ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0616.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: tsunami wave; finite elements; mesh adaptation; domain adaptation; co-seismic displacements; tsunami wave energy; FreeFem++; unstructured meshes
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:17:44 CEST)
A simplified nonlinear dispersive system of BBM-type, initially derived by D. Mitsotakis, is employed here in order to model the generation and propagation of surface water waves over variable bottom. The simplification consists in applying the so-called Boussinesq approximation. Using the finite element method and the FreeFem++ software, we solve numerically this system for three different complexities for the bathymetry function: a flat bottom case, a variable bottom in space, and a variable bottom both in space and in time. The last case is illustrated with the Java 2006 tsunami event. This article is designed rather as a tutorial paper even if it contains the description of completely new adaptation techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0291.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: relativistic energy; energy conservation law; Einstein’s principle of relativity; rest mass in wave motion; relativity of simultaneity; time dilation; Lorentz contraction; mechanical transverse wave; special relativity
Online: 16 September 2021 (14:20:57 CEST)
We study the effect of the generation of the mechanical transverse wave (MTW) travelling in the opposite direction (OD) to a moving medium (MM) on the relativistic energy conservation law (RECL). From the viewpoint of the relativity of simultaneity (RS), the time on the coordinate coinciding with the advance end of the wave (AEW) travelling toward the rear of the MM passes faster than that on the coordinate coinciding with the wave source (WS). Then the AEW in the MM travels forward compared to that in the rest frame of reference (RFR) which is stationary relative to the medium when the time on the coordinate coinciding with the WS is same for each inertial frame of reference (IFR). Hence, the coordinate interval (CI) between the AEW and WS in the MM is observed to be larger than that between them in the RFR. We show that this difference holds true for the CI of any portion having transverse velocities mutually converted by the Lorentz transformation (LT). This difference in the CI leads to that in the rest mass (RM). We demonstrate that the RM included in wave motion (WM) in the MM is larger than one included in WM in the RFR when comparing the portions having transverse velocities mutually converted by the LT. This relation holds true for all portions in WM. Therefore, the total coordinate interval of the portion (CIP) and total RM (TRM) included in WM in the MM (WMMM) are large compared to them included in WM in the RFR. Furthermore, we compare the relativistic kinetic energy (RKE) of the MTW travelling in the OD to the MM (ODMM) with that of the MTW propagating in the direction vertical to the moving direction of the medium. We prove that the CIP and RM included in the former MTW are larger than them included in the latter MTW when comparing each portion with the same transverse velocity (TV). Moreover, the total CIP and TRM included in the former MTW are also large compared to them included in the latter MTW. The reason for these is that the latter CIP and RM are equal to them in the RFR when comparing the portions having transverse velocities mutually converted by the LT. On the other hand, the energy supplied to generate each MTW is the same. From these, we demonstrate that the RKE of the MTW travelling in the ODMM can be larger than the total relativistic energy (TRE) of the MTW propagating in the direction vertical to the moving direction of the medium. Consequently, we propose a violation of the RECL and Einstein’s principle of relativity (EPR) because the TRE is not necessarily conserved in the IFR in which the medium is moving.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar; wave mode; ocean wave
Online: 21 October 2020 (07:47:35 CEST)
The Wave Mode (WM) is a unique imaging mode of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is dedicatedly designed for global ocean surface wave observations. Since it was firstly achieved in the ERS-1/SAR satellite starting from 1991, the WM data over global oceans have been continuously acquired by the ESA’s SAR instruments onboard the satellites of ERS-2 (1997 – 2011), ENVISAT (2002 – 2012), Sentinel-1A(2014--)/1B(2016--) and the Chinese GaoFen-3 SAR (2016--), for nearly 30 years. Therefore, spaceborne SAR WM data have been a ‘big data’, which however, has not been widely exploited for global ocean wave measurements. In this study, we demonstrate its application on global ocean wave measurements based on the ten-year Advanced SAR (ASAR) WM data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0174.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: wave turbulence; satellite altimetry; wave steepness; parametric and physical models of wave period
Online: 25 December 2017 (09:06:02 CET)
Wave steepness is presented as an extension and a valuable add-on to the conventional set of sea state parameters retrieved from satellite altimetry data. Following physical model based on recent advances of weak turbulence theory wave steepness is estimated from directly measured spatial gradient of wave height. In this way the method works with altimetry trajectories rather than with point-wise data. Moreover, in contrast to widely used parametric models this approach provides us with instantaneous values of wave steepness and period. Relevance of single-track estimates of wave steepness (period) is shown for wave climate studies and confirmed by a simple probabilistic model. The approach is verified via comparison against buoy and satellite data including crossover points for standard 1 second data of Ku-band altimeters. High quality of the physical model and robustness of the parametric ones are examined in terms of global wave statistics. Prospects and relevance of both approaches in the ocean wave climate studies are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0381.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Rossby wave; quasi-stationary wave; stratosphere; Arctic; ozone
Online: 29 March 2022 (11:26:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to study Rossby wave parameters in total ozone over Arctic in 2000–2021. We consider the averages in the January–March period, when stratospheric trace gases (including ozone) in sudden stratospheric warming events are strongly disturbed by planetary waves. To characterize the wave parameters, we analyzed ozone data at the latitudes of 50° N (the sub-vortex area), 60° N (the polar vortex edge) and 70° N (inner region of the polar vortex). Total ozone column (TOC) measurements during 22-year time interval were used from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) / Earth Probe and Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI) / Aura satellite observations. The total ozone zonal distribution and variations in the parameters of the Fourier spectral components with zonal wave numbers m = 1–5 are presented. Daily and interannual variations in TOC, amplitudes and phases of spectral wave components, and linear trends of the quasi-stationary wave 1 (QSW1) amplitudes are discussed. The positive TOC peaks inside the vortex in 2010 and 2018 alternate with negative ones in 2011 and 2020. The latter TOC anomalies correspond to severe depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Arctic in the strong vortex conditions due to anomalously low activity of planetary waves. Variations in TOC in sub-vortex region exhibit the statistically significant negative trend –4.8±5.4 DU decade–1 in QSW1 amplitude, while the trend is statistically insignificant at the vortex edge region due to increased TOC variability. Processes associated with polar vortex dynamics are discussed, including quasi-stationary vortex asymmetry and quasi-circumpolar migration of the wave-1 phase at the vortex edge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: numerical wave tank; internal wavemaker; CFD; wave generation; OpenFOAM
Online: 22 January 2019 (12:09:25 CET)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models, are a useful tool for a wide range of coastal and offshore applications, providing a high fidelity representation of the underlying hydrodynamic processes. Generating input waves in the CFD simulation is performed by a numerical wavemaker (NWM), with a variety of different NWM methods existing for this task. While NWMs, based on impulse source methods, have been widely applied for wave generation in depth averaged, shallow water models, they have not seen the same level of adoption in the more general RANS based CFD simulations, due to difficulties in relating the required impulse source function to the resulting free surface elevation for non-shallow water cases. This paper presents an implementation of an impulse source wavemaker, which is able to self-calibrate the impulse source function to produce a desired wave series in deep or shallow water at a specific point in time and space. Example applications are presented, for a numerical wave tank (NWT), based on the opensource CFD software OpenFOAM, for wave packets in deep and shallow water, highlighting the correct calibration of phase and amplitude. Also, the suitability for cases requiring very low reflection from NWT boundaries is demonstrated. Possible issues in the use of the method are discussed and guidance for good application is given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: wave energy; system identification; model validation; wave tank testing
Online: 8 February 2017 (17:00:08 CET)
Empirically based modeling is an essential aspect of design for a wave energy converter. These models are used in structural, mechanical and control design processes, as well as for performance prediction. The design of experiments and methods used to produce models from collected data have a strong impact on the quality of the model. This study considers the system identification and model validation process based on data collected from a wave tank test of a model-scale wave energy converter. Experimental design and data processing techniques based on general system identification procedures are discussed and compared with the practices often followed for wave tank testing. The general system identification processes are shown to have a number of advantages. The experimental data is then used to produce multiple models for the dynamics of the device. These models are validated and their performance is compared against one and other. While most models of wave energy converters use a formulation with wave elevation as an input, this study shows that a model using a hull pressure sensor to incorporate the wave excitation phenomenon has better accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rubble-mound; zero-freeboard; porous-media; immersed-boundary; level-set; Smagorinsky subgrid scale model; wave reflection; wave transmission; wave overtopping; wave setup
Online: 23 January 2020 (14:43:47 CET)
A numerical study for the effect of crest width, breaking parameter and trunk permeability on hydrodynamics and flow behavior in the vicinity of rubble-mound, permeable, zero-freeboard breakwaters (ZFBs) is presented. The modified two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows in porous media with a Smagorinsky model for the subgrid scale stresses were solved numerically. An immersed-boundary/level-set method was used. The numerical model was validated for the cases of wave propagation over a submerged impermeable trapezoidal bar and over a low-crested permeable breakwater. Five cases of breakwaters were examined, and the main results are: (a) The size of the crest width, B, does not notably affect the wave reflection, vorticity and currents in the seaward region of ZFBs, while wave transmission, currents in the leeward side, and mean overtopping discharge, all decrease with increasing B. A non-monotonic behavior of the wave setup is also observed. (b) As the breaking parameter decreases, wave reflection, transmission, currents, mean overtopping discharge, and wave setup decrease. This observation is also verified by relevant empirical formulas. (c) As the ZFB trunk permeability decreases, an increase of the wave reflection, currents, wave setup, and a decrease of wave transmission and mean overtopping discharge is observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wave energy converter; Wave overtopping; Shape memory alloy; Random waves
Online: 8 November 2022 (03:17:28 CET)
A Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) enabled Overtopping Wave Energy Converter (OWEC) that maximizes its overtopping discharge, and thus energy output under different wave conditions is presented. Among all the parameters affecting the overtopping discharge rate, the crest freeboard height is the most influential one to control the overtopping discharge rate and the stored overtopping volume behind it. Currently, all the OWEC crest freeboard heights are fixed by design to maximize the discharge rate on one particular sea state. In the present study, we show that the SMA can adjust the crest freeboard height through a control system based on the sea state and achieve an optimal overtopping discharge rate. A scaled OWEC model is built in the lab with its crest freeboard height controlled by springs made of SMA. The length (and thus tension) of the springs is controlled by temperature changes by changing the passing current through the springs. By adjusting the length of the springs based on the incoming wave condition, we adjust the freeboard to an optimal height known to generate a maximum overtopping discharge rate for energy conversion. This smart material-enabled design can maximize the overtopping discharge and thus the output power of the OWEC under various wave conditions. Furthermore, the simplicity of using SMA springs as the actuator leads to the minimum number of moving mechanical parts, which can remarkably decrease maintenance costs. As the proof of concept, two types of tests are conducted in the laboratory using the same OWEC model under several random wave trains generated from spectra with different significant wave heights - one type with a fixed crest freeboard height and the other type featuring the adjustable crest freeboard height controlled by the springs. The substantial increase of harvested output power in the OWEC with the adjustable crest freeboard height may pave the way for more efficient wave energy conversion systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0383.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Indian Economy; First wave; Second Wave; Economic Revive
Online: 22 September 2021 (12:31:55 CEST)
Background-The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has affected the global economy from its starting. Indian economy is also affected by the pandemic and experienced a lot of economic damages. India has become the global hotspot of COVID-19 during the second wave of the pandemic and recorded the second-highest position in terms of positivity rate after China. The present study attempts to analyze the economic issues that emerged in the first and second waves of the pandemic in India. Method/Approach-There is no econometric tools or analytical models used in the present study. This study attempts to evaluate the two research questions which are formed on the basis of some previous studies by various organizations and researchers. The research questions are as follow, First, what are the sectors those are primarily affected at the time of the first COVID-19 outbreak? Second, which economic issues and impacts emerged in the second wave of the pandemic? Results/ Findings-From the study, it is found that the second wave of COVID-19 is not much affected by the Indian economy. At this time, no nationwide lockdown was announced by the Government. But so, it was much severe in the time of the first wave of COVID-19. Many sectors were affected by the pandemic like agriculture, MSMEs, Tourism, etc., and these resulted in substantial unemployment problems in the economy. The study is trying to analyze these problems and concluding it with a few policy recommendations for the economy of India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0546.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: shock wave process; shock-wave structure; refraction; domain of existence
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:26:45 CEST)
Refraction of an oblique shock wave on a tangential discontinuity dividing two gas flows with different properties is considered. It is shown that its partial reflection occurs excepting of geometrical diffraction of an oblique shock. Another oblique shock, expansion wave or weak discontinuity that coincides with Mach line, can act as a reflected disturbance. This study focuses on relationships which define the type of reflected discontinuity and its parameters. Domains of existence of various shock-wave structures with reflected disturbances of two types and boundaries between them are defined. The domains of parameters with one or two solutions exist for the characteristic refraction. Conditions of the regular refraction and the Mach refraction are formulated, and boundaries between those two refraction types are defined for various types of gases. Refraction phenomena in various engineering problems (hydrocarbon gaseous fuel and its combustion products, diatomic gas, fuel mixture of oxygen and hydrogen etc.) are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0042.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: momentum, kinetic momentum, rest-mass momentum, de Broglie wave, Compton wave, relativistic energy momentum relation, relativistic wave equation
Online: 14 January 2019 (12:26:06 CET)
We suggest that momentum should be redened in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0042.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Wind wave; Ice cover; Vortex sheet; Negative energy wave; Modulation instability
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:53:15 CET)
An interesting physical phenomenon was recently observed when a fresh-water basin is covered by a thin ice film that has properties similar to that of a rubber membrane. Surface waves can be generated under the action of wind on the air-water interface that contains an ice film. The modulation property of hydro-elastic waves (HEWs) in deep water covered by thin ice film blown by the wind with a uniform vertical profile is studied here in terms of the air-flow velocity versus a wavenumber. The modulation instability of HEWs is studied through the analysis of coefficients of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with the help of the Lighthill criterion. The NLS equation is derived using the multiple scale method in the presence of airflow. It is demonstrated that the potentially unstable hydro-elastic waves with negative energy appear for relatively small wind speeds, whereas the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability arises when the wind speed becomes fairly strong. Estimates of parameters of modulated waves for the typical conditions are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0486.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: marine renewable energy; ocean energy; wave energy; environmental effects; wave modeling; wave propagation; numerical modeling; sediment dynamics; risk assessment
Online: 29 June 2018 (13:09:23 CEST)
Wave energy converter (WEC) arrays deployed in coastal regions may create physical disturbances potentially resulting in environmental stresses. Presently, limited information is available on the nature of these physical disturbance or the resultant effects. A quantitative Spatial Environmental Assessment Tool (SEAT) for evaluating potential effects of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays on nearshore hydrodynamics and sediment transport is presented for the central Oregon coast (USA) through coupled numerical model simulations of an array of WECs. Derived climatological wave conditions were used as inputs to the model to allow for the calculation of risk metrics associated with various hydrodynamic and sediment transport variables such as maximum shear stress, bottom velocity, and change in bed elevation. The risk maps provided simple, quantitative, and spatially-resolved means of evaluating physical changes in the vicinity of a hypothetical WEC array in response to varying wave conditions. Near-field risk of sediment mobility was determined to be moderate in the lee of the densely spaced array, where the potential for increased sediment deposition could result in benthic habitat alteration. Modifications to the nearshore sediment deposition and erosion patterns were observed near headlands and topographic features, which could have implications for littoral sediment transport. The results illustrate the benefits of a risk evaluation tool for facilitating coastal resource management at early market marine renewable energy sites.
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:28:34 CEST)
In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) studied general entangled states in the two photon experiment and pointed out the contradiction between local realism and the completeness of quantum mechanism. Most of the EPR experiments in recent years are based on the detection of polarization correlations of optical photons between spatially separated photon channels, some of which are split and directed to two spatially separated Michelson interferometers. Later, the two arms of Michelson interferometers are replaced by dual-channel Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometry enabling precise analysis of the energy-time entanglement between a pair of photons. On the other hand, F-P type detectors on gravitational radiation have caught dozens of gravitational wave (GW) events successfully. This paper proposes a combined experiment of EPR and GW, exhibiting whether the coincident rate of EPR is modulated by GW induced change of cavity length or not. Such an experiment could test the coupling of quantum mechanics and general relativity for the first time, and be a useful tool to explore the nature of quantum gravity.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: electromagnetic waves, microwave frequency range, biological medium, wave propagation, reflection, refraction, surface wave, creeping wave, multilayered biological medium, body area networks
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:13:48 CEST)
Propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves inside and on the surface of the human body is the subject of active research in area of biomedical applications. This research area is the basis for wireless monitoring of biological object parameters and characteristics. Much attention has been paid to radio-frequency identification systems, which are intended for biomedical applications. Solutions to the following problems are crucial to achieve the stated goals in the area of wireless monitoring: EM wave propagation inside regular and multilayer biological media, through the interface between different media, and on-body surface wave propagation. The biological object monitoring is based on a consideration of the followingprocesses: a) propagation of the EM wave in a biological medium considered as the dielectric with a high dielectric permittivity and substantial conductivity; b) penetration of the EM wave through the biological medium–air interface (wave reflection and refraction); c) propagation of the EM wave in a multi-layer biological medium; d) propagation of the EM wave along the plane or curved surface of biological objects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0275.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Heat wave; satisfaction to community; social linkage; global warming; perception to heat wave
Online: 12 May 2021 (17:17:44 CEST)
The research examines the relationship between self-rated health situation and personal percep-tion of heat waves, and how social linkage of communities would be a moderator variable in residents’ perception of heat waves in Taiwan. This study uses the questionnaire conducted by Sinica “Responsive Capacity under Heat Wave: The Perspectives of the Locals”(2019), using OLS method for estimating the unknown parameters in multiple regression model. The author finds that the correlation of self-rated health situation and perception toward heat is significantly posi-tive. Also, social linkage in communities affects strongly as a moderator variable: While the sat-isfaction to with their community could reduce negative reaction to heat, contacts with neighbors could increase possibility people feel uncomfortable in high-temperature situation. This study ex-hibits the effects of social environment on community, and expects further related researches or practices to strengthen capability to resist heat wavesƒ for Taiwanese residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: altimeter; sea surface wind speed; significant wave height; mean wave period; atmospheric instability
Online: 23 February 2020 (11:09:10 CET)
Spaceborne altimeters are an important data source for obtaining global sea surface wind speeds (U10). Although many altimeter U10 algorithms have been proposed and they perform well, there is still room for improvement. In this study, the data from ten altimeters were collocated with buoys to investigate the error of the altimeter U10 retrievals. The U10 residuals were found to be significantly dependent on many oceanic and atmospheric parameters. Because these oceanic and atmospheric parameters are inter-correlated, an asymptotic strategy was used to isolate the impact of different parameters and establish a neural-network-based correction model of altimeter U10. The results indicated that significant wave heights and mean wave periods are effective in correcting U10 retrievals, probably due to the tilting modulation of long-waves on the sea surface. After the wave correction, the root-mean-square error of the retrieved U10 was reduced from 1.42 m/s to 1.24 m/s and the impacts of thermodynamic parameters, such as sea surface (air) temperate, became negligible. The U10 residuals after correction showed that the atmospheric instability can lead to errors on extrapolated buoy U10. The buoy measurements with large air-sea temperature differences need to be excluded in the Cal/Val of remotely sensed U10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: SWAN wave model; Nearshore wave energy resource assessment; Ocean renewable energy; Wave energy model simulation; Off-grid island electrification; Cuyo Island; Palawan
Online: 19 October 2022 (14:30:04 CEST)
Electrifying off-grid and isolated islands in the Philippines remains one of the challenges that hinders community development. One of the solutions seen to ensure energy security, expand energy access and promote a low carbon future in this isolated islands is the use of renewable energy sources. This study wishes to determine the nearshore wave energy resource during monsoon seasons in Cuyo Island using a 40-year wave hindcast and 9-year on-site wind speed data to develop high resolution wave energy model using SWAN wave model, and assessed its annual energy production through matching with wave energy devices. Results shows that average significant wave height (Hs), peak period (Tp) and wave power density (Pd) during northeast monsoon are Hs = 1.35 m, Tp = 4.79 s and Pd = 4.05 kW/m respectively, while southwest monsoon which is sheltered by the mainland resulted to a lesser outcome, Hs = 0.52 m, Tp = 3.37 s and Pd = 0.34 kW/m. While the simulated model was observed to overestimate the wave energy resource (Bias = 0.398, RMSE = 0.54 and SI = 1.34), it has a strong relationship with the observed values (average r = 0.9). Its annual energy production is highest at Station 5, with AEPWaveBouy = 43.761 MWh, AEP-Pelamis = 216.786 MWh and AEPWave Dragon = 2462.66 MWh. At present, the minimum requirement for a wave energy development to be feasible is 5 kW/m, which in this case, Cuyo Island falls short, but with the continuous evolution of wave energy converters, applications on milder re-sources will soon materialized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy; ESWT; focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy; fESWT; mechanisms of action; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT; systematic review
Online: 14 April 2022 (07:42:55 CEST)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a safe and effective treatment option for various pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. Many studies addressed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of ESWT. However, no uniform concept could be established in this matter until now. We performed a systematic review of the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) reported in the literature. The key results were as follows: (i) compared to the effects of many other forms of therapy, the clinical benefit of ESWT does not appear to be based on a single mechanism; (ii) different tissues respond to the same mechanical stimulus in different ways; (iii) just because a mechanism of action of ESWT was described in a study does not automatically mean that this mechanism was relevant to the observed clinical effect; (iv) focused ESWs and radial ESWs seem to act in a similar way; and (v) even the most sophisticated research into the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to ESWs cannot substitute clinical research in order to determine the optimum intensity, treatment frequency and localization of ESWT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0360.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: turbulence; capillary wave; spectrum; anisotropy
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:59:01 CET)
We consider the developed turbulence of capillary waves on shallow water. Analytic theory shows that an isotropic cascade spectrum is unstable with the respect to small angular perturbations, in particular, to spontaneous breakdown of the reflection symmetry and generation of nonzero momentum. By computer modeling we show that indeed a random pumping, generating on average zero momentum, produces turbulence with a nonzero total momentum. A strongly anisotropic large-scale pumping produces turbulence whose degree of anisotropy decreases along a cascade. It tends to saturation in the inertial interval and then further decreases in the dissipation interval. Surprisingly, neither the direction of the total momentum nor the direction of the compensated spectrum anisotropy is locked by our square box preferred directions (side or diagonal) but fluctuate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0081.v1
Online: 8 April 2019 (10:41:17 CEST)
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data is part of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) observables. In a marine environment, the oscillation of the SNR data can be used to derive reflector heights. Since the attenuation of the SNR oscillation is related to the roughness of the sea surface, the significant wave height (SWH) of the water surface can be calculated from the analysis of the attenuation. The attenuation depends additionally on the relation between the coherent and the incoherent part of the scattered power. The latter is a function of the correlation length of the surface waves. Because the correlation length changes with respect to the direction of the line of sight relative to the wave direction, the attenuation must show an anisotropic characteristic. In this work, we present a method to derive the wave direction from the anisotropy of the attenuation of the SNR data. The method is investigated based on simulated data as well by the analysis of experimental data from a GNSS station in the North Sea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: millimeter-wave; radiometer; sequential lobing
Online: 23 November 2017 (11:29:03 CET)
The paper investigates the theory of operation of a passive millimeter-wave seeker sensor using fast electronic sequential-lobing technique and the experimental validation obtained through laboratory trials. The paper analyzes in detail the theoretical performance of a difference channel sensor and a pseudo-monopulse sensor deriving agile formulas for the estimation of target angular tracking accuracy and the subsequent experimental validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: ocean surface wave simulation; inverse Fourier transform; directional wave spectrum; linear superposition; Nyquist frequency
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:42:22 CEST)
Ocean surface waves have been utilized as fundamental information in various fields of oceanic research. In this paper, we suggest a simulation and modelling technique for generating an ocean surface wave using an inverse Fast Fourier Transform (iFFT), and we subsequently verify the wave’s accuracy. The conventional method, linear superposition, requires recursive calculation because of the double summation and the time variable; to circumvent this issue, the new algorithm is presented. The Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum is utilized for the ocean surface wave simulation example, and the parameters are the significant wave height (HS) and the zero-crossing wave period (TZ). A coordinate transform for the wavenumber domain was used to apply the inverse FFT algorithm. To verify the accuracy of the simulation result, the relative error between the input condition and the analysis result was calculated. The result for TZ is below 4% relative error, and the maximum relative error for HS is 7%. To avoid the Nyquist frequency for wave-field analysis and simulation, the minimum grid size was calculated by twice applying the maximum wavenumber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Colombia; Colombian Caribbean; marine climate; Mallorquín Lagoon; Puerto Colombia; Wave Watch III; wave; wind
Online: 17 February 2020 (03:32:48 CET)
This work presents an application called APPMAR 1.0 based on Python ® environment, built to perform the downloading, treatment and analysis of meteorological and marine information. This application is composed of two main modules: the first module allows the downloading of information from the database (NOAA - WW3); the second module uses the principles of statistical mathematics for the treatment of waves and wind. The importance of this simple application is based on the free and agile access to meteorological and marine information for a coastal project. The determination of representative conditions of sea states ultimately will govern the process of design of coastal and oceanic infrastructure. The analysis of historical time series of local waves and winds allows the evaluation of average regimes or operational design, the ultimate limit states or extreme design, and the storms or design by persistence. In spite that the former analysis is a common task for coastal engineers, the codes generated are seldom shared for public use. In summary, for operational purposes is useful to have a freeware that can assist in the data processing for decision making and forcing of the mathematical models that are part of the common practice of coastal, oceanic and offshore engineering. This application has been tested in the Caribbean area of Colombia where meteorological and marine information are scarce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0447.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Perturbed Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation; travelling wave solution; extended auxiliary equation method; complex wave solution
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:28:56 CET)
We apply utilized the extended form of the auxiliary equation method to obtain extensively reliable exact travelling wave solutions of perturbed Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation (GIE) that is widely used as a model in the field theory of quanta and non-linear optics. The method is based on a simple first order second degree ODE. The new form of the approach gives more solutions to the governing equation efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: eNose; gas sensor, SAW; Surface Acoustic Wave, Love wave, diabetes, breath, VOC, ZIF, Zeolite
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:18:23 CET)
In the present work a novel, portable and innovative eNose composed of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array based ZIF-8, and ZIF-67 nanocrystals (pure and combined with gold nanoparticles) as sensitive layers has been tested as a non-invasive system to detect and differentiate disease markers, such as acetone, ethanol and ammonia, related with early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus through exhaled breath. The sensors have been prepared by spin coating, achieving continuous and homogenous sensitive layers. Low concentrations (5 ppm, 10 ppm and 25ppm) of the marker analytes were measured, obtaining high sensitivities, good reproducibility, short time response and fast signal recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0010.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: electromagnetic wave; medium chirality; bilinear parameter; conservation law; spin-orbit coupling; plane wave; inconsistency; wave-propagation problem; light-matter interaction; circular vector; bi-characteristics
Online: 16 December 2022 (08:12:28 CET)
We examine here characteristics of electromagnetic waves that propagate through an unbounded space filled with a homogeneous isotropic chiral medium. Resulting characters are compared to those of the electromagnetic waves propagating through an achiral free space. To this goal, we form energy conservation laws for key bilinear parameters in a chiral case. Due to a nonzero medium chirality, conservation laws turn out to contain extra terms that are linked to the spin-orbit coupling, which is absent for an achiral case. As an example, we take a plane wave for achiral case to evaluate those bilinear parameters. Resultantly, the conservation laws for a chiral case are found to reveal inconsistencies among several bilinear parameters that constitute the con-servation laws , thereby prompting us to establish partial remedies for formulating proper wave-propagation problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0614.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: marine weather; characteristic wave height; storm surge; shore platform; overtopping wave; hydrodynamics equation; flooding hazard
Online: 25 June 2021 (10:12:06 CEST)
Boulder dynamics may provide essential data for the coastal evolution and hazards assessment and can be focused as a proxy for the onshore effect of intense storm waves. In this work, detailed observations of currently available satellite imagery of the Earth surface allowed to identify several coastal boulders displacements in the Southern Apulia coast (Italy), in a period between July 2018 and June 2020. Field surveys confirmed the displacements of several dozens of boulders up to several meters in size, also allowing the determination of the initial position for many of them. Archive weather analyses identified two possible causative storms during the same period, and calculations based on analytical equations are found in agreement with the displacement by storm waves for most of the observed boulders. The results help to give insights about the onshore effect of high storm waves on the coastal hydrodynamics and the possible future flooding hazard in the studied coast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0300.v2
Subject: Keywords: Complex wave mek complex frequency, medium, electric field, the medium wave function, friction, relaxation time
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:01:14 CET)
Maxwell equation for the electric field has been solved for any medium by suggesting the wavenumber and angular frequency be complex quantities. This accounts for the field decay by interaction with the medium.This expression for the time and special decay of the electric field in a medium is used to construct a new wave function sensitive to the medium physical properties. This new wave function, unlike the conventional one, differentiates between a beam of particles in a vacuum and that enters a medium which is an attenuated due to the scattering effect.Another expression for time decaying electric field was obtained using Newton’s laws for frictional medium. This expression shows that the electric field diminishes due to friction.Fortunately, this time decaying part of the electric field is typical to that derived from Maxwell’s equations. Finally, a new Schrodinger equation sensitive to the medium properties was derived. This equation, fortunately, describes some scattering processes for Protein scattering, scattering of x-rays, opto-acoustic phonons, and Raman scattering for some materials successfully .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0675.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: wave impact assessment; characteristic wave height; Salento peninsula; Taranto Gulf; Mediterranean Sea; November 2019 storm
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:53:07 CEST)
The storm of November 12th-13th, 2019 provoked the displacements of boulders in a central Mediterranean rocky coast; with reference to a selected area, prone to the boulder production and geomorphologically monitored for years, a field-oriented study approach was applied for the phenomenon, by collating data concerning pre-storm locations and kinematics of these boulders. The number of displaced boulders is 11, that is, in terms of morphological imprint of a specific storm, one of the major study cases for the Mediterranean. In addition, based on widely used hydrodynamic equations, the minimum wave height required to displace the boulders is assessed. The values conform with the expected values for the wave climate dominating during the causative meteorological event and give a measure of the energy of the storm slamming the coast. Boulder dislodgements usually have plays a key role in determining the rate of the coastal recession, likely also in the investigated area. In view of an adverse climate evolution with a possible increase of energy and frequency of severe storms, the results deriving from the study of this morphodynamics should be considered for the hazard assessment and coastal management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0443.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Coupled Higgs equations, new extended rational methods, traveling wave solution, complex solution, multi wave solution
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:11:01 CET)
By using the new recently proposed extended rational methods, we set some solitary and multi wave solutions of the coupled Higgs system in the present study. Some new families of hyperbolic and trigonometric solutions of the coupled Higgs equations are successfully obtained. Some solutions are real as some are complex valued functions. Particular forms of some solutions derived by choice of some parameters are demonstrated in three dimensional spaces. The complex valued solutions are also depicted by plotting both real and complex component.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: wave reflection; cardiovascular modelling; arterial hemodynamics
Online: 24 March 2022 (05:21:26 CET)
Arterial ageing is thought to cause a diastolic-to-systolic shift in the return time (RT) of backward waves to central arteries. However, current methods of estimating RT—inflection point, zero crossing, and foot methods—depend on a single waveform feature and produce systolic RT throughout life. We propose a novel centroid method that accounts for the entire backward pressure waveform and develop a ground truth RT (GTRT), which can be used in computational models to test the accuracy of RT estimation methods. Linear wave tracking was implemented in a one-dimensional systemic arterial tree model and GTRT was calculated as the amplitude-weighted mean RT of backward waves at the ascending aorta. Using a virtual cohort of 1200 patients, the centroid RT was closest to GTRT compared to the zero crossing, inflection point, and foot methods; mean differences (limits of agreement) were -8 (-47,30), vs -42 (-136,52), -78 (-305,149), and -197 (-379,-15) ms, respectively. The sensitivity of the methods to changes in RT was also assessed in ten sheep. A balloon catheter in the descending thoracic aorta was used to generate a backward-running pulse that arrived at the ascending aorta at different times during diastole or systole, allowing the “bulk” RT of the backward-running wave ensemble to be manipulated. Only the centroid method was sensitive to both diastolic and systolic changes in RT. We conclude that the accuracy and robustness of the centroid method make it most suitable for evaluating the diastolic-to-systolic shift in RT of backward waves with ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cardiovascular modelling; arterial haemodynamics; wave reflection
Online: 16 March 2022 (10:05:44 CET)
The arterial network in healthy young adults is thought to be structured to minimise wave reflection in conduit arteries, producing an ascending aortic pressure waveform with three key features: early systolic peak, negative systolic augmentation, and diastolic hump. One-dimensional computer models have provided significant insights into arterial haemodynamics, but no previous models of the young adult have exhibited these three features. Since the latter was likely to be related to unrepresentative or non-optimised impedance properties of the model arterial networks, we developed a new ‘YoungAdult’ model that incorporated 1) a novel and more accurate empirical equation for approximating wave speeds, based on area and relative distance to elastic-muscular arterial transition points, 2) optimally-matched arterial junctions, and 3) an improved arterial network geometry that eliminated ‘within-segment’ taper (which causes wave reflection in conduit arteries) whilst establishing ‘impedance-preserving’ taper. These model properties led to wave reflection occurring predominantly at distal vascular beds, rather than in conduit arteries. The model predicted all three typical characteristics of an ascending aortic pressure waveform observed in young adults. When compared with non-invasively acquired pressure and velocity measurements (obtained via tonometry and Doppler ultrasound in 7 young adults), the model was also shown to reproduce the typical waveform morphology observed in the radial, brachial, carotid, temporal, femoral, and tibial arteries. The YoungAdult model provides support for the concept that the arterial tree impedance in healthy young adults is exquisitely optimised, and it provides an important baseline model for investigating cardiovascular changes in ageing and disease states.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Ferry design; wave generation; ship hydrodynamics
Online: 14 January 2021 (07:54:26 CET)
In this paper, we revisit the hydrodynamics supporting the design and development of the RiverCat class of catamaran ferries operating in Sydney Harbor since 1991. More advanced software is used here. This software accounts for the hydrodynamics of the transom demisterns which experience partial or full ventilation, depending on the vessel speed. This ventilation gives rise to the hydrostatic drag, which adds to the total drag of the vessel. The presence of the transom also creates a hollow in the water. This hollow causes an effective hydrodynamic lengthening of the vessel, which leads to a reduction in the wave resistance. Hence a detailed analysis is required in order to optimize the size of the transom. It is demonstrated that the drag of the vessel and the wave generation can be predicted with good accuracy. Finally, the software is also used to optimize the vessel further by means of affine transformations of the hull geometry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0050.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: gravitational wave; Newton’s gravitation; LIGO interferometer
Online: 5 August 2019 (05:24:18 CEST)
The most important conclusion from this article is that from the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) do not result any gravitational waves, but just ordinary modulation of the gravitational field intensities caused by rotating of bodies. If the LIGO team has measured anything, it is only this modulation, rather than the gravitational wave understood as the carrier of gravity. This discussion shows that using too complicated mathematics in physics leads to erroneous interpretation of results (in this case, perhaps the tensor analysis is guilty). Formally, various things can be calculated, but without knowing what such analysis means, they can be attributed misinterpreted. Since the modulation of gravitational field intensities has been called a gravitational wave in contemporary physics, we have also done so, although it is misleading. In the article it was shown, that from the Newton’s law of gravitation resulted an existence of gravitational waves very similar to these, which result from the General Theory of Relativity. The article shows differences between the course of gravitational waves that result from Newton’s gravitation, and the course of gravitational waves that result from the General Theory of Relativity, which measurement was announced by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) , , and . According to both theories, gravitational waves are cyclical changes of the gravitational field intensities. The article proposes a method of testing a laser interferometer for gravitational wave measurement used in the LIGO Observatory. Criticism of results published by the LIGO team was also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: railway; fatigue; ultrasonic; nonlinear; wave mixing
Online: 29 July 2019 (06:10:25 CEST)
Nonlinear ultrasonic testing has been accepted as a promising manner for evaluating material integrity in an early stage. Stress fatigue is the main threats to train safety, railways examinations for stress fatigue are more significant and necessary. A series of ultrasonic nonlinear wave experiments are conducted for rail specimens extracted from railhead with different degree of fatigue produced by three-point bent loading condition. The nonlinear parameter is the indicator of nonlinear waves for expressing the degree the fatigue. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of a third harmonic longitudinal wave is higher than second harmonic longitudinal wave testing. As the same time, collinear wave mixing shows strong relative with fatigue damages than a second longitudinal wave NDT method and provides more reliable results than third harmonic longitudinal waves nonlinear testing method.
Online: 25 April 2019 (15:09:38 CEST)
The subject of the research is to Development of laser ablation method for Fabrication of surface acoustic wave sensors on quartz wafer, the target of the GQW – is to design Acoustic wave sensor by using laser ablation method. By using the surface acoustic wave theory to sense by the signal and using this physical phenomenon, We will design the sensor which transduce an input electrical signal into a mechanical wave which unlike an electrical signal, can be easily influenced by physical phenomena. The device then transducers this wave back into an electrical signal on the secondary terminal of the sensor. Changes in amplitude, phase, frequency, or time-delay between the input and output electrical signals can be used to measure the presence of the desired Our work in this part, especially the practical part like temperature, vibration ,etc. we design a combs on the waver of quartz to make like an electrode primary electrode & secondary electrode by putting coats of cuppers & vanadium on the waver and then using the fiber optic laser regime to design this combs to can able transfer the signal by ablation the most important here to use the regime of fiber optic laser then we using this sensor in any electronic circuit How we will select the suitable kind of laser to design, this is the most important part, and what it will be the diameter of that combs of secondary and primary , how much the value of the wave length to select the micro distant combs to avoid any inductance and interference for transferred signal , also take the benefit of using MEMS theory in our project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0072.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: wave packet; infinite components wavefunctions; Zitterbewegung
Online: 16 January 2017 (04:03:31 CET)
In the Majorana equation for particles with arbitrary spin, the wave packet is due not only to the uncertainty affecting position and momentum but also to the infinite components with decreasing mass forming the Majorana spinor. In this paper we prove that such components contribute to increase the spreading of the wave packet. Moreover, as occurs in the time propagation of the Dirac wave packet, also in that of Majorana the Zitterbewegung takes place, but it shows a peculiar fine structure. Finally, the group velocity always remains subluminal and the contributions due to the infinite components decrease progressively increasing the spin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0565.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Wave scatter table; operational measures; second generation intact stability criteria; hindcast wave scatter table; hindcast data
Online: 30 November 2022 (06:03:04 CET)
The operational measure (OM) of the Second-Generation Intact Stability Criteria (SGISC) is the initial step toward the design of a performance-based dynamic stability assessment of the ship by considering both the vessel’s operation, loading condition and weather parameters. The SGISC recommends the standard wave scatter table (WST) for the environmental data, an indefinite requirement for a simplified assessment pathway, which provides the probability of wave occurrence. The existing standard WST was developed based on the North Atlantic Ocean. This study aims to identify the discrepancy in the probability of wave occurrence in the IMO-recommended WST when compared with developed hindcast WST for smaller regions of the North Atlantic Ocean for the application of SGISC. The significant difference in the existing standard WST is identified when compared with hindcast data, especially across different seasons. A case study of OM on the C11 class post-Panamax container ship for excessive acceleration is provided to better represent the study. The identified limitation limits the use of standard WST in ship stability assessment. The study recommends using hindcast-based WST for SGISC applications that are region and season based. This recommendation is beneficial in improving the safety assessment by OM, given the data is reliable and available for the season and region-specific, and hence the accuracy of the ship stability can be improved while using for the SGISC OM assessment. Further, it makes the WST adhere to the actual framework of the SGISC, i.e., using existing environmental data for design assessment and improving the simplified stability analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0433.v2
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: pile-rock breakwater; wave transmission; wave reflection; energy dissipation; physical model; East Sea of Mekong Delta
Online: 8 November 2022 (06:44:38 CET)
The coastline in the Ca Mau and the Kien Giang provinces of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta has been severely eroded in recent decades. Pile-Rock Breakwaters (PRBW) are one of the most widely adopted structures for controlling shoreline erosion in this region. These structures are effective for wave energy dissipation, stimulating sediment accumulation, and facilitating the restoration of mangrove forests. These breakwaters are generally considered to be best-engineering practice however there is currently insufficient scientific evidence with regard to specific structural design aspects. This can lead to PRBW structures being compromised when deployed in the field. This study uses a physical model of a PRBW in a laboratory to investigate several design parameters, including crest width and working states (i.e. submerged, transition, and emerged), and investigates their relationship with the wave transmission coefficient, wave reflection coefficient, and wave energy dissipation. To investigate these relationships further, empirical formulas were derived for PRBWs under different sea states and crest widths to aid the design process. The results showed that PRBW width had a significant influence on the wave energy coefficients. The findings revealed that the crest width of the breakwater is inversely proportional to the wave transmission coefficient (Kt) under the emerged state. The crest width is also proportional to the wave reduction efficiency and wave energy dissipation in both working states (i.e., submerged and emerged states). The front wave disturbance coefficient (Kf) was found to be proportional to the wave reflection coefficient, and the wave height in front of the structure was found to increase by up to 1.4 times in the emerged state. The wave reflection coefficient requires special consideration to reduce the toe erosion in the structure. Lastly, empirical equations including linear and non-linear formulas were compared with previous studies for different classes of breakwaters. These empirical equations will be useful for understanding the wave transmission efficiency of PRBWs. The findings of this study provide important guidance for PRBW design in the coastal area of the Mekong Delta.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0015.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: electrodynamics; plane electromagnetic wave; spherical electromagnetic wave; group of transformations; Aharonov-Bohm effect; equation of motion; alternator; impulse current generator
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:27:24 CET)
Maxwell’s equations are valid only for a stationary observation point, therefore, to adequately describe real processes so far we have had to move to a moving reference frame. This paper presents the equations of electrodynamics for the moving observation point, it is shown that plane and spherical electromagnetic waves are their solutions, while the spherical wave propagates only outward, which cannot be said about Maxwell’s equations. The fields of uniformly moving charges are also solutions of the equations. Now there is no need to move to a moving reference frame, to use four-dimensional space and covariant form of equations. The question of finding a universal form of the equations that allows a solution in the form of the field of an arbitrarily moving charge remains open. This raises the question of the existence of a two-parameter group of transformations of electromagnetic fields along with the known one-parameter group has been posed. The phenomena derived from the equations, which make an additional contribution to the phase overrun in the Aharonov-Bohm effect are considered. The equation of motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field without simplifying approximations is considered, which allows us to take into account the radiation effects. It is shown that the fields in a moving observation point depend on its velocity and acceleration. In particular, although in a constant uniform electric field a force qE acts on a motionless charged particle, but on the same motionless but not fixed particle the force 4/3qE acts already, because it has a nonzero acceleration and the electric field at this point is larger. As the speed increases, the field decreases, and when it reaches the speed of light, when the particle stops accelerating, the force again becomes equal to qE The principle of operation of an unconventional alternator in a constant electric field and its corresponding engine, as well as new types of direct and impulse current generators, predicted by the equations, are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0192.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: galaxy center; supermassive black hole; black hole binary; VLBI; submillimeter radio wave; decameter radio wave; event horizon
Online: 13 May 2022 (11:01:08 CEST)
In 2011, by 1.3 mm wavelength VLBI radio wave observations of the SgrA*, Fish, V. L. et al showed that the emissions tightly related to the formation of a black hole shadow have a remarkably large time-varying feature within a region of less than 50 μas. The present paper suggests that the origin of the time variation in the observed emission is due to effects of the orbital motion of the existing super-massive black hole binary orbiting at SgrA* with a period of 2150±2.5 s. This suggestion is based on observations of decameter radio wave pulses from SgrA*. We show a good correlation between the time variation in the coherent flux density of the VLBI results and the time variation model of estimated emission intensities based on the periodic motion of the super-massive black hole binary by applying parameters deduced from the decameter radio wave pulse observation model (DRWP-Model). With further confirmation by Fourier analyses of the potential periodicity of the VLBI data that show the same periods of DRWP Model, we conclude that the time variation detected by the 1.3 mm wavelength radio wave VLBI is evidence of an existing super-massive black hole at Sgr A*.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0284.v2
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:57:00 CET)
Fusion device and its structure may be designed by various means. Two of most popular are; weight basis (described in previous study by author) and energy basis. In present research, later method is explored and described. Energy basis is based on amount of energy released from device upon detonation followed by explosion. Its beneficial in a sense that device size can be kept as independent variable as compared to dependent in former case. Further, it shortens the design procedure. For example, heat transfer pattern in such approach directly helps in quantifying wall thickness which dictates material, fabrication, and manufacturing route. It may also eliminate anisotropy as wall thickness is direct function of amount of heat at which it will rupture and can be much thinner. Device geometry can also be flexibility controlled as it is no longer dependent on pay load bay capacity. This allows more freedom in designing subsystems (compartments, their locations, focusing, switches, and mixers). Such devices can be more compact and simpler. Few such design configurations are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: DAS; geophones; wave propagation; strain measurement; DFOS
Online: 28 April 2022 (03:33:50 CEST)
Quantitative dynamic strain measurements of the ground would be useful for engineering scale problems such as monitoring for natural hazards, soil-structure interaction studies and non-invasive site investigation using full waveform inversion (FWI). Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS), a promising technology for these purposes, needs to be better understood in terms of its directional sensitivity, spatial position, and amplitude for application to engineering-scale problems. This study investigates whether the physical measurements made using DAS are consistent with the theoretical reception patterns and experimental measurements of ground strain made by geophones. Results show that DAS and geophone measurements are consistent in both phase and amplitude for broadband (10s of Hz), high amplitude (10s of microstrain) and complex wavefields originating from different positions around the array when: (1) the DAS channels and geophone locations are properly aligned, (2) the DAS cable provides good deformation coupling to the internal optical fiber, (3) the cable is coupled to the ground through direct burial and compaction, and (4) laser phase noise is mitigated in the DAS measurements. The theoretical relationship between DAS-measured and point-wise strain for vertical and horizontal active sources is introduced using 3D elastic finite-difference simulations. The implications of using DAS strain measurements are discussed including directionality and magnitude differences between the actual and DAS-measured strain fields. A method for spatially aligning the DAS channels with the geophone locations at tolerances less than the spatial resolution of the DAS system is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Wave; Energy; Dynamics; Modeling; Generator; Converter; linear
Online: 25 February 2022 (13:53:54 CET)
Recently, most countries suffering from global warming due to the waste gases coming out of the combustion engines used to generate electric power by traditional methods. Therefore, many countries are currently trying to find alternative solutions to this problem by using renewable energies such as solar energy, wind energy, and energy generated from the waves of the ocean and sea to overcome pollution problems. The waves of the seas and oceans have enormous and largely untapped energy, so this work presents an efficient way to use the energy of sea waves to generate electricity. And also, trying to be a way to produce electricity from wave energy in the future. The best suitable places along the shores of Jizan city were inspected to install the buoy system to revenue advantage of the wave supreme height to achieve the height amount of electrical energy. A mathematical model was made to analyze the wave energy and convert it into energy extracted by mechanical force. The mathematical analyzes used the data collected from satellite maps of the numerous severe waves in the Red sea of the Jazan area, and the data published in previous research along that area. It was found that the beach of the Al Shuqaiq area is the greatest for installing the buoy and obtaining the highest electrical energy due to the presence of the highest wave intensity, followed by the beach of the Baysh and Al Morgan area. Also, one of the objectives of this research is to study the design of a device powered by a buoy to use the waves of the Red Sea to generate electric power. The influence of the buoy system design parameters such as the buoy diameter, length of the cylinder, and the length of the connecting rod on the electrical energy generation from wave energy was investigated. The current device is designed with a gearbox to produce continuous power with a single electric generator. A floating mooring device uses the rise and fall of bulges to convert sea wave energy into electrical energy. The device consists of a float, arm, two wheels of different diameters, a gear set, and an electric generator. The effect of the design of several factors on the performance of the device for converting the sea waves energy into electrical energy, including the length of the buoy arm, the wave height by changing the cam diameter, and the conversion ratios between the gear set, to optimize the output power of the wave energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0072.v1
Online: 5 May 2020 (11:01:06 CEST)
This study on the production of a modern natural water electrochemical antimony (II) test include the use of platinum platinum electrode electrodes. Antimony (II) was pre-concentrated on the modified electrode surface and adsorbed to the surface, oxidizing at E = -680 mV. Compared to the platinum electrode, the platinum nanoelectrode exhibited superior performance and, unexpectedly, received a higher electrochemical response. After 25 min of accumulation, time the best-defined anodic peak was obtained with 0.2 mol L-1 KNO3 pH 5.0. Using these parameters, the L-1 Sb 2 + calibration plot was linear over range 1 = 10−8 to 5x10−6 mol. The precision was tested by carrying out eight replicate measurements at a concentration of 2.5x10−5 mol. L-1; the variance coefficient was 2.9%. The method was applied to analyte determination in water samples from the river. Other metal ion attack on Sb's (II) voltammetric response has been studied. In the SEM image, the nanoparticle electrode was clearly observed and characterized by X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0078.v1
Online: 9 January 2019 (07:18:03 CET)
This paper presents a hydrodynamic numerical model for a pitching wave energy converter (WEC). The model uses potential wave theory and is based on Cummins' equation, with nonlinear hydrostatic restoring stiffness and excitation forces based on instantaneous body position and water surface elevation. The numerical model can include non-linear forces, like quadratic drag, power-take-off and other forces that may account for unknown viscous effects observed in experiments. The paper discusses the applicability and limitations of the code and presents the cases where assumptions and simplifications can be made. The goal is to conclude on the simplest, yet accurate, version of the model by evaluating its accuracy using experimental data. The case study for validation is Floating Power Plant's (FPP's) WEC . In the full-scale commercial project, FPP's device consists of a semisubmersible platform hosting a wind turbine (5-8MW) and 4 WECs, each one connected to the platform by a rotation shaft. Due to the configuration of the platform, strong interactions occur between the WECs and the structure, as they are very closely spaced. In order to validate a numerical model able to simulate these hydrodynamic interactions, wave basin experiments with a similar but simplified setup were performed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0135.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: rogue; wave; models; KdV; NLSE; non-local; ocean; optics
Online: 9 June 2018 (15:28:58 CEST)
Anomalous waves and rogue events are closely associated with irregularities and unexpected events occurring at various levels of physics, such as in optics, in oceans and in the atmosphere. Mathematical modeling of rogue waves is a highly actual field of research, which has evolved over the last decades into a specialized part of mathematical physics. The applications of the mathematical models for rogue events is directly relevant to technology development for prediction of rogue ocean waves, and for signal processing in quantum units. In this survey, a comprehensive perspective of the most recent developments in methods for representing rogue waves is given, along with discussion of the devised and forms and solutions. The standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Hirota equation, the MMT equation and further to other models are discussed, and their properties highlighted. This survey shows that the most recent advancement in modeling rogue waves give models which can be used to establish methods for prediction of rogue waves at open seas, which is important for the safety and activity of marine vessels and installations. The study further puts emphasis on the difference between the methods, and how the resulting models form a basis for representing rogue waves in various forms, solitary or with a wave-background. This review has also a pedagogic component directed towards students and interested non-experts, and forms a complete survey of the most conventional and emerging methods published until recently
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0086.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: surface acoustic wave; acoustofluidics; microfluidics; interdigitated transducers
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:41:32 CET)
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) is effective for the manipulation of fluids and particles in microscale. The current approach of integrating interdigitated transducers (IDTs) for SAW generation into microfluidic channels involves complex and laborious microfabrication steps. These steps often require the full access to clean room facilities and hours to align the transducers to the precise location. This work presents an affordable and innovative method for fabricating SAW-based microfluidic devices without the need of clean room facilities and alignment. The IDTs and microfluidic channels are fabricated in the same process and thus precisely self-aligned in accordance with the device design. With the use of the developed fabrication approach, a few types of different SAW-based microfluidic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated for particle separation and active droplet generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v9
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: theory of everything; relativity; spacetime; cosmology; background radiation; Hubble’s law; Hubble constant; dark energy; wave–particle duality; quantum entanglement
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:44:41 CEST)
We introduce two symmetric concepts to physics: “distance” (space and time in one) and “wavematter” (electromagnetic wave packet and matter in one). We claim that physics has chosen the wrong concept of time: It is not aware that the time of a moving object flows in a direction other than my time. We provide 15 proofs for our claim by solving 15 mysteries of physics graphically! For example, we prove that length contraction and time dilation are actually geometrical effects in a 4D manifold that we call “Euclidean spacetime” (ES). We prove that the discrepancy in calculating the Hubble constant stems from a systematic error in the redshift measurement. We prove that what I deem wave, deems itself matter, which solves wave–particle duality. We even untangle quantum entanglement without the issue of non-locality. We finally understand why alternative theories of Euclidean relativity have failed: They are all based on four dimensions of space rather than distance. A huge amount of energy was injected into ES at a point that we take as origin. Ever since has this energy been moving radially away at the speed of light. We live in the 3D hypersurface of an expanding 4D hypersphere. Hyperspherical coordinates have the great advantage that they reduce all that is ever happening to just one formula. So, it is the Theory of Everything in these coordinates: “Energy is covering radial distance which, divided by Euclidean time, is equal to the speed of light.” Acceleration and force like gravitation emerge from a rotation of objects in ES and a subsequent projection to 3D space. Matching the symmetry simplifies physics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0311.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: meteor radar; quasi 16-day wave; mesospheric dynamics
Online: 19 December 2022 (02:51:19 CET)
In this study, we present more than 8 years of observations of the quasi-16-day wave (Q16DW) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) wind at middle latitudes observed by the Mengcheng (33.4°N, 116.5°E) meteor radar. The long-term variation in amplitudes calculated from the data between April 2014 and December 2022 shows enhanced wave activity during winter and early spring (near equinox) and suppressed wave activity during the summer. The Q16DWs are relatively weak in the meridional wind. During the winter months, the Q16DWs in the zonal component exhibit a burst below 85 km, and their amplitudes reach up to 10 m/s. In the early spring, the Q16DWs strengthen above 90 km with amplitudes in excess of 12 m/s. The phase differences between the zonal and meridional components of the Q16DW are, on average, slightly smaller than 90°, suggesting the existence of orthogonal relationships between them. During strong bursts, the periods of the Q16DW in winter range between 15 and 18 d, whereas in winter, the periods tend to be more diffuse. The wintertime Q16DW is amplified, on average, when the zonal wind shear peaks, suggesting that barotropic instability may be one source of Q16DW. Q16DW amplitudes exhibit considerable interannual variability; however, a relationship between the 11-year solar cycle and the Q16DW is not found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0159.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Marchenko equation; Green's function retrieval; elastodynamic wave propagation
Online: 11 July 2022 (11:19:01 CEST)
By solving a Marchenko equation, Green's functions at an arbitrary (inner) depth level inside an unknown elastic layered medium can be retrieved from single-sided reflection data, which are to be collected at the top of the medium. So far, an exact solution could only be obtained if the medium obeys stringent monotonicity conditions and if all forward-scattered (non-converted and converted) transmissions between the acquisition level and the inner depth level are known a-priori. We introduce an alternative Marchenko equation by revising the window operators that are applied in its derivation. We also introduce an auxiliary equation for transmission data, which are to be collected at the bottom of the medium, and a coupled equation, which is based on both reflection and transmission data. We show that the joint system of the Marchenko equation, the auxiliary equation and the coupled equation can be succesfully inverted when broadband reflection and transmission data are available. This results in a novel methodology for elastodynamic Green's function retrieval from two-sided data. Apart from these data, our approach requires P- and S-wave transmission times between the inner depth level and the top of the medium, as well as two angle-dependent amplitude scaling factors, which can be estimated from the data by enforcing energy conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0436.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: biomedical applications; millimeter wave; non-invasive devices; yeast
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:13:48 CEST)
Nonionizing millimeter-waves (MMW) are reported to inhibit cell division of lung cancer cells. In this article, we present a mechanism for the effect of inhibited cell division upon 85-105 GHz MMW irradiation. Strains of cell division model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured under physiological conditions were analyzed for the effects of MMW exposure. Irradiated cells showed a reduced growth rate than that of control (sham) cells. DNA damage repair mutant (rad52) strain cells were also subjected to MMW exposure to identify the involvement of genomic alteration(s) in this process. Irradiated wild type and rad52 mutant strains showed similar colony growth profiles indicating MMW treatment does not alter genomic DNA. Further, MMW interaction with cytological water was explored as a possible mechanism of action. Cells absorbed more power as compared to plain water. MMW irradiation highly absorbed by the cytological water content likely affects proteomic changes, accounting for the observed effects of inhibited cell division. Irradiations using a standard horn antenna were compared to that of a compact waveguide for increased power which led to complete termination of cell division. Our results provide indications of the development of non-invasive nonionizing irradiation procedures to treat tumor metastasis and control microbial infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: mTBI, MRI; MRE; FE model; brain wave dynamics
Online: 12 July 2020 (16:46:04 CEST)
We extend our high-resolution MRI-based Finite Element (FE) head model, previously presented and validated in [1–3], by considering the heterogeneities of the white matter structures captured through the use of Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE). This approach imparts more sophistication to our numerical model and yields results that more closely match experimental results. It is found that the peak pressure more closely matches the experiments as compared to the heterogeneous case. Qualitatively, we find differences in stress wave propagation near the corpus callosum and the corona radiata, which are stiffer on average than the global white matter. We are able to study the effects of these stiff structures on transient stress wave propagation within the cerebrum, something that cannot be done with a homogenized material model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: electrocardiography; P-wave; interatrial conduction block; atrial fibrillation
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:43:01 CEST)
Prediction and early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) remain a permanent challenge in everyday practice. Timely identification of an increased risk for AF episodes (which are frequently asymptomatic) is essential in the primary and secondary prevention of cardioembolic events. One of the noninvasive modalities of AF prediction is represented by the electrocardiographic P-wave analysis. This includes the study and diagnosis of interatrial conduction block (Bachmann`s bundle block). Bayés’ Syndrome (named after its first descriptor) denotes the association between interatrial conduction defect and supraventricular arrhythmias (mainly AF) predisposing to cardioembolic events. Our short review presents an update of the most important data concerning this syndrome: brief history, main ECG features, pathophysiological background and clinical implications.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: synthetic aperture radar (SAR); wave mode; ocean waves
Online: 15 May 2020 (18:22:41 CEST)
This dataset consists of integral sea state parameters of significant wave height (SWH) and mean wave period (zero-upcrossing mean wave period, MWP) data derived from the advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) onboard the ENVISAT satellite over its full life cycle (2002-2012) covering the global ocean. Both parameters are calibrated and validated against buoy data. A cross-validation between the ASAR SWH and radar altimeter (RA) data is also performed to ensure that the SAR-derived wave height data are of the same quality as the RA data. These data are stored in the standard NetCDF format, which are produced for each ASAR wave mode Level1B data provided by the European Space Agency. This is the first time that a full sea state product in terms of both the SWH and MWP has been derived from spaceborne SAR data over the global ocean for a decadal temporal scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Platinum Electrode; Nanoparticle; Heavy metal; Square Wave Voltammetry
Online: 5 May 2020 (10:45:05 CEST)
The copper deposition on the platinum and palladium nanoelectrode has been studied using cyclic voltammetry. The use of nanoelectrode platinum and palladium are defined in the study of heavy metals. The noble nanoelectrode of metal has a typical silicone processing structure. In comparison to the nanoelectrodes, the geometry of the electrode series is complex and balanced. Nanoelectrodes of platinum are found effective in detecting heavy metal. There was regular analysis of the use of the sensors. The identification constraints down to the ng /L level was accomplished by refined electrode geometry and the stripping procedures. The process was used for the study of water sample determination. Another heavy metal ion attack voltammetric reaction was studied. The SEM picture clearly observed and characterized the nanoparticle electrode by X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0135.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: neural field models; integrodifferential equations; wave; brain stimulation
Online: 8 March 2020 (06:55:15 CET)
Periodic travelling waves are observed in various brain activities including visual, motor, language, sleep, and so on. There are several neural field models describing periodic waves assuming nonlocal interaction and, possibly, inhibition, time delay, or some other properties. In this work we study the influence of asymmetric connectivity functions and of time delay on the emergence of periodic waves and on their properties. Nonlinear wave dynamics is studied, including modulated and aperiodic waves. Multiplicity of waves for the same values of parameters is observed. External stimulation in order to restore wave propagation in a damaged tissue is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0283.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: wave breaking; remote sensing; surf zone; machine learning
Online: 29 March 2019 (12:16:01 CET)
We apply deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to estimate wave breaking type from close-range monochrome infrared imagery of the surf zone. Image features are extracted using six popular CNN architectures developed for generic image feature extraction. Logistic regression on these features is then used to classify breaker type. The six CNN-based models are compared without and with augmentation, a process that creates larger training datasets using random image transformations. The simplest model performs optimally, achieving average classification accuracies of 89% and 93%, without and with image augmentation respectively. Without augmentation, average classification accuracies vary substantially with CNN model. With augmentation, sensitivity to model choice is minimized. A class activation analysis reveals the relative importance of image features to a given classification. During its passage, the front face and crest of a spilling breaker are more important than the back face. Whereas for a plunging breaker, the crest and back face of the wave are most important. This suggests that CNN-based models utilize the distinctive `streak' temperature patterns observed on the back face of plunging breakers for classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0546.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: wave energy, marine loads, RAO function, dynamic response
Online: 27 September 2018 (13:11:46 CEST)
This paper presents performed Ansys numerical simulation on WindFloat structures. It contributes to the methodology of calculation based on CFD instruments to study the movements of the waves on semi-submersible stationary structures and highlights the importance of using RAO functions. RAO numerical approach developed can be applied to design semisubmersible WindFloat structures in order to fulfill essential requirements regarding operational safety and design. Numerical methodology was designed in accordance marine loads and the I.T.T.C. recommendations. The numerical RAO results for regular wave movements include many elements for the semi-submergible structure. Close results to open sea operation can be achieved by constant improvement in numerical simulation methodologies. The work opens the way for further hydrodynamic development on irregular waves for realistic hydrodynamic and structural response of the actual semi-submersibles at sea. The results demonstrate the accuracy of RAO function approach for specific WindFloat in Jonswap spectrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: wave hindcast; breakwater; harbor; estuary; SWAN; MIKE21SW; assessment
Online: 27 July 2018 (03:47:59 CEST)
Breakwaters influence coastal wave climate and circulation by blocking and dissipating wave energy. Accurate representation of these effects is essential to the determination of coastal circulation and wave processes. MIKE21SW and SWAN are two third-generation spectral wave models which are used widely in coastal research and engineering applications. Recent improved versions of the models are able to consider the influence of breakwater structures. In this study, we used available observations to evaluate the accuracy of model simulations of waves in New Haven Harbor, Connecticut, USA, an estuary with three detached breakwaters near the mouth. We then compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of MIKE21SW and SWAN. Both models were executed on the same unstructured triangular grid. The boundary conditions were derived from a bottom mounted ADCP on the offshore side of the breakwaters. Wind forcing was applied using data from the Central Long Island Sound buoy. We find that both models are largely consistent with observations during storms. The MIKE21SW significant wave height and wave direction simulations were slightly superior; however, SWAN is more efficient and faster due to its implementation of a fully implicit technique for time integration.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: deep sleep; slow-wave activity; evolution; comparative; physiology; homeostasis
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:46:33 CEST)
A modern definition of “deep sleep” is elusive despite being ubiquitously appreciated as an important physiological state supporting health and homeostasis. In modern times, human deep sleep is identified by specific bioelectric signatures in the electroencephalogram (EEG) emerging somewhere between periods of wakefulness. However, deep sleep has been used to describe states of quiescence well before the first electrical brain recordings in the late 1800s, highlighting its own evolution in both lay and medical literature. Furthermore, EEG states are not only ill-defined in most mammals outside of humans and laboratory rodents, but non-existent in some invertebrates. Given that all organisms rest and do so with seemingly well-defined utility, it remains a challenge linguistically, scientifically, and comparatively define what “deep sleep” means—or what it should—in a research context. Here, I explore standard definitions of deep sleep from a modern, comparative perspective, and discuss potential problems of using a strict and narrow definition of such a fleeting concept that has historically undergone significant updates. Finally, I suggest a path towards resolving inconsistencies around the meaning of “deep sleep” and consider whether it is truly reflected by any one measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0066.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Quantum mechanics; particle wave duality; quantum jump; quantum entanglement
Online: 5 July 2022 (07:54:18 CEST)
The double nature, wave and corpuscular, of the material particles is usually considered incomprehensible as it cannot be represented visually. It is proposed to the student, in the introductory courses, as a fact justified by quantum interference experiments of which, however, no further analysis is possible. In this note we propose a description of the wave function in terms of a simple electrical analogy, which reproduces at least some of its essential properties. The aim we propose is to provide a cognitive representation of an analogical type: starting from a classical context (electrical circuits) and introducing in an appropriate way the notions of "wave" and "particle", we show how typically quantum properties such as delocalization and entanglement emerge in a natural, understandable and intuitive way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0290.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Gravitational waves; Interferometers; Data Analysis; Continuous gravitational wave signals
Online: 20 October 2021 (12:31:00 CEST)
This article discusses the potential advantages of a data processing technique for continuous gravitational wave signals searches in the data measured by ground-based gravitational wave interferometers. Its main advantage over other techniques is that it does not need to search over the signal’s direction of propagation. Although it is a “ coherent method” (i.e. it coherently processes year-long data), it is applied to a data set obtained by multiplying the original time-series with a (half-year) time-shifted copy of it. As a result, the phase modulation due to the interferometer motion around the Sun is automatically canceled in the signal of the synthesized time-series. Although the resulting signal-to-noise ratio is not as high as that of a coherent search, it equals that of current hierarchical methods. In addition, since the signal search is performed over a parameters space of smaller dimensionality, the associated false-alarm probability should be smaller than those characterizing hierarchical methods and result in an improved likelihood of detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0125.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: traffic flow; kinematic wave model; self-organized criticality; fractals; complexity; catastrophe theory; non-equilibrium critical phenomena
Online: 9 September 2021 (15:58:11 CEST)
This paper shows that the kinematic wave model exhibits self-organized criticality when initialized with random initial conditions around the critical density. A direct consequence is that conventional traffic management strategies seeking to maximize the flow may be detrimental as they make the system more unpredictable and more prone to collapse. Other implications for traffic flow in the capacity state are discussed, such as: \item jam sizes obey a power-law distribution with exponents 1/2, implying that both its mean and variance diverge to infinity, and therefore traditional statistical methods fail for prediction and control, \item the tendency to be at the critical state is an intrinsic property of traffic flow driven by our desire to travel at the maximum possible speed, \item traffic flow in the critical region is chaotic in that it is highly sensitive to initial conditions, \item aggregate measures of performance are proportional to the area under a Brownian excursion, and therefore are given by different scalings of the Airy distribution, \item traffic in the time-space diagram forms self-affine fractals where the basic unit is a triangle, in the shape of the fundamental diagram, containing 3 traffic states: voids, capacity and jams. This fractal nature of traffic flow calls for analysis methods currently not used in our field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0439.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Four-wave mixing; 2D materials; microring resonator; graphene oxide
Online: 19 May 2021 (10:21:01 CEST)
We theoretically investigate and optimize the performance of four-wave mixing (FWM) in microring resonators (MRRs) integrated with two-dimensional (2D) layered graphene oxide (GO) films. Owing to the interaction between the MRRs and the highly nonlinear GO films as well as to the resonant enhancement effect, the FWM efficiency in GO-coated MRRs can be significantly improved. Based on previous experiments, we perform detailed analysis for the influence of the GO film parameters and MRR coupling strength on the FWM conversion efficiency (CE) of the hybrid MRRs. By optimizing the device parameters to balance the trade-off between the Kerr nonlinearity and loss, we achieve a high CE enhancement of ~18.6 dB relative to the uncoated MRR, which is ~8.3 dB higher than previous experimental results. The influence of photo-thermal changes in the GO films as well as variations in the MRR parameters such as the ring radius and waveguide dispersion on the FWM performance is also discussed. These results highlight the significantly improved FWM performance that can be achieved in MRRs incorporating GO films
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0489.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Kaluza-Klein theory; Relativistic wave equation; Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect.
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:23:12 CET)
In this paper, we solve KG-oscillator in the ﬁve-dimensional cosmic string space-time background with a uniform magnetic ﬁeld and quantum ﬂux subject to a scalar potential of Cornell-type using KaluzaKlein theory, and observe the gravitational analogue of the AharonovBohm eﬀect. We show that the energy eigenvalue and eigenfunction depends on the global parameters of the space-time, and also a quantum eﬀect is seen due to the dependence of magnetic ﬁeld on the quantum numbers of the system
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Particle method; Smoothed particle hydrodynamics; Modeling; Simulations; Shock wave
Online: 12 January 2021 (15:55:50 CET)
The non-symmetrical collapse of an empty cylindrical cavity is modelled using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The presence of a nearby surface produces an anisotropic pressure field generating a high velocity jet that hits the surface. The collapse follows a different dynamic based to the initial distance between the centre of the cavity and the surface. When the distance is greater than the cavity radius (detached cavity) the surface is hit by travelling shock waves. When the distance is less than the cavity radius (attached cavity) the surface is directly hit by the jet and later by other shock waves generated in the last stages of the of the collapse. The results show that the surface is hit by a stronger shock when distance between the centre of the cavity and the surface is zero while showing more complex double peaks behaviour for other distances.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0723.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Offshore fixed floating structures; wave current coupling; numerical modelling
Online: 30 July 2020 (12:31:33 CEST)
The effects of the surface waves generated by the wind have a significant effect on the currents. A wave current coupled model plays an important role in the design of offshore structures. The interaction between fluids such as incompressible ocean waves and current and offshore structures is significant with many real-time applications in offshore engineering. These coupled models can be applied to Offshore Floating Production Operating and offloading (FPSO), Wind or current turbines and offshore pipelines. The complex issues related to the design are analyzed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics, which requires an investigation of the multiphase flow between wave and current and the structure which is considered restrictive due to the computational cost. If viscous effects are neglected then the single-phase flow models have been recommended, where wave-current interaction have been modelled successfully. Models have been developed where velocities and pressure are computed and the results can be verified with the experimental results available in the literature. In this study the existing numerical methods, mesh types are discussed along with their coupling methods. Here single-phase and multiphase models with small and medium movement are reviewed and their applications are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Bow structures; Breakwater design; CFD; Greenwater; Wave structure interaction
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:09:16 CEST)
Greenwater (splashing of water on the deck) loading is a classical problem faced by the designer of ship-shaped vessels, which becomes even worst when the vessel operates at harsh weather conditions for an extended period. Installation of breakwaters on the deck can play a crucial role in minimizing this impact. However, research on the design and optimization of the breakwater is still at its infancy, and this study aims at shedding further light on this area by proposing and analyzing the effectiveness of three breakwater designs on a fixed box-shaped vessel. Commercial CFD software is used for this investigation. However, the design model (without breakwater) was validated at first against experimental results of green water splashing, before performing the actual simulations with proposed breakwater design. A vertical plate is used as the deck structure, and greenwater pressure at several locations on that plate is measured to compare the effectiveness of various breakwater designs. Overall, breakwaters with openings (perforations, grillages etc.) found to be more effective in minimizing the pressure generated by the greenwater. Nevertheless, there are significant rooms for improvement on breakwater designs, and some topics for further research are also suggested in this regard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0366.v1
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:21:09 CEST)
Tissues of the brain, especially white matter, are extremely heterogeneous - with constitutive response varying spatially. In this paper, we implement a high-resolution Finite Element (FE) head model where heterogeneities of white matter structures are introduced through Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) experiments. Displacement of white matter under shear wave excitation is captured and the material properties determined though an inversion algorithm are directly used in the FE model. This approach is found to improve model predictions when compared to experimental results. In the first place, responses in the cerebrum near stiff structures such as the corpus callosum and corona radiata are markedly different compared with a homogenized material model. Additionally, the heterogeneities introduce additional attenuation of the shear wave due to wave scattering within the cerebrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: unmanned underwater vehicle; broadband radio communication; surface electromagnetic wave
Online: 31 March 2020 (23:08:38 CEST)
This paper presents several novel designs of underwater portable radio antennas operating in the 2 MHz, 50 MHz and 2.4 GHz bands and efficient for launching surface electromagnetic waves at the seawater/air interface. The antenna operation is enabled by an impedance matching antenna enclosure, which is filled with de-ionized water. Enhanced coupling to surface electromagnetic waves is based on the field enhancement at the antenna tip. These design features allow us to reduce antenna dimensions and improve the coupling of electromagnetic energy to the surrounding saltwater medium. Since surface wave propagation length far exceeds the skin depth of conventional radio waves at the same frequency, this technique is useful for broadband underwater wireless communication over distances, which far exceed the skin depth in seawater. We conclude that the developed broadband underwater radio communication technique will be useful in networking of unmanned underwater vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0347.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: nonlinear resonance; frequency detuning; 3-wave system; resonance enhancement
Online: 24 February 2020 (05:32:49 CET)
In this manuscript we report new effects of resonance detuning on various dynamical parameters of a generic 3-wave system. Namely, for suitably chosen values of detuning the variation range of amplitudes can be significantly wider than for exact resonance. Moreover, the range of energy variation is not symmetric with respect to the sign of the detuning. Finally, the period of the energy oscillation exhibits non-monotonic dependency on the magnitude of detuning. These results have important theoretical implications where nonlinear resonance analysis is involved, such as geophysics, plasma physics, fluid dynamics. Numerous practical applications are envisageable e.g. in energy harvesting systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microphone array; wave field synthesis; acoustic holography; sampler; synthesizer
Online: 7 January 2020 (10:27:54 CET)
To date electric pianos and samplers tend to concentrate on authenticity in terms of temporal and spectral aspects of sound. They barely recreate the original sound radiation characteristics, contribute to the perception of width and depth, vividness and voice separation, especially for instrumentalists, who are located in the near field. This paper describes an operational procedure to measure, store, and synthesize the complete sound of a harpsichord, including its spatial sound radiation characteristics. First, actuators excite the instrument at the intersection point of each string with the bridge with an exponential sine-sweep. Then, the radiated sound field is recorded in the near and the far field with microphone arrays. The pressure distribution in the near field is propagated back to the soundboard of the instrument, using Minimum Energy Method. The vibration of each single string is captured with lightweight contact microphones. The soundboard is then replaced by an array of 128 loudspeakers. The loudspeaker signal is a convolution of the back-propagated sweep recording with the string recording to perform a wave field synthesis. Above the spatial Nyquist frequency, the Radiation Method is applied to perform a sound field synthesis which is valid for the listening region of the instrumentalist. The result is an electric harpsichord, that approximates the sound of a real harpsichord precisely in time, frequency, and space domain. Applications for such a radiation keyboard are music performance, instrument and synthesizer building and interactive psychoacoustic research.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Quantum mechanics; Wave-particle duality; Quantum entanglement; Cosmic redshift
Online: 17 December 2019 (09:54:34 CET)
Classical mechanics describes the laws of motion in the macroscopic material world, while quantum mechanics describes the laws of motion in the microscopic material world that classical mechanics cannot explain, and achieves a highly accurate mathematical representation of the laws of microscopic physical motion. But even with such a successful theory, there is confusion about the probability wave. Therefore, this paper attempts to improve the physical definition of the conceptual basis of quantum mechanics, thus solving the confusion of quantum mechanical probability waves, and finally surprisingly discovered another feasible interpretation of the principle of cosmic redshift and the invariance of the speed of light.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum mechanics; wave-particle duality; quantum entanglement; cosmic redshift
Online: 21 June 2019 (08:53:40 CEST)
In the past 100 years, quantum theory has achieved remarkable achievements and formed a relatively mature system, but at the same time there are still some incomplete places. For example: What is the origin of quantum? What is the origin of quantum entanglement? What is the origin of quantum mechanical wave-particle duality? This is still a problem that the existing quantum theory has not solved. Therefore, this paper attempts to seek a classic interpretation of quantum mechanics to make up for the shortcomings of existing quantum theory. In the latest research, this paper finds a classic interpretation of blackbody radiation, which can explain the discontinuity of light energy from the perspective of classical mechanics. Based on this discovery, this paper successfully explains the origin of quantum, quantum entanglement and wave-particle duality, and eliminates the confusion of quantum mechanical probability waves.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stepped revetment; wave overtopping; surface roughness; physical model test
Online: 19 April 2019 (12:38:01 CEST)
Wave overtopping, i.e., excess of water over the crest of a coastal protection infrastructure due to wave run-up, of a smooth slope can be reduced by introducing slope roughness. A stepped revetment ideally constitutes a slope with uniform roughness. Apart from reducing overtopping, a stepped revetment provides safer access to a beach compared to conventional rubble. In recent years, research studies on stepped revetments have provided valuable findings regarding the performance and design optimization of stepped revetments as a typical mean of coastal protection. A stepped revetment can reduce overtopping volumes of breaking waves up to compared to a smooth slope. The effectiveness of the overtopping reduction decreases with increasing Iribarren number. However, up to date a unique approach applicable for a wide range of boundary conditions is still missing. The present paper critically reviews previous findings, gathers and analyzes data from previous studies and proposes a new formula for robust prediction of overtopping of stepped revetments. By means of this approach a critical assessment based on beforehand disclosed parameter ranges between a smooth slope on the one hand and a plain vertical wall on the other are contrasted. By analysis of a new data set compounded from different original studies a novel empirical formulation is derived to predict the roughness reduction coefficient of a stepped revetment for breaking and non-breaking waves. This coefficient is developed and adjusted for a direct incorporation into the present design guidelines. Underlying uncertainties are clearly addressed and quantified. Scale effects are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0626.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: unsteady flow; dynamic wave; finite differences method; Muskingum-Cunge
Online: 31 July 2018 (14:27:25 CEST)
Comparison between hydraulic and hydrologic computational methods is conducted in this study, regarding prismatic open channels under unsteady subcritical flow conditions. One-dimensional unsteady flow continuity and momentum equations are solved using explicit and implicit finite difference schemes for a symmetrical trapezoidal cross section, where the flow discharge and depth are the dependent variables. The results have been compared to those derived from Muskingum-Cunge hydraulic/hydrologic method as well as the commercial software HEC-RAS. The results from explicit and implicit code compare well to those from commercial software and hydraulic/hydrologic methods for long prismatic channels, thus directing the hydraulic engineer to quick preliminary design of prismatic open channels for unsteady flow with satisfactory accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0774.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: machine learning; wave energy; power take-off; artificial neural network; wave tank test; physical scale model; floating point absorber; damping; control; collaborative
Online: 2 November 2018 (12:35:44 CET)
This paper introduces a model-free, "on-the-fly" learning control strategy for arrays of energy converters with adjustable generator damping. The devices are arranged so that they are affected simultaneously by the energy medium. Each device uses a different control strategy, of which at least one has to be the machine learning approach presented in this paper. During operation all energy converters record the absorbed power and control output; the machine learning device gets the data from the converter with the highest power absorption and so learns the best performing control strategy for each state. Consequently, the overall network has a better overall performance than each individual strategy. This concept is evaluated for wave energy converter (WEC) with numerical simulations and experiments with physical scale models in a wave tank. In the first of two numerical simulations, the learnable WEC works in an array with four WECs applying a constant damping factor. In the second simulation, two learnable WECs were learning with each other. It showed that in the first test the WEC was able to absorb as much as the best constant damping WEC, while in the second run it could absorb even slightly more. During the physical model test, the ANN showed its ability to select the better of two possible damping coefficients based on real world input data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0072.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General Mathematics Keywords: multi-dimensional diffusion-wave equation; neutral-fractional diffusion-wave equation; fundamental solution; Mellin-Barnes integral; integral representation; Wright function; generalized Wright function
Online: 12 November 2017 (08:30:34 CET)
In this paper, some new properties of the fundamental solution to the multi-dimensional space- and time-fractional diffusion-wave equation are deduced. We start with the Mellin-Barnes representation of the fundamental solution that was derived in the previous publications of the author. The Mellin-Barnes integral is used to get two new representations of the fundamental solution in form of the Mellin convolution of the special functions of the Wright type. Moreover, some new closed form formulas for particular cases of the fundamental solution are derived. In particular, we solve an open problem of representation of the fundamental solution to the two-dimensional neutral-fractional diffusion-wave equation in terms of the known special functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0072.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Integer quantum Hall effect; Fractional quantum Hall effect; stationary wave; nodes in stationary wave; quantization of electric charge; the plateau of quantized resistivity
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:49:01 CET)
In this paper, using the two integers that describe the stationary 2-dimensional wave and the charge quantization along with the balance between the Lorentz force and electrical force, we succeed in deriving the fractional quantum Hall effect and the integer quantum Hall effect; we find that the latter exists as a special case of the former. Moreover, using the derived expression describing the fractional quantum Hall effect, a relationship between the plateau in the resistivity of the sample and the applied magnetic field is obtained. The findings of this model agree well with experimental measurements. Because the two integers that describe the stationary 2-dimensional wave and the charge quantization along with the force balance have concrete physical meanings in this work, we could provide a clear picture of the origin of both the integer quantum Hall effect and the fractional quantum Hall effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0248.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: action potential; soliton/wave; lipid phase transition; scientific method; membrane
Online: 15 August 2022 (04:27:26 CEST)
This article is a followup to an earlier review which outlined some of the interesting features of the soliton/wave-action potential (AP) model, and noted the need to test its key aspects; including the need to test if its presumed lipid phase transition is actually happening during AP firings in excitable cells. The intent here is to point out the sort of tests, and evidence from them, that might be needed if the soliton/wave-AP model is to be accepted broadly by biologists. Here, after an overview of the modern electrophysiological-AP model and of the soliton/wave-AP model, there are three areas considered. First, possible compositional influences on membrane properties relative to the soliton/wave-AP model are presented. Including questions with regard to the soliton/wave-AP model’s assumption that changes in surface potentials influence the transmembrane potential. Second, some recent work from the good folks who advocate for the soliton/wave-AP model concerning the occurrence of lipid phase transitions in neurons or in extracts from nervous tissues are examined. Here it is noted that there is a need to consider whether these lipid phase transitions happen within normal physiological conditions or not. Third, and finally, the advocates for the soliton/wave-AP model have adopted a thermodynamic/theory-based philosophical approach in their studies. It is argued that this philosophical approach is a radical departure from the philosophical approach used under the scientific method. The features of this new approach, and implications its use, are examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0260.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Heat Wave; Heat-related illness; Early heat-health warning systems
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:14:10 CEST)
Exposure to extreme heat is a known risk factor that is associated with increased heat-related illness (HRI) outcomes. The relevance of heat wave definitions could change across the health conditions and geographies due to the heterogenous climate profile. This study compared the sensitivity of 28 heat wave definitions associated with HRI emergency department visits over five summer seasons (2011-2016), stratified by two physiographic regions (Coastal and Piedmont) in North Carolina. The HRI rate ratios associated with heat waves were estimated using the generalized linear regression framework assuming a negative binomial distribution. We compared the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values across the heat wave definitions to identify an optimal heat wave definition. In the Coastal region, heat wave definition based on daily maximum temperature with a threshold >90th percentile for two or more consecutive days had the optimal model fit. In the Piedmont region, heat wave definition based on the daily minimum temperature with a threshold value >90th percentile for two or more consecutive days was optimal. Additionally, we observed that the optimal heat wave definitions from this study captured moderate and frequent heat episodes than the national weather service (NWS) heat products that worked best for extreme heat episodes. This study compared the HRI morbidity risk associated with epidemiologic-based heat wave definitions and with NWS heat products. Our findings could be used for public health education and suggest recalibrating NWS heat products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0692.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Lyme disease; Quebec; Spatiotemporal patterns; front wave velocity; clusters; emergence
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:38:26 CEST)
Lyme disease is a growing public health problem in Québec. Its emergence over the last decade is caused by environmental and anthropological factors that favour the survival of Ixodes scapularis, the vector of Lyme disease transmission. The objective of this study was to estimate the speed and direction of Lyme disease emergence in Québec and to identify spatiotemporal risk patterns. A surface trend analysis was conducted to estimate the speed and direction of its emergence based upon the first detected case of Lyme disease in each municipality in Québec since 2004. A cluster analysis was also conducted to identify at-risk regions across space and time. These analyses were reproduced for the date of disease onset and date of notification for each case of Lyme disease. It was estimated that Lyme disease is spreading northward in Québec at a speed varying between 18 and 32 km/year according to the date of notification and the date of disease onset, respectively. A high rate of disease risk was found in seven clusters identified in the south-west of Québec in the sociosanitary regions of Montérégie and Estrie. The results obtained in this study improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of Lyme disease in Québec, which can be used for proactive, targeted interventions by public and clinical health authorities.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Slope stability; Immersed tunnel; Solitary wave; foundation trench; numerical modeling
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:57:31 CET)
Wave is a common environmental load that often causes serious damages to offshore structures. In addition, the stability for the submarine artificial slope is also affected by the wave loading. Although the landslide of submarine slopes induced by the waves has received wide attention, the research on the influence of solitary-wave is rare. In this study, a 2-D integrated numerical model is developed to investigate the stability of the foundation trench under the solitary wave loading. The Reynolds-Averaged-Stokes (RANS) equations are used to simulate the propagation of a solitary wave, while the current is realized by setting boundary inlet/outlet velocity. The pore pressure induced by the solitary wave is calculated by Darcy’s law and the seabed is characterized by Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model. Firstly, the wave model is validated through the comparison between analytical solution and experimental data. The initial consolidation state of slope under hydrostatic pressure is achieved as the initial state. Then, the factor of stability (FOS) for the slope corresponding to different distance between wave crest and slope top is calculated with the strength reduction method. The minimum of FOS is defined as the stability index for the slope with specific slope ratio during the process of dynamic wave loading. The parametric study is conducted to examine the effects of soil strength parameters, slope ratio and current direction. At last, the influence of upper slope ratio in a two-stage slope is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0511.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Kaluza-Klein theory; Relativistic wave equation; AharonovBohm eﬀect; special functions.
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:07:52 CET)
The non-inertial eﬀects on spin-0 scalar particle that interacts with scalar potentials of Cornell-type in cylindrical system and Coulomb-type in the magnetic cosmic string space-time using Kaluza-Klein theory is analyzed. We show that the energy eigenvalue and eigenfunction depend on the global parameters characterizing the space-time, and the gravitational analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect for bound states is observed.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy; ESWT, laser therapy; musculoskeletal system, rehabilitation
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:39:40 CET)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a well investigated and widely used treatment modality for a number of musculoskeletal disorders. A limitation of ESWT is its potential painfulness at higher, clinically relevant energy flux density (EFD), which may limit its applicability and, thus, effectiveness. Various studies in the literature demonstrated that neither application of a higher number of extracorporeal shock waves with lower EFD nor use of local anesthesia may solve this problem. Based on the results of several other studies in the literature it is hypothesized here that in patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders that can be treated with ESWT, pretreatment with a pulsed, high power laser with a wavelength of 904 or 905 nanometers (hereafter: "laser pretreatment") does not only allow to apply higher EFDs in subsequent ESWT but actually results in faster and/or better treatment outcome than ESWT without laser pretreatment. Accordingly, it is hypothesized here that combining ESWT with laser pretreatment leads to synergistic effects and, thus, is superior to either treatment modality alone. Confirming this hypothesis in preclinical and clinical research may raise significance and increase the use of ESWT in physical and rehabilitation medicine, with immediate benefit for patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0669.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: antenna; digital beamforming; reflection; frequency modulated continuous wave; target echo
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:20:08 CET)
In this paper, a high-performance antenna array system model is presented to analyze moving-object-skin-returns and track them in the presence of stationary objects using frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW). The main features of the paper are bonding the aspects of antenna array and electromagnetic (EM) wave multi-skin-return modeling and simulation (M&S) with the aspects of algorithm and measurement/tracking system architecture. The M&S aspect models both phase and amplitude of the signal waveform from a transmitter to the signal processing in a receiver. In the algorithm aspect, a novel scheme for FMCW signal processing is introduced by combining time- and frequency-domain methods, including a vector moving target indication filter and a vector direct current canceller in time-domain, and a constant false alarm rate detector and a mono-pulse digital beamforming angle tracker in frequency-domain. In addition, unlike previous designs of using M×N fast Fourier transform (FFT) for an M×N array, only four FFTs are used, which tremendously saves time and space in hardware. With the presented model, the detection of the moving-target-skin-return in stationary objects under a noisy environment is feasible. Therefore, to track long range and high-speed objects, the proposed technique is promising. Using a scenario having 1) a target with 17 dBm2 radar cross section (RCS) at about 40 km range with 5.93 Mach speed and 11.6 dB post processing signal to noise ratio, and 2) a strong stationary clutter with 37 dBm2 RCS located at the proximity of the target, it demonstrates that the root-mean-square errors of range, angle and Doppler measurements are about 26 meters, 0.68 degree and 1100 Hz, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: helmet; blast overpressure; shock wave; peak overpressure; impulse; shock tube
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:21:02 CEST)
This study demonstrates the orientation and the ‘shape factor’ have pronounced effects on the development of the localized pressure fields inside of the helmet. We used anatomically accurate headform to evaluate four modern combat helmets under blast loading conditions in the shock tube. The Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) is used to capture the effect of the orientation on pressure under the helmet. The three modern combat helmets: ECH, Ops-Core, and Airframe, were tested in frontal orientation to determine the effect of helmet geometry. Using the unhelmeted headform data as a reference, we characterized pressure distribution inside each helmet and identified pressure focal points. The nature of these localized “hot spots” is different than the elevated pressure in the parietal region of the headform under the helmet widely recognized as the under-wash effect also observed in our tests. It is the first experimental study which indicates that the helmet presence increased the pressure experienced by the eyes (as evidenced by the pressure sensors in the H8 and H9 locations), and the forehead (denoted as H1 location). Pressure fingerprinting using an array of sensors combined with the application of principle component analysis (PCA) helped elucidate the subtle differences between helmets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: wave overtopping; coastal safety; flow velocity; flow depth; sea dikes
Online: 9 July 2020 (02:01:46 CEST)
Design criteria for coastal defenses exposed to wave overtopping are usually assessed by mean overtopping discharges and maximum individual overtopping volumes. However, it is often difficult to give clear and precise limits of tolerable overtopping for all kind of layouts. A few studies analyzed the relationship between wave overtopping flows and hazard levels for people on sea dikes, confirming that one single value of admissible mean discharge or individual overtopping volume is not a sufficient indicator of the hazard, but detailed characterization of flow velocities and depths is required. This work presents the results of an experimental campaign aiming at characterizing the flow characteristics associated to maximum individual overtopping volumes for an urbanized stretch of a town along the Catalan coast, where a walking and bike path and a railway run along the coastline are exposed to significant overtopping events every stormy season. The work compares different safety criteria for pedestrian. Results prove that safety of pedestrian on a sea dike can be still guaranteed even for overtopping volumes larger than 1000 l/m. Pedestrian hazard is rather proved to be linked to the combination of overtopping flow velocity and flow depth.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: nonlinear optics; 2D films; graphene oxide; four wave mixing; nanowires
Online: 7 June 2020 (11:07:59 CEST)
Layered 2D graphene oxide (GO) films are integrated with silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides to experimentally demonstrate an enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via four-wave mixing (FWM). Owing to the strong light–matter interaction between the SiN waveguides and the highly nonlinear GO films, the FWM performance of the hybrid waveguides is significantly improved. SiN waveguides with both uniformly coated and patterned GO films are fabricated based on a transfer-free, layer-by-layer GO coating method together with standard photolithography and lift-off processes, yielding precise control of the film thickness, placement and coating length. Detailed FWM measurements are carried out for the fabricated devices with different numbers of GO layers and at different pump powers. By optimizing the trade-off between the nonlinearity and loss, we obtain a significant improvement in the FWM conversion efficiency of ≈7.3 dB for a uniformly coated device with 1 layer of GO and ≈9.1 dB for a patterned device with 5 layers of GO. We also obtain a significant increase in FWM bandwidth for the patterned devices. A detailed analysis of the influence of pattern length and position on the FWM performance is performed. Based on the FWM measurements, the dependence of GO’s third-order nonlinearity on layer number and pump power is also extracted, revealing interesting physical insights about the 2D layered GO films. Finally, we obtain an enhancement in the effective nonlinear parameter of the hybrid waveguides by over a factor of 100. These results verify the enhanced nonlinear optical performance of SiN waveguides achievable by incorporating 2D layered GO films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0154.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: TSP; TSPTW; metaheuristics; quantum annealing; Ishing model; QUBO; D-Wave
Online: 15 September 2019 (16:14:15 CEST)
This work focuses on expressing the TSP with Time Windows (TSPTW for short) as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problem. The time windows impose time constraints that a feasible solution must satisfy. These take the form of inequality constraints, which are known to be particularly difficult to articulate within the QUBO framework. This is, we believe, the first time this major obstacle is overcome and the TSPTW is cast in the QUBO formulation. We have every reason to anticipate that this development will lead to the actual execution of small scale TSPTW instances on the D-Wave platform.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: pulse wave analysis; mental stress; harmonic analysis; Eastern pulse reading
Online: 10 September 2019 (05:19:15 CEST)
Background: This research presents the use of photoplethsmography combined with Traditional Tibetan Pulse reading for the estimation of the three energies of a person: Activity, Transformation and Stability. The growing interest to revive traditional finger pulse reading attests of the need to find alternative ways to approach complex multi-source diseases as well as individualised diagnostic wearable or portable cost effective systems. Method: Our work is presented in two studies. The first study presents the development of the technique of photoplethsmography to classify the three energies. The second study presents a validation of this methodology on mental stress and relaxation. Results: Energies classification achieved a sensitivity above 85% and specificity above 72%. Mental stress and relaxation could be significantly discriminated from baseline condition. Harmonic analysis gave further insights into the dynamic of the pulse wave under stress/relaxation. Conclusion: The photoplethsmogram contains information pertaining to the mental and physiological state of a person as interpreted with the Eastern energies concepts. The implication of this work points towards a holistic understanding and impact of human activities, health and its environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: marine growth; biofouling; wave loading; stochastic modeling; reliability; jacket structures
Online: 16 April 2019 (10:49:17 CEST)
The present paper deals with the stochastic modeling of bio-colonization for the computation of stochastic hydrodynamic loading on jacket-type offshore structures. It relies on a multidisciplinary study gathering biological and physical research fields that accounts of uncertainties at all the levels. Indeed, bio-colonization of offshore structures is a complex phenomenon with two major but distinct domains (i) marine biology whose processes are modeled with biomathematics methods and (ii) hydrodynamic processes. This paper aims to connect these two domains. It proposes a stochastic model for the marine organism’s growth and then continues with transfers for assessment of drag coefficient and forces probability density functions that accounts for marine growth evolution. A case study relies on the characteristics (growth and shape) of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) in northeastern Atlantic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0048.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Evanescent waves; quantum tunneling; relativistic wave packet; neutrino; mass oscillation
Online: 4 April 2019 (11:36:01 CEST)
An evanescent wave is a non-propagating wave with an imaginary wave vector. In this study, we prove that these are solutions of the tachyon-like Klein–Gordon equation, and that in the tunneling of ultrarelativistic spin-1/2 particles they describe superluminal states arising from interactions between a particle and barrier. These states decay as a particle emerges from the opposite side of a potential barrier, conserving the same initial energy but not necessarily the same mass. The obtained theory is applied to the neutrino, to explain flavor oscillations during free flight and determine the conditions that maximize the probability of their occurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0253.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: carrier dynamics; InGaN; four-wave maxing; solar cell; transient grating
Online: 27 March 2019 (09:10:51 CET)
InGaN/GaN samples grown on c-plane sapphire substrate with different In concentrations by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are demonstrated. The subsequent capping GaN layer growth opens a possibility for dislocation reduction due to the lateral strain relaxation in growth geometry. We present the further growth optimization and innovative characterization of InGaN layers overgrown on different structures with varying In concentrations. The photoelectrical and optical properties of the InGaN layers with or without capping GaN layer were investigated by time-resolved picosecond transient grating and temperature dependence photoluminescence. We note a 10-fold increase in carrier lifetime in the InGaN layers when the sample structure changes from PIN to single InGaN layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0292.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: time energy uncertainty principle, vacuum fluctuations, wave function, non commutator
Online: 29 January 2019 (09:42:33 CET)
Phenomenon of vacuum fluctuations of virtual particles in high energy physics has been mathematically modeled by a third order differential equation. Aim of present theory is to unravel underlying mathematical equation capable of explaining microscopic phenomenon of vacuum fluctuations. Solution of such a differential equation after applying appropriate boundary conditions gives an acceptable wave function i.e. . Operation of energy and time operator on this wave function proves that these operators do not hold commutative property. Time energy uncertainty principle has been derived by calculating variance of energy and time for the same wave function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0113.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Surface plasmon, Airy beam, photonic hook, curved wave, ﬂatland photonics
Online: 6 September 2018 (11:05:48 CEST)
It is well-known that surface plasmon wave propagates along a straight line, but this common sense was broken by the artificial curved light – plasmon Airy beam. In this paper, we introduce a new class of curved surface plasmon wave - the photonic hook plasmon. It propagates along wavelength scaled curved trajectory with radius less than surface plasmon polariton wavelength, and can exist despite the strong energy dissipation at the metal surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: nonlinear wave-like equations; Elzaki transform; projected differential transform method
Online: 5 August 2018 (10:04:54 CEST)
In this work, a mixture of Elzaki transform and projected differential transform method is applied to solve a nonlinear wave-like equations with variable coefficients. Nonlinear terms can be easily manipulated by using the projected differential transformation method. The method gives the results show that the proposed method is very efficient, simple and can be applied to other applications.