ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0141.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: automated water extraction; landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI); modified histogram bimodal method (MHBM); remote sensing
Online: 29 December 2016 (10:49:38 CET)
Surface water distribution extracted from remote sensing data has been used in water resource assessment, coastal management, and environmental change studies. Traditional manual methods for extracting water bodies cannot satisfy the requirements for mass processing of remote sensing data; therefore, accurate automated extraction of such water bodies has remained a challenge. The histogram bimodal method (HBM) is a frequently used objective tool for threshold selection in image segmentation. The threshold is determined by seeking twin peaks, and the valley values between them; however, automatically calculating the threshold is difficult because complex surfaces and image noise which lead to not perfect twin peaks (single or multiple peaks). We developed an operational automated water extraction method, the modified histogram bimodal method (MHBM). The MHBM defines the threshold range of water extraction through mass static data; therefore, it does not require the identification of twin histogram peaks. It then seeks the minimum values in the threshold range to achieve automated threshold. We calibrated the MHBM for many lakes in China using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images, for which the relative error (RE) and squared correlation coefficient (R2) for threshold accuracy were found to be 2.1% and 0.96, respectively. The RE and root-mean-square error (RMSE) for the area accuracy of MHBM were 0.59% and 7.4 km2. The results show that the MHBM could easily be applied to mass time-series remote sensing data to calculate water thresholds within water index images and successfully extract the spatial distribution of large water bodies automatically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0102.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Content-Based Remote Sensing Image Retrieval; Change Information Detection; Information Management; Remote Sensing Data Service
Online: 29 August 2017 (16:18:20 CEST)
With the rapid development of satellite remote sensing technology, the volume of image datasets in many application areas is growing exponentially and the demand for Land-Cover and Land-Use change remote sensing data is growing rapidly. It is thus becoming hard to efficiently and intelligently retrieve the change information that users need from massive image databases. In this paper, content-based image retrieval is successfully applied to change detection and a content-based remote sensing image change information retrieval model is introduced. First, the construction of a new model framework for change information retrieval in a remote sensing database is described. Then, as the target content cannot be expressed by one kind of feature alone, a multiple-feature integrated retrieval model is proposed. Thirdly, an experimental prototype system that was set up to demonstrate the validity and practicability of the model is described. The proposed model is a new method of acquiring change detection information from remote sensing imagery and so can reduce the need for image pre-processing, deal with problems related toseasonal changes as well as other problems encountered in the field of change detection. Meanwhile, the new model has important implications for improving remote sensing image management and autonomous information retrieval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0251.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: remote sensing; collaborative application; observation capability; evaluation
Online: 10 February 2021 (10:27:14 CET)
This paper proposed a new evaluation model based on analytic hierarchy process to quantitatively evaluate the capability of multi-satellite cooperative remote sensing observation. The analytic hierarchical process model is a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis of systematic decision analysis method. According to the objective of the remote sensing cooperative observation mission, we decompose the complex problem into several levels and a number of factors, compare and calculate various factors in pairs, and obtain the combination weights of different schemes. The model can be used to evaluate the observation capability of resource satellites. Taking the optical remote sensing satellites such as China’s resource satellite series and GF-4 as examples, this paper verifies and evaluates the model for three typical tasks: point target observation, regional target observation and moving target continuous observation. The results show that the model can provide quantitative reference and model support for comprehensive evaluation of the collaborative observation capability of remote sensing satellites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0011.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: infrared remote sensing; volcanoes; earth observation, satellites
Online: 5 October 2016 (11:54:54 CEST)
Volcanic activity essentially consists of the transfer of heat from the Earth’ interior to the surface. The precise signature of this heat transfer relates directly to the processes underway at and within a particular volcano and this can be observed, at a safe distance, remotely, using infrared sensors that are present on Earth-orbiting satellites. For over 50 years, scientists have perfected this art using sensors intended for other purposes, and they are now in a position to determine the particular sort of activity that characterizes different volcanoes. This review will describe the theoretical basis of the discipline and then discuss the sensors available for the task and the history of their use. Challenges and opportunities for future development in the discipline are then discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0100.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wetland; endorheic; saline; fluctuations; remote sensing
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:15:58 CEST)
This study has been monitored for five years by Sentinel-2 satellite images, at different seasons of the year, of the fluctuations in the water level of the Gallocanta Lake (between the provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza, Aragón, Spain) considered a hypersaline and endorheic wetland, which has characteristics that make it unique in the geographical area in which it is located, as well as for the operation of the system. Rainfall in the area has a wide variation giving the maximums in the months of May and June and the minimums in January and February. There are considerable fluctuations in the water level from the almost total drying of the lagoon to the filling with a depth of approximately 3 meters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0226.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: deep learning; convolutional neural networks; remote sensing
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:20:07 CET)
Deep Learning is an extremely important research topic in Earth Observation. Current use-cases range from semantic image segmentation, object detection to more common problems found in computer vision such as object identification. Earth Observation is an excellent source for different types of problems and data for Machine Learning in general and Deep Learning in particular. It can be argued that both Earth Observation and Deep Learning as fields of research will benefit greatly from this recent trend of research. In this paper we take several state of the art Deep Learning network topologies and provide a detailed analysis of their performance for semantic image segmentation for building footprint detection. The dataset used is comprised of high resolution images depicting urban scenes. We focused on single model performance on simple RGB images. In most situations several methods have been applied to increase the accuracy of prediction when using deep learning such as ensembling, alternating between optimisers during training and using pretrained weights to bootstrap new models. These methods although effective, are not indicative of single model performance. Instead, in this paper, we present different topology variations of these state of the art topologies and study how these variations effect both training convergence and out of sample, single model, performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0547.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Remote sensing; Multisensor systems; Information theory; Sea Ice
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:27:40 CET)
Automatic ice charting can not be achieved using only SAR modalities. It is fundamental to combine information from other remote sensors with different characteristics for more reliable sea ice characterization. In this paper, we employ principal feature analysis (PFA) to select significant information from multimodal remote sensing data. PFA is a simple yet very effective approach that can be applied to several types of data without loss of physical interpretability. Considering that different homogeneous regions require different types of information, we perform the selection patch-wise. Accordingly, by exploiting the spatial information, we increase the robustness and accuracy of PFA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0027.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: remote sensing; image registration; multiple image features; different viewpoint; non-rigid distortion
Online: 13 June 2017 (09:52:10 CEST)
Remote sensing image registration plays an important role in military and civilian fields, such as natural disaster damage assessment, military damage assessment and ground targets identification, etc. However, due to the ground relief variations and imaging viewpoint changes, non-rigid geometric distortion occurs between remote sensing images with different viewpoint, which further increases the difficulty of remote sensing image registration. To address the problem, we propose a multi-viewpoint remote sensing image registration method which contains the following contributions. (i) A multiple features based finite mixture model is constructed for dealing with different types of image features. (ii) Three features are combined and substituted into the mixture model to form a feature complementation, i.e., the Euclidean distance and shape context are used to measure the similarity of geometric structure, and the SIFT (scale-invariant feature transform) distance which is endowed with the intensity information is used to measure the scale space extrema. (iii) To prevent the ill-posed problem, a geometric constraint term is introduced into the L2E-based energy function for better behaving the non-rigid transformation. We evaluated the performances of the proposed method by three series of remote sensing images obtained from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and Google Earth, and compared with five state-of-the-art methods where our method shows the best alignments in most cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0173.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coral reef; Landsat; population; remote sensing; small islands
Online: 15 November 2019 (04:14:59 CET)
In general, remote sensing has proven to be a powerful tool in the overall understanding of natural and anthropogenic phenomena. Satellites have become useful tools for tasks such as characterization, monitoring, and the continuous prospecting of natural resources. This research aims to analyze spatial dynamic and destructive on coral reefs area and correlation between live coral reduction and population on small islands. Landsat MSS, TM, ETM, and OLI-TIRS are used to spatial analyze of coral reef dynamics from 1972 to 2016. The image processing includes gap-filling, atmospheric correction, geometric correction, image composite (true color), water column correction, unsupervised classification, reclassification, accuracy assessment. The statistical analysis identifies the relationship between dynamic population data with a reduction of live coral, namely Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multiple Regression Analysis. The effect of the population shows a positive correlation with the reduction in the area of live coral, although it is significant. The fact is the practice of coral destruction on an island; it is usually not only caused or carried out by residents who live on the island but also carried out by other residents of different islands.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0162.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: High-spatial-resolution images; Geology; Deep learning; Remote sensing
Online: 7 November 2018 (13:17:40 CET)
Geologists employ high-spatial-resolution (HR) remote sensing (RS) data for many diverse applications as they effectively reflect detailed geological information, enabling high-quality and efficient geological surveys. Applications of HR RS data to geological and related fields have grown recently. By analyzing these applications, we can better understand the results of previous studies and more effectively use the latest data and methods to efficiently extract key geological information. HR optical remote sensing data are widely used in geological hazard assessment, seismic monitoring, mineral exploitation, glacier monitoring, and mineral information extraction due to high accuracy and clear object features. Compared with optical satellite images, synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images are stereoscopic and exhibit clear relief, strong performance, and good detection of terrain, landforms, and other information. SAR images have been applied to seismic mechanism research, volcanic monitoring, topographic deformation, and fault analysis. Furthermore, a multi-standard maturity analysis of the geological applications of HR images using literature from the Science Citation Index reveals that optical remote sensing data are superior to radar data for mining, geological disaster, lithologic, and volcanic applications, but inferior for earthquake, glacial, and fault applications. Therefore, geological remote sensing research needs to be truly multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary, ensuring more detailed and efficient surveys through cross-linking with other disciplines. Moreover, the recent application of deep learning technology to remote sensing data extraction has improved automatic processing and data analysis capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0390.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: SAR remote sensing, Optical remote sensing, RISAT-1, LISS III, RVI, VI, cotton, height, LAI, Biomass, Vegetation water content
Online: 20 July 2018 (14:56:07 CEST)
Morphological parameters like cotton height, branches, Leaf Area Index and biomass are mainly affected by the vegetation water content (VWC). Periodical assessment of the VWC and crop parameters is required for timely management of the crop for maximizing yield. The study aimed at using both optical and microwave remotely sensed data to assess cotton crop condition based on the above mentioned traits. Vegetation indices (VI) derived from ground based measurements (5 narrow band and 2 broad band VIs) as well as satellite derived reflectance (2 broad band VIs) were assessed. Regression models were derived for estimating LAI, biomass and plant water content using the ground based indices and applied to the satellite derived spectral index (from LISS-III) map to estimate the respective parameters. HH and HV polarization from RISAT-1 were used to derive Radar Vegetation Index (RVI). The coefficient of determination of the model for estimating LAI, biomass and vegetation water content of cotton with optical vegetation index as input parameter were found to be 0.42, 0.51 and 0.52, respectively. The correlation between RVI and plant height, date of planting in terms of the age of the crop and vegetation water content were found to range between 0.4 to 0.6. The fresh biomass from RVI showed spatial variability from 100 gm-2 to 4000 gm-2 while the dry biomass map derived from NDVI showed spatial variability of 50 to 950 g m-2 for the study area. Plant water content in the district varied from 65 to 85%. The correlation between optical vegetation index and RVI was not significant. Hence a multiple linear regression model using both optical index (NDVI and LSWI) and SAR index (RVI) was developed to assess the LAI, biomass and plant water content. The model showed a R2 of 0.5 for LAI estimation but not significant for biomass and water content. This study show cased the use of combined optical and microwave (C band) remote sensing for cotton condition assessment.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0302.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; artificial intelligence; pattern; models; classification; regression; GIS; remote sensing
Online: 20 July 2022 (10:58:15 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is a subdivision of artificial intelligence in which the machine learns from machine-readable data and information. It uses data, learns the pattern and predicts the new outcomes. Its popularity is growing because it helps to understand the trend and provides a solution that can be either a model or a product. Applications of ML algorithms have increased drastically in G.I.S. and remote sensing in recent years. It has a broad range of applications, from developing energy-based models to assessing soil liquefaction to creating a relation between air quality and mortality. Here, in this paper, we discuss the most popular supervised ML models (classification and regression) in G.I.S. and remote sensing. The motivation for writing this paper is that ML models produce higher accuracy than traditional parametric classifiers, especially for complex data with many predictor variables. This paper provides a general overview of some popular supervised non-parametric ML models that can be used in most of the G.I.S. and remote sensing-based projects. We discuss classification (Naïve Bayes (NB), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), Decision Trees (DT)) and regression models (Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear and Non-Linear) here. Therefore, the article can be a guide to those interested in using ML models in their G.I.S. and remote sensing-based projects
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0300.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: forest change; remote sensing; natural phenomena; growth; tree health; forest operations
Online: 21 February 2020 (02:53:34 CET)
In this review, we summarize the current state-of-the-art in the utilization of close-range sensing in forest monitoring. We include technologies, such as terrestrial and mobile laser scanning as well as unmanned aerial vehicles, which are mainly used for collecting detailed information from single trees, forest patches or small forested landscapes. Based on the current published scientific literature, the capacity to characterize changes in forest ecosystems using close-range sensing has clearly been recognized. Forest growth has been the most investigated cause for changes and terrestrial laser scanner the most applied sensor for capturing forest structural changes. Unmanned aerial vehicles, on the other hand, have been used to acquire aerial imagery for detecting tree height growth and monitoring forest health. Mobile laser scanning has not yet been used in forest change monitoring except for a few early investigations. Considering the length of the forest growth process, investigated time spans have been rather short, less than 10 years. In addition, data from only two time points have been used in many of the studies, which has further been limiting the capability of understanding dynamics related to forest growth. In general, method development and quantification of changes have been the main interests so far regardless of the driver of change. This shows that the close-range remote sensing community has just started to explore the time dimension and its possibilities for forest characterization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0470.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing; python; data management; landsat; open-source
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:12:27 CEST)
Many remote sensing analytical data products are most useful when they are in an appropriate regional or national projection, rather than globally based projections like Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) or geographic coordinates, i.e., latitude and longitude. Furthermore, leaving data in the global systems can create problems, either due to misprojection of imagery because of UTM zone boundaries, or because said projections are not optimised for local use. We developed the open-source Irish Earth Observation (IEO) Python module to maintain a local remote sensing data library for Ireland. This pure Python module, in conjunction with the IEOtools Python scripts, utilises the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) for its geoprocessing functionality. At present, the module supports only Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI/TIRS data that have been corrected to surface reflectance using the USGS/ESPA LEDAPS/ LaSRC Collection 1 architecture. This module and the IEOtools catalogue available Landsat data from the USGS/EROS archive, and includes functions for the importation of imagery into a defined local projection and calculation of cloud-free vegetation indices. While this module is distributed with default values and data for Ireland, it can be adapted for other regions with simple modifications to the configuration files and geospatial data sets.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0785.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: built environment; image analysis; remote sensing
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:51:50 CET)
The development of unmanned satellite space technology is increasingly willing, the emergence of medium resolution satellites with sensitivity and spectral variants such as Landsat is very effective in observing environmental changes, while the purpose of this study is to monitor the development of built-in land using image transformation techniques, estimating built-in land changes. The research method uses the NDVI image transformation technique, NDBI and Built Up Index, with Landsat satellite image data obtained from USGS. Accuracy sampling is done by purposive sampling with confusion matrix accuracy test technique. The research results were found. developed land for the period 2004 - 2010 with a percentage of 19.25%, for stages 2010 - 2018 with a percentage of 30.25%. The land development was built based on the area of the highest sub-district in the Kubung area in the early period with a percentage of 7.20% then in the second period with a percentage of 32.23%. The quality of the accuracy of the results of image analysis using confusion matrix technique with an image accuracy level in a field sample of 185 with an image accuracy of 86.04%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: remote sensing; evapotranspiration; CWSI; thermal images; almond; pistachio
Online: 24 October 2018 (10:45:22 CEST)
In California, water is a perennial concern. As competition for water resources increases due to growth in population, California’s tree nut farmers are committed to improving the efficiency of water used for food production. There is an imminent need to have reliable methods that provide information about the temporal and spatial variability of crop water requirements, which allow farmers to make irrigation decisions at field scale. This study focuses on estimating the actual evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of an almond and pistachio orchard located in Central Valley (California) during an entire growing season by combining a simple crop evapotranspiration model with remote sensing data. A dataset of the vegetation index NDVI derived from Landsat-8 was used to facilitate the estimation of the basal crop coefficient (Kcb), or potential crop water use. The soil water evaporation coefficient (Ke) was measured from microlysimeters. The water stress coefficient (Ks) was derived from airborne remotely sensed canopy thermal-based methods, using seasonal regressions between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and stem water potential (Ystem). These regressions were statistically-significant for both crops, indicating clear seasonal differences in pistachios, but not in almonds. In almonds, the estimated maximum Kcb values ranged between 1.05 to 0.90, while for pistachios, it ranged between 0.89 to 0.80. The model indicated a difference of 97 mm in transpiration over the season between both crops. Soil evaporation accounted for an average of 16% and 13% of the total actual evapotranspiration for almonds and pistachios, respectively. Verification of the model-based daily crop evapotranspiration estimates was done using eddy-covariance and surface renewal data collected in the same orchards, yielding an r2 >= 0.7 and average root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.74 and 0.91 mm day-1 for almond and pistachio, respectively. It is concluded that the combination of crop evapotranspiration models with remotely-sensed data is helpful for upscaling irrigation information from plant to field scale and thus may be used by farmers for making day-to-day irrigation management decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0721.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Remote sensing; Global discrete grid; Accuracy evaluation; Hexagon grid
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:19:49 CET)
With the rapid development of earth observation, satellite navigation, mobile communication and other technologies, the order of magnitude of the spatial data we acquire and accumulate is increasing, and higher requirements are put forward for the application and storage of spatial data. Under this circumstance, a new form of spatial data organization emerged-the global discrete grid. This form of data management can be used for the efficient storage and application of large-scale global spatial data, which is a digital multi-resolution the geo-reference model that helps to establish a new model of data association and fusion. It is expected to make up for the shortcomings in the organization, processing and application of current spatial data. There are different types of grid system according to the grid division form, including global discrete grids with equal latitude and longitude, global discrete grids with variable latitude and longitude, and global discrete grids based on regular polyhedrons. However, there is no accuracy evaluation index system for remote sensing images expressed on the global discrete grid to solve this problem. This paper is dedicated to finding a suitable way to express remote sensing data on discrete grids, and establishing a suitable accuracy evaluation system for modeling remote sensing data based on hexagonal grids to evaluate modeling accuracy. The results show that this accuracy evaluation method can evaluate and analyze remote sensing data based on hexagonal grids from multiple levels, and the comprehensive similarity coefficient of the images before and after conversion is greater than 98%, which further proves that the availability hexagonal grid-based remote sensing data of remote sensing images. And among the three sampling methods, the image obtained by the nearest interpolation sampling method has the highest correlation with the original image.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0192.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: convolutional ceural network; Gaofen 2 remote sensing image; remote sensing image segmentation; convolutional encode neural networks model (CENN); categorical learning; per-pixel segmentation; farmland; woodland
Online: 28 December 2017 (02:54:12 CET)
It is very difficult to accurately divide farmland and woodland in Gaofen 2 (GF-2) remote sensing image, because their single plant coverage is very small, and their spectra are very similar. The ratio of spatial resolution and one plant’s coverage area must be fully taken into account when designing the Convolutional Neural Network structure for extracting them from GF-2 image. We establish a Convolutional Encode Neural Networks model (CENN), The first layer has two sets of convolution kernels to learn the characteristics of farmland and woodland respectively, while the second layer is the encoder to encode the characteristics by transfer function, which can map the results to the corresponding category number. In the training stage, samples of farmland, woodland, and other categories are categorically used to train CENN, as soon as training is accomplished, CENN would acquire enough ability to accurately extract farmland and woodland from remote sensing images. The final extraction result is obtained by implementing per-pixel segmentation of images used to train the CENN. CENN is compared and analyzed with others such as Deep Belief Network (DBN), Full Convolutional Network (FCN), Deeplab Model. The results of experiments show that CENN can more accurately mine the characteristics of farmland and woodland, and it achieves its goal of extracting farmland and woodland with high precision from GF-2 images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0501.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: evapotranspiration; remote sensing; TSEB; METRIC; Landsat; Arizona; wheat; cotton; alfalfa
Online: 26 September 2018 (07:37:15 CEST)
A remote sensing-based evapotranspiration (ET) study was conducted over the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD), an Arizona agricultural region. ET was assessed means for 137 wheat plots, 183 cotton plots, and 225 alfalfa plots. The remote sensing ET models were the Satellite-Based Energy Balance for Mapping Evapotranspiration with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), the Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB), and Vegetation Index ET for the US Southwest (VISW). Remote sensing data were principally Landsat 5, supplemented by Landsat 7, MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, and ASTER. The models produced similar daily ET for wheat, with 6–8 mm/d mid-season. For cotton and alfalfa daily ET showed greater differences, where TSEB produced largest daily ET, METRIC the least, and VISW in the midrange. Modeled cotton ET at mid-season ranged from 9.5 mm/d (TSEB), to 8 mm/d (VISW), and 6 mm/d (METRIC). For alfalfa ET, values at peak cover ranged from 8 mm/d (TSEB), 6 mm/d (VISW), and 5 mm/d (METRIC). Model bias ranged −10% to +18%. Relative to potential ET, FAO-56 ET, and USDA-SW gravimetric-ET, model variability ranged from negligible to 35% of annual crop water use. Model averaging was found a useful way to consider and reconcile all ET estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0070.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Remote sensing; direct detection; GIS mapping; Caribbean Archaeology; landscape archaeology
Online: 11 October 2017 (16:23:29 CEST)
Satellite imagery has had limited application in the analysis of pre-colonial settlement archaeology in the Caribbean; visible evidence of wooden structures perishes quickly in tropical climates. Only slight topographic modifications remain, typically associated with middens. Nonetheless, surface scatters, as well as the soil characteristics they produce, can serve as quantifiable indicators of an archaeological site, which can be detected by analysis of remote sensing imagery. A variety of data sets were investigated, with the intention to combine multispectral bands to feed a direct detection algorithm, providing a semi-automatic process to cross-correlate the datasets. Sampling was done using locations of known sites, as well as areas with no archaeological evidence. The pre-processed very diverse remote sensing data sets have gone through a process of image registration. The algorithm was applied in the northwestern Dominican Republic on areas that included different types of environments, chosen for having sufficient imagery coverage, and a representative number of known locations of indigenous sites. The resulting maps present quantifiable statistical results of locations with similar pixel value combinations as the identified sites, indicating higher probability of archaeological evidence. The results show the variable potential of this method in diverse environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0058.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: GIS; image classification; LiDAR; remote sensing; wetland indicator; global wetland inventory; wetland mapping
Online: 14 September 2017 (17:25:27 CEST)
Wetlands are recognized as one of the world’s most valuable natural resources. With the increasing world population, human demands on wetland resources for agricultural expansion and urban development continue to increase. In addition, global climate change has pronounced impacts on wetland ecosystems through alterations in hydrological regimes. To better manage and conserve wetland resources, we need to know the distribution and extent of wetlands and monitor their dynamic changes. Wetland maps and inventories can provide crucial information for wetland conservation, restoration, and management. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies have proven to be useful for mapping and monitoring wetland resources. Recent advances in geospatial technologies have greatly increased the availability of remotely sensed imagery with better and finer spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. This chapter presents an introduction to the uses of GIS and remote sensing technologies for wetland mapping and monitoring. A case study is presented to demonstrate the use of high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographs for mapping prairie potholes and surface hydrologic flow pathways.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Ship detection; image super-resolution; mid-low resolution remote sensing images
Online: 16 August 2021 (12:51:38 CEST)
Existing methods enhance mid-low resolution remote sensing ship detection by feeding super-resolved images to the detectors. Although these methods marginally improve the detection accuracy, the correlation between image super-resolution (SR) and ship detection is under-exploited. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective ship detection method called ShipSR-Det, in which both the output image and the intermediate features of the SR module are fed to the detection module. Using the super-resolved feature representation, the potential benefit introduced by image SR can be fully used for ship detection. We apply our method to the SSD and Faster-RCNN detectors and develop ShipSR-SSD and ShipSR-Faster-RCNN, respectively. Extensive ablation studies validate the effectiveness and generality of our method. Moreover, we compare ShipSR-Faster-RCNN with several state-of-the-art ship detection methods. Comparative results on the HRSC2016, DOTA and NWPU VHR-10 datasets demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0095.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: remote sensing; cyclones; parametric models; hurricanes; CYGNSS; ASCAT; storm surges; waves; winds
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:01:15 CEST)
Parametric cyclonic wind fields are widely used worldwide for insurance risk underwriting, coastal planning, or storm surge forecasts. They support high-stakes financial, development, and emergency decisions. Yet, there is still no consensus on the best parametric approach, or relevant guidance to choose among the great variety of published models. The aim of this paper is first and foremost to demonstrate that recent progresses on estimating extreme surface wind speeds from satellite remote sensing now makes it possible to select the best option with greater objectivity. In particular, we show that the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission of NASA is able to capture a substantial part of the tropical cyclones structure, and allows identifying systematic biases in a number of parametric models. Our results also suggest that none of the traditional empirical approaches can be considered as the best option in all cases. Rather, the choice of a parametric model depends on several criteria such as cyclone intensity and/or availability of wind radii information. The benefit of using satellite remote sensing data to better select a parametric model for a specific case study is tested here by simulating hurricane Maria (2017). The significant wave heights computed by a wave-current hydrodynamic coupled model are found to be in good accordance with the predictions given by the remote sensing data in terms of bias. The results and approach presented in this study should shed new light on how to handle parametric cyclonic wind models, and help the scientific community to conduct better wind, waves and surge analysis for tropical cyclones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0100.v1
Subject: Keywords: Dust storm; Aerosols; Satellite remote sensing; Radiative forcing; Thermodynamics
Online: 5 July 2021 (13:16:28 CEST)
This paper investigates the characteristics and impact of a major Saharan dust storm during June 14th -19th 2020 to atmospheric radiative and thermodynamics properties over the Atlantic Ocean. The event witnessed the highest ever aerosol optical depth (close to 2 during the peak of the storm) for June since 2002. The satellites and high-resolution model reanalysis products well captured the origin, spread and the effects of the dust storm. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) profiles, lower angstrom exponent values (~ 0.12) and higher aerosol index value (> 4) tracked the presence of elevated dust. It was found that the dust AOD was as much as 250-300% higher than their climatology resulting in an atmospheric radiative forcing ~200% larger. As a result, elevated warming ( 8-16 %) was observed, followed by a drop in relative humidity(2-4%) in the atmospheric column, as evidenced by both in-situ and satellite measurements. Quantifications such as these for extreme dust events provide significant insights that may help in understanding their climate effects, including improvements to dust simulations using chemistry-climate models
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0004.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: hydrological changes; wetlands; Arctic; Subarctic; microwave remote sensing
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:32:31 CET)
Specific emissivity features of swamps and wetlands of Western Siberia were studied for changing seasonal conditions with the use of daily data of satellite microwave sounding. The research technique involved the analysis of brightness temperatures of the underlying surface at the test sites. Variations in seasonal dynamics of brightness temperatures were mainly caused by different rates of seasonal freezing of the upper waterlogged layer of the underlying surface and dielectric characteristics of water containing natural media (water body, soil, vegetation). We analyzed long-term trends in seasonal and annual dynamics of brightness temperatures of the underlying surface and estimated hydrological changes in the Arctic and Subarctic. The findings open up new possibilities for using satellite data in the microwave range for studying natural seasonal dynamic processes and predicting hazardous hydrological phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0641.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Malaria; Risk Maps; Remote Sensing; Ethiopia; Hydroelectric Dams
Online: 26 September 2020 (14:41:53 CEST)
Malaria is a disease spread by female mosquitos of the Anopheles genus. It is acutely prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, where 90% of malaria deaths occur annually. One Sub-Saharan African country historically impacted by malaria is Ethiopia. In the past twenty years, malaria prevalence has decreased throughout Sub-Saharan Africa; yet, anthropogenic environmental changes are changing the landscape of malaria. Scholarly literature has cited a positive relationship between hydroelectric dams and malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia is currently expanding their hydroelectric infrastructure. The Gilgel Gibe III Dam is located on the Omo River in Southwestern Ethiopia. It began generating electricity in 2015 and its reservoir has a capacity of 14,700 million m3 of water. This research utilized Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing to identify populations at an increased risk of malaria due to Gilgel Gibe III Dam. Two different techniques were employed: the proximity approach and the remote sensing approach. The proximity approach was based on distance from the reservoir. It identified all populations living within three kilometers of the reservoir as being at an increased risk. The remote sensing approach evaluated the slope, elevation, water content, and land surface temperature of the study area to create a mosquito breeding habitat risk map. Then, populations living within three kilometers of the two main High-Risk areas were identified. This study suggests that mosquito breeding habitat risk is not equally distributed throughout the Gilgel Gibe III Reservoir. This causes certain populations to be at a heightened risk of malaria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0425.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: exposure; urban development; nightlights intensity; population distribution; natural hazards; remote sensing
Online: 21 October 2020 (09:35:17 CEST)
The assessment of the number of people exposed to natural hazards, especially in countries with strong urban growth, is difficult to be updated at the same rate as land use develops. This paper presents a remote sensing based procedure for quick updating the assessment of the population exposed to natural hazards. A relationship between satellite nightlights intensity and urbanization density from global available cartography is first assessed when all data are available. This can be used to extrapolate urbanization data at different time steps, updating exposure each time new nightlights intensity maps are available. As reliability test for the proposed methodology, the number of people exposed to riverine flood in Italy is assessed, deriving a probabilistic relationship between DMSP nightlights intensity and urbanization density from GUF database for the year 2011. People exposed to riverine flood are assessed crossing the population distributed on the derived urbanization density with flood hazard zones provided by ISPRA. The validation on reliable exposures derived from ISTAT data shows good agreement. The possibility to update exposure maps with higher refresh rate makes this approach particularly suitable for applications in developing countries, where exposure may change at sub-yearly scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0077.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: near-surface humidity; remote sensing; deep learning; China Seas
Online: 5 July 2022 (13:46:55 CEST)
Near-surface humidity (Qa) is a key parameter that modulates oceanic evaporation and influences the global water cycle. Remote sensing observations act as feasible sources for long-term and large-scale Qa monitoring. However, existing satellite Qa retrieval models are subject to apparent uncertainties due to model errors and insufficient training data. Based on in situ observations collected over the China Seas over the last two decades, a deep learning approach named Ensemble Mean of Target deep neural networks (EMTnet) was proposed to improve the satellite Qa retrieval over the China Seas for the first time. The EMTnet model outperforms five representative existing models by nearly eliminating the mean bias and significantly reducing the root-mean-square error in satellite Qa retrieval. According to its target deep neural networks selection process, the EMTnet model can obtain more objective learning results when the observational data are divergent. The EMTnet model was subsequently applied to produce a 30-year monthly gridded Qa data over the China Seas. It indicates that the climbing rate of Qa over the China Seas under the background of global warming are probably underestimated by current products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0476.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Remote sensing; Morphotectonic analysis; Lineaments; Riedel shear model; Upper Guajira; Caribbean plate
Online: 23 October 2020 (09:51:51 CEST)
This study uses Landsat 8 and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to show the dominant orientations of digital lineaments and morphotectonic features between measured trends and the tectonic evolution of the Upper Guajira, Colombia, in the northernmost region of the South American plate. Data from Landsat-8 and hillshaded images of three Digital Elevation Model (DEM) images with different resolutions (SRTM: 90m, ASTER-GDEM: 30m and Alos-Palsar: 12.5m), were used for the extraction and mapping of morpholineaments, drainage network and morphological features. Lineaments were analyzed by means of north azimuth frequency, length, density distributions, lithological distributions and geochronological periods. Tectonic control was supported by using the digitized geological map created by the Colombian Geological Service (SGC). Lineaments and faults were analyzed through the interpretation of a Riedel shear model as a result of the transtensional/transpressional tectonic arrangement of the Caribbean and South American plates. The directional trends of lineaments and faults indicate two dominant directions: NE-SW and E-W. The azimuth distribution analysis of measured structures and drainage channels show similar trends, except for some differences in the predominant directions of some drainage channels. The similarity in the orientation of lineaments, faults and drainage system highlights the degree of control exerted by underlying structures on the surface geomorphological features. Drainage channel classification illustrates the morphological and neo-tectonic complexity of the region. The extracted lineaments were divided into five geochronological groups based on the main ages of host rock formations according to the Colombian Geological Service (SGC) geological map. From the Cretaceous onward, the lineament azimuth frequency rotates from a NE-SW trend to a prominent E-W direction, which resembles the translation that Caribbean plate has been undergoing since the Cretaceous. Our results confirm that Remote Sensing techniques are reliable and useful to study the morphotectonic of an area and can be applied to zones of difficult access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0199.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ground heat flux; machine learning; remote sensing; surface energy balance
Online: 17 February 2022 (04:33:43 CET)
Estimating evapotranspiration at field scale is a major component of sustainable water management. Due to the difficulty to assess some major unknowns of the water cycle at that scale, including irrigation amounts, evapotranspiration is often computed as the residual of the instantaneous surface energy budget. One of the Surface Energy Bal-ance components with the largest uncertainties in their quantification over bare soils and sparse vegetation areas is the ground heat flux (G). Over the last decades, the es-timation of G with RS data has been mainly achieved with empirical equations, on the basis of the G and net radiation (Rn) ratio, G/Rn. G/Rn empirical equations generally require vegetation data (Type I empirical equations), in combination with surface tem-perature (Ts) and albedo (Type II empirical equations). In this article we aim to evalu-ate the estimation of G with RS. For the first time, we compare eight G/Rn empirical equations against two types of machine learning (ML) methods: an ensemble ML type, the Random Forest (RF), and the Neural Networks (NN). The comparison of each method is evaluated over dense dataset, including a wide range of climate and land covers, with data of Eddy-Covariance towers extended along the mid-latitude area that encompass the European and African continent. Our results have shown evidence that the driver of G in bare soils and sparse vegetation areas (Fraction of Vegetation, Fv <= 0.25) is Ts, instead of vegetation greenness indexes. On the other hand, the estimation of G with Rn, Ts or Fv decreases at dense vegetation areas (Fv >= 0.50). There are not significant differences between the most accurate type I and II empirical equations. For bare soils and sparse vegetation areas the empirical equation that better estimates G is E8, which combines the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Ts. In dense vegetation areas (Fv >= 0.25), an exponential empirical equation based on Fv (E4), shows the best performance. However, ML better estimates G than the empirical equations, independently of the Fv ranges. A RF model with Rn, LAI and Ts as predictor variables shows the best accuracy and performance metrics, outperforming the NN model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0131.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Adversarial examples; Remote sensing images; Universal adversarial patch; Object detection; Joint optimization; Scale factor.
Online: 11 October 2022 (02:34:23 CEST)
Although deep learning has received extensive attention and achieved excellent performances in various of scenarios, it suffers from adversarial examples to some extent. Especially, physical attack poses more threats than digital attack. However, existing researches pay less attention to physical attack of object detection in remote sensing images (RSIs). In this work, we systematically analyze the universal adversarial patch attack for multi-scale objects in the remote sensing field. There are two challenges for adversarial attack in RSIs. On one hand, the number of objects in remote sensing images is more than that of natural images. Therefore, it is difficult for adversarial patch to show adversarial effect on all objects when attacking a detector of RSIs. On the other hand, the wide range of height of photography platform causes that the size of objects diverse a lot, which brings challenges for generating universal adversarial perturbation for multi-scale objects. To this end, we propose an adversarial attack method on object detection for remote sensing data. One of the key ideas of the proposed method is the novel optimization of adversarial patch. We aim to attack as many objects as possible by formulating a joint optimization problem. Besides, we raise a scale factor to generate a universal adversarial patch that adapts to multi-scale objects, which ensures the adversarial patch is valid for multi-scale objects in the real world. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our method against state-of-the-art methods on YOLO-v3 and YOLO-v5. In addition, we also validate the effectiveness of our method in real-world applications.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; undergraduate education; remote sensing; surveying and mapping
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:50:33 CET)
This work mainly discusses an innovative teaching platform on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle digital mapping for Remote Sensing (RS) education at Wuhan University, underlining the fast development of RS technology. Firstly, we introduce and discuss the future development of the Virtual Simulation Experiment Teaching Platform for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VSETP-UAV). It includes specific topics such as the Systems and function Design, teaching and learning strategies, and experimental methods. This study shows that VSETP-UAV expands the usual content and training methods related to RS education, and creates a good synergy between teaching and research. The results also show that the VSETP-UAV platform is of high teaching quality producing excellent engineers, with high international standards and innovative skills in the RS field. In particular, it develops students' practical skills with technical manipulations of dedicated hardware and software equipment (e.g., UAV) in order to assimilate quickly this particular topic. Therefore, students report that this platform is more accessible from an educational point-of-view than theoretical programs, with a quick way of learning basic concepts of RS. Finally, the proposed VSETP-UAV platform achieves a high social influence, expanding the practical content and training methods of UAV based experiments, and providing a platform for producing high-quality national talents with internationally recognized topics related to emerging engineering education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0098.v2
Online: 16 March 2017 (09:21:29 CET)
Remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used to provide spatially explicit large scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. The focus of this study was to estimate and thematically map on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of the Wonji Shoa Sugarcane Estate using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) algorithms. The results obtained revealed that the ranges of the daily ETa estimated on January 25, February 26, September 06 and October 08, 2002 using SEBAL were 0.0 - 6.85, 0.0 – 9.36, 0.0 – 3.61, 0.0 – 6.83 mm/day; using SSEB 0.0 - 6.78, 0.0 – 7.81, 0.0 – 3.65, 0.0 – 6.46 mm/day, and SSEBop were 0.05 - 8.25, 0.0 – 8.82, 0.2 – 4.0, 0.0 – 7.40 mm/day, respectively. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values between SSEB and SEBAL, SSEBop and SEBAL, and SSEB and SSEBop were 0.548, 0.548, and 0.99 for January 25, 2002; 0.739, 0.753, and 0.994 for February 26, 2002;0.847, 0.846, and 0.999 for September 06, 2002; 0.573, 0.573, and 1.00 for October 08, 2002, respectively. The standard deviation of ETa over the sugarcane estate showed high spatio-temporal variability perhaps due to soil moisture variability and surface cover. The three algorithm results showed that well watered sugarcane fields in the mid-season growing stage of the crop had higher ETa values compared with the other dry agricultural fields confirming that they consumptively use more water. Generally during the dry season, ETa is limited to water surplus areas only and in wet season, ETa was high throughout the entire sugarcane estate. The evaporation fraction (ETrF) results also followed the same pattern as the daily ETa over the sugarcane estate. The total crop and irrigation water requirement and effective rainfall estimated using the Cropwat model were 2468.8, 2061.6 and 423.8 mm/yr for January 2001 planted and 2281.9, 1851.0 and 437.8 mm/yr for March 2001 planted sugarcanes, respectively. The mean annual ETa estimated for the whole estate were 107 Mm3, 140 Mm3, and 178 Mm3 using SEBAL, SSEB, and SSEBop, respectively. Even though the algorithms should be validated through field observation, they have potential to be used for effective estimation of ET in the sugarcane estate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0749.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Cave, hydrothermal, Landsat, Pawon, remote sensing
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:19:27 CEST)
Relationship between caveman prehistoric life in terms of heat induced food processing and its geological ecosystems have received many attentions. Previous studies have investigated the sources of heat included using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and biomarker approaches. Here this study proposes the use of remote sensing to identify the relationship of 9500 year old (9.5 ka) prehistoric mongoloid occupancy with hydrothermal manifestations at Pawon cave of West Java. The hydrothermal manifestations around Pawon cave were identified using Landsat 8 band combinations, land surface temperature, and sedimentary lithology. The results showed the hydrothermal manifestations surrounding Pawon cave were within a distance of 0.5-2 km. The results also showed bones representing 12 animal taxon groups with high abundance of rodents. To conclude this study sheds the light of proximity and preferences of mongoloid prehistoric occupancy towards hydrothermal landscape due to its advantage as heat sources for food processing purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0377.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land cover change detection; adaptive contextual information; bi-temporal remote sensing images
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:52:26 CEST)
Land cover change detection (LCCD) based on bi-temporal remote sensing images plays an important role in the inventory of land cover change. Due to the benefit of having spatial dependency properties within the image space while using remote sensing images for detecting land cover change, many contextual information based change detection methods have been proposed during past decades. However, there is still a space for improvement in accuracies and usability of LCCD. In this paper, a LCCD method based on adaptive contextual information is proposed. First, an adaptive region is constructed by gradually detecting the spectral similarity surrounding a central pixel. Second, the Euclidean distance between pairwise extended regions is calculated to measure the change magnitude between the pairwise central pixels of bi-temporal images. While the whole bi-temporal images are scanned pixel-by-pixel, the change magnitude image (CMI) can be generated. Then, the Otsu or a manual threshold is employed to acquire the binary change detection map (BCDM). The detection accuracies of the proposed approach are investigated by two land cover change cases with Landsat bi-temporal remote sensing images. In comparison to several widely used change detection methods, the proposed approach can achieve a land cover change inventory map with a competitive accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0081.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: spectral reflectance; vegetation indices; vegetation; remote sensing; oil spill; mangrove forest; oil pollution; Landsat 8
Online: 23 September 2016 (06:19:49 CEST)
This study is aimed at demonstrating application of vegetation spectral techniques for detection and monitoring of impact of oil spills on vegetation. Vegetation spectral reflectance from Landsat 8 data were used in the calculation of five vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), adjusted resistant vegetation index 2 (ARVI2), green-infrared index (G/NIR) and green-shortwave infrared (G/SWIR) from the spill sites (SS) and non-spill (NSS) sites in 2013 (pre-oil spill), 2014 (oil spill date) and 2015 (post-oil spill) for statistical comparison. The result shows that NDVI, SAVI, ARVI2, G/NIR and G/SWIR indicated certain level difference between vegetation condition at the SS and the NSS were significant with p-value <0.5 in December 2013. In December 2014 vegetation conditions indicated higher level of significant difference between the vegetation at the SS and NSS as follows where NDVI, SAVI and ARVI2 with p-value 0.005, G/NIR - p-value 0.01 and GSWIR p-value 0.05. Similarly, in January 2015 a very significant difference with p-value <0.005. Three indices NDVI, ARVI2 and G/NIR indicated highly significant difference in vegetation conditions with p-value <0.005 between December 2013 and December 2014 at the same sites. Post—spill analysis show that NDVI and ARVI2 indicated low level of significance difference p-value <0.05 suggesting subtle change in vegetation conditions between December 2014 and January 2015. This technique is essential for real time detection, response and monitoring of oil spills from pipelines for mitigation of pollution at the affected sites in the mangrove forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0504.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: ship detection; hyperspectral; SAR; optical remote sensing; sustainability; coastal region
Online: 29 August 2018 (14:32:09 CEST)
As human activities of the countries in the East Asia have been remarkably expanding over recent decades, various problems in relation to ships, such as oil spill and many other coastal marine pollution, are continuously occurring in the coastal region. In order to conserve marine resources and prepare for possible ship accidents in advance, the need for efficient ship management is increasing over time. Multi-satellite, multi-sensor, multi-wavelength or multi-frequency observations make it possible to monitor a variety of vessels in the coastal region. This study presents the results of ship detection methodology applied to multi-spectral satellite images in the seas around Korean Peninsula based on optical, hyperspectral, and microwave remote sensing. To detect ships from hyperspectral images with a few hundreds of spectral channels, spectral matching algorithms are used to investigate similarity between the spectra and in-situ measurements. In the case of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, the Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) algorithm is used to discriminate the vessels from backscattering coefficients of Sentinel-1 SAR and ALOS-2 PALSAR2 images. The present ship detection methods can be extensively utilized for optical, hyperspectral, and SAR images for comprehensive coastal management purposes toward perpetual sustainability in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0090.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land cover change; vegetation dynamics; remote sensing; DPSIR; Kebbi state
Online: 19 September 2017 (17:24:13 CEST)
Assessment of the trends of land cover and vegetation dynamics (VD) using remote sensing (RS) and indicators such as anthropogenic activities and the socio-demographic information is essential in order to make proper planning for sustainable management. This paper attempts to evaluate land cover change (LCC) and VD in Kebbi State, Nigeria using historical Landsat data from 1986-2016 by means of remote sensing. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was later employed using both primary and secondary data for a better understanding of the drivers, the state of the environmental condition, the causes as well as the impact of the change. The images were classified into five thematic land cover classes as Dense Vegetation, shrubs/built area, farmland, bare/grassland and water body by means of Maximum likelihood supervised classification technique in accordance with Anderson classification scheme level 1, with acceptable accuracy. Pre-classification and post-classification change detection (CD) methodologies were executed using Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Image differencing respectively. The study illustrates a steady decline in dense vegetation and shrubs/build areas while farmland and bare/grassland increases, however, water bodies remain unchanged. The DPSIR pin-point that the major drivers of change in the study area have been the pressing need for farming land as the population grows and socioeconomic demands including fuelwood consumption and endemic poverty. Expansion of Farming land, fuelwood consumption and the need for construction materials are identified as the main key elements exerting pressure for the change. The state of the condition indicates a steady decline in dense vegetation and shrubs areas while farmland and bare/grassland are increasing significantly. The impacts include land degradation, the decline in the provision ecosystem goods and services, biodiversity loss through loss of habitats. The study, however, noted that many international and national policies in response to land degradation are channelled toward land restoration and remediating of the environment, through afforestation programs and improving the livelihood of the rural people through providing alternative income sources since they depend heavily on land for sustenance. However, the state governments, communities and individual commonly organized annual tree planting campaign with the main purpose of environmental protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0435.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Soil Erosion Estimation; Quantitative Calculation; RUSLE; Remote Sensing; GIS
Online: 16 November 2020 (16:19:22 CET)
The accurate assessment and monitoring of soil erosion is of great significance for guiding food production and ensuring ecological security, and it is a current research hotspot. In this paper, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GISs) are combined with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model) to carry out research on soil erosion monitoring and make a quantitative evaluation. According to five factors, including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topography, vegetation cover, crop management and water and soil conservation measures, the distribution of the soil erosion rate in Jilin Province in 2019 was mapped, and the soil erosion rate was divided into 5 levels according to the degree of erosion, including very slight, slight, moderate, severe and extremely severe erosion. Based on the segmented S-slope factor model and the unique topographical features of the study area, the relationships among the soil erosion rate, erosion risk level, erosion area, erosion amount and slope angle (θ) were systematically analysed, and a slope angle of 15° was identified as the threshold for soil erosion on sloped farmland in Jilin Province. The total soil erosion in Jilin Province was 402.14×106 t in 2019, the average soil erosion rate was 21.6 t·ha-1·a-1, and the average soil loss thickness was 1.6 mm·a-1; these values were far greater than the soil erosion rate risk threshold of 10 t ·Ha-1·a-1. Thus, the province has a strong level of soil erosion. We conclude that soil degradation is accelerating, and food production and the ecological environment will face severe challenges. It is suggested that soil erosion control should be carried out according to different types and slopes of land, with an emphasis on the management of forestland and farmland because forestland and farmland are currently the first types of land to be managed in Jilin Province. This paper aims to explore a timely, fast, efficient and convenient soil erosion monitoring and evaluation method and provide effective monitoring tools for agricultural water and soil conservation, ecological safety management and stable food production in Jilin Province and similar black soil areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0161.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Landuse and landcover; LULC change; remote sensing; LandSat image; Bahir Dar city
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:33:35 CEST)
Spatio-temporal Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) changes have been affecting geo-environmental and climate change globally. This study aims to analyze LULC changes in Bahir Dar city and its surrounds. Landsat 5 TM (1987), Landsat 7 ETM+ (2002) and Landsat 8 OLI (2017) and SPOT images, and aerial photographs, master plan map and Google Earth Landsat images were used to analyze changes. In Bahir Dar city and its surrounds, LULC has been changing in space and time. During 1987-2017, more than 50% of the study area was covered with cropland. Settlement areas have increased from 3.3% in 1987 to 9.13% in 2017. However, wetland vegetation, shrubland, grassland, forest, and waterbodies have degraded. These changes are mainly attributed to population growth and its effect on the environment. Land-use and land-cover is a serious problem and it causes land and environmental degradation, climate change and loss of the biological environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0037.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing; satellite; altimetry; water level; water inland; essential climate variable; database; hydrology
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:02:24 CEST)
Surface water availability is a fundamental environmental variable to implement effective climate adaptation and mitigation plans, as expressed by scientific, financial and political stakeholders. Recently published requirements urge the need for homogenised access to long historical records at a global scale, together with the standardised characterisation of the accuracy of observations. While satellite altimeters offer world coverage measurements, existing initiatives and online platforms provide derived water level data. However, these are sparse, particularly in complex topographies. This study introduces a new methodology in two steps 1) teroVIR, a virtual station extractor for a more comprehensive global and automatic monitoring of water bodies, and 2) teroWAT, a multi-mission, interoperable water level processor, for handling all terrain types. L2 and L1 altimetry products are used, with state-of-the-art retracker algorithms in the methodology. The work presents a benchmark between teroVIR and current platforms in West Africa, Kazakhastan and the Arctic: teroVIR shows an unprecedented increase from 55% to 99% in spatial coverage.A large-scale validation of teroWAT results in an average of unbiased root mean square error ubRMSE of 0.638 m on average for 36 locations in West Africa. Traditional metrics (ubRMSE, median, absolute deviation, Pearson coefficient) disclose significantly better values for teroWAT when compared with existing platforms, of the order of 8 cm and 5% improved respectively in error and correlation. teroWAT shows unprecedented excellent results in the Arctic, using a L1 products based algorithm instead of L2 one, reducing the error of almost 4 m on average. To further compare teroWAT with existing methods, a new scoring option, teroSCO, is presented, measuring the quality of the validation of time series transversally and objectively across different strategies. Finally, teroVIR and teroWAT are implemented as platform-agnostic modules and used by flood forecasting and river discharge methods as relevant examples. A review of various applications for miscellaneous end-users is given, tackling the educational challenge raised by the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0051.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Copernicus; buried basin; mascons; multi source remote sensing data; planetary geology; plane-tary topography; geomorphology
Online: 6 June 2022 (02:56:50 CEST)
Masons are often overlooked part of impact basins, but play an important role in revealing the lunar history. Previous study in masons were usually limited to gravity data. Few researches were reported on morphology features and chronology, which hampers the construction of a complete geological interpretation for the evolution of each mascons. We use multi source remote sensing data to identify the details characteristic of mascons. Result of topography, gravity and characteristic are combined to prove that a mason beside Copernicus crater is a buried peak-ring basin which is about 130km and 260km in diameter. The underground structure is of confirmed as 890m thick mare basalts by analyzing the spectral feature of the material in a geological outcrop called Copernicus H. Geology evolution analysis joint crater size-frequency distribution (CSDF) dating demonstrate that the buried basin impact event occurred in 3.6Ga. Then a hawaiian-style eruption in late Imbrian formed Sinus Aestuum Ⅰ Dark Mantling Deposit (DMD). Mare basalts filling in 3.4Ga. After that, ejecta from Copernicus impact event in about 820Ma and weathering processes cause the disappearing from lunar surface of the buried basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: GIS and Remote sensing; Hazard; Risk; Vulnerable; Gedio Zone
Online: 12 May 2022 (08:50:27 CEST)
Abstract Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing played an important role in analyzing environmental and socio-economic drivers that created favorable condition for malaria breeding as well as in identifying hazard and risk areas. This study gives great emphasis on mapping malaria hazard and risk areas in Gedio zone of SNNPs using geospatial technology. The study identifies two major drivers like Environmental (physical) factors: which provide for the endurance of mosquitoes and Socio-economic factors. The above data were presented and analyzed quantitatively. The content analysis shows that Malaria hazard prevalence areas were mapped based on the environmental factors which are potential of providing good environmental conditions for mosquito breeding. The hazard map was produced using elevation, slope, proximity to breeding sites, and soil type as the factors for breeding mosquitoes. The malaria hazard analysis of the Gedio zone revealed that from the total area, 9.83%, 35.29% is mapped as a very high and high-risk area, whereas, the remaining 38.73%, a 16.14%, and 0.01% were mapped as moderate, low, very low level of malaria hazard respectively. The total area of the study area more than 1/3rd of the area is identified as a very high and high malaria risk area while the rest 2/3rd of an area is considered as a moderate to very low hazard risk zone. Accordingly, very high malaria risk area is found around towns because of population density. Finally, I recommend that the concerned body should have to expand health center, creating awareness of society, especially around populated areas where the risk is high and environmental and individual sanitation can reduce the risk of malaria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0399.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; unmanned aerial vehicle; image matching; remote sensing; forest inventory
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:30:55 CET)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides detailed three-dimensional representation of the surrounding forest structure. However, due to close-range hemispherical scanning geometry, the ability of TLS technique to comprehensively characterize all trees and especially the upper parts of forest canopy is often limited. In this study, we investigated how much forest characterization capacity can be improved in managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands if TLS point cloud is complemented with a photogrammetric point cloud acquired from above the canopy using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In this multisensorial (TLS+UAV) close-range sensing approach, the used UAV point cloud data was considered feasible especially in characterizing the vertical forest structure and improvements were obtained in estimation accuracy of tree height as well as plot-level basal-area weighted mean height (Hg) and mean stem volume (Vmean). Most notably the root mean square error (RMSE) in Hg improved from 0.88 m to 0.58 m and the bias improved from -0.75 m to -0.45 m with the multisensorial close-range sensing approach. However, in managed Scots pine stands the mere TLS captured also the upper parts of the forest canopy rather well. Both approaches were capable of deriving stem number, basal area, Vmean, Hg and basal area-weighted mean diameter with a relative RMSE less than 5.5% for all of the sample plots. Although the multisensorial close-range sensing approach mainly enhanced characterization of forest vertical structure in single-species, single-layer forest conditions, representation of more complex forest structures may benefit more from point clouds collected with sensors of different measurement geometries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0221.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: seagrass; remote sensing; machine learning; species distribution model (SDM); hybrid model; habitat suitability; niches; meta-heuristic optimization
Online: 15 September 2022 (07:32:27 CEST)
Globally, seagrass meadows provide critical ecosystem services. However, seagrasses are globally degraded at an accelerated rate. The lack of information on seagrass spatial distribution and seagrass health status seriously hinders seagrass conservation and management. Therefore, this study proposes to combine remote sensing big data with a new hybrid machine learning model (RF-SWOA) to predict potential seagrass habitats. The multivariate remote sensing data is used to train the machine learning model, which can improve the prediction accuracy of the model. This study shows that a hybrid machine learning model (RF-SWOA) can predict potential seagrass habitats more accurately and effectively than traditional models. At the same time, it has been shown that the most important factors influencing the potential habitat of seagrass in the Hainan region were the distance from land (38.2%) and the depth of the ocean (25.9%). This paper provides a more accurate machine learning model approach for predicting the distribution of marine species, which can help develop seagrass conservation strategies to restore healthy seagrass ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0392.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: time series; lake changes; remote sensing; inland lake; lake disturbance
Online: 30 December 2019 (04:45:43 CET)
Inland lake variations are considered sensitive indicators of global climate change. However, human activity is playing as a more and more important role in inland lake area variations. Therefore, it is critical to identify whether anthropogenic activity or natural event is playing as the dominant factor in inland lake surface area change. In this study, we proposed a Douglas-Peucker simplification algorithm and bend simplification algorithm combined method to locate major lake surface area disturbances; these disturbances were then characterized to extract the time series change features according to documented records; and the disturbances were finally classified into anthropogenic or natural. We took the nine lakes in Yunnan Province as test sites, a 31 years long (from 1987 to 2017) time series Landsat TM/OLI images and HJ-1A/1B used as data sources, the official records was used as references to aid the feature extraction and disturbance identification accuracy. Results of our method for both disturbance location and the disturbance identification could be concluded as follows: 1) The method can accurately locate the main lake changing events based on the time series lake surface area curve. The accuracy of this model for segmenting the lake area time series curves in our study area was 95.24%. 2) Our proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.67%, with F-score of 94.67 for anthropogenic disturbances and F-score of 85.71 for natural disturbances. 3) According to our results, lakes in Yunnan Provence, China, have undergone extensive disturbances, and the human-induced disturbances occurred almost twice as often as natural disturbances, indicating intensified disturbances caused by human activities. This inland lake area disturbance identification method is expected to uncover whether a disturbance to inland lake area is human activity-induced or natural event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0019.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Mining; Mine reclamation; Land cover change; Vegetation health; NDVI Post-mining; SMA; Random forest classification; Remote Sensing
Online: 2 November 2017 (15:01:03 CET)
Mining for resources extraction may lead to several geological and associated environmental changes due to ground movements, collision with mining cavities and deformation of aquifers. Geological changes may continue in a reclaimed mine area, and the deformed aquifers may entail a breakdown of substrates and an increase in ground water tables, which may cause surface area inundation. Consequently, a reclaimed mine area may experience surface area collapse, i.e. subsidence, and degradation of vegetation health. Thus, monitoring short-term landscape dynamics in a reclaimed mine area may provide important information on the long-term geological and environmental impacts of mining activities. We studied landscape dynamics in Kirchheller Heide, Germany, which experienced extensive soil movement due to longwall mining without stowing, using Landsat imageries between 2013 and 2016. A Random Forest image classification technique was applied to analyse land-use and land-cover dynamics and the growth of wetland areas was assessed using a Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). We also analyzed the changes in vegetation health using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We observed a 19.9% growth of wetland area within the four years with 87.2% of growth in the coverage of two major waterbodies in the reclaimed mine area. NDVI values indicate that 66.5% of the vegetation of the study area was degraded due to changes in ground water tables and surface flooding. Our results inform environmental management and mining reclamation authorities about the subsidence spots and priority mitigation areas from land surface and vegetation degradation in Kirchheller Heide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0389.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: remote-sensing classification; scene classification; few-shot learning; meta-learning; vision transformers; multi-scale feature fusion
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:29:29 CEST)
The central goal of few-shot scene classification is to learn a model that can generalize well to a novel scene category (UNSEEN) from only one or a few labeled examples. Recent works in the remote sensing (RS) community tackle this challenge by developing algorithms in a meta-learning manner. However, most prior approaches have either focused on rapidly optimizing a meta-learner or aimed at finding good similarity metrics while overlooking the embedding power. Here we propose a novel Task-Adaptive Embedding Learning (TAEL) framework that complements the existing methods by giving full play to feature embedding’s dual roles in few-shot scene classification - representing images and constructing classifiers in the embedding space. First, we design a lightweight network that enriches the diversity and expressive capacity of embeddings by dynamically fusing information from multiple kernels. Second, we present a task-adaptive strategy that helps to generate more discriminative representations by transforming the universal embeddings into task-specific embeddings via a self-attention mechanism. We evaluate our model in the standard few-shot learning setting on two challenging datasets: NWPU-RESISC4 and RSD46-WHU. Experimental results demonstrate that, on all tasks, our method achieves state-of-the-art performance by a significant margin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0226.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: land degradation; food security; climate change; remote sensing; survey datasets; Kloto district
Online: 16 May 2018 (08:40:46 CEST)
This study investigates proximate drivers of cropland and forest degradation in Kloto district (Togo, West Africa) as, way of, exploring integrated sustainable landscape approaches in respect to socio-economic and environmental needs and requirements. Net change analysis of major cash and food crops based on three time steps Landsat data (1985–2002, 2002–2017 and 1985–2017) and quantitative analysis from participatory survey data with farmers and landowners are used. Study underlines poor agricultural systems and cassava farming as major impediments to alarming forest losses between 1985–2017. Significant net loss in forests cover by 23.6% and surface areas under cultivation of cocoa agroforestry and maize by 12.99 and 10.1% from 1985 to 2017, due to, intensive cassava cropping (38.78%) and settlement expansions (7.84%). Meanwhile, loss in forest cover between 2017 and 2002 was marginal (8.36%) compared to the period 1985–2002 for which the loss was considerable (15.24%). Based on participatory surveys, majority of agricultural lands are threatened by erosion or physical deterioration (67.5%), land degradation or salt deposits and loss of micro/macro fauna and flora at 56.7%, declining in soil fertility (32.5%), soil water holding capacity (11.7%) and changes in soil texture (3.3%). Majority of farmers adhere to the adoption of the proposed climate smart practices with emphasis on cost effective drip irrigation systems (45.83%), soil mulching (35%) and adoption of drought resilient varieties (29.17%) to anticipate drought spells adverse. The study concludes that low adoption of improved soil conservation, integrated water management and harvesting systems and low productive and adaptive cultivars entail extreme degradation of croplands and crops productivity decline. Therefore, farmers are forced to clear more forests in search of stable and healthy soils for production and extraction of forest products to meet their food demands and improve their livelihoods conditions. Capacity building on integrated pathways of soil and land management practices are therefore needed to ensure sustainable and viable socio-ecological systems at local scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hot Mix Asphalt; Aggregate Stockpile; RAP; Remote Sensing; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Drone; Photogrammetry; Structure from Motion; Density; Volume Calculation; Life Cycle Assessment
Online: 14 December 2020 (12:49:52 CET)
This study introduces a remote sensing application using satellite imagery to survey a network-scale aggregate stockpile inventory. First, a real scale aggregate quarry site was surveyed using a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (sUAV) to produce digital terrain models that enabled analysis of aggregate pile geometry. Second, a lab experiment was designed and performed to validate the applicability of close-range Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry for measuring aggregate piles' physical properties such as volume and density. The other part of the lab experiment delved into direct measurement of aggregate density under varying compaction efforts. These experimental results, in conjunction with some simplifying assumptions, enabled the calculation of aggregate stockpile volumes and estimated weights from satellite imagery. We estimated that an inventory of 4.4 and 1.1 million metric tons of crushed aggregates and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), respectively, stockpiled in Washington State for asphalt production in 2017. The merit of producing such database was further showcased in an example on the economic and environmental impacts of material transportation. We approximated that hauling aggregates from quarry plants to construction sites within Washington State incurs a cost of about $50 thousand to over $4 million, consumes about 0.25 to 20 TJ of energy, and emits 20 to over 1,500 tons of CO2-eq per asphalt plant annually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: groundwater; hydrogeological structures; remote sensing; aeromagnetic survey; radial vertical electrical sounding
Online: 30 September 2017 (12:29:44 CEST)
Aeromagnetic data coupled with Landsat ETM+ data and SRTM DEM have been processed in order to map regional hydrogeological structures in the basement complex region of Paiko, north-central Nigeria. Lineaments were extracted from derivative maps from aeromagnetic, Landsat ETM+ and SRTM DEM datasets. Ground geophysical investigation utilizing Radial Vertical Electrical Sounding (RVES) was established in nine transects comprising of four sounding stations which are oriented in three azimuths. Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) was employed to map the average depths structures from aeromagnetic dataset. Selected thematic layers which included lineaments density, lithologic, slope, drainage density and geomorphologic maps were integrated and modelled using ArcGIS to generate groundwater potential map of the area. Groundwater zones were classified into four categories: very good, good, moderate and poor according to their potential to yield sustainable water to drilled wells. Results from RVES survey reveal a close correlation to lineaments delineated from surface structural mapping and remotely sensed datasets. Hydrogeological significance of these orientations suggest that aeromagnetic data can be used to map relatively deep-seated fractures which are likely to be open groundwater conduits while remotely sensed lineaments and orientations delineated from the RVES survey may indicate areas of recharge. Regions with high lineament density have relatively better groundwater potential. This is attributable to areas having deep weathering profiles associated with intrusive bodies that have resulted in intense fracturing in the area. Drill depths in this area should target a minimum of 80 m to ensure sufficient and sustainable supplies to drilled wells. The outcome of this study should act as information framework that would guide the siting of productive water wells and while providing needed information for relevant agencies in need of data for the development of groundwater resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0538.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: wave breaking; remote sensing; intermediate water waves, dominant waves; plunging waves; rogue waves; machine learning.
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:53:53 CET)
Wave breaking is one of the most important yet poorly understood water wave phenomena. It is via wave breaking that waves dissipate most of their energy and the occurrence of wave breaking directly influences several environmental processes, from ocean-atmosphere gas exchanges to beach morphodynamics. Large breaking waves also represent a major threat for navigation and for the survivability of offshore structures. This paper provides a systematic search for intermediate to deep water breaking waves with particular focus on the elusive occurrence of plunging breakers. Using modern remote sensing and deep learning techniques, we identify and track the evolution of over four thousand unique wave breaking events using video data collected from La Jument lighthouse during ten North Atlantic winter storms. Out of all identified breaking waves (Nb=4683), ≈22% were dominant breaking waves, that is, waves that have speeds within [0.77cp, 1.43cp], where cp is the peak wave speed. Correlations between the occurrence rate of dominant breaking waves (that is, waves per area and time per peak wave period) and wave steepness and wave age were observed. As expected, the number of identified plunging waves was small and six waves of all detected breaking waves, or 0.13%, could undoubtedly be considered as plunging waves. Two waves were also identified as unusually large, or rogue waves. Although afflicted by several technical issues, the data presented here provides a good indication that the probability of occurrence of plunging waves should be better incorporated into the design of offshore structures, particularly the ones that aim to harvest energy in offshore environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Communication Fail-Over, Fault Diagnosis, Limpet, On-board Processing, ORCA Hub, Real-time Condition Monitoring, Remote Sensing, Robots, Robot Sensing Systems, ROS Interface.
Online: 20 August 2018 (19:24:46 CEST)
The oil and gas industry faces increasing pressure to remove people from dangerous offshore environments. Robots present a cost-effective and safe method for inspection, repair and maintenance of topside and marine offshore infrastructure. In this work, we introduce a new immobile multi-sensing robot, the Limpet, which is designed to be low-cost and highly manufacturable, and thus can be deployed in huge collectives for monitoring offshore platforms. The Limpet can be considered an instrument, where in abstract terms, an instrument is a device that transforms a physical variable of interest (measurand) into a form that is suitable for recording (measurement). The Limpet is designed to be part of the ORCA (Offshore Robotics for Certification of Assets) Hub System, which consists of the offshore assets and all the robots (UAVs, drones, mobile legged robots etc.) interacting with them. The Limpet comprises the sensing aspect of the ORCA Hub System. We integrated the Limpet with Robot Operating System (ROS), which allows it to interact with other robots in the ORCA Hub System. In this work, we demonstrate how the Limpet can be used to achieve real-time condition monitoring for offshore structures, by combining remote sensing with signal processing techniques. We show an example of this approach for monitoring offshore wind turbines. We demonstrate the use of four different communication systems (WiFi, serial, LoRa and optical communication) for the condition monitoring process. By processing the sensor data on-board, we reduce the information density of our transmissions, which allows us to substitute short-range high-bandwidth communication systems with low-bandwidth long-range communication systems. We train our classifier offline and transfer its parameters to the Limpet for online classification, where it makes an autonomous decision based on the condition of the monitored structure.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Multi-source heterogeneity; remote sensing; large-scale high-precision modeling; grid division; geostatistics; spatial interpolation
Online: 20 January 2021 (16:19:34 CET)
Remote sensing technology provides a new way to explore the earth for geoscience applications. In the context of continuous deepening of geological research and the vigorous development of geospatial information science, 3D geological modeling technology has become a research hotspot in the intersection of earth science and information science. The traditional 3D geological modeling technology refers to underground 3D modeling using geological data. This modeling method can only display the underground scene in 3D visualization, but cannot display the surface in detail. In this study, remote sensing technology is adopted to improve the traditional 3D geological modeling method, so that geological modeling can be integrated with remote sensing image, and a new 3D geological modeling method based on remote sensing technology is developed. This method can perform integrated 3D visualization of underground and aboveground scenes, which provides a new way for disaster prevention and reduction, geological prospecting and tectonic interpretation. The new 3D geological modeling method is mainly applied in the geological field, and has made new progress in multi-source heterogeneous geological data fusion, large-scale high-precision modeling, geological grid subdivision, attribute modeling technology, remote sensing image fusion and other aspects. Taking the Ya'an area as an example, this paper makes use of the new generation of 3D geological modeling technology to carry out 3D geological modeling and visual display. The 3D visualization in Ya'an area verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the new 3D geological modeling method based on remote sensing technology in the current data environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0112.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: remote sensing; image classification; fully connected conditional random fields (FC-CRF); convolutional neural networks (CNN)
Online: 28 November 2018 (07:11:42 CET)
The interpretation of land use and land cover (LULC) is an important issue in the fields of high-resolution remote sensing (RS) image processing and land resource management. Fully training a new or existing convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture for LULC classification requires a large amount of remote sensing images. Thus, fine-tuning a pre-trained CNN for LULC detection is required. To improve the classification accuracy for high resolution remote sensing images, it is necessary to use another feature descriptor and to adopt a classifier for post-processing. A fully connected conditional random fields (FC-CRF), to use the fine-tuned CNN layers, spectral features, and fully connected pairwise potentials, is proposed for image classification of high-resolution remote sensing images. First, an existing CNN model is adopted, and the parameters of CNN are fine-tuned by training datasets. Then, the probabilities of image pixels belong to each class type are calculated. Second, we consider the spectral features and digital surface model (DSM) and combined with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, the probabilities belong to each LULC class type are determined. Combined with the probabilities achieved by the fine-tuned CNN, new feature descriptors are built. Finally, FC-CRF are introduced to produce the classification results, whereas the unary potentials are achieved by the new feature descriptors and SVM classifier, and the pairwise potentials are achieved by the three-band RS imagery and DSM. Experimental results show that the proposed classification scheme achieves good performance when the total accuracy is about 85%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0516.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: land-cover classification; very high spatial resolution remote sensing image; adaptive majority vote; post-classification.
Online: 26 July 2018 (15:05:16 CEST)
Land-cover classification that uses very-high-resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is a topic of considerable interest. Although many classification methods have been developed, there is still room for improvements in the accuracy and usability of classification systems. In this paper, a novel post-processing approach based on a dual-adaptive majority voting strategy (D-AMVS) is proposed for improving the performance of initial classification maps. D-AMVS defines a strategy for refining each label of a classified map that is obtained by different classification methods from the same original image and fusing the different refined classification maps to generate a final classification result. The proposed D-AMVS contains three main blocks. 1) An adaptive region is generated by extending gradually the region around a central pixel based on two predefined parameters (T1 and T2) in order to utilize the spatial feature of ground targets in a VHR image. 2) For each classified map, the label of the central pixel is refined according to the majority voting rule within the adaptive region. This is defined as adaptive majority voting (AMV). Each initial classified map is refined in this manner pixel by pixel. 3) Finally, the refined classified maps are used to generate a final classification map, and the label of the central pixel in the final classification map is determined by applying AMV again. Each entire classified map is scanned and refined pixel by pixel based on the proposed D-AMVS. The accuracies of the proposed D-AMVS approach are investigated through two remote sensing images with high spatial resolutions of 1.0 and 1.3 m, respectively. Compared with the classical majority voting method and a relatively new post-processing method called general post-classification framework, the proposed D-AMVS can achieve a land-cover classification map with less noise and higher classification accuracies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0289.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: vegetation decline; multitemporal satellite; time series; remote sensing; Landsat; Theil-Sen estimator; Mann-Kendall test; pollution; heavy metals
Online: 16 November 2021 (11:39:44 CET)
The work consisted in identifying possible effects from heavy metals (HMs) pollution due to waste disposal activities in three potentially polluted sites located in Basilicata (Italy), where a release of pollutants with values over the thresholds allowed by the Italian legislation was detected. The potential variations in the physiological efficiency of vegetation have been analyzed through the multitemporal processing of satellite images. In detail, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images were used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) trend over the years. Then, the multitemporal trends were analyzed using the median of Theil-Sen, a non-parametric estimator particularly suitable for the treatment of remote sensing data, being able to minimize the outlier effects due to exogenous factors. Finally, the subsequent application of the Mann-Kendall test on the trends identified by Theil-Sen slope allowed the evaluation of trends significance and, therefore, the areas characterized by the effects of contamination on vegetation. The application of the procedure to the three survey sites led to the exclusion of the presence of significant effects of HMs contamination on the vegetation surrounding the sites during the years of waste disposal activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0163.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Remote sensing and Geographical Information System; hydro-geomorphology; Weightage Index Overlay; decision maker
Online: 4 March 2021 (14:10:08 CET)
Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) have played an important role in exploration and management of groundwater resources. In this study, we present modeling of groundwater potential zone in Khoyrasol block in Birbhum district, West Bengal by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The objective of the study is to explore groundwater as well as surface water availability in different geomorphic units. Different thematic maps of geology, hydro-geomorphology, lineament, slope, land use/land cover (LULC), depth to water level and soil maps are prepared and groundwater potential zones are obtained by overlaying all thematic maps in terms of Weightage Index Overlay (WIO) method. All the thematic map classes have been assigned weightage according to their role in groundwater occurrence. Finally, groundwater potential zones are classified into four categories viz., excellent, good to medium, medium to poor and poor. The outcome of the present research work will help the local farmers, decision-maker, researchers and planners for exploration, monitoring, and management of groundwater resources for this study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Remote sensing data; variable rate irrigation; irrigation management; fuzzy systems; decision support tools; intelligent center pivot
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:03:08 CEST)
Growing agricultural demands for the global population are unlocking the path to developing innovative solutions for efficient water management. Herein, an intelligent variable rate irrigation system (fuzzy-VRI) is proposed for rapid decision-making to achieve optimized irrigation in various delimited zones. The proposed system automatically creates irrigation maps for a center pivot irrigation system for a variable-rate application of water. Primary inputs are spatial imagery on remotely sensed soil moisture (SSM), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), canopy temperature (CT), and nitrogen content (NI). To eliminate localized issues with soil characteristics, we used the crop nitrogen content map to provide a focused insight on issues related to water shortage. The system relates these inputs to set reference values for the rotation speed controllers and individual openings of each central pivot sprinkler valve. The results showed that the system can detect and characterize the spatial variability of the crop and further, the fuzzy logic solved the uncertainties of an irrigation system and defined a control model for high-precision irrigation. The proposed approach is validated through the comparison between the recommended irrigation and actual irrigation at two field sites, and the results showed that the developed approach gives an accurate estimation of irrigation with a reduction in the volume of irrigated water of up to 27% in some cases. Future research should implement the fuzzy-VRI real-time during field trials in order to quantify its effect on irrigation use, yield, and water use efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0398.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: water-leaving radiance; remote sensing reflectance; color index; seasonal blooms; AERONET; Black Sea; MODIS Aqua; AOT; VIIRS
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:53:01 CET)
Geo-information about the spectral variability of the water-leaving radiance is the key to the validation of satellite and in situ measurements and the development of regional algorithms. In this study, using cluster analysis, five trends were identified that are characteristic of various phenomena in the northwestern part of the Black Sea (summer and winter blooms, turbid waters, river runoff). Typical values of the remote sensing reflectance coefficient are calculated for each case. Additionally, the standard values of the color indices for each cluster are calculated. It is shown that the ratio of the color index CI(412/443 nm) is slightly variable and equals 0.8±0.07.This can be a reference point for recovering incorrect (negative) satellite Rrs(λ) values in the shortwave region. In a similar way, the color index was calculated according to the MODIS and VIRS data, it was shown that on days with a turbid atmosphere (high AOT values), the standard deviation of the color index is 30%. For days with a clear atmosphere, the color index is close to the in situ results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0007.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: individual fruit tree (IFT); individual pomelo tree (IPT) detection; deep learning; transfer learning; YOLOv5; remote sensing; unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); spatial distribution
Online: 4 April 2022 (13:35:43 CEST)
The location and number data of individual fruit trees are critical for planting area investigation, fruit yield prediction, and smart orchard management and planning. These data are conventionally obtained through manual investigation and statistics with time-consuming and laborious effort. Object detection models in deep learning used widely in computer vision could provide an opportunity for accurate detection of individual fruit trees, which is essential for rapidly obtaining the data and reducing human operations errors. This study proposes an approach to detecting individual fruit trees and mapping their spatial distribution by integrating deep learning with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing. UAV remote sensing collected high-resolution true-color images of fruit trees in the experimental pomelo tree orchards in Meizhou city, South China. An image dataset of deep learning samples of individual pomelo trees (IPTs) was constructed through visual interpretation and field investigation based on the fruit tree images captured by UAV remote sensing. Four different scales of YOLOv5 (YOLOv5s, YOLOv5m, YOLOv5l, and YOLOv5x) for object detection were selected to train, validate, and test on the image dataset of pomelo trees. The results show that the average precision (AP@0.5) of the four YOLOv5 models for validation reach 87.8%, 88.5%, 89.1%, and 90.7%, respectively. The larger the model scale, the higher the average accuracy of the detection result of validation. It suggests that YOLOv5x is a preferred high-accuracy model among the YOLOv5 family and is suitable to realize the detection of IPTs. The number of the IPTs in the study area was counted using YOLOv5x, and their spatial distribution map was made using the non-maximum suppression method and ArcGIS software. This study will provide primary data and technical support for smart orchard management in Meizhou city and other fruit-producing areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0019.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: high resolution remote sensing image; convolutional neural networks; full convolution networks; Bayesian convolutional neural networks; building extraction; conditional probability density function
Online: 3 January 2018 (04:46:44 CET)
When extract building from high resolution remote sensing image with meter/sub-meter accuracy, the shade of trees and interference of roads are the main factors of reducing the extraction accuracy. Proposed a Bayesian Convolutional Neural Networks(BCNET) model base on standard fully convolutional networks(FCN) to solve these problems. First take building with no shade or artificial removal of shade as Sample-A, woodland as Sample-B, road as Sample-C. Set up 3 sample libraries. Learn these sample libraries respectively, get their own set of feature vector; Mixture Gauss model these feature vector set, evaluate the conditional probability density function of mixture of noise object and roofs; Improve the standard FCN from the 2 aspect:(1) Introduce atrous convolution. (2) Take conditional probability density function as the activation function of the last convolution. Carry out experiment using unmanned aerial vehicle(UVA) image, the results show that BCNET model can effectively eliminate the influence of trees and roads, the building extraction accuracy can reach 97%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Coastal Monitoring, Remote Sensing, In-Situ Sensing, Augmented Virtuality, AUV, Drones, RFID, Wireless Sensor Networks, 3D imaging
Online: 21 December 2017 (16:00:25 CET)
In this paper the authors describe the architecture of a multidisciplinary data acquisition and visualization platform devoted to the management of coastal environments. The platform integrates heterogeneous data acquisition sub-systems that can be roughly divided in two main categories: remote sensing systems and in-situ sensing systems. Remote sensing solutions include aerial and underwater remote data acquisition while in-situ sensing solutions include the use of RFID tracers, Wireless Sensor Networks and imaging techniques. All the data collected by these subsystems are stored, integrated and fused on a single platform that is also in charge of data visualization. This last task is carried out according to the paradigm of Augmented Virtuality which foresees the augmentation of a virtually reconstructed environment with data collected in the real world. The described solution proposes a novel holistic approach where different disciplines concur, with different data acquisition techniques, to a large scale definition of coastal dynamics, in order to better describe and face the coastal erosion phenomenon. The overall framework has been conceived by the so-called Team COSTE, a joint research team between the Universities of Pisa, Siena and Florence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0120.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Miscanthus; remote sensing; UAV; multispectral images; high-throughput phenotyping; machine learning; yield prediction; trait estimation; PROSAIL; multi-sensor interoperability
Online: 8 June 2022 (09:44:59 CEST)
Miscanthus holds a great potential in the frame of the bioeconomy and yield prediction can help improving Miscanthus logistic supply chain. Breeding programs in several countries are attempting to produce high-yielding Miscanthus hybrids better adapted to different climates and end-uses. Multispectral images acquired from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in Italy and in the UK in 2021 and 2022 were used to investigate the feasibility of high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) of novel Miscanthus hybrids for yield prediction and crop traits estimation. An intercalibration procedure was performed using simulated data from the PROSAIL model to link vegetation indices (VIs) derived from two different multispectral sensors. Random forest algorithm estimated with good accuracy yield traits (light interception, plant height, green leaf biomass and standing biomass) using VIs time series and predicted yield using peak descriptor derived from VIs time series with 2.3 Mg DM ha-1 of RMSE. The study demonstrates the potential of UAVs multispectral in HTP applications and in yield prediction for providing important information needed to increase sustainable biomass production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0272.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: side-scan sonar; swath bathymetry; habitat monitoring; hurricane Sandy; hurricane Joaquin; climate change; shoreline detection; remote sensing
Online: 26 August 2019 (15:47:04 CEST)
This study utilizes repeated geoacoustic mapping to quantify the morphodynamic response of the nearshore to storm-induced changes. The aim of this study was to quantitatively map the nearshore zone of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS) to determine what changes in bottom sediments, benthic fauna and fish habitat are attributable to storm events including hurricane Sandy and the passage of hurricane Joaquin. Specifically, (1) the entire domain of the National Parks Service offshore area was mapped with side-scan sonar and multibeam bathymetry at a resolution comparable to that of the existing pre-storm survey, (2) a subset of the benthic stations were resampled that represented all sediment strata previously identified, and (3) newly obtained data were compared to that from the pre-storm survey to determined changes that could be attributed to specific storms such as Sandy and Joaquin. Capturing event specific dynamics requires rapid response surveys in close temporal association of the before and after period. The time-lapse between the pre-storm surveys for Sandy and our study meant that only a time and storm integrated signature for that storm could be obtained whereas with hurricane Joaquin we could identify impacts to the habitat type and geomorphology more directly related to that particular storm. This storm impacts study provides for the National Park Service direct documentation of storm-related changes in sediments and marine habitats on multiple scales: from large scale, side-scan sonar maps and interpretation of acoustic bottom types, to characterize as fully as possible habitats from 1 to 10 m up to many kilometer scales, as well as from point benthic samples within each sediment stratum and these results can help guide management of the island resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0313.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; faster region-based convolutional neural network (FRCNN); single-shot multibox detector (SSD); super-resolution; remote sensing imagery; edge enhancement; satellites
Online: 29 April 2020 (13:33:56 CEST)
The detection performance of small objects in remote sensing images has not been satisfactory compared to large objects, especially in low-resolution and noisy images. A generative adversarial network (GAN)-based model called enhanced super-resolution GAN (ESRGAN) showed remarkable image enhancement performance, but reconstructed images usually miss high-frequency edge information. Therefore, object detection performance showed degradation for small objects on recovered noisy and low-resolution remote sensing images. Inspired by the success of edge enhanced GAN (EEGAN) and ESRGAN, we applied a new edge-enhanced super-resolution GAN (EESRGAN) to improve the quality of remote sensing images and used different detector networks in an end-to-end manner where detector loss was backpropagated into the EESRGAN to improve the detection performance. We proposed an architecture with three components: ESRGAN, EEN, and Detection network. We used residual-in-residual dense blocks (RRDB) for both the ESRGAN and EEN, and for the detector network, we used a faster region-based convolutional network (FRCNN) (two-stage detector) and a single-shot multibox detector (SSD) (one stage detector). Extensive experiments on a public (car overhead with context) dataset and another self-assembled (oil and gas storage tank) satellite dataset showed superior performance of our method compared to the standalone state-of-the-art object detectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0202.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: HR satellite remote sensing; urban fabric vulnerability; UHI & heat waves; landsat & MODIS sensors; LST & urban heating; segmentation & objects classification; data mining; feature extraction & selection; stepwise regression & model calibration
Online: 26 October 2021 (13:11:23 CEST)
Densely urbanized areas, with a low percentage of green vegetation, are highly exposed to Heat Waves (HW) which nowadays are increasing in terms of frequency and intensity also in the middle-latitude regions, due to ongoing Climate Change (CC). Their negative effects may combine with those of the UHI (Urban Heat Island), a local phenomenon where air temperatures in the compact built up cores of towns increase more than those in the surrounding rural areas, with significant impact on the quality of urban environment, on citizens health and energy consumption and transport, as it has occurred in the summer of 2003 on France and Italian central-northern areas. In this context this work aims at designing and developing a methodology based on aero-spatial remote sensing (EO) at medium-high resolution and most recent GIS techniques, for the extensive characterization of the urban fabric response to these climatic impacts related to the temperature within the general framework of supporting local and national strategies and policies of adaptation to CC. Due to its extension and variety of built-up typologies, the municipality of Rome was selected as test area for the methodology development and validation. First of all, we started by operating through photointerpretation of cartography at detailed scale (CTR 1: 5000) on a reference area consisting of a transect of about 5x20 km, extending from the downtown to the suburbs and including all the built-up classes of interest. The reference built-up vulnerability classes found inside the transect were then exploited as training areas to classify the entire territory of Rome municipality. To this end, the satellite EO HR (High Resolution) multispectral data, provided by the Landsat sensors were used within a on purpose developed "supervised" classification procedure, based on data mining and “object-classification” techniques. The classification results were then exploited for implementing a calibration method, based on a typical UHI temperature distribution, derived from MODIS satellite sensor LST (Land Surface Temperature) data of the summer 2003, to obtain an analytical expression of the vulnerability model, previously introduced on a semi-empirical basis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0275.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Accuracy Assessment, Analysis Change, Detection analysis, Environmental change, GIS and Remote Sensing, Jarmet and others wetland change,LULC, change population growth
Online: 24 July 2019 (12:04:29 CEST)
Wetlands are one of the crucial natural resources. They provide invaluable biodiversity resources, aid in water quality improvement, support ground water recharge, help in moderating climate change and support flood control. Environment is in the other hand, where we live and something, we are very familiar with our day to day life. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing and Global Positioning System (GPS) were a useful tool for wetland and environmental change analysis and to improve on the classification accuracy. This study investigates population and environmental change of Jarmet wetland and its surrounding area change analysis over the period of 1972 to 2015. The purpose of this study was to show land use/ land cover change of Jarmet wetland and its surrounding environment over years as a response to population growth. For this purpose, multi-temporal satellite imageries (Landsat MSS 1972, TM1986, ETM+ 2000, 2005 and 2015 and SRTM 2000) were obtained and used for LULC change analysis, elevation analysis and change detection analysis. ERDAS Imagine 2015, ARC GIS 10.5.1, Global Mapper11, ENVI 5.0 and DNR Garmin softwares were used to process the image data and accuracy assessment analysis. The result of LULC showed that there is spatial reduction in wetland, forest, Shrubland and grassland in the period of 43 years (1972-2015) by -1,722.8 ha, -296.2 ha, -1,718.7 ha and -661.9 ha respectively, due to increase in the farmland and plantation area as a response to overpopulation, lack of environmental policy implementation and irresponsible for natural resource degradation. The accuracy assessment of LULC change are done for recent satellite image showed the overall accuracy of 84.06% with Kappa index 75.19% this means this classification is accurately classified and handle greater than 75% of error. Finally, this study suggests that create strictly natural resource conservation law, stopping illegal expansion of farmland, educating society about the value of natural resource especially wetland and create a source of income for society rather than farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0246.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: remote sensing monitoring; Fogo volcano; effusive eruption; lava flow inflation; lava tubes; time averaged effusion rate (TADR); magma supply rate (SR)
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:58:05 CEST)
Fogo volcano erupted in 2014-15 producing an extensive lava flow field in the summit caldera that destroyed two villages, Portela and Bangaeira. The eruption started with powerful explosive activity, lava fountains, and a substantial ash column accompanying the opening of an eruptive fissure. Lava flows spreading from the base of the eruptive fissure produced three arterial lava flows. By a week after the start of the eruption, a master lava tube had already developed within the eruptive fissure and along the arterial flow. In this paper, we analyze the emplacement processes on the basis of observations carried out directly on the lava flow field, remote sensing measurements carried out with a thermal camera, SO2 fluxes, and satellite images, in order to unravel the key factors leading to the development of lava tubes. These were responsible for the rapid expansion of lava for the ~7.9 km length of the flow field, as well as the destruction of the Portela and Bangaeira villages. The key factors leading to the development of tubes were the low topography and the steady magma supply rate along the arterial lava flow. Comparing time-averaged effusion rates (TADR) obtained from satellite and Supply Rate (SR) derived from SO2 flux data, we estimate the amount and timing of the lava flow field endogenous growth, with the aim of developing a tool that could be used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation at this and other volcanoes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Increase in Security Breaches through Remote Working; Security Breaches; Remote Working issues; Remote Working Challenges; Vulnerability issues while Remote working
Online: 30 August 2022 (07:58:51 CEST)
Background: The rise of cloud computing has led to the increasing number of organizations that rely on it for various tasks and services, such as education, healthcare, and e-commerce. Unfortunately, many security threats can be caused by the sudden use of cloud platforms. Objective: This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of these threats and how they can be mitigated. Many companies are moving toward cloud computing to sustain their business growth and provide their employees with the best possible work environment. Results: Due to the rise of cyber security threats and the unprecedented number of breaches of data, small and medium-sized enterprises are also starting to take a huge leap. The outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the lives of people all around the world. Conclusion: Due to the seriousness of the situation, the WHO has declared the COVID-19 pandemic a public health emergency. To minimize the spread of the virus, the entire world has started adopting social distancing
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0442.v2
Online: 27 July 2018 (06:19:37 CEST)
Oil spills are adverse events that may be very harmful to ecosystems and food chain. In particular, large sea oil spills are very dramatic occurrence often affecting sea and coastal areas. Therefore the sustainability of oil rig infrastructures and oil transportation via oil tankers are linked to law enforcement based on proper monitoring techniques which are also fundamental to mitigate the impact of such pollution. Within this context, in this study a meaningful showcase is analyzed using remotely sensed measurements collected by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operated by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation. The showcase presented refers to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil incident that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It is one of the world's largest incidental oil pollution event that affected a sea area larger than 10,000 km2. In this study we exploit, for the first time, dual co-polarization SAR data collected by the Italian CSK X-band SAR constellation showing the key benefits of HH-VV SAR measurements in observing such a huge oil pollution event, especially in terms of the very dense revisit time offered by the CSK constellation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0247.v1
Online: 26 January 2018 (04:52:27 CET)
Drought periods have an adverse impact on the condition of oak stands. Research on different types of ecosystems has confirmed a correlation between plant species diversity and the adverse effects of droughts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes which occurred in an oak stand (Krotoszyn Plateau, Poland) under the impact of the summer drought in 2015. We used a method based on remote sensing indices from satellite images in order to detect changes in the vegetation in 2014 and 2015. A positive difference was interpreted as an improvement, whereas a negative one was treated as a deterioration of the stand condition. The Shannon-Wiener species diversity was estimated using an iterative PCA algorithm based on aerial images. We observed a relationship between the species indices of the individual forest divisions and their response to drought. The highest correlation between the index differences and the Shannon-Wiener indices was found for the GNDVI index (+0.74). In addition, correlations were observed between the mean index difference and the percentage shares in the forest divisions of species such as Pinus sylvestris (+0.67 ± 0.08) and Quercus robur (-0.65 ± 0.10). Our results lead us to infer that forest management based on highly diverse habitats is more suitable to meet the challenges in the context of global climatic changes, characterized by increasingly frequent droughts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0357.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Remote Sensing; Archaeology; Lidar; Dacians; Romania
Online: 18 November 2022 (13:37:21 CET)
Throughout history, the unique Dacian landscape has aroused the imagination of many. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by the magnificent structures the Dacians built and how they altered the mountains to their advantage. Dacian sites, despite their grandeur, remain mostly unknown due to their position deep within Romania's vast forests, generally in remote regions and hidden from the naked eye. Ground exploration in densely forested mountain regions is extremely difficult, and even if such campaigns existed, they would be insufficient to provide a comprehensive picture of the Dacian world. The lack of high-resolution remote-sensing data for wide areas made big-scale assessments of the landscape impractical. This is about to change, as new large datasets of LiDAR-derived digital elevation models, covering the entire heart of Dacian world, are now freely available. This paper reports on one of the most recent freely available LiDAR-based high-resolution digital elevation models in Romania, its impact on Romanian mountain archaeology, and how this can shape future research directions in understanding the Dacian landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0285.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: remote sensing; deep learning; image classification
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:38:55 CEST)
Autonomous image recognition has numerous potential applications in the field of planetary science and geology. For instance, having the ability to classify images of rocks would allow geologists to have immediate feedback without having to bring back samples to the laboratory. Also, planetary rovers could classify rocks in remote places and even in other planets without needing human intervention. Shu et al. classified 9 different types of rock images using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) with the image features extracted autonomously. Through this method, the authors achieved a test accuracy of 96.71%. In this research, Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) have been used to classify the same set of rock images. Results show that a 3-layer network obtains an average accuracy of 99.60% across 10 trials on the test set. A version of Self-taught Learning was also implemented to prove the generalizability of the features extracted by the CNN. Finally, one model has been chosen to be deployed on a mobile device to demonstrate practicality and portability. The deployed model achieves a perfect classification accuracy on the test set, while taking only 0.068 seconds to make a prediction, equivalent to about 14 frames per second.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0560.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SEBAL, Remote Sensing, GIS, Groundwater Irrigation
Online: 23 June 2021 (10:15:05 CEST)
Irrigation water management components evaluation is mandatory for sustainable irrigated agriculture production in the era of water scarcity. In this research spatio-temporal distribution of irrigation water components were evaluated at canal command area in Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) using remote sensing based geo-informatics approach. Satellite derived MODIS product-based Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used for the estimation of the Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa). Satellite derived SEBAL based ETa was calibrated and validated using the ground data-based advection aridity method (AA). Statistical analysis of the SEBAL based ETa and AA shows the mean 87.1 mm and 47.9 mm and, 100 mm and 77 mm, Standard deviation of 27.7 mm and 15.9 mm and, 34.9 mm and 16.1 mm, R of 0.93 and 0.94, NSE of 0.72 and 0.85, PBIASE -12.9 and -4.4, RMSE 34.9 and 5.76 for the Kharif and Rabi season, respectively. Rainfall data was acquired from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). TRMM based rainfall was calibrated with the point observatory data of the Pakistan Metrological Department Stations. Canal water data was collected from the Punjab Irrigation department for the assessment of canal water availability. Water The water balance approach was applied in the unsaturated zone for the quantification of the gross and net Groundwater irrigation. Mmonthly variation of ETa with the minimum average value of 63.3 mm in January and the maximum average value of 110.6 mm in August was found. While, the average annual of four cropping years (2011-12 to 2014-15) ETa was found 899 mm. Average of the sum of Net Canal Water Use (NCWU) and Rainfall during the study period of four years was only 548 mm (36% of ETa) and this resulted the 739.6 mm of groundwater extraction. While the annual based variation in groundwater extraction of 632 mm and 780 mm was found. Seasonal analysis revealed 39% and 61% of groundwater extraction proportion during Rabi and Kharif season, respectively. The variation in four cropping year’s monthly groundwater extraction was found 28.7 mm to 120.3 mm. This variation was high in the 2011-12 to 2012-13 cropping year (0 mm to 148.7 mm), dependent upon the occurrence of rainfall and crop phenology. Net groundwater irrigation, estimated after incorporating the efficiencies was 503 mm year-1 on average for the four cropping years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0654.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: fertility; indigenous; NDVI; paddy; remote sensing
Online: 25 November 2020 (16:57:17 CET)
Paddy field is an old agriculture practice that very common especially in Asia. The earliest paddy field found dated back to 4330 BC. Most paddy fields in the world are having rectangular shapes. Whereas, in Flores island, indigenous people have developed a spider web or circular paddy field instead of regular rectangular shape and this driven by culture and local wisdom. In here, the objectives of this study are to assess the characteristic, ecology and fertility of circular paddy field compared to common rectangular shape. Fertility values were assessed using Landsat 8 remote sensing with RGB combination of NIR, SWIR 1 and blue. The study site was paddy field within Flores island. The result shows that spider web paddy field appeared in many sizes, number, altitude, ecosystem and terrain. Remote sensing result confirms that the fertility of circular paddy field is similar to the rectangular shape. Likewise, circular field has higher NDVI than rectangular field. Considering semiarid environment, limited labor and resources in Flores island, circular paddy field shape can allow the use of pivot irrigation that more efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0385.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Microplastics; transport; TWP; BWP; remote regions
Online: 27 March 2020 (12:20:27 CET)
In recent years, marine, freshwater and terrestrial pollution with microplastics has been discussed extensively, whereas atmospheric microplastic transport has been largely overlooked. Here, we present the first global simulation of atmospheric transport of microplastic particles produced by road traffic (TWPs – tire wear particles and BWPs – brake wear particles), a major source that can be quantified relatively well. We find a high transport efficiency of these particles to remote regions, such as the Arctic Ocean (14%). About 34% of the emitted coarse TWPs and 30% of the emitted coarse BWPs (100 kt yr-1 and 40 kt yr-1 respectively) were deposited in the World Ocean. These amounts are of similar magnitude as the total estimated terrestrial and riverine transport of TWPs and fibres to the ocean (64 kt yr-1). Atmospheric transport of microplastics is thus an underestimated threat to global terrestrial and marine ecosystems and affects air quality on a global scale, especially considering that other large but highly uncertain emissions of microplastics to the atmosphere exist. High latitudes and the Arctic are highlighted as an important receptor of mid-latitude emissions of road microplastics, which may imply a future climatic risk, considering their affinity to absorb solar radiation and accelerate melting.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0484.v1
Online: 22 October 2018 (09:50:48 CEST)
Sea ice surface roughness affects ice-atmosphere interactions, serves as an indicator of ice age, shows patterns of ice convergence and divergence, affects the spatial extent of summer melt ponds, and ice albedo. We have developed a method for mapping sea ice surface roughness using angular reflectance data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and lidar-derived roughness measurements from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). Using an empirical data modeling approach, we derived estimates of Arctic sea ice roughness ranging from centimeters to decimeters meters within the MISR 275-m pixel size. Using independent ATM data for validation, we find that histograms of lidar and multi-angular roughness values are nearly identical for areas with roughness <20 cm but that for rougher regions, the MISR-derived roughness has a narrower range of values than the ATM data. The algorithm is able to accurately identify areas that transition between smooth and rough ice. Because of its coarser spatial scale, MISR-derived roughness data have a variance of about half that ATM roughness data.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0506.v1
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:44:08 CEST)
Sea ice roughness can serve as a proxy for other sea ice characteristics such as ice thickness and ice age. Arctic-wide maps that represent spatial patterns of sea ice roughness can be used to better characterize spatial patterns of ice convergence and divergence processes. Sea ice surface roughness can also control and quantify turbulent exchange between sea ice surface and atmosphere and therefore influence surface energy balance at the basin scale. We have developed a data processing system that produces georeferenced sea ice roughness rasters that can be mosaicked to produce Arctic-wide maps of sea ice roughness. This approach starts with Top-of-Atmosphere radiance data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). We used red-band angular data from three MISR cameras (Ca, Cf, An). We created a training data set in which MISR pixels were matched with co-located and concurrent lidar-derived roughness measurements from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). We used a K-nearest neighbor algorithm with the training data to calibrate the multi-angle data to values of surface roughness and then applied the algorithm to Arctic-wide MISR data for two 16-day periods in April (spring) and July (summer). After georeferencing the roughness rasters, we then mosaicked each 16-day roughness dataset to produce Arctic-wide maps of sea ice roughness for spring and summer. Assessment of the results shows good agreement with independent ATM roughness data, not used in model development. A preliminary exploration of spatial and seasonal changes in sea ice roughness for two locations shows the ability to characterize the roughness of different ice types and the results align with previous studies. This processing system and its data products can help the sea ice research community to gain insights into the seasonal and interannual changes in sea ice roughness over the Arctic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0007.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: African agriculture; Irrigation; Landsat; Remote Sensing; Reservoir.
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:26:45 CET)
Agriculture in Morocco has been extensive until the middle of the 20th century due to the distribution of rainfall and the availability of water. In the middle of the last century hydraulic works were built that allowed the transition to intensive agriculture by the increase of irrigated areas, allowing that in the territories where there is water for irrigation and the climate allows it, the crops adapt to the demands of the market. The objective of the study is to assess by satellite images the land cover between 1985 and 2020, analyzing the changes in cultivation areas, as well as the changes in desert, sub-desert and forest areas of the Oum Er Rbia hydrological basin in Morocco. Landsat satellite images have been used since 1984 by the US government (Aerospace and Geological Agencies). A series of vegetation indices (NDVI, RVI, TNDVI and EVI) have been used; among which TNDVI (Transformed Normalized Vegetation Index) stands out for its better accuracy, which has allowed us to distinguish vegetation in cultivated and forest areas, as well as arid zones. In addition, the study has compared the use of two methodologies to calculate changes in the coverage of the Earth’s surface, has used local image processing from the Sentinel Application Platform tool and has also used the Google Earth Engine tool. The latter being the most optimal, although at the moment it has great limitations. In both methodologies and in the different indices it has been possible to observe during these 35 years as the cultivated area has increased (related to the availability of water by the construction of reservoirs and canals), how plant cover has improved in forest areas, and a range of variations in arid areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0199.v1
Subject: Keywords: urban structure, remote sensing, temporal change, NYC
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:26:15 CEST)
Surface temperature influences human health directly and alters the biodiversity and productivity of the environment. While previous research has identified that the composition of urban landscapes influences the physical properties of the environment such as surface temperature, a generalizable and flexible framework is needed that can be used to compare cities across time and space. This study employs the Structure of Urban Landscapes (STURLA) classification combined with remote sensing of New York City’s (NYC) surface temperature. These are then linked using machine learning and statistical modeling to identify how greenspace and the built environment influence urban surface temperature. It was observed that areas with urban units composed of largely the built environment hosted the hottest temperatures while those with vegetation and water were coolest. Likewise, this is reinforced by borough-level spatial differences in both urban structure and heat. Comparison of these relationships over the period between2008 and 2017 identified changes in surface temperature that are likely due to the changes in prevalence in water, lowrise buildings, and pavement across the city. This research reinforces how human alteration of the environment changes ecosystem function and offers units of analysis that can be used for research and urban planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Mitigation system modelling; Remote impoundment; Consequence analysis
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:32:01 CET)
After the occurrence of a hydrogen fluoride leakage accident that triggered massive losses in Gumi, South Korea in 2012, the government and companies have been interested in installing mitigation systems to minimize the loss of a leakage accident. What lacks in previous researches studying mitigation systems is an evaluation of how much a mitigation system can reduce the impact of accidents. Therefore, modeling-based simulations of mitigation systems should be urgently developed to analysis of the performance of a mitigation system. This study aims to design a mitigation system to handle a leakage accident of a storage tank and determine its design specifications through the use of modeling. The basic concept is that when leakage occurs, leakage material in a dike is drained to a remote impoundment installed under the ground, while the material in the storage vessel is transferred to a reserve tank by a pump at the same time. To evaluate the efficacy of this system. hydrogen fluoride and benzene storage vessels are tested. The simulation results indicate that the proposed mitigation system can contribute to the reduction in the dispersion area for the materials as well as a large reduction in the leakage material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: software training; simulation workflows; SimPhoNy; Simphony-Remote
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:27:18 CET)
Hands-on type training of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is characterized by assisted application and combination of multiple simulation software tools and data. In this paper, we present recent experiences in establishing a cloud-based infrastructure to enable remote use of dedicated commercial and open access simulation tools during an interactive on-line training event. In the first part, we summarize the hardware and software requirements and illustrate how these have been met using cloud hardware services, a simulation platform environment, a suitable communication channel, common workspaces and more. The second part of the article focuses (i) on the requirements for suitable on-line hands-on training material and (ii) on details of some of the approaches taken. Eventually, the practical experiences made during three consecutive on-line training courses held in September 2020 with 35 nominal participants each, are discussed in detail.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0529.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: snow; albedo; remote sensing; OLCI; Sentinel-3
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:45:37 CEST)
This document describes the theoretical basis of the algorithms used to determine properties of snow and ice from the measurements of the Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) onboard Sentinel-3 satellites within the Pre-operational Sentinel-3 snow and ice products (SICE) project: http://snow.geus.dk/. The code used for the SICE retrieval and its documentation can be found at https://github.com/GEUS-SICE/pySICE. The algorithms were developed after the work from Kokhanovsky et al. (2018, 2019, 2020).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0333.v1
Online: 15 September 2020 (06:13:10 CEST)
At the start of 2020 the rapid onset of the coronavirus pandemic forced higher education institutions across the world to pivot from face to face to remote teaching. For teaching methods that involve the transmission and dissemination of verbal/visual information between academic staff and students, video technologies provided immediate methods to respond to the restricted access to campus. Practical activities, that usually involve interaction with equipment, presented a greater challenge to adapt for remote delivery. With restrictions on higher education being partially lifted, many institutions worldwide intend to offer blended learning, prioritizing in-person activities that are troublesome to deliver online, such as practicals. Social distancing measures are reducing capacity and placing increased pressure on space, creating a need to optimise limited time students have in the lab and strategies to determine which activities can best utilize this limited resource. Time is constrained, leaving little opportunity to make radical changes to learning and teaching structures. In this publication, The department of Mulicdipalnary Engineering Education (MEE) at the University of Sheffield, utilise their experiences in practical teaching to provide simple, implementable ideas for blended practicals which maximize students’ learning and experiences within the envelope of available resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0192.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: calcium carbonate, karst, precipitation, remote sensing, whiting
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:38:26 CEST)
In the present study, a five-year follow-up was performed by remote sensing of the calcium carbonate precipitation in La Gitana karstic lake (located on the province of Cuenca, Spain). The important role that calcium carbonate precipitation plays in the ecology of the lake is well known for its influence on the vertical migrations of phytoplankton, the concentration of bioavailable phosphorus and, therefore, the eutrophication and quality of the waters. Whiting take place between the months of July and August, and it can be studied at this time through its optical properties, with the main objective of offering updated data on a phenomenon traditionally studied and establishing possible relationships between abiotic factors such as temperature and/or rainfall. The atmospheric temperature data collected by the meteorological station suggest a possible relationship between the appearance of the white phenomenon and a pulse of previous maximum temperatures. On the other hand, no apparent relationship was found between rainfall and water bleaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: practical engineering education; remote practicals; blended learning
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:29:04 CEST)
Multidisciplinary Engineering Education (MEE) at the University of Sheffield is dedicated to delivering, at scale, practical teaching to students in the Faculty of Engineering. The COVID-19 pandemic initiated the sudden suspension of face to face teaching required MEE to translate over 600 in-lab practicals to a remote delivery format. With little opportunity to coordinate, academic staff independently adopted a variety of tactics to ensure practical learning outcomes were maintained. Following the reactive response, a proactive reflection was conducted and six categories of tactics for remote practicals have been established. These categories are Provide digital artefacts; Simulated practicals; Synchronous remote participation; Asynchronous participation by proxy; Perform procedure in alternative environment; Remote staff support. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these categories is discussed and it is suggested which tactics are appropriate for particular learning outcomes or operational and environmental outcomes of equivalent in-lab practicals. Further work to comprehensively align outcomes to tactics is proposed and lasting benefit from the analysis can be realized by adopting a principle of Remote Enhanced Practicals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0188.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: ozone; OMI; seasonal variations; satellite remote sensing
Online: 12 April 2020 (09:14:12 CEST)
India is one of the large sources of the anthropogenic pollutants and their increasing emission due to the recent economic growth in India. In this study we analyzed the annual and seasonal behaviors of ozone (O3) gas using satellite remote sensing dataset from the sources Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over India region from 2006-2015. The study focuses on the seasonal behaviors of O3 gas i.e., monthly, seasonal, annual mean variations of trace gas and also trend analysis of O3 gas and comparison of the seasonal behavior of the ozone gas by trend analysis were assessed. In this study we also taken eleven cities to show the increment and decrement in four seasons of O3 gas by taking 2006 as a base year and investigate the behaviors of gases during (2007-2015) years. Higher concentrations of O3 south-to-north gradient, indicating the variations due to the impact of emissions and local meteorology. Ozone concentrations were higher during the warmer months. However, in winter season lowest concentration of O3 seen due to the less amount of heat and due to cold days and ozone holes in the stratosphere. Instead, total O3 concentrations rises over Delhi, Lucknow and Kolkata due to large population density, high traffic emission, highly polluted air and larger industrial activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0053.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pedometrics; chemometrics; remote sensing; proximal soil sensing
Online: 6 November 2019 (05:08:36 CET)
Visible and near-infrared reflectance (Vis–NIR) techniques are a plausible method to soil analyses. The main objective of the study was to investigate the capacity to predicting soil properties Al, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, pH, total carbon (TC), H and N, by using different spectral (350–2500 nm) pre-treatments and machine learning algorithms such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Random Forest (RF), Partial Least-squares Regression (PLSR) and Cubist (CB). The 300 soil samples were sampled in the upper part of the Itatiaia National Park (INP), located in Southeastern region of Brazil. The 10 K-fold cross validation was used with the models. The best spectral pre-treatment was the Inverse of Reflectance by a Factor of 104 (IRF4) for TC with CB, giving an averaged R² among the folds of 0.85, RMSE of 1.96; and 0.67 with 0.041 respectively for H. Into the K-folds models of TC, the highest prediction had a R² of 0.95. These results are relevant for the INP management plan, and also to similar environments. The good correlation with Vis–NIR techniques can be used for remote sense monitoring, especially in areas with very restricted access such as INP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0268.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: land surface temperature; remote rensing; reanalysis; ECMWF
Online: 24 September 2019 (05:18:26 CEST)
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable in surface-atmosphere energy and water exchanges. The main goals of this study are to (i) evaluate the LST of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim and ERA5 reanalyses over Iberian Peninsula using the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) product and to (ii) understand the main drivers of the LST errors in the reanalysis. Simulations with the ECMWF land-surface model in offline mode (uncoupled) were carried out over the Iberian Peninsula and compared with the reanalysis data. Several sensitivity simulations were performed in a confined domain centered in Southern Portugal to investigate potential sources of the LST errors. The Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) fraction of green vegetation cover (FCover) and the European Space Agency’s Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) Land Cover dataset were explored. We found a general underestimation of daytime LST and slightly overestimation at night-time. The results indicate that there is still room for improvement in the simulation of LST in ECMWF products. Still, ERA5 presents an overall higher quality product in relation to ERA-Interim. Our analysis suggested a relation between the large daytime cold bias and vegetation cover differences between (ERA5 and CGLS FCocver) with a correlation of -0.45. The replacement of the low and high vegetation cover by those of ESA-CCI provided an overall reduction of the large Tmax biases during summer. The increased vertical resolution of the soil at the surface, has a positive impact, but much smaller when compared with the vegetation changes. The sensitivity of the vegetation density parameter, that currently depends on the vegetation type, provided further proof for a needed revision of the vegetation in the model, as there is a reasonable correlation between this parameter and the Tmax mean errors when using the ESA-CCI vegetation cover (while the same correlation cannot be reproduced with the original model vegetation). Our results support the hypothesis that vegetation cover is one of the main drivers of the LST summertime cold bias in ERA5 over Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi Server; remote user; mutual authentication; attack
Online: 3 July 2019 (12:08:40 CEST)
From ancient time, electric grid system developed as one way direction in which users get the electricity from generators to far end. However, it is not the consumer centric as its one way process and consumer have no way to communicate to the server. Thus, with the development of digital revolution, the grid converted to smart grid and meter converted to smart meter. In smart grid, the protocol follows the bidirectional way of communication with support of consumers in the system. Recently in 2016, Jo et al. proposed the scheme for smart grid system using privacy preserving model and claimed to be efficient and secure. However, in this paper we have analyzed the scheme of Jo et al. and proved that the scheme is vulnerable to Replay attack and afterwards shows the change in protocol to withstand against this attack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0071.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land surface reanalysis, remote sensing, data assimilation,
Online: 7 February 2019 (11:31:26 CET)
This study focuses on the ability of the global land data assimilation system LDAS-Monde to improve the representation of land surface variables (LSVs) over Burkina Faso through the joint assimilation of satellite derived Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) from January 2001 to June 2018. The LDAS-Monde offline system is forced by the latest European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis ERA5, leading to a 0.25° x 0.25° spatial resolution reanalysis of the LSVs. Within LDAS-Monde, SSM and LAI observations from the Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) are assimilated using the CO2-responsive version of the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model (LSM). First, it is shown that ERA5 better represents precipitation and incoming solar radiation than ERA-Interim former reanalysis from ECMWF. Results of two experiments are compared: open-loop simulation (i.e. no assimilation) and analysis (i.e. joint assimilation of SSM and LAI). After jointly assimilating SSM and LAI, it is noticed that the assimilation is able to impact soil moisture in the first top soil layers (the first 20 cm), and also in deeper soil layers (from 20 cm to 60 cm and below). The assimilation is able to improve the simulation of both SSM and LAI. For LAI in particular, the southern region of the domain (dominated by a Sudan-Guinean climate) highlights a strong impact of the assimilation compared to the other two sub-regions of Burkina Faso (dominated by Sahelian and Sudan-Sahelian climates). In the southern part of the domain, differences between the model and the observations are the largest, prior to any assimilation. These differences are linked to the model failing to represent the behavior of some specific vegetation species, which are known to put on leaves before the first rains of the season. The LDAS-Monde analysis is very efficient at compensating for this model weakness. Evapotranspiration estimates from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) project as well as upscaled carbon uptake from the FLUXCOM project are used in the evaluation process, again demonstrating improvements in the representation of evapotranspiration and gross primary production after assimilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0105.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land Surface Data Assimilation, remote sensing, ERA5
Online: 6 September 2018 (00:24:47 CEST)
LDAS-Monde, an offline land data assimilation system with global capacity, is applied over the CONtiguous US (CONUS) domain to enhance monitoring accuracy for water and energy states and fluxes. LDAS-Monde ingests satellite-derived Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) estimates to constrain the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) Land Surface Model (LSM) coupled with the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques) version of the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (CTRIP) continental hydrological system (ISBA-CTRIP). LDAS-Monde is forced by the ERA-5 atmospheric reanalysis from the European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) from 2010 to 2016 leading to a 7-yr, quarter degree spatial resolution offline reanalysis of Land Surface Variables (LSVs) over CONUS. The impact of assimilating LAI and SSM into LDAS-Monde is assessed over North America, by comparison to satellite-driven model estimates of land evapotranspiration from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) project, and upscaled ground-based observations of gross primary productivity from the FLUXCOM project. Also, taking advantage of the relatively dense data networks over CONUS, we also evaluate the impact of the assimilation against in-situ measurements of soil moisture from the USCRN network (US Climate Reference Network) are used in the evaluation, together with river discharges from the United States Geophysical Survey (USGS) and the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC). Those data sets highlight the added value of assimilating satellite derived observations compared to an open-loop simulation (i.e. no assimilation). It is shown that LDAS-Monde has the ability not only to monitor land surface variables but also to forecast them, by providing improved initial conditions which impacts persist through time. LDAS-Monde reanalysis has a potential to be used to monitor extreme events like agricultural drought, also. Finally, limitations related to LDAS-Monde and current satellite-derived observations are exposed as well as several insights on how to use alternative datasets to analyze soil moisture and vegetation state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: remote areas; solar home system; sustainable development
Online: 16 May 2018 (08:48:58 CEST)
The fact that Thailand’s energy policy has set a new renewable energy target of 30% of total final energy consumption by 2036. It also has the potential of solar energy and community demands in remote areas. However, most of the renewable energy technology will still be able to achieve renewable energy goals, similar to the case of the national policy that promotes Solar Home System (SHS) in remote areas, lack of good handling. Therefore, achieving the goal of the renewable energy policy should be in position using the right strategy. This article presents the result of a case study in the Akha upland community, northern Thailand, where we used the mixing method and factor analysis to analyze strategies for SHS related criteria. The key scopes and challenge included bottom-up planning concepts and subsidies from expert persons, while contributions to factors have an impact on developing sustainable SHS, include the creating approval of SHS technologies, developing of SHS management, promoting of SHS technologies, and supporting of SHS policies, respectively. Mainly, social factors provide positive effects, which thus influence the sustainable development of process SHS in terms of the creation of approval. Furthermore, there should be managed appropriately for each community, for the positive imagery of solar power.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0057.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: TMS; remote control; serial port; MagVenture; MagStim
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:45:50 CEST)
The capacity to externally control transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) devices is becoming increasingly important in brain stimulation research. Here we introduce MAGIC (MAGnetic stimulator Interface Controller), an open-source MATLAB toolbox for controlling Magstim and MagVenture stimulators. MAGIC includes a series of MATLAB functions which allow the user to arm/disarm the stimulator, send triggers, change stimulator settings such as amplitude, interpulse intervals, and frequency, and receive stimulator setting information via a serial port connection between a computer and the stimulator. By providing external control capability, MAGIC enables greater flexibility in designing research protocols which require trial-by-trial changes of device settings to realize a priori trial randomization or interactive ad hoc adjustment of parameters during an ongoing experiment. MAGIC thus helps to prevent experimental confounds related to the block-wise variation of parameters and facilitates the integration of TMS with cognitive/sensory tasks, and the development of more adaptive brain state-dependent brain stimulation protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: open microcontrolled platform; data acquisition; remote measurement
Online: 8 March 2018 (15:21:13 CET)
The commercial equipment that carries out the measurement of temperature has a high cost. Therefore, this article describes the development of a temperature measurement equipment, which uses a microcontrolled platform, responsible for managing the data of the collected temperature signals and making available the acquired information, so that they can be verified in real time at the measurement site, or remotely. The construction of the temperature measurement equipment was performed using open platform hardware / software, where performance tests were carried out with the objective of developing a temperature measurement equipment that has measurement quality and low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0085.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: thermal remote sensing; EKC theory; urban development
Online: 16 December 2016 (08:00:59 CET)
This study investigates the land surface temperature (LST) distribution from thermal infrared data for analyzing the characteristics of surface coverage using the Vegetation-Impervious-Soil (VIS) approach. A set of ten images, obtained from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper, between 2001 and 2010, were used to study the urban environmental conditions of 47 neighborhoods of Porto Alegre city, Brazil. Porto Alegre has had the smallest population growth rate of all 27 state capitals in the last two decades in Brazil, with an increase of 11.55% in inhabitants from 1,263 million in 1991 to 1,409 million in 2010. We applied the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) theory in order to test the influence of the economically-related scenario on the spatial nature of social-environmental arrangement of the city at neighborhood scale. Our results suggest that the economically-related scenario exerts a non-negligible influence on the physically driven characteristics of the urban environmental conditions as predicted by EKC theory. The linear inverse correlation R2 between household income (HI) and LST is 0.36 and has shown to be comparable to all other studied variables. Future research may investigate the relation between other economically-related indicators to specific land surface characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0244.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Soil Erosion; Floods; LULC; KINEROS2; GIS; Remote Sensing
Online: 16 September 2022 (09:23:13 CEST)
The Kashmir valley is prone to flooding due to its peculiar geomorphic setup compounded by the rapid anthropogenic land system changes and climate change. The study assesses the impact of land use and land cover (LULC) changes between 1980 and 2020 and extreme rainfall on peak discharge and sediment yield in the Upper Jhelum Basin (UJB), Kashmir Himalaya, India using KINEROS2 model. Analysis of LULC change revealed a notable shift from natural LULC to more intensive human-modified LULC, including a decrease in vegetative cover, deforestation, urbanization, and improper farming practices. The findings revealed a strong influence of the LULC changes on peak discharge, and sediment yield relative to the 2014 timeframe, which coincided with the catastrophic September 2014 flood event. The model predicted a peak discharge of 115101 cubic feet per second (cfs) and a sediment yield of 56.59 tons/ha during the September 2014 flooding, which is very close to the observed peak discharge of 115218 cfs indicating that the model is reliable for discharge prediction. The model predicted a peak discharge of 98965 cfs and a sediment yield of 49.11 tons/ha in 1980, which increased to 118366 cfs and, 58.92 tons/ha respectively in 2020, showing an increase in basin’s flood risk over time. In the future, it is anticipated that the ongoing LULC changes will make flood vulnerability worse, which could lead to another major flooding in the event of an extreme rainfall as predicted under climate change and, in turn compromise achievement of sustainable development goals (SDG). Therefore, regulating LULC in order to modulate various hydrological and land surface processes would ensure stability of runoff and reduction in sediment yield in the UJB, which is critical for achieving many SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0257.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing; vegetation coverage; drought; meteorological conditions; Afghanistan
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:04:50 CEST)
The vulnerability of vegetation in the Middle East to meteorological conditions and climate change, especially those leading to drought, is high. Despite the importance of the Amu Darya and Kabul River Basins (ADB and KRB) as a region in which more than 15 million people live, and its vulnerability to global warming, only several studies addressed the issue of the linkage of meteorological parameters on vegetation for the eastern basins of Afghanistan. In this study, data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM), and Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to examine the impact of meteorological parameters on vegetation for the eastern basins of Afghanistan for the period from 2000 to 2021. The study utilized several indices, such as Precipitation Condition Index (PCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Soil Moisture Condition Index (SMCI), and Microwave Integrated Drought Index (MIDI). The relationships between meteorological quantities, drought conditions, and vegetation variations were examined by analyzing the anomalies and using regression methods. The results showed that the years 2000, 2001, and 2008 had the lowest vegetation coverage (VC) (56, 56, and 55% of the study area, respectively). On the other hand, the years 2010, 2013, 2016, and 2020 had the highest VC (71, 71, 72, and 72% of the study area, respectively). The trend of the VC for the eastern basins of Afghanistan for the period from 2000 to 2021 was upward. High correlations between VC and soil moisture (R = 0.70, p = 0.0004), and precipitation (R = 0.5, p = 0.008) were found, whereas no significant correlation was found between VC and drought index MIDI. It was revealed that soil moisture, precipitation, land surface temperature, and area under meteorological drought conditions explained 45% of annual VC variability.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: telehealth; remote assessment; cardiology; cardiovascular diseases; COVID-19
Online: 7 July 2022 (08:11:31 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vitalness of telehealth in our medical world, where considering a restructuring of healthcare services has become paramount. In fact, telemedicine has recently earned a valuable place in many specialties; and its implications in cardiology and cardiovascular medicine were among the leading interests. In this letter, we gathered previous evidence supporting the merit of telemedicine in the fields of cardiology and cardiovascular medicine—medical branches in which patients require meticulous care and continuous monitoring—as well as protrusions of concerns about the uncertainty regarding the efficacy of telemedicine’s future implications and technologies. In sum, in the context of this still on-going pandemic, medical institutions must strive to improve telehealth technologies and implement solid future research directions in this growing field—to be able to persevere in meeting the needs of the patients. As long as no conclusive evidence exists regarding the fields where telemedicine is most worthwhile, healthcare systems will always keep the dread of wasting resources on developing ineffective programs. We conclude that telemedicine has been attributed a considerable attention in managing cardiac and cardiovascular conditions; nevertheless, further studies with solid designs are still needed to confirm its validity and utility in those specialties.