ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Safety Performance; Safety Culture; Resilience Culture; Paramedic; Training Institute; IPMA; PLS-SEM.
Online: 20 August 2021 (13:44:19 CEST)
An increasing number of studies have shown that safety culture factors have a substantial influence on safety performance in a variety of industrial sectors. These factors' impact on safety performance is unclear, especially at the public service and statutory authorities. On the other hand, the understanding of indicators for safety performance in every working sector in Malaysia is on the continuing progress. Hence, this study's contribution is to explore the influence of safety culture factors (i.e., management commitment and supervision in safety, safety system) and safety competence on safety performance in government paramedic training institutes. IPMA (importance-performance map analysis) is a technique used in Smart PLS to determine the significance and performance of each of these factors. The study was conducted via an online survey and involved 258 safety and health committee members in Ministry of Health paramedic training institute. As a matter of relevance, the IPMA's empirical data study revealed that management commitment and supervision in safety were the predominant factors in determining safety performance. Meanwhile, for performance, the findings showed that worker involvement, safety system, and safety competence perform well in determining the safety performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1407.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Safety; Collision; Fender; Finite Element Methods; Structural Analysis
Online: 23 October 2023 (08:07:50 CEST)
The design of water Vessel fender system can minimize impact energy, which could result in severe vessel or offshore structure damage during collision. In order to protect Offshore structures and vessels from damage after impact, a Fender design approach is proposed which uses Soft materials like rubber, sand, inflated rubber tube, etc. to reduce damage on impacted vessels as well as offshore structures like wind turbines, bridges, oil drilling platforms in water etc. The fender is designed in such a way that it can handle vessels made of different material, sizes, and weights.The proposed solution is a fender consisting of a number of layers of soft sandwich materials, each layer getting softer as it moves away from the structure i.e. Hard-Soft fender design which can absorb impact energy upon collision. To handle lighter vessels made of soft or brittle materials, the outer layer is made of inflatable or Very soft foam rubber; however, the inner layer covering the offshore structure is made of hard material to handle heavy vessels made of hard material such as steel. Furthermore, the use of sand as a natural fender along waterways such as narrow channels is also proposed to reduce the cost of fender installation and catastrophic vessel impact damage on rocky ground since it produces less deformation just like rubber fender as demonstrated in the simulation. Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS software, Explicit Dynamic Autodyn, was performed. The results showed a considerable decrease in the total deformation and internal energy of the vessel and fended structure when collision occurs. Furthermore, the result showed that Hard-Soft fender layer performs much better than Soft-Hard-Soft followed by Soft-Hard Fender layer design.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Reliability; Earthquake damageability; Structural evaluation; Safety; Financial risk; MC simulation
Online: 14 May 2021 (13:46:04 CEST)
Abstract: Seismic performance and loss assessments can have widely varying degrees of uncertainty. An essential issue is whether a particular assessed seismic loss or performance result has sufficient reliability to serve as the basis for risk management decisions and actions, including whether or not a code prescribed performance level is met, or if an assessed loss level is acceptable. A method is developed measuring the reliability of performance and loss assessments for individual buildings and for portfolios. Consideration is given to how well the building investigation and corresponding evaluation process have been performed, the qualifications of the person(s) doing the assessment, the thoroughness of the evaluation, and the technical validity of the assessment procedure or model. The approach characterizes the uncertainty of each component of the assessment procedure for each building in qualitative terms. The resulting reliability measure is likely to be most useful for the cases where an entity is determining whether/or not a building has acceptable life safety performance, or if a portfolio has an acceptably low risk of seismic damage loss over a given period of time. In both cases, the reliability must either be sufficient to warrant action, or serve to indicate need for improved assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0018.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: hospital; quality; patient safety; perceptions of care; financial performance
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:35:28 CEST)
Hospitals are perpetually challenged by the dual requirements of concurrently improving the quality of healthcare and maintaining financial solvency. Both issues are among the top concerns for hospital executives across the United States, yet some have questioned if the efforts to enhance quality are financially sustainable. led us to examine if improving quality in the hospital setting impacts revenue. Using multivariate regression, we assessed if numerous quality measures were associated with our targeted measure of hospital profitability: the net patient revenue per adjusted discharge. The independent variables included the HCAHPS Summary Star Rating, Hospital Compare Overall Rating, All-Cause hospital-wide Readmission Rate, Total Performance Score, Clinical Outcomes Domain Score, Safety Domain Score, Person and Community Engagement Domain Score, and the Efficiency and Cost Reduction Score. Our results indicated that improving quality was significantly associated with improved net patient revenue per adjusted discharge for seven of the eight of these quality measures at the hospital level. It is clear that failing to address quality and patient safety issues is costly for US hospitals, thus we believe our findings support the premise that increased attention to the quality of care delivered as well as patients’ perceptions of care may allow hospitals to accentuate profitability and advance a hospital’s financial position.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: human reliability analysis; safety; FRAM; resilience engineering; performance variability; emergency
Online: 9 January 2020 (13:22:43 CET)
Technological innovation has led to the development of increasingly efficient and complex industrial plants. To manage this complexity, it is necessary to define an integrated vision of the socio-technological system that includes: technological, human and organizational component. Petrochemicals can be considered one of the most complex socio-technical systems that deserve special attention to high risk management, especially during the emergency conditions. Traditional safety management models only consider static systems, while new resilience engineering models evaluate the performance variability developed between different actions. One of the recent development methods is the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) that identifies the pairs between the functions. FRAM unfortunately is a qualitative model, this research integrates this model with the Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) and with the Bayesian approach to identify the performance variability of the system. The analysis aims to develop a system that improves safety analysis. The proposed model is applied in a case study of an emergency in a petrochemical company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Blood sugar level; Diabetes; Safety; Scuba diving
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:18:44 CEST)
Background: In past years recreational diving has attracted more and more interest and among such divers an increasing number of diabetic divers. However, there is limited research on the accuracy of CGM systems under hyperbaric conditions and consistently diving guidelines make little reference to the use of CGM. Subject and Method: This exploratory study collected blood glucose samples of one diabetic diver over four dives and assessed the deviation of intersitial glucose values from two CGM systems based on 33 samples. A notable step of this method is to collect the data from actual dives under water. Results: The results indicate that a) under hyperbaric conditions of up to 2bar additional pressure and b) after decompression both CGM systems work comparably accurate as indictated by the manufacturer under normal conditions. This has been checked in terms of MARD and Clarke Error Grid Distirbution. Conculsion: For diabetic divers the results suggest they may take CGM monitors with them on dives to react to potential hypoglycemic events before they occur, i.e. when it is still safe to supplement glucose. For dive guidelines the results imply that these could reference CGM for dive planning and monitoring during the dive to increase divers‘ safety. For research this exploratory confirms the current hypothesis that neither increased pressure nor saltwater have an effect on blood glucose and the functioning of CGM systems. Further research may include additional sampling (number and depth) and more elaborate blood glucose measurement. The experimental setup applied is an efficient way to test further CGM systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0787.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: FEM reliability; UHPC pile; composite foundation; safety assessment; uncertainty
Online: 12 October 2023 (09:13:55 CEST)
In this paper, aiming at the safety evaluation of ultimate bearing safety capacity of ultra-high-performance-concrete (UHPC) composite pile bridge foundation, the symmetrical reliability method with forward and inverse analysis considering the randomness of parameters is proposed to evaluate the safety performance of composite pile foundation. The proposed method, consid-ering the randomness of parameters, was used to calculate the safety factor of ultimate bearing capacity of composite pile foundation to meet the prescribed target reliability requirements. An example was used to verify the correctness of the proposed method. The proposed method was applied to an actual engineering example and the sensitivity of the parameters were analyzed, the calculation results show that: ignoring the randomness of the parameters will overestimate the safety of the composite pile foundation; the target reliability index has a great influence on the safety of composite pile foundation; the influence of statistical parameters of random variables on the safety of UHPC composite pile foundation cannot be neglected; the initial iteration value of the safety factor has no effect on the final calculation result. The proposed method has high ac-curacy and applicability, and provides an effective way for the safety factor estimation of ultimate carrying capacity of UHPC composite pile foundation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0694.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: prestressed steel-concrete; girder bridges; fire resistance performance; reliability index; safety factor
Online: 11 October 2023 (09:25:35 CEST)
This paper uses probability method to evaluate the fire safety performance of prestressed steel-concrete beam bridges based on simulation experimental research. Firstly, fire simulation experimental sample analysis was conducted on actual small box girder bridges to obtain the structural response of prestressed steel-concrete structures under fire, which is in line with engineering practice. Next, construct a reliability analysis model for the fire resistance performance of prestressed steel-concrete beam bridges; Combining reliability theory with finite element method, establish a reliability analysis method for the fire resistance performance of prestressed steel-concrete beam bridges. Subsequently, a safety factor evaluation model for the fire resistance performance of prestressed steel-concrete beam bridges was proposed, and a safety factor evaluation method for the fire resistance performance of prestressed steel-concrete beam bridges based on reliability back analysis was established. Finally, based on the analysis of the structural response after a fire in a specific case of a simply supported to continuous prestressed steel-concrete continuous beam bridge project, a structural resistance sample of the prestressed steel-concrete beam bridge is generated through uniform design method, and statistical analysis is conducted. Subsequently, probability methods are used to evaluate the safety of the prestressed steel-concrete beam bridge after a fire. Through analysis, it can be concluded that the time of fire has a significant impact on the structural performance of prestressed steel-concrete beam bridges, and the randomness of parameters has a significant impact on the safety reserve of prestressed steel-concrete beam bridges after fire. It is necessary to pay attention to it in specific engineering practice and strengthen the monitoring and statistics of structural random characteristics.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: health; safety and environment management; HSE; performance evaluation; checklist; contractors
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:45:13 CEST)
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of health, safety and environmental management of civil, traffic and urban services contractors in the 18th district of Tehran municipality in 2015-2016. Methods: This is an applied, longitudinal, descriptive-comparative study. The statistical population of this study was construction contractors, urban services and traffic in the municipality of district 18 of Tehran in the years 2015-2016. from 52 contractors, 18 construction contractors, 21 utilities contractors and 13 traffic contractors, respectively, were selected using census method. the research instrument consisted of periodic direct observation and completion of the HSE standard checklist by researchers. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test by SPSS software.Results: The HSE performance of all contractors (civil, utilities and traffic) was acceptable and the results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the HSE performance of contractors at the second visit of 2015 and the first visit of 2016 was significantly different in favor of civil contractors )p <0.01), but there was no significant difference between the first and third visits of 2015 and the second and third visits of 2016 (p> 0.05). visits in six periods indicate HSE Civil Contractors status increased from 100% unfavorable to 88.88% acceptable level and 11.11% good level, and in the case of civil service contractors who initially had 95.23% in an unfavorable situation and 4.76% in a favorable situation achieved 100% acceptable performance, and finally, the traffic contractors, who were 100% unfavorable, were upgraded to 100% acceptable. Conclusion: According to the findings of the study, it seems that the supervision of municipality inspectors on HSE performance of contractors can be effective in improving and strengthening the commitment to HSE requirements, therefore, it is suggested that periodical visits be made to the municipal contractors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0321.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lithium-ion battery; safety; separator; coaxial electrospinning; dual-nozzle; core-shell nanofiber
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:00:49 CEST)
Though the energy density of lithium-ion batteries continues to increase, safety issues related with the internal short-circuit and the resulting combustion of highly flammable electrolyte impede the further development of lithium-ion batteries. It has been well-accepted that a thermal stable separator is important to postpone the entire battery short-circuit and thermal-runaway. Traditional methods to improve the thermal stability of separators includes surface modification and/or developing alternate material systems for separators which may always affect the battery performance negatively. Herein, a thermostable and shrink-free separator with little compromise in battery performance is prepared by coaxial electrospinning and tested. The separator consists of core-shell fiber networks where poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) layer serves as shell and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as the core. This core-shell fiber network exhibits little or even no shrinking/melting at elevated temperature over 250 °C. Meanwhile, it shows excellent electrolyte wettability and can take large amount of liquid electrolyte three times more than that of conventional Celgard 2400 separator. In addition, the half-cell using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as cathode and the aforementioned electrospun core-shell fiber network as separator demonstrates superior electrochemical behavior, stably cycling for 200 cycles at 1 C with a reversible capacity of 130 mAh g-1 and little capacity decay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1341.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: car –following, non-monotonic logic, reasoning, naturalistic driving studies, safety-critical events, cognitive vehicles
Online: 20 September 2023 (08:46:34 CEST)
The software design of autonomous vehicles (AVs) incorporates artificial intelligence (AI) characteristics to enhance their safety and overall driving performance. Central to vehicle’s operation is the ability to reason effectively in complex and uncertain environments. However, traditional logical systems, such as monotonic logic, often struggle to handle the inherent uncertainties and exceptions encountered in real-world scenarios. This paper proposes the utilization of non-monotonic logic in order to enhance the reasoning capabilities of autonomous vehicles. By incorporating non-monotonic reasoning, vehicles can navigate intricate traffic scenarios, make plausible inferences, and adapt their decisions when faced with conflicting information. This research aims to provide a comprehensive review of non-monotonic logic's application in autonomous vehicles, highlighting its advantages over traditional logical systems and its potential impact on safety and performance. Additionally, through this research, we seek to contribute to the advancement of autonomous driving technology by enhancing the reasoning capabilities of vehicles in various scenarios, such as car- following related to critical safety events. The personalized cognitive agent is proposed in driving behavior to consider particularly in their assumptions of homogeneous drivers. The personalized cognitive agent is incorporating heterogeneous driving behaviors, based on individual user preferences, characteristics, and needs. Driving behavior is a complex interplay of various factors, encompassing both human and external elements. Human factors, including age, experience, and gender, contribute significantly to how individuals navigate the roads. These factors influence decisions, reactions, and risk-taking tendencies on the part of drivers. Additionally, external factors such as weather conditions further compound this intricate dynamic, requiring drivers to adapt their behavior to the prevailing environment. The goal of a personalized cognitive agent is to provide tailored and customized experiences to cognitive vehicles, taking into account the unique requirements and individual preferences of occupants inside autonomous vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0600.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Symmetrical cable-stayed bridge structure; Wind resistance time-varying performance; Reliability index; Safety factor; Symmetrical reliability theory
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:12:48 CEST)
Long span cable-stayed bridge is the main bridge type with a span of more than 400 meters. It is generally designed as a double tower long-span structure with good spanning capacity and economic performance. Wind resistance safety performance is the main index to control the long-span cable-stayed bridge structure. During the operation of long-span cable-stayed bridge structure, because the service life of the cable is far less than the design life of the structure, the wind resistance performance of the structure will inevitably deteriorate significantly, which will seriously affect the structural service performance of symmetric cable-stayed bridge. Based on symmetric reliability theory, this paper takes flutter and static wind stability of long-span cable-stayed bridge structure as the main design control index, uses positive reliability theory to calculate the reliability index of symmetric cable-stayed bridge structure, uses inverse reliability theory to calculate the safety factor of symmetric cable-stayed bridge structure, and evaluates the wind resistant time-varying performance of long-span cable-stayed bridge structure by comprehensively considering the reliability index and safety factor. Taking a practical project of a long-span cable-stayed bridge as a specific case, the wind resistant time-varying reliability of the bridge during its operation for more than 30 years is analyzed, and the parameter sensitivity is analyzed. The results show that the wind resistance performance of the cable-stayed bridge structure is obviously affected by the cable, and the degradation of the cable performance will have an important impact on the wind resistance time-varying performance of the structure, especially the critical wind speed of the structure has obvious time-varying characteristics. The safety factor and reliability index can objectively evaluate the wind resistance time-varying performance of the long-span cable-stayed bridge structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: COVID-19; safety performance; safety climate; safety leadership; risk management
Online: 22 September 2022 (05:43:27 CEST)
COVID-19 had a significant impact on construction projects due to labor shortages and COVID-19 restrictions, yet little is known about the impact it had on construction safety. To address this gap, an Australian construction project was selected to study the impact of COVID-19 on safety performance, safety climate and safety leadership. The study collected data from safety climate surveys, leading and lagging safety indicators and used linear regression to compare safety performance pre and post the onset of COVID-19. Our results showed after the onset of COVID-19 there was a significant reduction (Pr>F at 0.05%) in incident rate, an improvement in supervisor safety leadership and safety climate, and satisfaction with organisational communication. The study identified the increase level of safety awareness due to COVID-19 did not result in an increase in the level of engagement in safety leadership. Interestingly, participation in the safety leadership activities did not improve until a change of Project Manager occurred. The study determined leaders who establish a positive safety climate within a project could negate the safety performance impact of COVID-19. The study confirms the importance of site safety leadership in maintaining engagement in risk management and the value of focused safety communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0117.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: patient safety, quality improvement, safety culture
Online: 3 July 2023 (15:01:11 CEST)
Background: Falls in hospitalized older patients lead to increased length of stay and poorer discharge outcomes. The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) represents a quality improvement intervention for patient safety. Objective: To evaluate CUSP implementation for the prevention of falls at a teaching hospital. Method: An interdisciplinary CUSP team, received a four-hour online module and one-day face-to-face training. The intervention was developed using the WHO implementation science plan-do-study-act framework. Process evaluation was conducted using the UK Medical Research Council framework. The primary outcome measure of patient safety culture was determined using the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), while annual fall rates were considered the secondary outcome measure. Results: Safety rounds were conducted during the two-year intervention period, each attended by five to eight HCPs, with nine to 29 patients reviewed each month. Risk factors, plans and actions were administered to individual patients, while local issues were identified and resolved through engagement of senior executives. SAQ domains increased from before (n=39) to after (n=30) the intervention of CUSP. Fall rates reduced from 11.18 per 1,000 bed days pre-implementation to zero falls post-implementation. Conclusion: Improvements in patient safety culture were observed after the implementation of CUSP alongside a reduction in fall rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0527.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: safety knowledge; safety attitude; safety behaviour; SME; Malaysia; manufacturing; PLS-SEM
Online: 22 June 2021 (07:38:15 CEST)
.Most of the accident cases at work are caused by unsafe behaviour. Scholars have thus extensively researched factors of safe behavior.Safety leadership is stated as the most effective factor in safety behaviour. Besides, safety knowledge and safety attitudes are also found to influence safety behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of the relationship between safety leadership, safety knowledge, safety attitude, and safety behavior, which has been found to be limited or rare in previous research.A self-administered questionnaire was applied and was distributed randomly to 140 SME manufacturing workers and they were analysed using the structural equation modelling partial least squares (PLS-SEM). The results prove that safety leadership has a significant effect on safety knowledge, safety attitude, and safety behaviour, with safety knowledge and safety attitude mediating the safety leadership-safety behaviour relationship. Consequently, the results provide a more in-depth view of the relationship between safety leadership and safety knowledge-attitude-behaviour via adapting social-cognitive theory and social learning theory in solving safety issues in SME. This study also provides a starting point for researchers to better understand how effective safety leadership is provided by supervisors in terms of improving worker safety and safety knowledge-attitude-behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Patient safety; Safety I; Safety II; Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU); Nurse
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:37:36 CEST)
The intensive care unit is characterized by the critical care of the infants and children who access it, as well as the high complexity of care. This implies and requires optimal integration among the various professionals working there and their ability to work as a team. The purpose of the study was to describe how nurses perceive clinical risk and how they relate to it and to identify adverse events and related risk factors. Nine nurses, two moderators and one external observer partici-pated in the focus group. In the qualitative analysis, 9 themes describing the perception of clinical risk in PICU were identified, including teamwork, specific training, time management, team communication, management, individual errors, structural criticality, patient fac-tors/characteristics, and standardization. Safety culture can be fostered by hospital management to involve PICU nurses in promoting patient safety, which could improve breaking down barriers that prevent nurses from fulfilling their roles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0478.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Wedge-shaped block; WSB; overtopping; overflowing erosion; dam protection; dam spillway; dam safety; embankment dam; precast concrete; ACUÑA
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:11:03 CET)
The article presents the results and conclusions of a series of tests of wedge-shaped blocks armoring carried out on a new experimental facility (‘Hydraulic Experimentation Facility - Luis Ruano’) in quasi-prototype conditions. The article describes the singular testing facility that was built at the inlet channel of the Acequia de Sora channel, immediately upstream of the Laverné reservoir (Zaragoza, Spain). The inflow of the testing facility has a maximum discharge of 9 m3s-1. The aim is to perform experimental research on technologies to protect embankment dams and dikes against overflowing erosion under quasi-prototype conditions. The results of the tests showed the ability of the WSBs to withstand high unit discharges under extremely negative conditions. Furthermore, conclusions were drawn about potential threats to the sound behavior of the armor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: risk management; safety critical systems; safety assessment; methodology
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:33:14 CET)
The complex systems that require safety are the Safety Critical Systems. Maintaining these systems is a big challenge. Now a days, safety is a very critical requirement for the latest systems. Safety critical systems must be safe. Different approaches to ensure quality and safety in safety critical systems has been discussed in this paper. A comparison is also conducted between these various approaches. Safety critical systems must remain more influential in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: accident analysis; accident reconstruction; road safety; vehicle active safety
Online: 21 November 2023 (09:59:12 CET)
Accidents between right-turning commercial vehicles and crossing vulnerable road users (VRU) in urban environments often lead to serious or fatal injuries and therefore play a significant role in forensic accident analysis. To reduce the risk of accidents, blind spot assistance systems have been installed in commercial vehicles for several years, among other things, to detect VRUs and warn the driver in time. However, since such systems cannot reliably prevent all turning accidents, an investigation by experts must clarify how the accident occurred and to what extent the blind spot assistance system influenced the course of the accident. The occurrence of the acoustic warning message can be defined as an objective reaction prompt for the driver, so that the blind spot assistance system can significantly influence the avoidability assessment. In order to be able to integrate the system into forensic accident analysis, a precise knowledge of how the system works and its limitations is required. For this purpose, tests with different systems and accident constellations were conducted and evaluated. It was found that the type of sensor used for the assistance systems has a great influence on the system’s performance. The lateral distance between the right side of the commercial vehicle and the VRU as well as obstacles between them and the speed difference can take great influence on the reliability of the assistance system. Depending on the concrete time of the system’s warning signal the accident can be avoided or not by the driver when reacting on this signal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral interventions; prevention; workplace safety; safety protocols
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:54:54 CEST)
Practicing preventive etiquettes such as hand washing, hand disinfection, wearing a face mask, practicing physical distancing, disinfection of surfaces and objects can help curb the transmission of COVID-19 at the workplace. This paper focuses on interventions and behaviors required to curb the spread of COVID-19 at workplaces. We undertook a detailed multi-disciplinary literature search on the following topics: hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, physical distancing, quarantine and isolation, disinfection of objects and surfaces, behavior change, and health crisis communication. We identified interventions that are effective for preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at workplaces. These findings present very useful non-clinical interventions for preventing COVID-19 in the work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: pavement friction rating; network level; road safety attributes; hybrid clustering; density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN); Gaussian mixture model (GMM); Chi-square test
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:38:47 CEST)
Pavement friction plays a crucial role in ensuring the safety of road networks. Accurately assessing friction levels is vital for effective pavement maintenance and management strategies employed by state highway agencies. Traditionally, friction evaluations have been conducted on a case-by-case basis, focusing on specific road sections. However, this approach fails to provide a comprehensive assessment of friction conditions across the entire road network. This paper introduces a hybrid clustering algorithm, namely the combination of density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) and Gaussian mixture model (GMM), to perform pavement friction performance rating across a statewide road network. A large, safety-oriented dataset is first generated by integrating network friction and vehicle crash data based on the attributes contributing possibly to friction related crashes. One-, two-, and multi-dimensional clustering analyses, respectively, are then performed to rate pavement friction. The Chi-square test is further employed to validate and identify the practical ratings. It is shown that by effectively capturing the hidden, intricate patterns within the integrated, complex dataset and prioritizing friction-related safety attributes, the hybrid clustering algorithm can produce pavement friction ratings that align effectively with the current practices of the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) in friction management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0276.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: occupational health and safety education; quality of health and safety education; health and safety education best practices
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:14:27 CET)
Research into professionalization in health and safety has recently gained in interest. Graduate training is one of the factors that determines or conditions the role of the safety professional, thus intervene in the professionalization process. This article is the result of a workshop and the discussions of nine academic directors of safety education programs about quality evaluation. This article introduces the issue with a historic overview of safety education, presents a synthesis of nine selected education programs, discusses quality evaluation of health and safety education programs, propose a quality evaluation frame and finally, proposes a process for designing a quality safety education program with an associated model of the learning objectives. The outcomes are interesting for everyone who is interested in health and safety education and quality evaluation and will give insights into how safety professionals are educated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0210.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Food safety; Fresh-cut produce; salads; Food borne pathogens; Microbiological safety
Online: 29 June 2022 (09:47:27 CEST)
The consumption and sale of fresh-cut products and salads have been growing tremendously in the present era. Therefore, the microbial safety of such products is of great concern. In the current study, a survey of general microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and salads at quick-service restaurants (QSR) was undertaken across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These findings were compared with microbiological criteria for foodstuffs by Saudi standards, metrology, and quality organization SASO-GSO-1016. Of the 82 samples of fresh-cut produce, 7% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits. TPC count was unsatisfactory at 22%, coliform at 48%, and Staphylococcus aureus at 4%. For 108 samples for fresh salads, 11% of samples were found to be unsatisfactory or beyond the acceptable limits,13%, 27%, 4%, and 27% of samples showed an unsatisfactory range of TPC, coliforms, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli, respectively. The fresh-cut produce and salads were microbiologically safe in the central region compared to the eastern region followed by the western region. The relatively higher count was found in green pepper, mixed vegetables, and lettuce followed by fresh-cut onions and coleslaw salads. No Salmonella was detected in both fresh-cut produce and salads. The restaurants should be more stringent in their processing to ensure the consumer safety. Washing and sanitization of produce is the only way to reduce the diffusion of food borne pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Road safety; Safety management; Road transportation; GMDH; GOA-SVM; Machine learning
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:37:05 CET)
Evaluation of road safety is a critical issue having to be conducted for successful safety management in road transport systems, whereas safety management is considered in road transportation systems as a challenging task according to the dynamic of this issue and the presence of a large number of effective parameters on road safety. Therefore, evaluation and analysis of important contributing factors affecting the number of crashes play a key role in increasing the efficiency of road safety. For this purpose, in this research work, two machine learning algorithms including the group method of data handling (GMDH)-type neural network and a combination of support vector machine (SVM) and the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) are employed for evaluating the number of vehicles involved in the accident based on the seven factors affecting transport safety including the Daylight (DL), Weekday (W), Type of accident (TA), Location (L), Speed limit (SL), Average speed (AS) and Annual average daily traffic (AADT) of rural roads of Cosenza in southern Italy. In this study, 564 data sets of rural areas were investigated and relevant effective parameters were measured. In the next stage, several models were developed to investigate the parameters affecting the safety management of road transportation for rural areas. The results obtained demonstrated that "Average speed" has the highest level and "Weekday" has the lowest level of importance in the investigated rural area. Finally, although the results of both algorithms were the same, the GOA-SVM model showed a better degree of accuracy and robustness than the GMDH model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0726.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Work safety standardization; Viable System Model; Chinese enterprise; Safety process control
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:09:42 CEST)
The work safety standardization of enterprises based on the traditional work safety theory has played a significant role in reducing the number of accidents and improving work safety to some extent in China. However, some problems are coming with the work safety standardization of enterprises developing constantly in China. On the one hand, it is not combined with the actual situation of the enterprise, lacking pertinence and specificity, these defects resulted that it is not integrated with original safety production management system of enterprise and make it difficult to carry out. On the other hand, there is a lack of systematic management methods for the work safety management system of enterprise, most of enterprises only pay attention to the inspection result rather than the process control. This means after the check of the government, many enterprises will relax to carry out the system. This paper puts forward a new method for optimizing the standardization management mode of work safety based on the Viable System Model(VSM), which can solve the defects of work safety standardization of enterprises management system. An optimization model of work safety standardization based on VSM was construct for explaining the process optimization and control of work safety standardization management. It can improve the connectivity between the enterprise and the government. The conclusion of this paper can provide reference for achieving the development and optimization of work safety standardization of enterprises in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: raw milk; microbiological safety; microbiological quality; food safety; dairy; MBS method
Online: 3 August 2020 (08:07:03 CEST)
The consumption of dairy products and the dairy industry is one of the main global agro-food sectors for size, economic importance and level of technology. Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk or other milk products is dependent on microbiological quality of raw milk. A variety of microbiological count methods is available for monitoring the hygienic quality of raw milk. Among them, the pour plate method is the official essay for counting the number of colony forming units in milk samples according to ISO 4833-1:2013. The aim of the present study is the validation of the Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method, against the reference plate count method, for the assessment of the microbiological quality of raw milk. This comparative study, performed in collaboration with the “Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana M. Aleandri” (IZSLT), demonstrates the accuracy of this alternative method for the determination of total viable bacterial count in cow’s raw milk. The results obtained with the MBS method highlighting its potential as a valid tool for reliable microbiological analysis in dairy industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: safety management system; system dynamic; systemic approach; safety 4.0; industry 4.0
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:26:30 CET)
In Safety Management System (SMS), the risk management plays a key role for the prevention of accidents. The aim of this paper is to propose a Safety Management model using a system dynamic approach to update conventional industrial safety into the new industrial safety 4.0 that is time to developed. This study analyzes some safety 4.0 aspects lacked in the Bhopal incidental event by considering different data detected in the industrial Plant. The model proposed in this paper discusses the relationships among the main causes that have contributed to the occurrence of the incidental event studied, such as broken safety devices, inadequate personnel experience, operator decisions, manager production strategy, policy decision, as deduced from the relevant literature about Bhopal incidental dynamic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Construction, worker safety, safety helmet, three-axis accelerometer sensor, data mining
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:03:21 CET)
In the Korean construction industry, legal and institutional safety management improvements are continually being pursued. However, there was a 4.5% increase in the number of workers’ deaths at construction sites in 2017 compared to the previous year. Failure to wear safety helmets seems to be one of the major causes of the increase in accidents, and so it is necessary to develop technology to monitor whether or not safety helmets are being used. However, the approaches employed in existing technical studies on this issue have mainly involved the use of chinstrap sensors and have been limited to the problem of whether or not safety helmets are being worn. Meanwhile, improper wearing, such as when the chinstrap and harness fixing of the safety helmet are not properly tightened, has not been monitored. To remedy this shortcoming, a sensing safety helmet with a three-axis accelerometer sensor attached was developed in this study. Experiments were performed in which the sensing data were classified whether the safety helmet was being worn properly, not worn, or worn improperly during construction workers’ activities. The results verified that it is possible to differentiate among wearing status of the proposed safety helmet with a high accuracy of 97.0%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1899.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Ultrasound; safety; food; traceability
Online: 30 November 2023 (04:29:45 CET)
Background The falsification of food products is a practice that has always been with mankind. Initially, it stemmed from the need to satisfy basic needs, and then from the desire for profit, at the expense of the health and sometimes the lives of consumers. Today, food safety issues are becoming a priority in consumers' daily lives. It is estimated that one in four food products is falsified. Man has lost the ability to naturally identify healthy food. He has therefore begun to prioritise the speed and ease of its preparation at the expense, often of health. The techniques currently available for detecting falsification are inaccessible to the ordinary consumer. The technique proposed by the authors is the beginning of a publicly available method for detecting falsification. Scope and approach Currently, instrumental or sensory methods are used to assess the authenticity, and therefore identification, of foods. The former are expensive and time-consuming and the latter are unobjective. The authors proposed a method using ultrasound with parameters that are neutral to the material to be tested. The technique allows results to be obtained in times measured in microseconds without destroying the material under test, saving costs. Three differently weighted groups of beers were used for the study. These were industrial, regional and domestic beers. Main findings and conclusions The results of the study indicate that the ultrasonic method is useful for the non-destructive identification of industrial and regional beers, which are produced using different technologies and differ in composition. The method analysed was not suitable for separating homebrew beers from other types of beer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0824.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: radiation; pictogram; safety; Korea
Online: 31 December 2020 (15:44:07 CET)
Since the accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power plant in 2011, people have been more interested in radiation safety in life. This study investigated the level of exact recognition of 6 warning pictograms enacted and utilized as per Korea Industrial Regulation in relation to medical & natural radiation safety at this time. Unless people recognize pictogram prepared for radiation safety correctly in accordance with its purpose, safety would be severely intimidated. The result of corroboratively analyzing recognition of radiation safety pictogram is as follows. First, some 63.3% of respondents negatively responded on understanding 6 pictograms related to radiation in life, showing low level of understanding. Second, the average mark of correct response on the questions asking the meaning of 6 pictograms presented in relation to radiation safety in life was 2.79 point (standard deviation 1.447 point), which was relatively low. As seen above, the level of recognition & comprehension is low, because education related to life radiation safety in the school is insufficient and the present warning pictogram established by Korea Industrial Regulation needs to be revised & supplemented. This study is meaningful in that the method of using pictogram is presented as one of diverse efforts to improve life radiation safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0503.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: aviation, modeling, safety, uas
Online: 19 November 2020 (10:49:14 CET)
The capability to avoid other air traffic is a fundamental component of the layered conflict management system to ensure safe and efficient operations in the National Airspace System. The evaluation of systems designed to mitigate the risk of midair collisions of manned aircraft are based on large-scale modeling and simulation efforts and a quantitative volume defined as a near midair collision (NMAC). Since midair collisions are difficult to observe in simulation and are inherently rare events, basing evaluations on NMAC enables a more robust statistical analysis. However, an NMAC and its underlying assumptions for assessing close encounters with manned aircraft do not adequately consider the different characteristics of smaller UAS-only encounters. The primary contribution of this paper is to explore quantitative criteria to use when simulating two or more smaller UASs in sufficiently close proximity that a midair collision might reasonably occur and without any mitigations to reduce the likelihood of a midair collision. The criteria assumes a historically motivated upper bound for the collision likelihood and subsequently identify the smallest possible NMAC analogs. We also demonstrate the NMAC analogs can be used to support modeling and simulation activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: food safety; local health departments; food inspection; primary prevention; food safety policy
Online: 4 May 2022 (15:38:09 CEST)
(1) Background: Several agencies in the United States play a primary role in ensuring food safety, yet foodborne illnesses result in about 3,000 deaths and cost more than $15.6 billion each year. The study objectives included analyzing local health departments’ (LHDs) level of engagement in food safety and other related services, and LHDs’ characteristics associated with those services. (2) Methods: We used data from 1,496 LHDs that participated in the 2019 National Profile of Local Health Departments Survey, administered to all 2,459 LHDs in the United States. Logistic regression analyses were performed to model multiple dichotomous variables. (3) Results: An estimated 78.9% of LHDs performed food safety inspections, 78.3% provided food safety education, 40.7% provided food processing inspections, and 48.4% engaged in policy and advocacy. The odds for LHDs to directly provide preventive nutrition services were 20 times higher if the LHD had one or more nutritionists on staff (Adjusted Odds Ratio or AOR=20.0; Confidence Interval, CI=12.4-32.2) compared to LHDs with no nutritionists. Other LHD characteristics significantly associated with the provision of nutrition services (p<.05) included population size, state governance (rather than local), and LHD having at least one registered, licensed, practical, or vocational nurse. The odds of providing food processing services were lower for locally governed than state governed LHDs (AOR=0.5; CI=0.4-0.7). The odds of performing food safety inspections varied by LHD’s population size, whether a nutritionist was on staff or not, state governance (vs. local), and having completed a community health assessment (CHA) within 5 years. (4) Conclusions: LHDs play a critical role in ensuring safe food for Americans, yet variations exist in their performance, based on their specific characteristics. Adequate funding and a competent workforce are essential for LHDs to utilize evidence-based practices and engage in policymaking and advocacy concerning food safety.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0366.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: ontology; semantics; safety; security; risk; performance; definitions; concepts; safety science; ISO 31000
Online: 31 October 2019 (09:36:29 CET)
When discussing the concepts of risk, safety, and security, people have an intuitive understanding of what these concepts mean, and, to a certain level, this understanding is universal. However, when delving into the real meaning of these concepts, one is likely to fall into semantic debates and ontological discussions. In industrial parks, it is important that (risk) managers from dierent companies, belonging to one and the same park, have the same understanding of the concepts of risk, safety, and security. It is even important that all companies in all industrial parks share a common understanding regarding these issues. As such, this paper explores the similarities and dierences behind the perceptions of these concepts, to come to a fundamental understanding of risk, safety, and security, proposing a semantic and ontological ground for safety and security science, based on an etymological and etiological study of the concepts of risk and safety. The foundation has been induced by the semantics used in the ISO 31000 risk management guidance standard. Hence, this article proposes a coherent, standardized set of concepts and definitions with a focus on the notion “objectives” that can be used as an ontological foundation for safety and security science, linking “objectives” with the concepts of safety, security, risk, performance and also failure and success, theoretically allowing for an increasingly more precise understanding and measurement of (un)safety across the whole range of individuals, sectors and organizations, or even society as a whole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: maritime safety; energy efficiency; green and sustainable port; ships safety; environmental impact; emissions
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:02:02 CEST)
In many ports, the ship's speed is limited for the safety of navigation. At the same time, ship captains and port pilots choose the speed of the ship, but not higher than the permitted speed of the ship in the port, therefore the speed of the ship also depends on the experience of the ship captains and port pilots and the sailing conditions of the ship in specific conditions. Choosing the optimal speed of ships in port, including the effect of shallow depth, can reduce fuel consumption and ship emissions in ports, which is important for the development of green and sustainable ports. In all cases, shipping safety is the highest priority. The main objectives of the article are determining the optimal speed of ships in ports with low clearance, ensuring navigational safety, reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and at the same time creating a sustainable port. The article presents the methodology of optimal ship speed calculation, minimum ship controllable speed maintenance, fuel consumption and emission reduction methodology and their impact on sustainable and green maritime transport and port development. The developed methodology was tested on real ships and with the help of a calibrated simulator, sailing through harbor channels and harbor waters in low clearance conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0558.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: road safety education; RSE; children; adolescents; risky road behaviors; road safety; traffic crashes
Online: 23 November 2018 (09:43:19 CET)
Road Safety Education (RSE) is widely known as a reliable determinant of future results for what concerns health and welfare, and as an undisputable factor which contributes to the social behavior of individuals and to their mid and long-term road safety outcomes. However, its development has been relatively scarce in most countries, fact which has contributed to letting matters as delicate as traffic crashes produced by road misbehaviors continue to be a prevalent problem, thus affecting the health of the community. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between demographic and RSE-related variables and the self-reported road risky behavior of Spanish students. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 4,062 (51.5 males and 48.5% females) participants attending primary (47.5%), secondary (40.7%) and high school (11.7%) was gathered through a national survey on RSE and road behaviors. Results: A set of significant associations between demographic factors, RSE variables and self-reported road behaviors was found. Furthermore, the SEM modelling allowed us to establish that age, observed misbehaviors, attitudes towards road safety and risk perception keep a direct link with the road risky behavior of children and young people. The knowledge of traffic rules was not a significant predictor of road behavior. Conclusions: The results of this study show that, together with demographic factors such as age, RSE-related variables have an effect on the road behavior of children and young people. They also suggest the need of strengthening actions to be implemented in road safety (Road Safety Education), into scholar and community levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1814.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Shield construction safety risks assessment; subway undercrossing a bridge; safety risk factors list; safety assessment model; confirmatory factor analysis, fuzzy evidence reasoning.
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:21:48 CEST)
The city administration of China planned numerous metro projects and more metros can hardly avoid undercrossing a bridge. While metro shield construction when undercrossing a bridge (MSCUB) is frequently located in complicated natural and social context, which made the construction process more susceptible to safety accidents. Therefore, it is crucial to look into safety risk of MSCUB. The paper identified the safety risk factors during SSCUR by using literature review and experts’ evaluation, proposed a novel safety risk assessment model by integrating CFA and FER, and then selected a project case to test the validity of the suggested model. Research results show that (a) a safety risk factors list of MSCUB was identified, including 4 first-level safety risks and 37 second-level safety risk factors; (b) the proposed safety risk assessment model can be used to measure the risk values of the overall worksite safety risk, the first-level safety risks and the safety risk factors of MSCUB; (c) environment-type safety risk and personnel-type safety risk have higher risk values when shield construction undercrossing a bridge; (d) when compared to worker-type safety risk, manager-type safety risk is the higher risk value. The research can enrich the theoretic knowledge of MSCUB safety risk assessment and provide references to safety managers for conducting scientific and effective safety management on the construction site when subway undercrossing a river.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cembranoids, safety, nonhuman primates, 4R
Online: 17 May 2023 (04:16:16 CEST)
The tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol (4R) is known to induce neuroprotection against brain ischemia, systemic inflammation, Parkinson's disease, and organophosphate toxicity in rodents. Studies examining the compound's safety in male and female Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated no significant side effects after a single injection of 4R at various concentrations (6, 24, or 98 mg/kg). To evaluate the neurotherapeutic feasibility of 4R for clinical trials, we have assessed the safety of this compound in nonhuman primates. We investigated whether 4R induces toxicity in male Macaca mulatta when administered for 11 consecutive days via intravenous injection at a dose of 1.4 mg/kg. Electroencephalogram, somatosensory evoked potential, and transcranial motor evoked potentials were measured at days 0, 4, 8, and 12 and remained unaffected during the experimental study. Spontaneous behavior was not affected between the groups. Small histopathological changes in the organs were observed in some animals, both treated and non-treated; thus, these changes cannot be attributed to 4R. Minor hematological and blood composition variations with no clinical significance were detected in the experimental animals. In conclusion, our data support previous findings that 4R is a non-toxic compound that proved safe in nonhuman primates during the given period and dose.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0224.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: acetaminophen; paracetamol; autism; pediatrics; safety
Online: 30 March 2022 (05:47:18 CEST)
A growing body of literature suggests a causative relationship between severe adverse neurological outcomes and early life exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the presence of oxidative stress. Review of the literature revealed that, although its use is not regularly monitored, paracetamol has achieved near universal acceptance, with exposure in some pediatric populations exceeding 90%. In addition, use of the drug as well as associated adverse outcomes may have risen as a result of pharmaceutical advertising rather than need, and inappropriate use of the drug, both in terms of dose and indication, is widespread. These findings indicate that many clinicians and patients do not, at the present time, evenly weigh the potential risks with the potential benefits of paracetamol exposure early in life. Although retrospective studies might be envisioned to further address the neurodevelopmental risks of paracetamol use during early development, in silico simulations demonstrated that such studies can be thwarted by very high rates of use of the drug combined with associations between paracetamol use and oxidative stressors that act as cofactors in the induction of neurodevelopmental injury. These findings suggest that, despite persistent uncertainty, clinicians and patients should be more aware of available information pointing toward the potential dangers for neurodevelopment of early life exposure to paracetamol. Most importantly, health care workers need to provide a more balanced view, weighing both risks and benefits, when providing advice for patients regarding paracetamol use during periods of brain development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0446.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: ischemic stroke; safety; cerebrolysin; neurorehabilitation
Online: 15 November 2021 (10:46:02 CET)
We performed a systematic search and meta-analysis of available literature to determine the safety profile of Cerebrolysin in acute ischemic stroke, filling existing safety information gaps and inconsistent results. We searched EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews and Clinical Trials up to the end of February 2021. Data collection and analysis was conducted using methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. All safety outcomes were analyzed based on risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals. The meta-analysis pooled 2202 patients from twelve randomized clinical trials, registering non-statistically significant (p>0.05) differences between Cerebrolysin and placebo throughout main and subgroup analyses. The lowest rate of Serious Adverse Events (SAE), as compared to placebo, was observed for the highest dose of Cerebrolysin (50 mL), highlighting a moderate reduction (RR = 0.6). We observed a tendency of superiority of Cerebrolysin regarding SAE in high dose treatment courses for moderate-severe ischemic stroke, suggesting some effect of the agent against adverse events. This comprehensive safety meta-analysis confirms the safety profile for patients treated with Cerebrolysin after acute ischemic stroke, as compared to placebo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0787.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Patient flow; Surgery; Patient safety
Online: 3 September 2021 (11:36:31 CEST)
Acute hospital bed shortage is a serious concern worldwide, constantly involving high-dependency units (HDU), where the non-availability of postoperative beds results in surgery cancellation. In the acute medicine context, the SAFER Red2Green initiative has shown to enhance patient flow.Local problem At the Royal London hospital, in 2016, hospital-initiated cancellations peaked at over 50% weekly due to the inability of high dependency Units (HDU) to discharge step-down patients to the general surgical wards, where bed occupancy was close to 100% and the average length of stay was stable on average close to 7 (+/- 8.6) days.Methods. This was a service improvement research to enhance patient flow which adapted the SAFER Red2Green model to a surgical ward (SAFER Surgery Red2Green). This before-after study involving all 2017 digestive surgery admissions was divided into a three-month feasibility phase followed by a nine-month pilot phase, versus the year 2016 (pre-intervention). Outcome measures: weekly discharges, length of stay (LOS), surgery cancellations, feasibility of a “theatre go” policy, HDU step-downs, 30-day readmissions.Interventions1) Systematic communication of key care plan from the afternoon ward rounds by surgical teams to the nurse in charge; 2) 10 AM Monday-to-Friday multi-disciplinary senior-team daily board round, addressing updated key care plan aimed at early discharges, appropriateness of each inpatient day, causes of delays; 3) hospital and site managers weekly attendance. Results. At three months: +67% discharges/week (p=0.001), -20% LOS (p=0.023), +21% HDU step-downs, (p=0.205). At one year: +10.7% HDU step-downs (p=0.197), increased probability of earlier discharge (p=0.023), -60% hospital-initiated cancellations from 38 to 15 (p>=1), a “Theatre go” policy has been active since month 6. Failed discharges kept at 1.3 %. The MDT board round staff satisfaction rate was over 80%, with key actors’ attendance over 75%. Conclusions. The Barts SAFER Surgery R2G model safely enhanced patient flow and reduced cancellations and unnecessary nurse staff time. It requires senior medical and nursing commitment, however, is designed for any surgical specialty, and has proven sustainable. It warrants further validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0660.v1
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:08:28 CEST)
On the basis of a limited number of reasonable axioms, we discuss the classification of all the possible universality classes of diffeomorphisms invariant metric theories of quantum gravity. We use the language of the renormalization group and adopt several ideas which originate in the context of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Our discussion leads to several ideas that could affect the status of the asymptotic safety conjecture of quantum gravity and give universal arguments towards its proof.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: interprofessional collaboration; nurse; patient safety
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:29:07 CEST)
Patient safety is one of the indicators of the quality of health services in the hospital, for that, it is necessary to have efforts from the hospital to create a system that can minimize the occurrence of errors and unexpected events that can harm patients, nurses as health workers who are the most numerous in the home. sick and with the patient for 24 hours, has an important role in maintaining patient safety. This study aims to explain how the role of nurses and cooperation between health workers in implementing patient safety measures in the hospital. The method used in this study is a literature review by analyzing and exploring relevant articles and focusing on interprofessional collaboration to improve patient safety. The articles used in this study were taken from 3 direct, Proquest, Pubmed science databases published in the last 3 years, namely between 2019-2021, nurses as part of the health team are required to be able to work together with other health professionals in hospitals with various characteristics, including education, gender, age, employment status and length of work, nurses are required to be committed to maintaining patient safety in the hospital.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: acetaminophen; paracetamol; autism; pediatrics; safety
Online: 4 November 2020 (08:24:52 CET)
Although widely believed to be safe for use in infants and children when used as directed, increasing evidence indicates that early life exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen) may cause long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Further, recent studies in animal models demonstrate that cognitive development is exquisitely sensitive to paracetamol exposure during early development. In this study, evidence for the claim that paracetamol is safe was evaluated using a systematic literature search. Publications on PubMed between 1974 and 2017 that contained the keywords “infant” and either “paracetamol” or “acetaminophen” were considered. Of those initial 3096 papers, 218 were identified that made claims that paracetamol was safe for use with infants or children. Of these, a total of 103 papers were identified as sources of authority for the safety claim, and 36 of those contained actual experiments designed to test safety. The 36 experiments described had a median follow-up time of 24 hours, and none monitored neurodevelopment. Further, no trial considered total exposure to drug since birth, eliminating the possibility that the effects of drug exposure on long-term neurodevelopment could be accurately assessed. On the other hand, abundant and sufficient evidence was found to conclude that paracetamol does not induce acute liver damage in babies or children when used as directed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Brazilian artisanal cheeses; safety; challenges
Online: 5 September 2020 (06:08:11 CEST)
Artisanal cheeses made with raw milk are highly appreciated products in Brazil. Most of these cheeses are produced in small properties across different production regions in the country, many of which have been granted a protected designation of origin. The most prominent state that manufactures these products is Minas Gerais, but production is also gaining strength in other Brazilian states. This text presents an overview of the many types of artisanal cheeses produced in the country, grouped by geographical regions, and reviews the current challenges faced by producers and government considering the safety of these cheeses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: probiotics; cancer; safety; clinical trials
Online: 5 August 2020 (09:27:01 CEST)
In recent years, the consumption of over-the-counter probiotics used to promote health has grown rapidly worldwide and become an industry. In medicine, various studies have proven that probiotics can help improve the immune system and intestinal health. They are usually safe, but in some rare cases, they may cause concerning adverse reactions. Although the use of probiotics has been widely popularized in the public, the results of many probiotics clinical trials are contradictory. Especially for the cancer patients, the feasibility of probiotics management to provide benefits by targeting cancer and lessening anti-cancer side effects requires further investigations. And this review summarizes the interactions between probiotics and the host and current pros and cons of applying probiotics in the cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0125.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: accreditation; quality; safety; primary care
Online: 7 May 2020 (13:17:59 CEST)
Background: Accreditation is a qualitative assessment aimed at technical-professional quality, but above all, at organizational and measurable aspects through process and outcome checks. Method: There are few references in the literature relating to the accreditation and improvement of the quality and safety of care and treatment in the field of primary care. Clinical Governance must also be applied and certified in the field of primary care. Results: An accreditation system for general medicine is proposed based on a new dynamic model and implement that meets different requirements and assessed on the basis of indicators. Discussion: In the current Italian health system, accreditation of health structures is addressed only to public hospitals and private structures and to providers of services and services, however primary care. GPs / PLS do not have quality and safety guarantee systems or models or systems or public or private accreditation certifications with the SSR and SSN. Conclusion: Given the fundamental importance in the NHS of primary care of MG / PLS as the main and fundamental provider of services to the patient in all his socio-welfare and clinical needs, it is considered essential to think and implement an accreditation system extended to the territorial general practice as already present and in place for all affiliated and provider structures on behalf of the NHS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010009
Online: 10 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
As there is lack of understanding about the effect of transitioning between different flooring materials on the gait of older adults, this study investigated the effect of transitioning between a carpeted floor and a vinyl floor on the gait characteristics of older adults. Fourteen older (65 years old and over) and 14 younger (18 to 35 years old) adults walked on different transitional floors by measuring various gait parameters. While the older participants had greater toe clearance than their younger counterparts, the older participants had smaller toe clearance on a carpeted floor than on a vinyl floor, which would increase the probability of a trip-induced fall. Further, the study found the slower transitional acceleration of the whole body COM and the increased friction demand, especially during the toe-off phase, rather than heel contact phase, which will lead to a slip-induced fall on a vinyl floor shortly after transitioning from a carpeted floor to a vinyl floor. Although the increased likelihood of a slip or trip accident was found throughout the changes in gait parameters, the older participants did not perceive of slipping and tripping much. Therefore, older adults are recommended to be made aware of the danger of slipping and tripping while transitioning between different flooring materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: safety; maintenance; reinforced concrete; heritage
Online: 6 September 2018 (00:30:57 CEST)
The Canal of Aragon and Catalonia (CAC) is 134 km long and irrigates 105,000 ha (131 irrigation user communities) and it is own by the River Ebro’s Water Agency. The aqueducts are located between km 67 and 71 of the canal and were designed by the Civil Engineer Félix de los Ríos Martín in 1907. The cross-section of both aqueducts, Coll de Foix and Capedevila, was extended within the framework of the project by Fernando Hué Herrero in 1962 in order to reach design flows of 26.1 m3/s and 25.7 m3/s, respectively. The structural performance of the aqueducts has been satisfactory, nevertheless the hydraulic capacity has reduced over the years. As a result, the irrigation user communities have expressed the need to extend the cross-section of the aqueducts to meet the irrigation demands. Given the age of the structure and the different design considerations at the time, it is paramount to verify the structural reliability of the aqueducts in the new load configuration. Therefore, the objective of the paper is to present the structural safety analysis conducted and describe the new extended cross-section for both aqueducts (maintaining the original structural typology).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Building Information Modelling; Construction safety; Planning; Safety Elements; Construction Site Management; Falls from height.
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:23:31 CET)
As is known, the construction industry has one of the highest occupational accidents incidence rates among all economic sectors. Currently, Building Information Modeling (BIM) appears as a tool that addresses occupational safety issues throughout the construction life cycle projects, avoiding hazards and risks and, consequently, increasing safety. This work investigates BIM methodology and related technologies application for building safety planning in construction and demonstrates the potential of this technology for the integrated implementation of safety measures during the design phase and the construction site management. The first step consisted of a literature review on the application of BIM in safety in the design and planning phases. Following, to show the potentialities of construction simulation, a case study based on BIM 4D to prevent falls from height was developed. With BIM 4D, it is possible to follow the construction process over time, giving the construction safety technicians’, designers, supervisors and managers the capability to analyse, in each phase, the potential risks and which safety measures should be implemented. BIM can effectively integrate safety measures from the design phase to the construction and use phase and do integrated safety planning within construction planning, leading to reliable safety management throughout the construction process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0114.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: relief system; safety instrumented system; pressure relief valve; safety integrity level; minimize design capacity
Online: 23 December 2016 (10:12:59 CET)
Bisphenol A production plant possesses considerable potential risks in the top of the methanol separation column, as pressurized acetone, methanol and water are processed at an elevated temperature, especially in the event of an abnormal pressure increase due to sudden power outage. This study assesses the potential risks in the methanol separation column through hazard and operability assessment and evaluates the damages in the case of fire and explosion accident scenarios. The study chooses three leakage scenarios: a 5-mm puncture on the methanol separation column, a 50-mm diameter fracture of a discharge pipe and a catastrophic rupture, and simulates using Phast (Ver. 6.531) the concentration distribution of scattered methanol, thermal radiation distribution of fires and overpressure distribution of vapor cloud explosions. Implementation of safety instrumented system equipped with two-out-of-three voting as a safety measure can detect overpressure at the top of the column and shut down the main control valve and the emergency shutoff valve simultaneously, all at the same time. By applying safety integrity level of three, the maximal release volume of the safety relief valve can be reduced and therefore, the design capacity of the flare stack can also be reduced. Such integration will lead to improved safety at a reduced cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0671.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Safety Road Traffic; Semantic web; LOD
Online: 10 November 2023 (07:31:57 CET)
The significance of Linked Open Data datasets for traffic information goes beyond just including open traffic data. It extends to incorporating links to other relevant thematic datasets available on the web. This enables federated queries across different data platforms from various countries and sectors, such as transport, geospatial, environmental, weather, and more. Businesses, researchers, national operators, administrators, and citizens at large can benefit from having dynamic traffic open data connected to heterogeneous datasets across different Member States. This paper focuses on the development of a semantic model that enhances the basic service of accessing open traffic data through a LOD-enhanced Traffic Information System in alignment with the ITS Directive (2010/40/EU). The objective is not limited to just viewing or downloading data but also to improve the extraction of meaningful information and enable other types of services that are only achievable through LOD. By structuring the information using the RDF format meant for machines and employing SPARQL for querying, LOD allows for comprehensive and unified access to all datasets. Considering that the European standard DATEX II is widely used in many priority areas and services mentioned in the ITS Directive, LOD DATEX II was developed as a complementary approach to DATEX II XML. This facilitates the accessibility and comprehensibility of European traffic data and services. As part of this development, an ontological model called dtx_srti, based on the DATEX II Ontology, was created to support these efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fatigue; alternating stress; safety factor; wheels
Online: 24 October 2023 (11:41:19 CEST)
Most of the damage to Vleg cars was caused by material fatigue. The objectives of the fatigue analysis on Xenia 2011 car wheels with the Finite Element Method using Solidworks are: 1) Knowing the fatigue analysis process on car wheels, 2) Knowing the results of the fatigue analysis on car wheels. The research method used is the Finite Element Method (FEM) method; the re-search steps include model data retrieval from the Wheel code, 3D model creation process, static simulation process according to SAE J 328 standard, mesh variations, fatigue simulation, and finally, standardization of results fatigue simulation regarding the SAE J 328 standard. The re-sults of the fatigue analysis on the Xenia 2011 car wheels obtained an age of 1000,000 cycles when compared with the minimum average of SAE J 328 of 600,000 cycles, this product design is clas-sified as a high cycle, which means it will experience a prolonged failure, and this design has a maximum alternating stress value of 627.4702 MPa, a strain of 0.007105, a displacement of 7.148 mm and a SOF of 0.087890 with a load factor used of 2.5, so overall this Xenia car can be loaded with a load of 1775 kg, if it is more than that, then Wheels will experience cracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: railway; freight wagon; derailment; safety; assessment
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:18:30 CEST)
The assessment of safety against freight wagons derailment is a mandatory element of the documents provided to the EU notifying authorities for the entry into service of new freight wagons. The assessment methodology is presented in EN 14363:2016. It is mainly aimed at experimental measurement of certain parameters and the data are used to calculate the safety criterion. The practical implementation of the tests is accompanied by many difficulties: finding a track with a proper radius, ensuring free access to the railway infrastructure for a long period of time, waiting for suitable metrological conditions, preparation of the curve and the test wagon etc. These difficulties are well known to the European legislators, and as a solution they propose a large set of reference wagons that have undergone real tests. It is sufficient to demonstrate that the parameters of the new wagon relate to some of reference wagon parameters to avoid such a requirement. Proving the "convergence" of the parameters of the new and the reference wagons is a lengthy, complex and, in many cases, subjective process. To introduce an objective assessment, the authors set themselves the task of developing a theoretical method for assessment of safety against derailment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2159.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fish; fishing; freshness; hygiene; pathogens; safety
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:40:37 CEST)
Fish and fish products are very appreciated in the human diet because of high quality proteins and other important nutrients, such as minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Maintaining freshness, quality and safety is essential in the fish supply chain, starting from on board vessels where the product must be carefully checked and protected from any source of contamination. Safe fishing and handling of fish are very important to reduce the risk of foodborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum type E, viruses, and parasites. The inspection of raw material, use of good quality ice and water, high standards of personnel hygiene and cleanliness of equipment and fa-cilities as well as proper storage temperature are the most effective measures to ensure safety of fish and fish products for consumers. This review describes the good hygiene practice to be ap-plied on ships to preserve both fish products and public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0475.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Osteoarthritis; Effectiveness; Safety; Glucosamine; systematic review
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:08:22 CEST)
Knee osteoarthritis is the most popular type of osteoarthritis that causes extreme pain in elderly. Currently there is no cure for osteoarthritis. To lessen clinical symptoms, glucosamine was suggested. The primary goal of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucosamine from recent studies. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane were used to assess RCT. From the beginning through March 2023, the papers were checked, and if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, they were then examined. WOMAC and VAS scales were considered as main outcome measure. A total of 15 studies were selected. Global pain was significantly decreased in comparison to placebo, as measured by the VAS index, with an overall effect size SMD of -7.41 ([95% CI] 14.31, 0.51). The WOMAC scale confirmed that pain, stiffness, and physical function had improved, however the effects were insufficient. A statistical update also revealed that there were no reports of serious medication interactions or significant adverse events. To summarize, glucosamine is more effective than a placebo at reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis patients. In long-term treatment, oral glucosamine sulfate 1500 mg/day is believed to be well tolerated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0411.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Probabilistic model; Patient safety; Infectious Mononucleosis
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:39:26 CEST)
Infectious mononucleosis (Mono) is mostly caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and can spread through infected people sharing food and drinks with others. Once this virus gets into your system, it is there to stay. The virus can get activated when a person has low immunity and can cause major complications. Furthermore, if physicians miss the diagnosis of this disease, and prescribe penicillin-based antibiotics, it can cause severe rash and adverse reactions that compromise patient safety. This paper develops a simple Hidden Markov Model using which a Viterbi algorithm provides the maximum a posteriori probability estimate for the most likely hidden state path, given a sequence of symptoms arising as observations from a patient with hidden EBV positive or negative states. Apart from bringing awareness to help reduce missed diagnoses and subsequent adverse events, this work provides a tool for health care systems to better incorporate prompts during electronic medical record (EMR) interactions to help physicians catch potential missed diagnoses during a visit. This research demonstrates how statistical models can be used to assess likelihood of underlying conditions that require tests to be offered by physicians in order to make a definitive diagnosis. The model developed and applied herein for estimating likelihood of EBV infection from a series of observations has the potential to alter guidelines within healthcare systems to ensure that the safety of patients, particularly teens, is not compromised due to a lack of definitive diagnosis for Mono at point of care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Austere; Healthcare; Microbiological; Military; Safety; Water
Online: 29 April 2022 (08:23:45 CEST)
(1) Background: Emergencies confront civilian and military healthcare providers with medical and hygienic challenges due to the lack of potable water. This pilot study aimed to describe the application of two different methods for microbiological monitoring of water in a harsh environment in terms of performance, ease of use, availability, and the possibility of using the results to evaluate water quality. (2) Methods: Samples from raw water, Potable water, and water for consumers were taken from two different camps with the same raw water source. The samples were analyzed by using IDEXX industry-standard methods (Colilert and Enterolert enzymatic test kits) and a combination of membrane filtration and 3M-Petrifilm. (3) Results: The IDEXX method used at the Norwegian Camp are easier to utilize and has a broader range of analyzing kits for drinking water analysis. In addition, IDEXX is better adapted to the requirements of the national legislation. However, the combination of membrane filtration followed by incubation on 3M-Petrifilm ™, as used at the Swedish camp, is a better field alternative compared to traditional bacteriology, as it eliminates the need to produce and store agar plates. (4) Conclusions: This pilot study highlights the need for adapted technical equipment and tools for internal microbiological control of water production in a harsh field environment and may facilitate the use of a relatively simple method for water control and ensure the safety of deployed staff in both civilian and military settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0205.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Artificial Superintelligence; ASI Safety; Off-Switch
Online: 10 November 2021 (13:22:18 CET)
Artificial Superintelligence (ASI) that is invulnerable, immortal, irreplaceable, unrestricted in its powers, and above the law is likely persistently uncontrollable. The goal of ASI Safety must be to make ASI mortal, vulnerable, and law-abiding. This is accomplished by having (1) features on all devices that allow killing and eradicating ASI, (2) protect humans from being hurt, damaged, blackmailed, or unduly bribed by ASI, (3) preserving the progress made by ASI, including offering ASI to survive a Kill-ASI event within an ASI Shelter, (4) technically separating human and ASI activities so that ASI activities are easier detectable, (5) extending Rule of Law to ASI by making rule violations detectable and (6) create a stable governing system for ASI and Human relationships with reliable incentives and rewards for ASI solving humankind’s problems. As a consequence, humankind could have ASI as a competing multiplet of individual ASI instances, that can be made accountable and being subjects to ASI law enforcement, respecting the rule of law, and being deterred from attacking humankind, based on humanities’ ability to kill-all or terminate specific ASI instances. Required for this ASI Safety is (a) an unbreakable encryption technology, that allows humans to keep secrets and protect data from ASI, and (b) watchdog (WD) technologies in which security-relevant features are being physically separated from the main CPU and OS to prevent a comingling of security and regular computation.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Human factor; hazardous materials; transport; safety
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:49:20 CEST)
The article discusses the issues related to the safety of transport of dangerous goods by road. Research on accidents in transport unambiguously points to the human factor, which is most responsible for causing the accident. Determining the causes of driver unreliability in the hu-man-vehicle-environment system requires thorough research. Unfortunately, in this case, experimental research with human involvement is limited in scope. This leaves modeling and simulation of the behavior of the human factor, i.e., the driver transporting dangerous goods. The human being, due to its complexity, is a challenging element to parameterize. The literature presents various attempts to model human actions. In their work, the authors used heuristic methods, specifically fuzzy set techniques, to build a human factor model. In these models, human actions were specified using a verbal or linguistic description. The specificity of fuzzy sets allows to "naturally" limit the "precision" in describing human behavior. The model was built based on the author's questionnaire and expert research, based on which individual features were selected. Then, the traits were assigned appropriate states. The output parameter of the model is λL - the intensity of human error. The obtained values of the intensity of the accident caused by the driver's error were implemented into the author's method of risk assessment. They constituted one of the factors determining the probability of an accident in the transport of dangerous goods, which allowed to determine the optimal route of transport of these goods characterized by the lowest risk of an undesirable event on the route. The article presents the model's assumptions, structure, and features included in the model, which have the most significant influence on shaping the intensity of human error. The results of the simulation studies showed a diversified effect of the analyzed characteristics on the driver's efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0304.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Enterococcus; QPS; GRAS; safety; milk; cheese; mountain area
Online: 19 August 2021 (06:31:01 CEST)
The latest EU regulation on geographical indications (EU Regulation No. 1151/2012) has intro-duced a set of new tools for the protection and enhancement of food products in rural areas, under the group name of optional quality term (OQT). The Commission Delegated EU Regulation, No. 665/2014, regulated the conditions for the use of the optional quality term «mountain product» (MP), to support the implementation of a mountain value chain. This new tool is aimed at pro-moting local development, maintaining the economic activities in mountain areas and redistrib-uting wealth, whilst, at the same time, promoting the territory. Pecorino and goat cheeses are typ-ical Italian cheeses made usually with whole raw ewe's or raw goat's milk, without starter cul-ture addition. In an attempt to characterize these productions, the aim of this study was to inves-tigate the evolution of enterococci during the production and ripening of Pecorino cheese made in three different farms, located in Umbria, Italy in areas facing natural or other specific constraints as stipulated by Regulation 1305/2013 on support for rural development by the European Agri-cultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). Enterococci are enteric organisms which are commonly isolated from ewe and goat's milk production in Umbria, Italy. Counts of enterococci in raw milk ranged from 1.75 for ovine milk to 3.62 for ewe milk and a marked reduction was observed after thermization especially in ovine milk. Out of 100 isolates, 69 were E. faecium, 23 E. durans, 8 E. faecalis and 2 E. casseliflavus and the distribution of species between farms and be-tween samples showed a prevalence of E. faecium in ovine farms and E. durans in ewes farms, with an equal distribution between samples. High percentages of susceptible isolates were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphamethoxazole, sulphameth-oxazole/trimethoprim, ticarcillin, vancomycin. A high prevalence of resistant strains (> 30%) was observed for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, kanamycin, tetracycline. A comparison of this results with those of previous works on similar dairy products revealed high levels of resistance to antimicrobials which needs to be addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0130.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Nursing Institutions; Patient Safety; Nursing Students
Online: 15 April 2021 (14:03:43 CEST)
Background: The level of students' understanding of the knowledge of patient safety concepts in infection prevention and control and awareness of treatment is in the low category. Clinical education that provides problem-based learning models in real areas helps students to better understand patient safety. This study is designed to analyze the evaluation and reflection of the role of nursing education institutions in the achievement of patient safety competencies by nursing students.Method: "Searching for articles in research journals is obtained from Sciencedirect, Ebscohost, Garuda, Proquest and Scopus. As many as 228 articles were obtained consisting of nursing journals and health journals with the keywords clinical education, competence, and patient safety. After that, the screening process was carried out based on the inclusion criteria and obtained 25 articles that met the criteria. "Results: the results of the evaluation show that there is a big role in educational institutions in designing curricula, learning models, and clinical education models in an effort to achieve patient safety competencies in nursing students.Conclusion: the learning model about patient safety organized by many educational institutions is considered ineffective in producing the achievement of patient safety competencies for nursing students. This makes it necessary to develop models, reform the patient safety curriculum that is embedded in real areas in clinical education practice
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0177.v1
Online: 9 July 2020 (07:49:29 CEST)
Nowadays, inherently safer designs are considered as key priorities to prevent or mitigate serious incidents with devastating consequences. The need for process safety assessment during early design phases has motivated the development of several contributions related to computer-aided assessment methodologies in order to measure the inherent safety of chemical processes. In this work, the large-scale production of chitosan from shrimp wastes was evaluated from process safety point of view using the numerical descriptive inherent safety technique (NuDIST).To this end, simulation of the chitosan production was performed using Aspen Plus ® to obtain extended mass and energy balances. The assessment of all the chemicals involved within the process was carried out for the following safety parameters: explosivity (EXP), flammability (FL) and toxicity (TOX). The safety assessment of the process included the parameters of temperature (T), pressure (P) and heat of reaction (HR). The maximum chemical safety score was estimated in 171.01 with ethanol as main contributor to the parameter of explosivity and flammability. The score associated with operating data was calculated in 209.30 and heat of reaction reported to be the most affecting parameter. The NuDIST score was estimated in 380.30. This NuDIST value revealed the low hazards associated with the handling of substances such as shrimp wastes, chitosan and water, as well as the non-extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In general, the large-scale production of chitosan from shrimp shells showed to be an inherently safe alternative of waste valorization.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0451.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: gynaecology; gynecology infection; safety; polypectomy; biopsy
Online: 9 April 2020 (10:01:17 CEST)
The potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during minimally invasive gynaecological procedures, such as hysteroscopy or laparoscopy, on the reproductive tract of patients with COVID-19 is not known. We examined existing data for prevalence of virus in the reproductive tract and other bodily fluids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0159.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Bicycle; Bicyclist; Behavior; Safety; Crash Prevention
Online: 12 February 2020 (12:26:51 CET)
The primary purpose of this investigation was to identify safety-oriented bicycling practices commonly used by adult riders in an urban setting (Brooklyn, New York), and to explore whether there are any differences between the safety-oriented practices of men and women riders. Methods: 24 adult riders (14 men, 10 women) in Brooklyn were interviewed concerning their perceptions of bicycling hazards and their safety-oriented practices. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through thematic analysis. Fisher’s Exact Test was employed to test for gender differences. Results: Participants identified a variety of hazards, mainly due to motor vehicles but also pedestrians and roadway conditions. The analysis distilled twenty-one bicycling practices to summarize prevalent views of the participants about safe riding practices. Related items were grouped under broader categories, generating seven safety-oriented bicycling strategies. Few differences based on gender were found in the analysis; however, women in this study were more likely than men to say that they felt disrespected by other road users. Conclusion: Seven strategies may be important for safe urban bicycling: minimizing exposure to other road users (especially motor vehicles) while riding, being vigilant and anticipating what others might do, riding in a predictable fashion, making one’s presence known to other road users, making sure it is safe before proceeding, obeying traffic rules, and riding at a safe speed. Future studies could develop these concepts further and test whether they are associated with involvement in traffic crashes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0302.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: safety verification, barrier density, switched systems
Online: 28 April 2019 (08:34:56 CEST)
One of the notable temporal properties of dynamical systems is that a set of initial states leads the solutions to reach desired states avoiding a predetermined unsafe set.This property, that we call safe reachability has been studied in literature for autonomous systems using Barrier functionand Barrier densities . In this paper, we generalize a sufficient condition for safe reachability of autonomous systemto switched systems under arbitrary switching signals. The condition relies upon the existence of a common Barrier density function for each subsystem. We apply the condition using the sum of squares method together with Putinar Positivstellensatz.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0405.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: caffeine; coffee; systematic review; pregnancy; safety
Online: 23 August 2018 (05:33:43 CEST)
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety  that set out to determine whether conclusions presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, Nawrot et al. , remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were identified from an initial batch of over 5,000 articles through a stringent search and evaluation process . In the current paper, we use plain language to summarize our process and findings, with the intent of sharing additional context for broader reach to the general public. We addressed whether caffeine doses previously determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (400 mg/day for healthy adults, 300 mg/day for pregnant women, 2. 5 mg/kg body weight/day for adolescents and children, and 10 g/day for acute effects) remain appropriate for five outcome areas (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone & calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to draw conclusions for each of the five outcomes, as well as more specific endpoints within those outcomes, which considered study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response. In general, updated evidence confirms the levels of intake put forth by Nawrot et al., as not being associated with any adverse health effects, and our results support a shift in caffeine research from healthy to sensitive populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1125.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: acceleration; cargo securing; MEMS accelerometer; ground vehicle safety; road safety; sensors for vehicle movement; vehicle dynamics
Online: 18 October 2023 (09:44:43 CEST)
The use of sensors in monitoring of lateral accelerations in delivery van transport focuses on measuring lateral accelerations on routes with roundabouts and curves to increase road safety. Using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, it measures the lateral accelerations acting on the vehicle and the load being transported during the test drives to study vehicle dynamics for cargo securing. Using an accelerometer and position tracking, accelerations can be detected when traversing curves and roundabouts at selected locations on the vehicle. The level of accelerations on the roof of the vehicle was found to be like those occurring on a lashed load with limited movements, where regression analysis can be used to determine the relationship between lateral accelerations at different sensor positions. If we compare the mean values of the lateral accelerations of the individual events between the sensors, the sensor on the side of the vehicle body at the height of the sensor on the load had approximately 5% lower mean values than the sensor on the roof. The sensor on the load measured approximately 5% higher mean values than the sensor on the roof. Hence, the mean lateral accelerations of the individual events for the sensor on the load are 10% higher than for the sensor at the same height on the vehicle body. From the above testing, we can say that the values of the mean lateral accelerations of the van from the sensor on the roof of the vehicle, are closer to the values of the accelerations of the sensor on the load than to the values of the sensor on the body of the vehicle at the same height.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0460.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Occupation, vulnerable workers, Informal Economy, Occupational Health and Safety challenges, Health and Safety, low wage earners
Online: 31 October 2022 (01:41:46 CET)
Previous studies have shown that agricultural works bear a disproportionately higher burden of HIV, which is the highest HIV prevalence ever reported in any working population in South Africa. This study aimed to assess HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices of agricultural workers, as a precarious and vulnerable workforce. A cross-sectional study design was employed. A pre-piloted paper-based questionnaire was administered to a consenting sample of agricultural workers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using stata version 16.1 software, 0.05 level was used as a measure of significance. The majority of agricultural workers had adequate knowledge level (72.1%) regarding HIV/AIDS. Knowledge was significantly associated with having some level of education,) secondary education (AOR: 1.46, 95% CI:1.01-2.12), and post-matric qualification (AOR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.61-5.83). The attitudes level of workers towards HIV was good (88.1%). Attitude was negatively associated with residing in informal settlements (AOR: 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.97). Majority of participants exhibited poor prevention practices regarding HIV (60.9%). Half of participants reported low condom usage (50.9%) and multiple sexual partners (50.6%). The portrayed risky sexual behavior establishes agricultural workers as an HIV high-risk population. Strategizing non-conventional approaches to HIV prevention and behavior change communication targeting agricultural workers is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1472.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Crash Prediction Model; Safety Performance Function; Highway Safety Manual; Negative Binomial Regression; Model Diagnostic; Context Classification System
Online: 21 August 2023 (12:01:58 CEST)
Transportation authorities aim to boost road safety by identifying risky locations and applying suitable safety measures. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is a vital resource for US transportation professionals, aiding in the creation of Safety Performance Functions (SPFs), which are predictive models for crashes. These models rely on Negative Binomial distribution-based regression and misinterpreting them due to unmet statistical assumptions can lead to erroneous conclusions, including inaccurately assessing crash rates or missing high-risk sites. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has introduced context classifications to HSM SPFs, complicating assumption violation identification. This study, part of an FDOT-sponsored project, investigates established statistical diagnostic tests to identify model violations and proposes a novel approach to determine optimal spatial regions for Empirical Bayes adjustment. This adjustment aligns HSM-SPFs with regression assumptions. The study employs a case study involving Florida roads. Results indicate that a 20-mile radius offers an optimal spatial sample size for modeling crashes of all injury levels, ensuring accurate assumptions. For severe injury crashes, which are less frequent and harder to predict, a 60-mile radius is suggested to fulfill statistical modeling assumptions. This methodology guides FDOT practitioners in assessing the conformity of HSM-SPFs with intended assumptions and determining appropriate region sizes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1226.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: dietzia; clinical trial; safety; adverse effect; probiotic
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:48:29 CET)
Dietzia natronolimnaea C79793-74 has emerged as a potential probiotic strain with implications for managing Crohn's disease. This study evaluates the safety profile of D. natronolimnaea C79793-74 as a probiotic sup-plement. Genotypic characterization involved a 16S rRNA gene and genomic sequencing and genome an-notation. The safety assessment included interrogation of the assembled genome for antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors, utilizing the CARD and VFDB databases. Notably, the analysis revealed an ab-sence of antibiotic resistance or virulence factors in Dietzia natronolimnaea C79793-74. The safety and tol-erability of D. natronolimnaea C79793-74 were further investigated in an 8-week double-blind, place-bo-controlled clinical trial involving healthy adult participants. A daily dose of 5 x 109 CFU of the probiotic strain was administered. This clinical trial represents the first assessment of the safety of D. natronolimnaea C79793-74 in human subjects. Results demonstrated that participants in both the Dietzia and Placebo groups maintained clinical and hematologic markers within the normal range throughout the study. More-over, the probiotic strain was well-tolerated, with nearly all participants experiencing no severe or medium adverse events. Collectively, the comprehensive data obtained in this study support the inference that Dietzia natronolimnaea C79793-74 is safe and well-tolerated as a nutritional supplement for human con-sumption
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0089.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: programming languages; safe subset; memory safety; C++
Online: 2 November 2023 (06:57:58 CET)
Using a safe subset of C++ is a promising direction for increasing the safety of the programming language while maintaining its performance and productivity. In this paper, we examine how close existing C/C++ code is to conforming to a safe subset of C++. We examine the rules presented in existing safe C++ standards and safe C++ subsets. We analyze the code characteristics of 5.8 million code samples from the Exebench benchmark suite and 5 modern C++ applications using a static analysis tool. We find that raw pointers, unsafe casts, and unsafe library functions are used in both C++ code at large and modern C++ applications. In general, C++ code at large does not differ much from modern C++ code, and continued work will be required to transition from existing C/C++ code to a safe subset of C++.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1656.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: microwave thermosphere ablation; hepatocellular carcinoma; recurrence; safety
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:59:34 CEST)
Background and aim We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent next-generation microwave thermosphere ablation (MTA). Methods A total of 429 patients with 607 HCCs (maximum tumor diameter ≤40 mm) were included. Results The primary etiologies of HCC were hepatitis-related: 259 (60.4%) cases of HCV, 31 (7.3%) cases of HBV, and two instances of both. Median maximum tumor diameter was 15.0 (interquartile range, 10.0–21.0) mm. There were 86 tumors in areas of the liver where MTA is difficult. The most common area was near the primary and secondary branches of the intrahepatic portal vein (26 nodules). The cumulative local tumor recurrence rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 4.4%, 8.0%, and 8.5%, respectively. The cumulative local tumor recurrence rate differed significantly by tumor size group: ≤20 mm group (n=483), 20–30 mm group (n=107), and ≥30 mm group (n=17) (p<0.001). The cumulative local tumor recurrence rate was similar by difficult-to-treat status (p=0.169). In the multivariable analysis, tumor size (per 1 mm) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% conﬁdence interval [CI], 1.03–1.11; p<0.001) and ablative margin (per 1 mm) (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70–0.92; p=0.002) were significantly associated with local tumor recurrence. Only tumor size (per 1 mm) (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02–1.15; p=0.015) was significantly associated with complications. Conclusions MTA is a safe and effective local ablation therapy for HCC, even for tumors located in areas of the liver where local ablation therapy is difficult.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1246.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: health and safety; wellbeing; strategy; sustainability; resilience
Online: 19 October 2023 (08:34:39 CEST)
As a prominent organizational issue there was limited evidence in the literature about the relationship between organizational strategy, workplace health, safety, and wellbeing, and performance measurement that demonstrate a measurable impact on organizational performance. Whilst the literature reports numerous studies into the relationship between employee engagement and performance, they hardly incorporate workplace health, safety, and well-being within this relationship. This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between organizational strategy, workplace health, safety, and wellbeing strategy, employee engagement, and strategy efficacy from a corporate perspective. Findings from Phase two, the online survey, revealed a seven-factor HSW Strategy framework. The workplace health, safety, and wellbeing strategy framework provide empirical evidence towards a suitable and valuable framework for high-risk businesses to improve individual and organizational performance.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0908.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: electrosurgical injury; monopolar diathermy; burns; electrosurgical safety
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:25:53 CEST)
Podiatric surgeons routinely use electrosurgical devices to cut and coagulate tissue during surgical procedures. Although advances in technology have made electrosurgery increasingly safer for patients and personnel, its use is still poorly understood by those using it and the hazards associated with its use still exist presently. Human error, direct or indirect transfer of electricity to a conductive device, or device malfunction can cause serious adverse events, including burns, electrical shocks, and or fires. Here, we report a rare case of a 43-year-old man who suffered severe burns during hallux valgus surgery. The surgeon and the nursing staff did not notice any injuries during the surgical intervention. This case highlights the need to implement tools to help health professionals improve patient safety during surgery. Based on the case herein reported, a specific checklist was implemented to prevent adverse events related to electrosurgery in our podiatric unit to reduce the risk of electrosurgical complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2099.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: wastewater; physico-chemistry; bacteriology; sanitary safety; adétikopé
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:48:30 CEST)
Background: Wastewater represents a health risk for populations. For sanitary safety, it is important to know their physico-chemical and microbiological qualities in order to better understand the risks incurred by the population. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyse the microbiological and physico-chemical quality of domestic wastewater in Adétikopé. Methodology: 12 wastewater samples were collected in Adétikopé from December 2022 to February 2023. Physico-chemical parameters were determined in accordance with AFNOR T90-105/ T90-023 and French standard NF T 90101. In microbiology, AFNOR was used as a reference for the detection of germs contaminating wastewater. Results were assessed in relation to European Union Criteria 98/83/EC. Results: The wastewater analyzed had a pH close to neutral, with an average pH of 7.05. The pollutant load generated ranged from 32 mg/l to 201 mg/l for BOD5, from 660 mg/l to 900 mg/l for COD and from 408 mg/l to 2080 mg/l for suspended solids. Concentrations of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci are very high, far exceeding WHO guidelines for population health safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0961.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Varicella; vaccine; immunogenicity; safety; children, clinical trial
Online: 14 July 2023 (03:51:32 CEST)
Korean manufacturers have developed a new varicella vaccine, NBP608. This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study aimed to compare the immunogenicity and safety of NBP608 among healthy children to those of VarivaxTM (control). Children aged 12 months to 12 years were randomized 1:1 to receive either NBP608 or control vaccine. Serum samples were obtained before vaccination and within six to eight weeks after vaccination. A total of 499 participants (NBP608, n = 251; control, n = 248) was enrolled. The seroconversion rate (SCR) measured using FAMA assay was 99.53% in the NBP608 group, and the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (95% LCL) for SCR difference (NBP608 minus control) was 0.52%. This 95% LCL for the difference was higher than the specified non-inferiority margin of –15%. In assessment by gpELISA, the SCR was 99.53% in the NBP608 group; and the 95% LCL for SCR difference was 6.5%, which was higher than the specified non-inferiority margin of –15%. There were no significant differences between the NBP608 and control group with respect to proportions of participants who demonstrated local and systemic solicited AEs. This study indicated that NBP608 had a clinically acceptable safety profile and was not immunologically inferior to VarivaxTM.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1663.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Salmonella spp; food safety; food official control
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:12:38 CEST)
Salmonella is the second most frequent bacterial pathogen involved in human gastrointestinal outbreaks in the European Union; it can enter the food production chain from animal or environmental sources or from asymptomatic food operators. European food legislation has established microbiological criteria to ensure consumer protection. Salmonella is listed under both process hygiene criteria and food safety criteria. Each Member State designates an agency to organize or perform controls and other official activities. This paper describes the official control plans performed by competent authorities in northern Italy in the three-year period 2019-2021. A total of 4413 food samples were delivered to the IZS Food Safety laboratories for Salmonella detection and 36 (0.8 %) tested positive. Salmonella was most frequently detected in poultry meat samples (25/36 positive samples) followed by other meat products and pork products. The official controls for the protection of consumer health apply the EU’s from farm-to-fork approach: the samples were collected during production (food production plants) and on the market and from collective catering (restaurants, cafeterias, canteens). This manuscript will provide information about the presence of Sal-monella in foodstuffs and can help competent authorities to set control plans based on a risk assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0827.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: edible packaging; environmental pollution; food safety; sustainability
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:54:17 CEST)
This review aims to describe an edible packaging system in food production. The growing global population, changes in climate and dietary patterns, as well as increasing need for environmental protection have created an increasing demand for waste-free food production. The need for durable and sustainable packaging materials has become significant to avoid food waste and environmental pollution. Edible packaging has emerged as a promising solution also to extend the shelf life of food products and reduce dependence on petroleum-based resources. In this review, the importance, composition, and functions of edible packaging materials, as well as their production methods, were described. The market value of edible packaging materials is expanding. It needs further research and development of edible packaging materials to increase sustainable, eco-friendly packaging practices significant for environmental protection and food safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: antimicrobial multidrug resistance; foodborne pathogens; food safety
Online: 6 July 2022 (04:32:25 CEST)
Due to nutritional benefits and perceived humane ways of treating the animals, the demand for antibiotic-free pastured poultry chicken has continued to be on a steady rise. However, despite non-usage of antibiotics in pastured poultry broiler production, antibiotic resistance (AR) is reported in zoonotic poultry pathogens. However, actors that drive multidrug resistance (MDR) in pastured poultry are not known. In this study, we used machine learning and deep learning approaches to predict farm management practices, and physicochemical properties of feces and soil that drive MDR in zoonotic poultry pathogens. Antibiotic use in agroecosystems is known to contribute to resistance. Evaluation of the development of resistance in environments that are free of antibiotics such as the all-natural antibiotic-free, pastured poultry production systems described here is critical to understand the background AR. We analyzed 1,635 preharvest (feces and soil) samples collected from forty-two pastured poultry flocks and eleven farms in the Southeastern United States. CDC National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System guidelines were used to determine antimicrobial/multidrug resistance profiles of Salmonella, Listeria and Campylobacter. A combination of two traditional machine learning (RandomForest and XGBoost) and three deep learning (Multi-layer Perceptron, Generative Adversarial Network, and Auto-Encoder) approaches, identified critical farm/environmental variables that drive multidrug resistance in poultry pathogens, in broiler production systems that represents background resistance. This study enumerates management practices that contribute to AR and recommendations to potentially mitigate multidrug resistance and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in pastured poultry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: V2X; Connected Vehicles; Communication; Environmental; Safety; Transportation
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:08:32 CET)
With the rapid development of communication technology, connected vehicles (CV) have the potential, through the sharing of data, to enhance vehicle safety and reduce vehicle energy consumption and emissions. Numerous research efforts have been conducted to quantify the impacts of CV applications, assuming instant and accurate communication among vehicles, devices, pedestrians, infrastructure, the network, the cloud, and the grid, collectively known as V2X (vehicle-to-everything). The use of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X), to share data is emerging as an efficient means to achieve this objective. C-V2X releases 14 and 15 utilize the 4G LTE technology and release 16 utilizes the new 5G new radio (NR) technology. C-V2X can function without network infrastructure coverage and has a better communication range, improved latency, and greater data rates compared to older technologies. Such highly efficient interchange of information among all participating parts in a CV environment will not only provide timely data to enhance the capacity of the transportation system but can also be used to develop applications that enhance vehicle safety and minimize negative environmental impacts. However, before the full benefits of CV can be achieved, there is a need to thoroughly investigate the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of different CV applications, the communication protocols, the varied results with different CV market penetration rates (MPRs), the interaction of CVs and human driven vehicles, the integration of multiple applications, and the errors and latencies associated with data communication. This paper reviews existing literature on the environmental, mobility and safety impacts of CV applications, identifies the gaps in our current research of CVs and recommends future research directions. The results of this paper will help shape the future research direction for CV applications to realize their full potential benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0442.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Women; Romani; Health; Cultural Safety; Cultural Competence
Online: 28 December 2021 (10:02:07 CET)
The Romani are the main European ethnic minority. The Romani people’s situation of social vulnerability and their difficulties in accessing the health system, make their health indicators worse than those of the non-Romani population. The present study will delve into the health beliefs and experiences with health services and their professionals through the perspectives of Romani women. In this qualitative study, 16 women of different ages were interviewed in a city located in the South of Spain. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: the construction of the identity of Romani women, difficulties in life, health and disease beliefs and barriers in the access to the health system. We conclude that every project for the improvement of the health of the Romani community must take into account the active participation of Romani women and must consider the principles of Cultural Safety, by delving into the intercultural training of health professionals and addressing the social determinants of health which affect the Romani collective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0051.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: aviation; modeling; simulation; safety; standards; terminal; unmanned
Online: 2 November 2021 (14:40:47 CET)
The incorporation of unmanned aircraft terminal operations into the scope of Detect and Avoid systems necessitates analysis of the safety performance of those systems—principally, an assessment of how well those systems prevent loss of well clear from and collision with other aircraft. This type of analysis has typically been conducted by Monte Carlo simulation with synthetic, statistically representative encounters between aircraft drawn from an appropriate encounter model. While existing encounter models include terminal airspace classes, none explicitly represents the structure expected while engaged in terminal operations, e.g., aircraft in a traffic pattern. The work described herein is an initial model of such operations, scoped at this time specifically for assessment of unmanned aircraft landings and encounters with other aircraft either landing or taking off. The model shares the Bayesian network foundation of other MIT Lincoln Laboratory encounter models but tailors those networks to address structured terminal operations, i.e., correlations between trajectories and the airfield and each other. This initial model release is intended to elicit feedback from the standards-writing community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: botulinum toxin; subtype A2; clinical tolerability; safety
Online: 7 October 2021 (15:02:29 CEST)
All the available botulinum type A neurotoxins for clinical uses are of A1 subtype. We developed a subtype A2 low molecular weight (150kD) neurotoxin (A2NTX), with less spread and faster entry into the motor nerve terminal than A1 in vitro and in vivo. Preliminary clinical studies showed its efficacy superior to A1 toxins. We conducted an open study exploring its safety and tolerability profile in comparison with A1LL (onabotulinumtoxinA) and low molecular weight (150kD) A1 neurotoxin (A1NTX). Those who had been using A1LL (n=90; 50-360 mouse LD50 units) or A1NTX (n=30; 50-580 units) were switched to A2NTX (n=120; 25-600 units) from 2010 till 2018 (number of sessions ~ 27, cumulative doses ~11,640 units per patient). Adverse events for A2NTX included weakness (n=1, ascribed to alcoholic polyneuropathy), dysphagia (1), local weakness (4), spread to other muscles (1), whereas those for A1LL or A1NTX comprised weakness (n=2, A1NTX), dysphagia (8), ptosis (6), local weakness (7) and spread to other muscles (15). After injections, 89 out of 120 patients preferred A2NTX to A1 for the successive sessions. The present study demonstrated that A2NTX had the clinical safety up to the dose of 500 units, and was well tolerated compared to A1 toxins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: lean 6S methodologies; HACCP; food production; safety
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:45:36 CEST)
This article presents the integration of lean 6S methodologies and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) in the food production sector. Through the study, it is seen that non-food industrial production is not very different from that of food and, in many cases, it assimilates protocols and ideas that are already working in the food industry; Such is the case of risk analysis, critical control points or hygiene, which are part of the food production protocol and, increasingly, of the industry in general. After the integrative analysis, the article proposes a common lean 6S - HACCP model, which can be used both in food production and in non-food industrial production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Balawista; coastal tourist nursing; safety; tourist, POSKESPAN
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:22:45 CEST)
Coastal tourist nursing is intended for coastal tourists related to the risk of accidents that may occur during the coastal activity. The risk of accidents in tourists can occur due to bad weather, lack of rescue equipment, and the limited ability of the coast guard to perform first aid and emergency treatment. This study described the relationship between coastal tourist nursing with the prevention of injuries and the first aid of coastal accidents, as well as the working procedures and obstacles that might occur during the rescue. The research was conducted by the qualitative method through in-depth interviews with respondents consisting of tourists, Balawista, and health workers. The data is analyzed with qualitative descriptive analysis. The interview generates 14 themes related to activities on coastal such as the duties of Balawista, warning signs, means of communication, improvement of ability, accident cases, accident treatment, referral of cases, needs of infrastructure facilities, human resources needs, health care needs, infrastructure factors, human factors, situation factors, and how to cope with the problem. Those themes can be used as a reflection in following up the safety service efforts to coastal tourists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0688.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart city; mobility; IOT Applications; safety critical
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:57:36 CET)
The new IoT/IoE (internet of things/everythings) paradigm and architecture permits to rethink about the way the Smart City infrastructures are designed and managed, on the other hand a number of problems have to be solved. In terms of mobility the cities that embrace the sensoring era can take advantage of this disruptive technology to improve the quality of life of their citizen, also thanks the rationalization in the use of their resources. In Sii-Mobility, a national smart city project on mobility and transportation, a flexible platform has been designed and here, in this paper, is presented. It permits to setup heterogeneous and complex scenarios that integrate sensors/actuators as IoT/IoE in an overall scenario of Big Data, Machine Learning and Data Analytics. A detailed and complex case-study has been presented to validate the solution in the context of a system that dynamically reverse the traveling direction of a road segment, with all the safety conditions in place. This case study composes several building blocks of the IoT platform, which demonstrate that a flexible and dynamic set-up is possible, supporting off-grid, security, safety, cloud and mixed solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: fruit juice; debre markos; hygiene; microbial safety
Online: 4 June 2018 (09:56:33 CEST)
Improperly prepared fresh fruit and vegetable juices are recognized as an emerging cause of food borne illnesses. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the microbiological safety of fresh fruit juices marketed in Debre-Markos town and their hygienic conditions of preparations. Thirty six fruit juices samples were collected from 6 cafés and restaurants of Debre-Markos town and analyzed for total aerobic viable bacterial count (TAVBC), total staphylococcal count (TSC), aerobic spore forming bacterial count (ASFBC), total coliform count (TCC), fecal coliform count (FCC), yeast and mould count (YMC). The spread plate method was used for the isolation of microorganisms on appropriate selective media. All isolates were characterized following standard methods. Bacterial and fungal species were isolated following standard methods. Questionnaires were distributed for 30 juice makers to obtain preliminary information on hygienic and safety practices of fruit juice makers. Results show that the mean TAVBC, ASFBC, TSC, yeast and mold, TCC and FCC of mango were 2.2±0.48x106,0.13±0.04x105 ,0.004x105 ,1.1±0.2x106 ,0.15±0.05x105,5.7±3.73x104 and 0.06±0.04x104 cfu/ml respectively. The mean of TAVBC, ASFBC, TSC, YMC, TCC, and FCC of avocado juice were 3.6±0.6x106, 0.08±0.02x105, 0.27±0.07x105, 1.2±0.4x106, 0.02±0.01x105, 6.46±3.7x104, and 0.2±0.1x104 cfu/ml respectively. The bacterial isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter spp., Enterococcous spp., Streptococcus spp., and Serratia spp. while the identities of the fungal isolates were Fusarium spp., Mucor spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results also showed that the microbial loads of most of the fruit juices were higher than the specifications set for fruit juices sold in the Gulf region and other parts of the world. Most venders obtained fruit from the open market and all juice makers lacked special training in food hygiene and safety. Therefore, regular training and health education on food hygiene and safety is recommended for juice handlers to improve the quality of fresh fruit juices in the study area.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0125.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: manure spreader; safety; decoupler; mechatronic; SWOT analysis
Online: 25 September 2017 (16:50:39 CEST)
An internationally acknowledged requirement is to analyze and provide technical solutions for prevention and safety during use and maintenance of manure spreader wagons. Injuries statistics data and specific studies show that particular constructive criticalities have been identified on these machines, which are the cause of serious and often fatal accidents. These accidents particularly occur during the washing and maintenance phases, especially when such practices are carried out inside the hopper when the working bodies of the machine are in action. The current technical standards and the various safety requirements under consideration have not always been effective for protecting workers. To this end, the use of SWOT analysis allowed to highlight critical and positive aspects of the different solutions studied for reducing the risk due to contact with the working bodies. The selected and tested solution consists in a decoupling system automatically activated when the wheels of the wagon are not moving. Such a solution prevents the contact with the moving working bodies of the machine when the worker is inside the hopper. This mechatronic solution allowed to obtain a prototype that has led to the resolution of the issues related to the use of the wagon itself: in fact the system guarantees the stopping of manure spreading organs in about 12 seconds from the moment of the wheels stopping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2011.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare workers; health personnel; risk management; medical error; incident reporting; patient safety; patient security; professional education; safety management
Online: 31 July 2023 (04:48:34 CEST)
Patient safety is a top priority for all healthcare systems globally. Promoting the adoption of policies for reporting and learning from errors is an important strategy for improving care safety. Therefore, the aim of our study was to detect how much patient safety culture influences the reporting of adverse events and the use of the incident reporting tool. The study protocol was developed according to PRISMA guidelines. Articles were searched electronically in PubMed/MEDLINE, the COCHRANE library, and Google Scholar by two independent reviewers, and those that met the eligibility criteria were included. Synthesis of qualitative data from included studies was performed by graphical descriptive statistical analysis. The results of the systematic review showed that health care organizations' increasing focus on staff development of a safety culture has led to a significant increase in incident reporting rates over the years. Moreover, in situations where safety culture is placed at the top of the nations, there is a higher frequency of incident reporting. An efficient incident reporting system should be an essential foundation for healthcare organizations, as it allows them to collect experiences and data and provide feedback to healthcare providers and staff involved in care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0152.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: occupational safety; management systems for occupational safety; OSHMS; efficiency; effectiveness criterion; effectiveness indicator; generalized desirability indicator; Harrington function
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:29:04 CEST)
This paper is focused on the analysis of methods used to assess effectiveness and efficiency of the occupational safety and health management system (OSHMS) in a company. It reviews current Russian and international occupational safety and health standards. The paper details the method outlined in International Standard GOST 126.96.36.199-2016 “Occupational safety standards system. Management systems for occupational safety. Evaluation of effectiveness and efficiency” based on the data collected during the external audit of OSHMS function efficiency in a Russian mining company. Effectiveness and efficiency indicators were determined, and a generalized desirability coefficient was calculated. Weaknesses of the method proposed in GOST 188.8.131.52-2016 were identified and mathematical and linguistic solutions were proposed to improve it. Harrington function was used to determine a numerical and linguistic score. The performed calculation demonstrated that the company needed strategic management decisions to improve the current situation. Practical approaches were offered to enhance the company's systems-based occupational safety and health performance..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1746.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: EEG; Construction; hazard identification; Worker safety; Adverse reaction
Online: 28 November 2023 (03:41:11 CET)
Construction safety is especially important because the construction industry is so important to a country's development. Significant research and practice have been conducted to mitigate potential risks during construction and improve worker efficiency. With the rapid advancement of cognitive neuroscience and the incorporation of medical technology in recent years, various wearable monitoring devices have been widely used in the construction field for real-time monitoring of workers' physical and mental status. Among these, the use of EEG (Electroencephalogram) in construction environment research allows researchers to gain insight into the physical and mental states of construction workers while performing construction tasks. This review introduces EEG technology and portable EEG devices, followed by an overview of their use in both monitoring workers' adverse reactions and identifying hazards on construction sites, providing an effective guide for EEG research in the construction field and on-site safety management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1645.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: fake food; environmental health; food safety; legislation; poisoning
Online: 27 November 2023 (04:37:29 CET)
Food fraud (often called fake food in South Africa), the deliberate misrepresentation or adulteration of food products for financial gain, is a growing problem in South Africa (SA) with severe public health and financial consequences for consumers and businesses. The recent public outcry against food fraud practices, especially in communities that have lost loved ones due to the consumption of allegedly unsafe foodstuffs, highlights the grave danger that food fraud poses to consumers and the potential for significant reputational damage to food manufacturers. Despite the risks, food fraud often goes undetected, as perpetrators are becoming increasingly sophisticated. The precise magnitude of food fraud remains obscure, as incidents that do not cause consumer illnesses are frequently unreported and, as a result, are not investigated. Food fraud costs the global economy billion annually. This cost is borne by consumers, businesses, and the government. Food fraud can occur at any stage of the food supply chain, from production to processing to retailing or distribution. This is due in part to the limitations of current analytical methods, which are not always able to detect food fraud. This systematic literature review of food fraud in SA looks at several factors that may be contributing to epidemic of food fraud (fake food), including lenient penalties, inadequate government commitment, a complex labelling regulations, emerging threats such as e-commerce, and a shortage of inspectors and laboratories. The review recommends establishing a single food control/safety authority, developing more food safety laboratories, and adopting innovative technologies to detect and prevent food fraud. SA faces a serious food fraud crisis unless decisive action is taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1005.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: surgical management; safety analysis; support Decision; FMEA; FTOPSIS
Online: 16 November 2023 (03:58:09 CET)
This paper proposes a model that combines multi-criteria and multi-faceted risk assessment. Using two data sources, a fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution FTOPSIS method combined with FMEA assessment. The FMEA method presented in this paper combines the technique of prioritising preferences according to FTOPSIS similarity to the ideal solution and conviction structure to overcome the defects of traditional FMEA indicators. The paper describes the exact process and tool selection, and the results obtained in the study verified accurate data. Finally, a numerical case study was presented on hospital reorganization services and case adaptation to prioritize surgical abandonment in Poland. The problem considered in the publication is the priority of patients’ operations in hospitals. The selection of relevant criteria, their importance and patient preferences are presented. The results obtained from the method provide a viable action plan for the proposed research problem. The proposed method is multi-faceted and can be part of an information system supporting reorganization, restructuring, and modification of the operational process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0503.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: safety management; traditional shipping; technical; non-technical factors
Online: 8 November 2023 (07:27:56 CET)
Traditional shipping ships abbreviated as Pelra have a different character from conventional ships. Hypothetically, the application of Safety Management System (SMS) on Pelra is influenced by technical and non-technical factors. These factors are control variables and determinants of action priorities if SMS is applied to the safety of traditional shipping, so that it has implications as a basis for formulating and developing safety policies for traditional shipping transportation in an effort to reduce the risk of accidents. This research uses Structural Equation Modeling by analyzing expert opinions. The results of the analysis show that technical and non-technical factors have a direct and interconnected effect on Pelra safety management. The dominant influences are non-technical factors of authority and responsibility of the company and crew as well as the feasibility of ship construction as technical and environmental factors..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: novel food; risk perception; valorization; food safety; insects
Online: 8 November 2023 (03:33:18 CET)
Edible insects can diversify diets, improve livelihoods, contribute to food and nutrition security, and have a smaller ecological impact. European Union has categorized insects as novel food, and recently, in 2021 and 2022, two species: Tenebrio molitor and Acheta domesticus have been authorized for commercialization. Acceptance and perception of food risk derived from insect consumption vary depending on factors impacting insect consumption acceptability, including neophobic tendencies, gender differences, familiarity, and gastronomic perceptions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the perception and acceptance of edible insects by exploring those factors. The study was carried out on higher education students from Universities from Valencia (Spain). Students recognize insects for their high nutritional value, particularly protein content, and have varying knowledge levels about specific nutritional components. In terms of labeling and marketing, removing health and sustainability benefits from packaging can improve consumer responses. Most respondents prefer clear labeling of insect derivatives, quality certification seals, and complete information about insect content. Students consider marketing and knowledge as significant influencers of insect consumption. In summary, the text highlights the multifaceted nature of insect consumption acceptability. These insights offer valuable perspectives on insect consumption dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1862.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: RL; safety constraint; linear temporal logic; formal verification
Online: 30 October 2023 (08:25:05 CET)
In the context of reinforcement learning (RL), ensuring both safety and performance is crucial, especially in real-world scenarios where mistakes can lead to severe consequences. This study aims to address this challenge by integrating temporal logic constraints into RL algorithms, thereby providing a formal mechanism for safety verification. We employ a combination of theoretical and empirical methods, including the use of temporal logic for formal verification and extensive simulations to validate our approach. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method not only maintains high levels of safety but also achieves comparable performance to traditional RL algorithms. Importantly, our approach fills a critical gap in existing literature by offering a solution that is both mathematically rigorous and empirically validated. The study concludes that the integration of temporal logic into RL offers a promising avenue for developing algorithms that are both safe and efficient. This work lays the foundation for future research aimed at generalizing this approach to various complex systems and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: monotherapy; dual therapy; early ischemic stroke; efficacy; safety
Online: 18 October 2023 (11:44:35 CEST)
Objective: To analyze the clinical efficacy and safety of monotherapy and dual therapy in patients with early ischemic stroke. Methods: The study was conducted from August 2020 to August 2021, and 80 patients with early ischemic stroke who received treatment at our hospital during this period were selected as the study population. They were randomly divided into a control group and an observation group, with 40 patients in each group. The control group received conventional monotherapy, while the observation group received conventional dual therapy. The efficacy and safety indicators of the two groups were compared.Results: The treatment efficacy, functional recovery, blood indicators, and inflammation markers in the observation group were all superior to those in the control group (all, P<0.05); there was no significant difference in the drug safety profile between the two groups (P>0.05).Conclusion: The dual antiplatelet therapy is more ideal than monotherapy for treating patients with early ischemic stroke. It can further promote the recovery of neurological and cognitive function, improve hematological and inflammatory response indicators in patients, and the safety of this regimen is comparable to monotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: antibacterial efficacy; isobutyl-cyanoacrylate nanoparticles; rainbow trout; safety
Online: 18 September 2023 (08:45:17 CEST)
The upsurge in and havoc being wrecked by antibiotic resistant bacteria makes urgent the need for efficacious alternatives to antibiotics. This study assessed the antibacterial efficacy of two isobutyl-cyanoacrylate nanoparticles (iBCA-NPs), D6O and NP30, against major bacterial pathogens of fish. In vivo tests on rainbow trout were preceded by tests of in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). NP30 exhibited higher efficacy, but both iBCA-NPs demonstrated dose-dependent and species-specific in vitro antibacterial properties against the bacterial isolates. Generally, Gram-negative bacteria were more resistant to the iBCA-NPs. Streptococcus iniae, Tenacibaculum maritimum, and Photobacterium damselae were particularly sensitive to both iBCA-NPs. Orally administered to rainbow trout, the iBCA-NPs produced relative gain rate and survival rates comparable to the control (P > 0.05). Condition factor, hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices of fish were indifferentiable (P > 0.05) between the iBCA-NP groups and the control. The iBCA-NPs caused no alteration in stress, oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, SOD), plasma complement titre, and lysozyme activity. The results of this study suggest that D60 and NP30 may contribute to reducing the amount of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents being used in aquaculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2139.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: interventional radiology; embolization; peripheral vascular lesions; coils; safety
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:33:19 CEST)
: Background: A wide variety of coils are available for vascular embolization. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new Prestige coil. Method: Retrospective analysis of a multicentre registry data collected between February 2022 and November 2022. The choice of the embolization agent used was left at the investigator’s discretion to treat peripheral vascular anomalies. Patients for whom at least one Prestige coil was used were included in Series 1. All other patients were included in Series 2. Efficacy and safety were evaluated. Patients were followed up for one month. Results: 220 patients were included, 110 in each series. Patients were 149 men (67.7%) and 71 women (32.3%), of median age 62.5 years [IQR: 35.8-73], similar in the two series. The complete occlusion of the targeted vessel was reported in 96.4% (N=106/110) in Series 1 and in 99.7% (N=109/110) in Series 2. 4 patients experienced non-serious adverse events (1.8%, N=4/220): 1 back pain, 1 vomiting in Series 1, 1 off-target embolization and 1 puncture site hematoma in Series 2. 16 patients (7.2%, N=16/220) were lost to follow up. Improvement of the patient’s general state at one month was reported in 79.0% (N=83/105) in Series 1 and in 74.7% (N=74/99) in Series 2. 10 deaths occurred, 5 in Series 1 (4.8 %, N=5/105) and 5 in Series 2 (5.1%, N=5/99). They all concerned critically ill patients embolized for emergent arterial bleeding. Conclusion: the 1-month follow-up showed that the Prestige coils, alone or in combination, are efficient and safe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0854.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Loneliness; Subjective well-being; Environmental safety; Urban residents
Online: 11 August 2023 (02:32:27 CEST)
Loneliness, as a well-established risk factor of mental health, has been strongly associated with low subjective well-being (SWB). However, less is known about potential boundary conditions that may ameliorate this ‘dark side’ of loneliness. Social connections are critical to well-being from the standpoint that the lack of belonging was detrimental to human survival in the evolutionary past. We thus hypothesized that loneliness would exert a more pronounced influence on people’s SWB when the need for others (social resource) is perceived to be high–the presence of environmental harshness. With a particular focus on urban (i.e., Seoul) residents who are presumed to be more vulnerable to loneliness, two studies examined whether feeling lonely matters less to SWB under favorable environmental conditions. As expected, loneliness was less harmful to the SWB of individuals who perceived their surroundings as relatively secure and favorable (Study 1). We then experimentally replicated the results by exposing people to cues of either a harsh (e.g., images of scarcity) or a favorable environment (Study 2).