in Industry 4.0 have catalyzed the development of new manufacturing paradigms (or smart factory visions) under different monikers (e.g., Smart factory, Intelligent factory, Digital factory, Cloud-based factory etc.) would help fix these challenges. Due to a lack of consensus on a general nomenclature for these manufacturing paradigms, the term Future Factory (or Factory of the Future) is here used as a collective euphemism, without prejudice. The Future Factory constitutes a creative convergence of multiple technologies, techniques and capabilities that represent a significant change in current production capabilities, models, and practices. It is a data-driven manufacturing approach and system that harnesses intelligence from multiple information streams i.e., assets (including people), processes, and subsystems to help create new forms of production efficiency and flexibility. Serving both as a review monograph and reference companion, this paper details the meanings, characteristics, and technological underpinnings of the Future Factory. It also elucidates on the architectural models that guide the structured deployment of these modern factories with particular emphasis on three advanced communication technologies capable of speeding up advancements in the field. It not only highlights the relevance of communication between assets but also lays out mechanisms to achieve these interactions using the Administration shell. Finally, the paper also discusses the key enabling technologies that are typically embedded into bare bone factories to help improve their visibility, resilience, intelligence, and capacity, in addition to how these technologies are being deployed and to what effect. At the onset of the study, we were interested in developing a monograph which would serve as a comprehensive but concise review of general principles, fundamental concepts, major characteristics, key building blocks and implementation guidelines for the Future Factory within the overall context of the manufacturing ecosystem, in the age of Industry 4.0. Our hope is that this paper would enrich the extant literature on advanced manufacturing, help shape policy and research, and provide insights on how some of the identified pathways can be diffused into industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy; Oxidative stress; Advanced glycation end products (AGEs); Antioxidant enzymes; Vascular endothelial growth factor; B-vitamins; Vitamin-C; Vitamin- E
Online: 8 June 2022 (12:40:07 CEST)
Excessive intracellular glucose in insulin independent tissues including nerve, nephron, lens and retina invites mishandling of metabolism of glucose resulting in a background of increased oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation, lipid peroxidation and failure of antioxidant defense systems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). All these detrimental biochemical anomalies ultimately attack biological membranes and especially capillary beds of retina and glomerulus of kidney, resulting in break-down of inner blood-retinal i.e. initiation of diabetic retinopathy (DR). If these disarrays are corrected to a large extent, development of DR can be avoided or delayed. In this prospective clinical trial, 185 patients with T2DM who received B-vitamins, vitamin-C, and E along with anti-diabetic medication for five years, demonstrated a slower rate of the development of DR and reduced abnormal biochemical mediators like reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), AGE, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to 175 T2DM individuals who were treated with only anti-hyperglycemic drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; emergency physician; medical decision; asystole; advanced life support; Charlson comorbidity index; emergency medical service; prehospital emergency
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:48:59 CEST)
The objective of this study was to identify the key elements used by prehospital emergency physicians (EP) to decide whether or not to attempt advanced life support (ALS) in asystolic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). From 01.01.2009 to 01.01.2017, all adult victims of asystolic OHCA in Geneva, Switzerland, were retrospectively included. Patients with signs of "obvious death" or with a Do-Not-Attempt-Resuscitation order were excluded. Patients were categorized as having received ALS if this was mentioned in the medical record, or, failing that, if at least one dose of adrenaline had been administered during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Prognostic factors known at the time of EP's decision were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. 784 patients were included. Factors favourably influencing the decision to provide ALS were witnessed OHCA (OR=2.14, 95%CI1.43–3.20) and bystander CPR (OR=4.10, 95%CI2.28–7.39). Traumatic aetiology (OR=0.04, 95%CI0.02–0.08), age >80 years (OR=0.14, 95%CI0.09–0.24) and a Charlson comorbidity index greater than 5 (OR=0.12, 95%CI0.06–0.27) were the factors most strongly associated with the decision not to attempt ALS. Factors influencing the EP’s decision to attempt ALS in asystolic OHCA are the relatively young age of the patients, few comorbidities, presumed medical aetiology, witnessed OHCA and bystander CPR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0629.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; volatile organic compounds; nuisance smell; livestock agriculture; waste management; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; excimer; titanium dioxide
Online: 25 March 2021 (14:46:38 CET)
UV-A (ca. 365 nm wavelength, a.k.a. 'black light') photocatalysis has been investigated to comprehensively mitigate odor and selected air pollutants in the livestock environment. This study was conducted to confirm the performance of UV-A photocatalysis on the swine farm. The objectives of this research were to (1) scale-up of the UV-A photocatalysis treatment, (2) evaluate the mitigation of odorous gases from swine slurry pit, and (3) test different UV sources, (4) evaluate the effect of suspended particulate matter (PM), and (5) conduct preliminary economic analyses. We tested UV-A photocatalysis at a mobile laboratory-scale capable of treating ~0.2 - 0.8 m3·s-1 of barn exhaust air. The targeted gaseous emissions of barn exhaust air were significantly mitigated (p < 0.05) up to 40% reduction of measured odor; 63%, 44%, 32%, 40%, 66%, and 49% reduction of dimethyl disulfide, isobutyric acid, butanoic acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole, respectively; 40% reduction of H2S; 100% reduction of O3; and 13% reduction of N2O. The PM mitigation effect was not significant. Formaldehyde levels did not change, and a 21% generation of CO2 was observed. The percent reduction of targeted gases decreased as the airborne PM increased. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis confirmed that UV-A treatment changed the overall nuisance odor character of swine barn emissions into weaker manure odor with 'toothpaste and 'mint' notes. The smell of benzoic acid generated in UV-A treatment was likely one of the compounds responsible for the less-offensive overall odor character of the UV-treated emissions. Results are needed to inform the design of a farm-scale trial, where the interior barn walls can be treated with the photocatalyst, and foul air will be passively treated as it moves through the barn.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: super-resolution microscopy; advanced light microscopy; quantitative microscopy; live-cell microscopy; SMLM; STORM; SIM; STED; expansion microscopy; influenza virus; viral replication
Online: 6 January 2021 (10:40:59 CET)
With an estimated 3 to 5 million human cases annually and the potential to infect domestic and wild animal populations, influenza viruses are one of the greatest health and economic burdens to our society  and pose an ongoing threat of large-scale pandemics. Despite our knowledge of many important aspects of influenza virus biology, there is still much to learn about how influenza viruses replicate in infected cells, for instance how they use entry receptors or exploit host cell trafficking pathways. These gaps in our knowledge are due, in part, to the difficulty of directly observing viruses in living cells. In recent years, advances in light microscopy, including super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule imaging, have enabled many viral replication steps to be visualised dynamically in living cells. In particular, the ability to track single virions and their components, in real time, now allows specific pathways to be interrogated providing new insights to various aspects of the virus-host cell interaction. In this review, we discuss how state-of-the-art imaging technologies, notably quantitative live-cell and super-resolution microscopy, are shedding new nanoscale and molecular insights into influenza virus replication and revealing new opportunities for developing antiviral strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: First trimester bleeding; Metrorrhagia of the first trimester; Miscarriage; abortion; Early pregnancy loss; Advanced maternal age; emergency room; Preeclampsia; Gestational diabetes; prematurity.
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:25:22 CEST)
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the bleeding that occurs during the first weeks of gestation and its implications throughout pregnancy. Secondarily, we studied the associated complications that appeared and tried to identify possible risk factors that could serve to select women at a greater risk of adverse outcomes that could benefit from an early diagnosis and improved monitoring. Materials and Methods: We selected all the women who consulted for first trimester metrorrhagia in the Emergency Department of the Hospital QuirónSalud in Malaga over the year 2015. We refer to first trimester metrorrhagia as that which occurs until week 12+6. Once the pregnant women were identified, we studied certain risk factors already present prior to the gestation and others associated with the gestation and its evolution. Results: After reviewing the visits to the obstetrics and gynecology emergency department, we selected those patients that met the inclusion criteria, resulting in a sample of 696 patients that we followed up. The average age of our patients was 34.1 years, with an average number of visits to the hospital of 1.67, most of them between the 5th and 8th weeks of pregnancy. 45.3% of these pregnancies resulted in a first trimester miscarriage, mainly between weeks 6 and 8. We tried to establish associations in order to identify possible risk factors, finding a relationship between increased maternal age and a higher risk of first trimester pregnancy loss, which rises as maternal age increases (33,37 4,316 years vs 35,01 4,740 years). This increase in risk is proportional to the increase in age. We made subgroups of women over 35 and over 40 and confirmed that increased age led to worse outcomes. We also studied several gestational complications and concluded that they appeared more frequently among older women. These complications include prematurity (33.11 vs 34.48 years), gestational diabetes (33.11 vs 36.06 years) and preeclampsia (33.25 vs 35 years). We reviewed the obstetric history of pregnant women whose gestation resulted in miscarriage and found that 50.5% of them had previously had another loss. Conclusions: Comparing the results with data from the general population, we found that the rate of first trimester miscarriage is up to 3 times higher among women who present bleeding during the first weeks of gestation compared to those who do not develop this complication. Maternal age is a risk factor for first trimester pregnancy loss and for the development of complications associated with pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0147.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: China Coastal Front; Zhejiang-Fujian Front; Zhe-Min Front; Himawari-8; Advanced Himawari Imager; East China Sea; Taiwan Strait; Sea surface temperature
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:53:06 CET)
High-resolution (2 km) high-frequency (hourly) SST data from 2015-2020 provided by the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard the Japanese Himawari-8 geostationary satellite positioned over 140.7°E were used to study spatial and temporal variability of the China Coastal Front (CCF) in the East China Sea. The hourly SST data were processed with the Belkin and O’Reilly (2009) algorithm to generate long-term mean monthly maps of SST gradient magnitude (GM) and frontal frequency (FM) using a GM threshold of 0.1°C/km. Horizontal structure of SST field in the vicinity of the CCF was investigated from cross-frontal distributions of SST along 8 parallels from 31°N to 24°N. The high resolution (2 km) monthly distributions of SST along these 8 parallels were used to determine inshore and offshore boundaries of the CCF and calculate the CCF strength defined as the total cross-frontal SST step dSST=Offshore SST – Inshore SST. The CCF emerges in November, fully develops in December and peaks in strength in January-February. The front’s fragmentation and shrinking/weakening begins in February and March, respectively. In winter (December-February), the front’s strength dSST exceeds 5°C offshore the Zhejiang-Fujian coast and could be as high as 7.5°C when nearshore waters cool down to 7°C. In winter, the front’s strength decreases downstream from 31°N to 24°N. The CCF changes its physical nature as the seasons progress. In winter, the CCF is a water mass front between cold and fresh water coming from the north and warm and salty water coming from the south. In summer, the CCF becomes a coastal upwelling front maintained largely by southerly winds. In winter, the CCF’s cross-frontal structure in the SST field is ramp-shaped, with SST increasing monotonously in the offshore direction. In summer, the CCF’s cross-frontal structure in the SST field is V-shaped or U-shaped, featuring a minimum SST formed by cold upwelled water at some distance from the shore. Thus, the summer SST structure effectively consists of two fronts, a nearshore and offshore, with a minimum SST in-between. Across the inshore/offshore front, the SST decreases/increases in the offshore direction. The local bathymetry, especially the relatively steep shelf slope between 20-m and 50-m isobath, steers the front, which does not meander in winter offshore the Zhejiang-Fujian coast. As the cold season progresses, the front’s axis gradually shifts into deeper waters, from ~20 m to ~50 m.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1884.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: 1. traumatology; 2. Trauma surgery; 3. disaster medicine; 4. patient transfer; 5. trauma rehabilitation; 6. Advanced Trauma Life Support Care; 7. air ambulances
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:55:08 CEST)
On April 17, 2019, a coach with tourists from Germany crashed in Madeira requiring repatriation by the German Air Force. The Advance Trauma Life Support (ATLS) concept was the central component of patient care. Data in Madeira were collected through a structured interview. The analysis of the Aeromedical Evacuation was based on intensive care transport records. In Germany all available were reviewed for data collection. Quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Twenty-eight prehospital patients were transported to the Level III Trauma Center in Funchal (Madeira). Five operative procedures were performed. Fifteen patients were eligible for Aeromedical Evacuation (AE). In the second hospital phase in Germany in total 82 radiological images and nine operations were performed. Hospital stay lasted 11 days (median, IQR 10–18). Median Follow-up (14 of 15 patients) was 16 months (IQR 16–21). 80% (8 out of 10) showed an increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Six key findings were identified in this study: divergent injury classification, impact of AE mission on health status, lack of communication, need of PTSD prophylaxis, patient identification, media coverage. Those findings may improve AE missions in the future e.g. required after armed conflicts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0126.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: advanced glycation end products (AGEs); enzymatic hydrolysis; glycation; methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1); seeds; seed ageing; seed quality; sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:40:15 CET)
Seeds represent the major source of food protein, impacting on both human nutrition and animal feeding. Therefore, seed quality needs to be appropriately addressed in the context of viability and food safety. Indeed, long-term and inappropriate storage of seeds might result in enhancement of protein glycation, which might affect their quality and longevity. Glycation of seed proteins can be probed by exhaustive acid hydrolysis and quantification of the glycation adduct Nɛ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, does not allow analysis of thermally and chemically labile glycation adducts, like glyoxal-, methylglyoxal- and 3-deoxyglucosone-derived hydroimidazolones. Although enzymatic hydrolysis might be a good solution in this context, it requires aqueous conditions, which cannot ensure reconstitution of seed protein isolates. Because of this, the complete profiles of seed AGEs are not characterized so far. Therefore, here we propose the approach, giving access to quantitative solubilization of seed proteins in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and their quantitative enzymatic hydrolysis prior to removal of SDS by reversed phase solid phase extraction (RP-SPE). Using MG-H1 as a case example, we demonstrate the applicability of this method for reliable and sensitive LC-MS-based quantification of chemically labile AGEs and its compatibility with bioassays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0366.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Magnesium nanoparticles; Laser scan speed, Wearables; Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid; Advanced manufacturing; Flexile sensors; Powder metallurgy; Surface science; Nanoparticle size distributions; Picosecond laser
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:46:16 CEST)
Magnesium nanoparticles of various mean diameters (53 – 239 nm) were synthesized herein via Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAL) from millimeter sized magnesium powders within iso-propyl alcohol. It was observed via a 3x3 full factorial DOE that the processing parameters can control the nanoparticle distribution to produce three size-distribution types (bimodal, skewed and normal). Ablation times of 2, 5, and 25 minutes where investigated. An ablation time of 2 minutes produced a bimodal distribution with the other types seen at higher periods of processing. Mg nanoparticle UV-Vis absorbance at 204 nm increased linearly with increasing ablation time, indicating an increase in nanoparticle count. The colloidal density (mg/ml) generally increased with increasing nanoparticle mean diameter as noted via increasing UV-vis absorbance. High la-ser scan speeds (within the studied range of 3000 - 3500 mm/s) tend to increase the nanoparticle count/yield. For the first time, the effect of scan speed on colloidal density, UV-vis absorbance and nanoparticle diameter from metallic powder ablation was investigated and is reported herein. The nanoparticles formed dendritic structures after being drop cast on aluminum foil as observed via FESEM analysis. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the size of the nanoparticles. Magnesium nanoparticles have promising use in the fabrication of wearables, such as in conductive tracks or battery electrodes, owing to their low heat capacity, high melting point and bio-compatibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0035.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photopolymerization; Additive manufacturing; Ultrafast laser; Multiphoton lithography; Laser 3D nanolithography; Nanoscale; Organic and hybrid materials; Bio-derived materials; Functional 3D structures; Advanced material engineering
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:30:53 CEST)
Ultrafast laser 3D lithography based on non-linear light-matter interactions, widely known as multi-photon lithography (MPL), offers unrivaled precision rapid prototyping and flexible additive manufacturing options. 3D printing equipment based on MPL are already commercially available, yet there is still no comprehensive understanding of factors determining spatial resolution, accuracy, fabrication throughput, repeatability, and standardized metrology methods for the accurate characterization of the produced 3D objects and their functionalities. The photoexcitation mechanisms, spatial-control or photo-modified volumes, and the variety of processable materials are topics actively investigated. The complexity of the research field is underlined by limited understanding and fragmented knowledge of light-excitation and material response. Research to date has only provided case-specific findings on photoexcitation, chemical modification, and material characterization of the experimental data. In this review, we aim to provide a consistent and comprehensive summary of the existing literature on photopolymerization mechanisms under highly confined spatial and temporal conditions, where, besides the excitation and cross-linking, parameters such as diffusion, temperature accumulation, and the finite amount of monomer molecules start to become of critical importance. Key parameters such as, photoexcitation, polymerization kinetics, and the properties of the additively manufactured materials at the nanoscale in 3D are examined, whereas, the perspectives for future research and as well as emerging applications are outlined.