ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; neuroendocrine prostate cancer; PET; DOTATATE
Online: 9 November 2022 (11:48:56 CET)
Objectives: Prostate cancer is well known to express high levels of somatostatin receptors and preliminary data suggests that PET imaging with the somatostatin analog, 68Ga-DOTATATE, may allow for whole body staging of patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NePC). This study explores the utility of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT to identify metastatic deposits in men with mCRPC and NePC and prognosticate disease progression. Methods: 68Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT was performed in 17 patients with mCRPC and of those 2/17 had NePC. Semiquantitative analysis with standardized uptake values (SUV) (e.g. SUVmax, SUVmean) was performed for each metastatic lesion and reference background tissues. 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake in metastatic deposits was further classified as: mild (less than liver), moderate (up to liver average), or marked (greater than liver). Serial prostate-specific antigen measurements and patient survival were followed up to 3 years after PET imaging to assess response to standard of care treatment. Results: All patients had at least one metastic lesion with identifiable 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake. Marked 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake was found in 7/17 patients, including both NePC patients, and all were non-responders to systemic therapy and died within the follow up period, with a mean time to death of 8.1 months. 3 patients had mild 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake, and all were responders to systemic therapy and were alive 36 months after 68Ga-DOTATATE imaging. Conclusions: 68Ga-DOTATATE is able to identify mCRPC and NePC metastatic deposits, and lesions with 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake > liver may portend poor outcomes in patients with mCRPC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0571.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen; incidence; genomics; next generation sequencing
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:15:50 CEST)
In the recent past, there has been a rise in Prostate Cancer (PCa) in Asia, particularly India. Although systematic reviews on PCa have dealt on the genetics, genomics and the environmental influence in causal of PCa, no predictive analytics in comparing the PCa from Caucasian, American to Asian population was attempted. In this review article, we have attempted to elaborate this aspect of PCa and deliberated on challenges related to next generation sequencing methods of PCa’s manifestation when compared to the west.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate; cancer; proliferation; ion; channels
Online: 21 April 2022 (13:58:54 CEST)
Numerous studies have firmly established the role of ion channels in essentially all basic cellular functions. Apart from their role in ion transport, they can form macromolecular complexes with adhesion proteins, and signaling molecules. Ion channels are not only responsible for cellular electrogenesis and excitability, but they also regulate the necessary conditions for tissue homeostasis, such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Although cancer is not officially classified as a channelopathy, it has been increasingly recognized that ion channel aberrations play an important role in virtually all cancer types. Ion channels can exert pro-tumorigenic activities due to genetic or epigenetic alterations, or as a response to molecular signals, such as growth factors, hormones, etc. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States. Increasing evidence suggests that ion channels and pumps play a critical role in the regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, migration, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. There is also evidence suggesting that ion channels might play a role in treatment failure in prostate cancer. Hence, they represent promising targets for diagnosis, staging and treatment. Here, the role of major types of ion channels involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer were reviewed. Identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms of the pro-tumorigenic effects of ion channels, may potentially inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies to counter this malignancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0334.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Risk factors, lifestyle, practises, breast cancer, prostate cancer, malignancy.
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:04:56 CEST)
In this study, we described the most critical risk factors for different malignancies including: breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal carcinoma among others, with an emphasis on modifiable risk factors. We revised the literature review about risk factors involved in the genesis of cancer in various databases, including articles indexed in PUBMED, SCOPUS, PMC, and Google Scholar. Awareness of risk factors enables conscious decisions to be made in an effort to combat malignancies. Knowing risk factors is a mode of fighting malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, practises, and laboratory/clinical interventions were among risk factors of diverse malignancy. Diet, lifestyle, laboratory/clinical interventions all contribute to the genesis and prognosis in a variety of malignancies. We concluded that abstaining from risk factors can prevent the development of many malignancies in a century where this conundrum is raising disproportionately. By informing the public about modifiable risk factors cancer mortality rates can be reduced. It is treated here is to make the public aware of the modifiable risks of cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Orphan; receptors; nuclear; olfactory; prostate; cancer
Online: 18 January 2022 (15:08:22 CET)
Background: The identification of new cellular receptors has been increasing rapidly. A receptor is called “orphan” if an endogenous ligand has not been identified yet. Methods: Here we review receptors that contribute to prostate cancer and are considered orphan or partially orphan. This means that the full spectrum of their endogenous ligands remains unknown. Results: The orphan receptors are divided into two major families. The first group includes G protein-coupled receptors. Most are orphan olfactory receptors. OR51E1 inhibits cell proliferation and induces senescence in prostate cancer. OR51E2 inhibits prostate cancer growth, but promotes invasiveness and metastasis. GPR158, GPR110 and GPCR-X play significant roles in prostate cancer development and progression. However, GPR160 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The other major subset of orphan receptors are nuclear receptors. RORα inhibits tumor growth, but RORγ stimulates androgen receptor signaling. PXR contributes to metabolic deactivation of androgens and inhibits cell proliferation. TLX has pro-tumorigenic effects in prostate cancer, while its knockdown triggers cellular senescence and growth arrest. Estrogen-related receptor ERRγ can inhibit tumor growth but ERRα is pro-tumorigenic. Dax1 and Shp are also inhibitory in prostate cancer. Conclusion: There is a “zoo” of relatively underappreciated orphan receptors that play key roles in prostate cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1503.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: exosome; prostate cancer; biomarker
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:02:44 CEST)
Backgound: Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles, carriers of different biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. Their composition and the fact that their release dramatically increases in case of tumorigenesis, opens different scenarios on the possible application in the research for new biomarkers.Methods: The most widely applied methodologies include ultracentrifugation techniques, size-based techniques, immunoaffinity capture-based techniques (mainly ELISA) and precipitation. To optimize the acquisition of exosomes from the reference sample, more techniques can be applied in sequence for a single extraction, determining an increase in labor time and costs. Results: The analysis of PSA-expressing exosomes provides an incredibly accurate way to discriminate between healthy patients and those with prostate disease. Specifically, IC-ELISA alone method achieved 98.57% sensitivity and 80.28% specificity in discriminating prostate cancer (PC) from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).An immunocapture-based ELISA assay was performed to quantify and characterize carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression in exosomes. The results revealed that CA IX positive exosomes were 25-fold higher in plasma samples from PC patients than in those from healthy control. Conclusions: The analysis of PC-linked exosomes represents a promising diagnostic model that can effectively distinguish patients with PC from those with non-malignant prostatic disease, However, the use of exosome analysis in clinical practice is currently limited by several issues, including a lack of standardization in the analytical process and high costs, which are still too high for a large-scale use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oligometastases; prostate cancer; PSMA-PET; stereotaxic body radiotherapy (SBRT); oligorecurrent prostate cancer; metastasis directed therapy; clinical trials.
Online: 20 June 2023 (09:56:01 CEST)
Within the oligometastatic state, oligo-recurrent lymph node disease in prostate cancer represents an interesting clinical entity characterized by a relatively indolent biology that makes it unique: it can be treated radically, and its treatment is usually associated with a long period of control and excellent survival. Additionally it is an emergent situation that we are facing more frequently, mainly due to: a) the incorporation into clinical practice of the PSMA PET that provides strikingly increase superior images in comparison to conventional imaging, with higher sensitivity and specificity; b) the higher detection rates of bone and node disease with extremely low levels of PSA; and c) the availability of high-precision technology in radiotherapy treatments with the incorporation of stereotaxic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or stereotaxic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) technology that allows the safe administration of high doses of radiation in a very limited number of fractions with low toxicity and excellent tolerance. This approach of new image-guided patient management is compelling for doctors and patients since it can potentially contribute to improve the clinical outcome. In this work we discuss the available evidence, areas of debate, and potential future directions concerning the utilization of new imaging guided SBRT for the treatment of nodal recurrence in prostate cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1710.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: prostate cancer; immunotherapy; dendritic cell-based vaccines; castration-resistant prostate cancer; tumor microenvironment; biomarkers
Online: 24 May 2023 (10:47:44 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of death due to cancer. About 30% of patients with PCa who have been castrated develop a castration-resistant form of the disease (CRPC), which is incurable. In the last decade, new treatments that control the disease have emerged, slowing progression and spread, and prolonging survival while maintaining the quality of life. These include immunotherapies; however, we do not yet know the optimal combination and sequence of these therapies with the standard ones. All therapies are not always suitable for every patient due to co-morbidities or adverse effects of therapies or both, so there is an urgent need for further work on new therapeutic options. Advances in cancer immunotherapy with an immune checkpoint inhibition mechanism (e.g., ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 inhibitor) have not shown a survival benefit in patients with CRPC. Other immunological approaches have also not given clear results, which has indirectly prevented breakthrough for this type of therapeutic strategy into clinical use. Currently, the only approved form of immunotherapy for patients with CRPC is a cell-based medicine, but it is only available to patients in some parts of the world. Based on the experience gained from recently completed clinical research on immunotherapy with dendritic cell-based immunohybridomas, the aHyC dendritic cell vaccine, for patients with CRPC, we highlight the current status, and possible alternatives that should be considered in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; radiotherapy; toxicity; dose escalation
Online: 24 May 2022 (10:47:08 CEST)
Introduction The outcome of radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCA) depends on the delivered dose. While the evidence for dose-escalated RT up to 80 Gy is well established, there have been only few studies examining dose escalation above 80 Gy. We initiated the presented study to assess the safety of dose escalation up to 84 Gy. Patients and methods In our retrospective analysis, we included patients who received dose-escalated RT for PCA at our institution between 2016 and 2021. We evaluated acute genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity as well as late GU and GI toxicity. Results A total of 86 patients could be evaluated, of whom 24 patients had received 80 Gy and 62 patients had received 84 Gy (35 without pelvis- and 27 with pelvis-radiotherapy). Regarding acute toxicities, no adverse events > grade 2 occurred. 12.5% of patients treated with 80Gy, in 25.7% of patients treated with 84 Gy excluding pelvis, and in 51.9% of patients treated with 84Gy including pelvis suffered from Grade 2 GU acute toxicity (80 Gy versus 84 Gy: p=0.186; with pelvis versus without pelvis: p=0.032). Grade 2 GI toxicity occurred in 12.5% of patients irradiated with 80Gy, in 14.3% of patients treated with 84 Gy excluding pelvis, and in 12.9% of patients treated with 84Gy including pelvis (80 Gy versus 84 Gy: p=0.582; with pelvis versus without pelvis: p=0.510).GU late toxicity of grade ≥ 2 occurred in 4.2% of patients treated with 80 Gy, in 7.1% of patients treated with 84 Gy excluding pelvic RT, and in 18.2% of patients treated with 84 Gy including pelvic RT (logrank-test p=0.237). 8.3% of patients treated with 80 Gy, in 3.6% of patients treated with Gy excluding pelvic RT, and in 0% of patients treated with 84 Gy including pelvic RT suffered from GI late toxicity of grade ≥ 2(logrank-test p=0.358). Conclusion We were able to show that dose-escalated RT in PCA up to 84 Gy is feasible and safe without asubstantial increase in toxicity. Further follow up is needed to assess survival.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; mouse model; xenograft; PDX; CRISPR; probasin
Online: 21 July 2023 (07:36:00 CEST)
Prostate cancer is a common cancer among men and typically progresses slowly for several decades before becoming aggressive and spreading to other organs, leaving few treatment options. While large animals have been studied, the dog's prostate is anatomically similar to humans and has been used to study spontaneous prostate cancer. However, most research currently focuses on the mouse as a model organism due to the ability to genetically modify their prostatic tissues for molecular analysis. One hallmark in this research was the identification of the prostate-specific promoter Probasin, allowing for prostate-specific expression of transgenes. This has led to generations of mice with aggressive prostatic tumors through overexpression of the SV40 oncogene. The Probasin promoter is also used to drive Cre expression and allow researcher to generated prostate specific loss-of-function studies. Another landmark in the process of modeling prostate cancer in mice was orthoptic delivery of viral particles. This technology allows selective overexpression of oncogenes from lentivirus or the use of CRISPR to generate complex loss of function studies. These genetic modified models are complemented by classical xenografts of human prostate tumor cells in immune deficient mice. Overall, pre-clinical models have provided a portfolio of model systems to study and address complex mechanisms in prostate cancer for improved treatment options. This review will focus on the advances of each technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CDC20; BIOMARKER; KMT5A; p53; prostate cancer
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:03:54 CEST)
The methyltransferase, KMT5A has been proposed as an oncogene in prostate cancer and therefore represents a putative therapeutic target. To confirm this hypothesis we have performed a microarray study in a prostate cancer cell line model of androgen independence following KMT5A knockdown in the presence of transcriptionally active androgen receptor (AR) to understand which genes and cellular processes are regulated by KMT5A in the presence of an active AR. We observed that 301 genes were down-regulated whilst 408 were up-regulated when KMT5A expression was reduced. KEGG pathway and Gene Ontology analysis revealed apoptosis and DNA damage signaling are up-regulated in response to KMT5A knockdown whilst protein folding and RNA splicing were down-regulated. Under these conditions, the top non-AR regulated gene was found to be CDC20, a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint with an oncogenic role in several cancer types. Further investigation revealed that KMT5A regulates CDC20 in a methyltransferase dependent manner to modulate both histone H4K20 methylation within its promoter region and indirectly via the p53 signalling pathway. A positive correlation between KMT5A and CDC20 expression was also observed in clinical prostate cancer samples further supporting this association. Therefore, we conclude that KMT5A is a valid therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer and CDC20 could potentially be utilized as a biomarker for effective therapeutic targeting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0093.v1
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:31:56 CEST)
Prostate cancer contributes to cancer-related deaths globally, and the etiology of this disease is not yet fully understood. While Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer, studies investigating the relationship between HPV and prostate cancer have shown mixed results. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the causative association between HPV and prostate cancer using Bradford Hill's criteria. A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted, and 60 out of 482 studies were included in the review. The included studies were evaluated based on nine Bradford Hill criteria, and information on the identification and transmission of the virus and potential oncogenic mechanisms was also extracted. The strength of association criterion was not met, and other criteria, such as consistency and coherence, were not fulfilled. However, biological plausibility was supported, and potential oncogenic mechanisms were identified. While some studies have reported the presence of HPV in prostate cancer tissues, the overall quality of evidence remains low, and the association between HPV and prostate cancer is weak. Nevertheless, the prostate is a potential reservoir for the transmission of HPV, and the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins and inflammation are likely to be involved in any oncogenic mechanisms. Further studies with a higher level of evidence are needed to establish a definitive link between HPV and prostate cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Prostate cancer; lineage plasticity; neuroendocrine transdifferentiation; targeted therapy
Online: 21 August 2023 (04:36:25 CEST)
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is a highly aggressive subtype of prostate cancer (PC) that commonly emerges through a transdifferentiation process from prostate adenocarcinoma and evades conventional therapies. Extensive molecular research has revealed factors that drive lineage plasticity, uncovering novel therapeutic targets to be explored. A diverse array of targeting agents is currently under evaluation in pre-clinical and clinical studies with promising results in suppressing or reversing the neuroendocrine phenotype and inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis. This new knowledge has the potential to contribute to development of novel therapeutic approaches that may enhance clinical management and prognosis of this lethal disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0236.v1
Online: 20 October 2019 (16:18:48 CEST)
PDEF is expressed in luminal epithelial cells of the prostate gland and associates with luminal phenotype. Hippo pathway regulates cell growth/proliferation, cellular homeostasis, and organ development by modulating phosphorylation of its downstream effectors. In previous studies, we observed decreased levels of PDEF during prostate cancer progression. In the present studies, we evaluated the effects of PDEF on total and phospho (Ser-127)YAP1 protein(a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway) levels in PC3 cells, a line of castrate resistant prostate cancer. We observed that the expression of PDEF in PC3 cells resulted in increased increased phospho(Ser127) -YAP1 protein levels. Our immunofluorescence analysis for YAP1 revealed an increased cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio of YAP1 in PDEF-PC3 cells as compared to VC-PC3 cells, suggesting PDEF may play a critical role in modulating YAP1 phosphorylation, and by extension in the regulation of the Hippo pathway. We also observed a decrease in YAP1 protein levels in prostate cancer tissues as compared to normal prostate tissues. Our analysis of multiple publicly available clinical cohorts revealed a gradual decrease in YAP1 mRNA expression during prostate cancer progression and metastasis. This decrease was similar to the decrease in PDEF levels which we reported earlier. In addition we observed further decreased in PDEF and YAP1 expression in Neuro-Endocrine Prostate Cancer (NEPC), and a direct correlation between PDEF and YAP1 expression. To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first demonstration of modulation of YAP1 by PDEF in any system and suggest a cross-talk between PDEF and the Hippo pathway.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; lymph node dissection; lymphadenectomy; radical prostatectomy
Online: 16 March 2022 (02:24:15 CET)
The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on lymph node dissection (LND) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Despite a growing body of evidence, utility, therapeutic and prognostic value of such approach as well as optimal extent of LND, remain unsolved issues. Although LND is the most accurate staging procedure, the direct therapeutic effect is still not evident from the current literature which limits the possibility of establishing clear recommendations. This indicates the need for further robust and adequately designed high quality clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: prostate cancer, renal cancer, urothelial cancer, vaccines, immunotherapy
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:54:43 CEST)
Background: In the last years, many new treatment options have widened the therapeutic scenario of genitourinary malignancies. Immunotherapy has shown efficacy, especially in the urothelial and renal cell carcinomas, with no particular relevance in prostate cancer. However, despite the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, there is still high morbidity and mortality among these neo-plasms. Cancer vaccines represent another way to activate the immune system. We sought to summarize the most recent advances in vaccine therapy for genitourinary malignancies with this review. Methods: We searched Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Database for clinical trials conducted in the last ten years, focusing on cancer vaccines in the prostate, urothelial and renal cancer. Results: Various therapeutic vaccines, including DNA-based, RNA-based, peptide-based, dendritic cells, viral vectors, and modified tumor cells, have been demonstrated to induce specific immune responses in a variable percentage of patients. However, these responses rarely corresponded to significant survival improvements. Conclusions: Further pre-clinical and clinical studies will improve the knowledge about cancer vaccines in genitourinary malignancies to optimize dosage, select targets with a driver role for tumor development and growth, and finally overcome resistance mechanisms. Combination strategies represent possibly more effective and long-lasting treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0999.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; metastasis; tissue-based genomic biomarker
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:17:24 CEST)
Background: The incidence of prostate cancer (PC) has been risen annually. Despite the diagnosis is made mainly with non-metastatic PC, mortality is explained by the metastatic disease (mPC). Without a doubt there is an intermediate scenario in which patients have no mPC but will have initiated a metastatic cascade through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. There is indeed a need for more and better tools to predict what patients will progress in the future to non-localized clinical disease or already have micrometastatic disease, and therefore, will clinically progress after primary treatment. Biomarkers for predicting mPC are still under development; there are few studies and not much evidence of their usefulness. Summary: This review is focused on tissue-based genomic biomarkers (TBGB) for predicting metastatic disease. We developed four main research questions that will attempt to answer according to the current evidence. Why is important to predict metastatic disease? Which tests are available to predict metastatic disease? What impact should there be on clinical guidelines and clinical practice in predicting metastatic disease? What are current prostate cancer treatments? Key Messages: Knowing useful predict tools could help determine which patients may need multimodal or adjuvant treatment even with a localized disease, and in consequence, what patients do not need more than a single modality of treatment. The importance of predicting metastasis is fundamental, given that once metastasis is diagnosed, the quality of life (QoL) and survival drop dramatically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1237.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: prostate cancer; Quality of Life; brachytherapy; sexual function
Online: 19 July 2023 (02:46:25 CEST)
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Poland. A significant proportion of prostate cancers can be cured, providing longer survival. Patients have the opportunity to undergo minimally invasive treatment methods like brachytherapy, while maintaining their previous quality of life. The disease itself, as well as treatment complications, primarily affect the functioning of the urinary and digestive systems and impact the sexual sphere. Aim: This study aims to assess the quality of life of patients after prostate brachytherapy. Methods: The research was conducted at the Lower Silesian Oncology Centre in Wroclaw. The study included fifty men aged between 51 and 85 years. The following questionnaires were used: EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-PR25. Scales: Katz, Mini-MAC, PSS-10. Moreover, the study used a self-designed survey covering socio-demographical factors. Results: Prostate brachytherapy has a significant impact on the degree of sexual dysfunction. Compared to sexually inactive individuals, sexually active individuals exhibit fewer negative psychological symptoms. Choosing a destructive coping strategy intensifies the occurrence of symptoms, lowers patients' level of independence, and negatively affects their quality of life. Conclusions: Brachytherapy contributes to worsening sexual function and temporarily affects urinary system function, which may lower the overall quality of life in patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; high-risk prostate cancer; radical prostatectomy; radiation therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; oncological outcomes
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:21:19 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is most commonly observed in male patients. Although PCa progresses relatively slowly, high-risk PCa is associated with an increased risk of lymph nodes, distant metastases, and PCa-related death. Several guidelines recommend radiation therapy (RT) of the prostate combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy for high-risk PCa. A comparison of clinical outcomes between radical prostatectomy (RP) and RT for high-risk PCa by propensity score-matched analysis showed that RP had a significantly higher risk of biochemical recurrence than RT. However, the combination of neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy followed by RP may be more likely to achieve a cure when overall survival is considered the primary endpoint. In this review, we aimed to confirm the oncological outcomes of RP and RT for high-risk PCa and highlight the importance of neoadjuvant therapy followed by RP for high-risk PCa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; PARP inhibitors; DDR gene; CRPC
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:22:22 CEST)
The possibility of treating more patients for a longer time, has exploded the concept of anticipation in the systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer (mPC). The genetic analysis of Damage DNA Repair (DDR) mutations in pathogenetic variants (PV) and the development of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors led to the first valid precision medicine option tailored for mPC. PARP inhibitors are repeating the same evolutionary path experienced for androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI), starting from the late stage of second line mCRPC in a limited population and time frame. Inevitably also PARP inhibitors will be absorbed by the concept of anticipation and intensification of care. The anticipation of PARP inhibitors in the first line mCRPC therapy is already underway and further one in mHSPC will soon be verified. According to the crosstalk between androgen receptors (AR) and DNA repair, the new message that is emerging is that the combination of PARP inhibitors with ARSI, disconnects PARP from the genetic analysis. Most of the recent trials analyzing PARP inhibitors plus abiraterone or enzalutamide, enrolled first line mCRPC irrespectively to gene PV. The conclusion of the PROPEL trial was that the advantage was independent to PV status, however the highest advantage was reported in BRCA1/2 mutated subgroup. The conclusion of the MAGNITUDE trial was different, with a significant advantage only in the DDR mutated subgroup and the DDR non-mutated was closed for further enrollment. The combination of PARP inhibitors with ARSI represents a significant strategy in the concept of anticipation and intensification of care in mPC. However, it should not nullify the advantages of precision medicine linked to the genetic analysis of DDR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0620.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: prostate cancer; microRNA; silicon-on-insulator; nanoribbon; biomarker
Online: 11 July 2023 (05:08:14 CEST)
Oncological changes in the prostate are a common cause of death among elderly men. Malignant cells are difficult to identify at early stages, which are asymptomatic. The patient often seeks medical assistance when the disease has already progressed, and the treatment is less effective. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC) is thus one of the priority tasks of modern urology and healthcare in general. The aim of this study is the detection of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are known to be associated with PC. The detection of the target miRNAs in human plasma samples has been performed with a nanoribbon biosensor system, which was based on "silicon-on-insulator" structures (SOI-NR biosensor). In order to provide biospecific detection of the target miRNAs, the surface of individual nanoribbons has been modified with DNA oligonucleotide probes (oDNA probes), whose nucleotide sequences were complementary to those of the target miRNAs. The high detection sensitivity has been demonstrated with the use of model oDNAs, which are complementary to nanoribbon-immobilized oDNA probes, in buffer solutions. The sensitivity threshold was 1.1 × 10-17 M. The successful detection of target miRNAs, isolated from real plasma samples of PC patients, has also been demonstrated. We believe that the development of highly sensitive nanotechnology-based biosensors for PC markers is a step towards personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0953.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; ultra-processed foods; food processing; NOVA classification
Online: 11 August 2023 (19:06:14 CEST)
Background: The level of food processing has gained interest for a potential determinant of human health. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between level of food processing and prostate cancer severity. Methods: A sample of 120 consecutive patients were examined for their dietary habits assessed through validated food frequency questionnaires, their dietary intake of food groups categorized according to the NOVA classification, and the severity of prostate cancer according to the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines groups risk. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to test the association between the variables of interest. Results: Individuals reporting higher consumption of unprocessed/minimally processed foods were less likely to have worse prostate cancer severity than lower consumers in the energy-adjusted model [odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-0.84, P = 0.017 and OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12-0.91, P = 0.032 for medium/high vs. low grade and high vs. medium/low grade prostate cancers, respectively); however, after adjusted for potential confounding factors, the association was no more significant (Table 4). A borderline association was also found between higher consumption of UPF and worse prostate cancer severity in the energy-adjusted model (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 0.998-4.44; P = 0.051), but again the association was no more significant after adjusting for the other covariates. Conclusions: The level of food processing seems not to be independently associated with prostate cancer severity, while potentially related to other factors that need further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Prostate cancer; radionuclide therapy; bone; PSMA; GRPR; Somatostatin
Online: 3 August 2022 (03:51:17 CEST)
The recent approval of 177Lu PSMA-617 (Pluvicto®) by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the culmination of decades of work in advancing the field of targeted radionuclide therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. 177Lu PSMA-617, along with the bone specific radiotherapeutic agent, 223RaCl2, are now commonly used in routine clinical care as a tertiary line of therapy for men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer and for osseus metastatic disease respectively. While these radiopharmaceuticals are changing how metastatic prostate cancer is classified and treated, there is relatively little guidance to the practitioner and patient as to how best utilize these therapies, especially in conjunction with other more well-established regimens including hormonal, immunologic, and chemotherapeutic agents. This review article will go into detail about the mechanism and effectiveness of these radiopharmaceuticals and less well known classes of targeted radionuclide radiopharmaceuticals including alpha emitting prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) -, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) -, and somatostatin targeted radionuclide therapeutics. Additionally, a thorough discussion of the clinical approach of these agents is included and required futures studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: circulating tumor cells; dielectrophoresis; prostate cancer; detection; prognosis
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:03:13 CET)
Liquid biopsy via isolation of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) represents a promising diagnostic tool capable of supplementing state-of-the-art for prostate cancer (PC) prognosis. Unfortunately, most of CTC technologies, such as AdnaTest or Cellsearch, critically rely on the Epithelial-Cell-Adhesion-Molecule (EpCAM) marker, limiting the possibility of detecting stem-like cells (CSCs) and mesenchymal-like cells (EMT-CTCs) that are present during PC progression. In this tontext, dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an epCAM independent, label-free, enrichment system, separating rare cells simply on the basis of their specific electrical properties. As compared to other technollgies, DEP represents a superior technique in terms of running costs, cells yield and specificity, but due to its higher complexity, requires still further technical as well as clinical development. Interestingly, DEP can be improved by the use of microfluid, nanostructured materials and fluoroimaging in order to increase its potential applications. In the context of PC, the utility of DEP can be translated in its capacity to detect CTC in the bloodstream in their epithelial, mesenchymal, or epithelial-mesenchymal phenotypes, which should be taken into account when choosing CTC enrichment and analysis methods for PC prognosis and early diagnosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0722.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Theragnostics; nuclear medicine; thyroid cancer; neuroendocrine tumors; prostate cancer; colorectal cancer; cholangiocarcinoma; glioma
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:51:02 CEST)
Cancer theragnostics is a novel approach that combines diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy. It is based on the use of a pair of radiopharmaceuticals, one optimized for positron emission tomography imaging, through linkage to a proper radionuclide, and the other bearing a beta-emitter isotope that can induce significant damage to cancer cells. In recent years, the use of theragnostics in nuclear medicine clinical practice has increased considerably, and thus investigation has focused on the identification of novel radionuclides that can bind to molecular targets which are typically dysregulated in different cancers. The major advantages of the theragnostic approach include elimination of multi-step procedures, reduced adverse effects to normal tissues, early diagnosis, better predicting responses and personalized patient care. This review aims to discuss emerging theragnostic molecules that have been investigated in a series of human malignancies, including gliomas, thyroid cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, cholangiocarcinoma and prostate cancer, as well as potent and recently introduced molecular targets, like cell-surface receptors, kinases, and cell adhesion proteins. Furthermore, special reference has been made to copper radionuclides as theragnostic agents, and their radiopharmaceutical applications since they present promising alternatives to the well-studied gallium-68 and lutetium-177.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate; biomarker; immunotherapy; cancer vaccine; T-cell engaging antibody
Online: 29 July 2022 (14:02:03 CEST)
Six-Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate 1-4 (STEAP1-4) compose a family of metalloproteinases involved in iron and copper homeostasis and other cellular processes. Thus far, five homologs are known: STEAP1, STEAP1B, STEAP2, STEAP3, and STEAP4. In prostate cancer, STEAP1, STEAP2, and STEAP4 are overexpressed while STEAP3 expression is downregulated. Although the metalloreductase activities of STEAP1-4 are well-documented, their other biological functions are not. Furthermore, the properties and expression levels of STEAP heterotrimers, homotrimers, heterodimers, and homodimers are not well-understood. Nevertheless, studies over the last few decades have provided sufficient impetus to investigate STEAP1-4 as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. In particular, STEAP1 is the target of many emerging immunotherapies. Herein, we give an overview of the structure, physiology, and pathophysiology of STEAP1-4 to provide context for past and current efforts to translate STEAP1-4 into the clinic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0258.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; exercise; adherence
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:43:52 CEST)
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer treatment is associated with adverse physiological changes, however exercise can improve outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine exercise intervention adherence, and its effects on physiological outcomes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer undergoing ADT. Uniquely, this review incorporates a meta-aggregation of qualitative data, providing perspectives from the men’s experiences. A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed following PRISMA Guidelines. Databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed) were searched for studies using “prostate cancer”, “exercise intervention”, and “androgen deprivation therapy”. Quantitative randomised controlled trials describing adherence to exercise interventions were selected, with qualitative articles selected based on descriptions of experiences around participation. Subgroup meta-analyses of adherence, exercise mode, and intervention duration were completed for quality of life, aerobic fitness, fatigue, and strength. Articles (n=64) articles were identified, with 29 (n=23 quantitative; n=6 qualitative) articles from 25 studies included. Exercise had no effects (p<0.05) on quality of life and fatigue. Significant effects (all p<0.05) were observed for aerobic fitness, and upper- and lower-body strength. Adherence to exercise-based interventions was 80.38%, with improvements observed in aerobic fitness and strength. Subgroup analysis revealed exercise adherence impacted fatigue and strength, with greater improvements observed in programs >12-weeks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; HOXB13; benign prostatic hyperplasia; variant; Iran
Online: 10 July 2018 (05:36:05 CEST)
Background: Prostate cancer is a complex condition, in which both genetic and environmental factors concomitantly contribute to the tumor initiation and progression. Recently, HOXB13 has been proposed as a susceptibility gene for prostate cancer. Objective: So the current study was conducted to test the existence of potential variations in HOXB13 gene in Iranian men with prostate cancer (PCa) compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases. Methods: The HOXB13 genetic status was screened in 51 samples, including 21 blood and tissue of PCa cases compared to 30 cases affected by BPH using PCR/sequencing. Then potential association between genomic DNA alterations in blood and tissue PCa specimens was investigated Results: Analysis of BPH tissues showed single nucleotide variations c.366C > T (rs) or c.513T > C (rs9900627) in exon 1, but not in exon 2. Evaluation of PCa tissues revealed two cases with both synonymous c.366C > T and c.513T > C variants and two cases with the synonymous c.366C > T variant in exon 1. The variants c.366C > T and c.513T > C simultaneously or separately were found blood samples of PCa patients. The novel variant c.127A > G in the exon 2 was detected in 1 PCa blood sample. Our analysis indicated a significant reciprocal correlation between HOXB13 mutation in tissue and blood in PCa cases (P=0.02). Conclusion: The variants in exon 2 of HOXB13 may influence the risk of prostate cancer. Also, evaluation of HOXB13 mutation may be considered as a novel marker for screening of PCa. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate the clinical significance of HOXB13 in Iranian population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary pattern; prostate cancer; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 6 August 2016 (12:30:38 CEST)
Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. Search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risk estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for a 1st-percentile increase in dietary pattern score were combined by a dose response meta-analysis. 12 observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified “Healthy pattern” and “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, a “Carbohydrate pattern”, identified in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p=0.011) and the Carbohydrate (p=0.005) pattern and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small numbers of studies included suggest that further investigations are necessary to support these findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; castrate-resistant growth; metastases; androgen receptor; glucocorticoid receptor; cytokines; transmembrane receptors; cell signaling; pharmacological targeting; neuroendocrine differentiation; lineage plasticity; prostate cancer stem cells
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:19:03 CEST)
Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer has led to development of therapeutic strategies targeting androgen receptor (AR). These androgen-receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI) include androgen synthesis inhibitor- abiraterone and androgen receptor antagonists- enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide. Although these medications provide significant improvement in survival among men with prostate cancer, drug resistance develops in nearly all patients with time. This could be through androgen-dependent or androgen-independent mechanisms. Even weaker signals and non-canonical steroid ligands can activate AR in the presence of truncated AR-splice variants, AR overexpression, or activating mutations in AR. AR splice variant, AR-V7 is the most studied among these and is not targeted by available ARSIs. Non-androgen receptor dependent resistance mechanisms are mediated by activation of an alternative signaling pathway when AR is inhibited. DNA repair pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, BRAF-MAPK and Wnt signaling pathway and activation by glucocorticoid receptors can restore downstream signaling in prostate cancer by alternative proteins. Multiple clinical trials are underway exploring therapeutic strategies to overcome these resistance mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; microenvironment; lung metastases; gene expression
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:46:51 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) Lung metastases are rarely resected, therefore PCa lung metastases are insufficiently molecularly characterized. We recently identified carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) as a potential driver of pulmonary metastatic spread. Here, we show the biological significance of CEACAM6 in PCa cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration. CEACAM6 was silenced by siRNA in PC3 cells. Functional assessment of apoptosis, cell viability, proliferation and migration were performed in siRNA-CEACAM6 PC3 cells. Non-treated and scrambled (scr) RNA PC3 cells were used as control. Following a specific knockdown of CEACAM6 in PC3 cells, the expression of CEACAM6 protein was significantly decreased in comparison to controls. Cell viability and cell counts decreased in CEACAM6 silent PC3 cells. In contrast, caspase-3 activity was highly elevated in siRNA-CEACAM6 PC3. Furthermore, by performing a cell scratch assay, the migration ratio in siRNA-CEACAM6 PC3 cells were significantly diminished compared with the control group after 48 hours of post transfection incubation. CEACAM6 as a cell adhesion molecule has been implicated in promoting metastatic disease in several solid tumours such as colorectal or gastric cancer. We could show that silencing of CEACAM6 has a significant functional effect on PCa cells. CEACAM6 might play an important role in fostering metastatic spread to the lung of PCa patients via enhancing proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. CEACAM6 might therefore pose an attractive therapeutic target to prevent metastatic disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer immunotherapy; Prostate Cancer; CAR-T; PSMA
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:16:04 CEST)
Despite advances in the understanding of its molecular pathophysiology, prostate cancer remains largely incurable, highlighting the need for novel therapies. We developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer, which expression involves neovasculature of several tumor entities, thus envisaging an additional antiangiogenic effect. To optimize the CAR design, we compared two CARs with signaling domains containing one or two T cell costimulatory elements, in addition to CD3ζ. Conversely, what has been described for other CARs, a third-generation CAR (containing CD28 and 41BB co-signaling domains) induced a potent antitumor effect similar to a second-generation CAR (containing CD28 co-signaling domain), though we observed a detrimental effect of the additional costimulatory domain that was attributed to increased activation-induced cell death (AICD). This “super-stimulation” resulted in exhaustion of cells, higher frequencies of cell death and, more importantly, the impossibility of sufficiently expanding the CAR cells to obtain the minimum number of cells requested for in vivo therapies. While the superiority of 2nd and 3rd generation over 1st generation CAR T cells has been clearly shown in both preclinical and clinical studies, the optimal combination of costimulatory domains for 3rd generation CAR-T cells must still be defined and should be evaluated case-by-case in order to fine-tune immunotherapy approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; mp-MRI; biochemical recurrence; Gleason pattern; radiomics
Online: 3 July 2023 (11:32:39 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men. Despite therapies such as radical prostatectomy, which is considered curative, distant metastases may form resulting in biochemical recurrence (BCR). This study used radiomic features calculated from multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) to evaluate their ability to predict BCR and PCa presence. Data from a total of 279 patients, of which 46 experienced BCR, undergoing MP-MRI prior to surgery were assessed for this study. After surgery, the prostate was sectioned using patient-specific 3D-printed slicing jigs modeled using the T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). Sectioned tissue was stained, digitized, and annotated by a GU-fellowship trained pathologist for cancer presence. Digitized slides and annotations were co-registered to the T2WI and radiomic features were calculated across the whole prostate and cancerous lesions. A tree regression model was fitted to assess the ability of radiomic features to predict BCR, and a tree classification model was fitted with the same radiomic features to classify regions of cancer. We found that 10 radiomic features predict eventual BCR with an AUC of 0.97 and classifying cancer at an accuracy of 89.9%. This study showcases the application for a radiomics-based tool to screen for the presence of prostate cancer and assess patient prognosis, as determined by biochemical recurrence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0711.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cancer Stem Cell; Androgen Receptor; Prostate Cancer; Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma
Online: 12 September 2023 (03:15:45 CEST)
The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that neoplastic cells with stem characteristics hierarchically regulate tumor generation and its high cellular heterogeneity. These cells have been detected in all cancer types, and specific signaling pathways give the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation. In prostate cancer, androgen receptor signaling has been extensively studied, and in non-stem cells, it promotes cell proliferation and tumor progression, but in the cancer stem cell population, it negatively regulates processes such as self-renewal. However, in other types of cancer, such as breast and glioblastoma, the androgen receptor seems to favor the maintenance of cancer stem cells, suggesting that androgen signaling has different effects depending on the tumor context. This review discusses the role of androgen receptor in maintaining cancer stem cells by regulating proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation, as well as the possible signaling pathways involved in these processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: prostate cancer; Warburg effect; prognosis; radical prostatectomy; lipidic; metabolism; mortality
Online: 5 December 2022 (08:50:39 CET)
Prostate Cancer (PCa) is still ranked as the first cancer in male population and evidences have suggested an alteration of glycemic and lipidic metabolism that are related to its progression and prognosis. Aim of the study is to investigate associations between enzymes’ expression, especially involved in the lipidic pathway, and PCa aggressiveness. We retrospectively analyzed data from 390 patients with PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) at the Department of Urology, University of Catania. Immunohistochemical slides were evaluated for the expression of proteins related to glucose and lipidic metabolism. A total of 286 were affected by PCa while 104 by BPH. We demonstrated that ATP-lyase (odds ratio [OR]: 1.71; p<0.01), fatty acide sinthase (OR: 4.82; p<0.01), carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1a (OR: 2.27; p<0.05) were associated with androgen receptor (AR) expression. We found that steaoryl Co-A desaturase expression in PCa patients with total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl was independently associated with ISUP ≥4 (OR: 4.22; p=0.049). We found that CPT-1a+ was associated with biochemical recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.94; p=0.03]). Our results support the evidences that the manipulation of lipidic metabolism could serve in the future to contrast PCa progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0924.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: dmrFABP5, Prostate Cancer, CRPC, Enzalutamide, Docetaxel, Synergic effect.
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:05:11 CEST)
Enzalutamide is a drug used to treat PC. Docetaxel is a drug for chemotherapy for different cancers including prostate cancer (PC). The effectiveness of these drugs in treating castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is not consistent and thus, CRPC is still an incurable disease. Recent evidence showed that the bio-inhibitor of FABP5, dmrFABP5, suppressed the tumorigenicity and metastasis of the CRPC cells. In this work, we studied the possible synergic effect of dmrFABP5 combined with either Enzalutamide or Docetaxel on suppressing tumorigenicity of the PC cells. A highly significant synergic effect was observed when dmrFABP5 was used in combination with Enzalutamide on the androgen-responsive PC cells 22RV1. A highly significant synergic effect was also observed when dmrFABP5 was combined with Docetaxel on 22RV1 cells and on the highly malignant, androgen-receptor (AR)-negative DU145 cells. These combined applications exhibited a highly significant inhibitory action on the viability, migration, invasion and colony formation abilities of both 22RV1and DU145 cells. However, dmrFABP5 did not produce any suppression effect when used on FABP5-negative cell line LNCaP, although Enzalutamide can significantly suppress LNCaP cells as a single agent. Further investigations suggested that these synergistic effects were produced by interrupting the FABP5-related signal transduction pathway in PC cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: prostate cancer; SNP; TP53; Pro47Ser; Arg72Pro; African American
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:41:25 CEST)
Growing evidence indicates the involvement of a genetic component for CaP susceptibility and clinical severity. Somatic mutations of TP53 have been associated with 50% of diverse human cancers. Studies have also reported the role of germ line mutations and single nucleotide poly-morphisms (SNPs) of TP53 as possible risk factors for cancer development. In this single De-partment of Defense institutional retrospective study, we identified common SNPs in the TP53 gene in AA and CA men and performed association analyses for functional TP53 SNPs with clinico-pathological features of CaP. The CPDR Oncoarray database on blood derived genomic DNA from 321 men treated by radical prostatectomy at WRNMMC were used to examine clini-co-pathological associations with TP53 SNPs. The SNP genotyping analysis on the final cohort of 308 patients (212 AA; 95 CA) identified 74 SNPs in the TP53 gene region with a minor allele fre-quency (MAF) of at least 1%. Two SNPs were non-synonymous in the exonic region of TP53: rs1800371 (Pro47Ser) and rs1042522 (Arg72Pro). The Pro47Ser variant, had a minor allele frequency of 0.01 in AA, however, was not detected in CA. Arg72Pro was the most common SNP with a minor allele frequency of 0.50 (0.41 in AA; 0.68 in CA). Additionally, Arg72Pro was associated with time to biochemical recurrence (BCR) after statistical adjustment for patient age at diagnosis, self-reported race, and Gleason score (p= 0.046; HR = 1.52). The present study demonstrated ancestral differences in allele frequencies of TP53 Arg72Pro and Pro47Ser SNPs in AA and CA CaP, providing a valuable framework for the interrogating CaP disparity among AA and CA men.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA methylation; epigenetics; biomarkers; circulating DNA; cfDNA; prostate cancer; early detection; prognosis
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:27:34 CEST)
There is a major clinical need for accurate biomarkers for prostate cancer prognosis, to better inform treatment strategies and disease monitoring. Current clinically recognised prognostic factors, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, lack sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing aggressive from indolent disease, particularly in patients with localised intermediate grade prostate cancer. There has therefore been a major focus on identifying molecular biomarkers that can add prognostic value to existing markers, including investigation of DNA methylation, which has a known role in tumorigenesis. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of DNA methylation biomarker studies in prostate cancer prognosis, and highlight the advances that have been made in this field. We cover the numerous studies into well-established candidate genes, and explore the technological transition that has enabled hypothesis-free genome-wide studies and the subsequent discovery of novel prognostic genes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: green tea catechins; prostate cancer; chemoprevention; metabolism; nanoparticles; epigenetic; proteostasis
Online: 31 March 2017 (12:46:15 CEST)
Green Tea Catechins (GTCs) are a family of chemically related compounds usually classified as antioxidant molecules. Epidemiological evidences, supported by interventional studies, highlighted a more than promising role for GTCs in human Prostate Cancer (PCa) chemoprevention.In the last decades many efforts have been made to gain new insights into the mechanism of action of GTCs. Now it is clear that GTCs anticancer action can no longer be simplistically limited to their direct antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties. Recent contributions to the advancement of knowledge in this field have shown that GTCs specifically interact with cellular targets including, cell surface receptors, lipid rafts and endoplasmic reticulum, modulate gene expression through direct effect on transcription factors or indirect epigenetic mechanisms, interfere with intracellular proteostasis at various levels. Many of the effects observed in vitro are dose and cell context dependent and take place at concentration that cannot be achieved in vivo.Poor intestinal absorption together with an extensive systemic and enteric metabolism influence GTCs bioavailability through still poor understood mechanisms. Recent efforts to develop delivery systems that increase GTCs overall bioavailability, by mean of biopolymeric nanoparticles, represent the main way to translate preclinical results in a real clinical scenario for PCa chemoprevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: NGF/TrkA signaling; mitogenesis; invasiveness; EMT; 3D models; castrate-resistant prostate cancers
Online: 11 April 2019 (12:55:18 CEST)
Resistance to hormone therapy and disease progression is the major challenge in clinical management of prostate cancer (PC). Drugs currently used in PC therapy initially show a potent antitumor effect. Nevertheless, PC gradually develops resistance, relapses and spreads. Most patients develop, indeed, castrate-resistant PC (CRPC), which is almost incurable. The nerve growth factor (NGF) acts on a variety of non-neuronal cells by activating the NGF tyrosine-kinase receptor, TrkA. NGF signaling is deregulated in PC. In androgen-dependent PC cells, TrkA mediates the proliferative action of NGF through its cross talk with the androgen receptor (AR). Epithelial PC cells, however, acquire the ability to express NGF and TrkA, as the disease progresses, indicating a role for NGF/TrkA axis in PC progression and androgen-resistance. We here report that once activated by NGF, TrkA mediates proliferation, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) in various CRPC cells. NGF promotes organoid growth in 3D models of CRPC cells, and specific inhibition of TrkA impairs all these responses. Thus TrkA represents a new biomarker to target in CRPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0768.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: silybin; prostate cancer; 2,3-dehydrosilybin; cell proliferation; cell apoptosis.
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:16:29 CET)
As part of our ongoing silybin project, this study aims to introduce a basic nitrogen-containing group to 7-OH of 3,5,20-O-trimethyl-2,3-dehydrosilybin or 3-OH of 5,7,20-O-trimethyl-2,3-dehydrosilybin via an appropriate linker for in vitro evaluation as potential anti-prostate cancer agents. The synthetic approaches to 7-O-substituted-3,5,20-O-trimethyl- 2,3-dehydrosilybins through a five-step procedure and to 3-O-substituted-5,7,20-O-trimethyl-2,3- dehydrosilybins via a four-step transformation have been developed. Thirty-two nitrogen-containing derivatives of silybin have been achieved through these synthetic methods for the evaluation of their antiproliferative activities towards both androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and DU145) using WST-1 cell proliferation assay. These derivatives exhibited greater in vitro antiproliferative potency than silybin. Among them, 11, 29, 31, 37, and 40 were identified as five optimal derivatives with IC50 values in the range of 1.40–3.06 µM, a 17- to 52-fold improvement in potency as compared with silybin. All these five optimal derivatives can arrest the PC-3 cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and promote PC-3 cell apoptosis. Derivatives 11, 37, and 40 are more effective than 29 and 31 in activating PC-3 cell apoptosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0485.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Prostate Cancer, Survival, Disparities, Geographic, Multilevel, Healthcare Access
Online: 18 April 2023 (04:49:50 CEST)
Introduction Prostate Cancer (PCa) exhibits one of the widest racial and socioeconomic disparities. PCa disparities have also been widely linked to location as living in more deprived regions was associated with lower healthcare access and worse outcomes. This study aims to examine PCa survival across various US counties in function of different socioeconomic profiles and discuss the role of potential intermediary factors. Methods The SEER database linked to county-level SES was utilized. Five-year PCa-specific survival using the Kaplan Meier method was performed for 5 racial/ethnic categories in function of SES quintiles. Multilevel Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to assess the relationship between county-level SES and PCa survival. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine the role of healthcare utilization and severity. Results 279,000 PCa records were extracted, 5-year PCa-specific survival was 94%. Overall, living in counties with worst poverty/income quintile and highest proportions of foreign-born/language-isolated increased PCa mortality by 23% each. No association was observed with county-level High-School education, while Bachelor’s-level education decreased mortality risk by 23%. Associations varied considerably upon racial/ethnic stratification. Multilevel analyses showed varying contributions of individual and area-level factors to survival within minorities. The relationship between SES and PCa survival appeared to be influenced by healthcare utilization and disease stage/grade. Discussion Racial/ethnic categories responded differently under similar county-level SES and individual-level factors to the point where disparities reversed in Hispanics. The inclusion of Healthcare utilization and severity factors may provide partial early support for their role as intermediaries. Healthcare access (insurance) might not necessarily be associated with better PCa survival, through performing biopsy and or/surgery. County-level education plays an important role in PCa decision-making as it might elucidate discussions of other non-invasive management options. Conclusion Findings of this study demonstrate that interventions need to be tailored according to each group's needs. This potentially informs the focus of public health efforts in terms of planning and prioritizing. This study could also direct further research delving into pathways between area-level characteristics with PCa survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Prostate cancer; Systems genomics; Functional genomics; Pathways; biomarkers
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:58:26 CET)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent cancers among men in India. Although studies on PCa have dealt with the genetics, genomics, and the environmental influence in causality of PCa, not many studies employing the next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches of PCa have been carried out. In our previous study, we have identified some causal genes and mutations specific to Indian PCa using Whole-Exome Sequencing (WES). In the recent past, with the help of different cancer consortiums such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), along with differentially expressed genes (DEGs), many cancer-associated novel non-coding RNAs have been identified as biomarkers. In this work, we attempt to identify DEGs as well as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with signature pathways from an Indian PCa cohort using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) approach. From a cohort of 60, we screened 6 patients who underwent prostatectomy; we performed a whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (WTSS)/RNA-sequencing to decipher the DEGs. We further normalized the read counts using fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads (FPKM) and analyzed the DEGs using a cohort of downstream regulatory tools, viz. GeneMANIA Stringdb, Cytoscape-Cytohubba, cbioportal to map the inherent signatures associated with PCa. By comparing the RNA-seq data obtained from the pairs of normal and PCa tissue samples using our benchmarked in-house cuffdiff pipeline, we observed some important genes specific to PCa such as STEAP2, APP, PMEPA1, PABPC1, NFE2L2, HN1L and some other important genes known to be involved in different cancer pathways such as, COL6A1, DOK5, STX6, BCAS1, BACE1, BACE2, LMOD1, SNX9, CTNND1 etc. We also identified a few novel lncRNAs such as LINC01440, SOX2OT, ENSG00000232855, and ENST00000647843.1 that need to be characterized further. Deregulation of SOX2OT is observed in various tumors, including lung cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and glioblastoma. It would be interesting to characterize its function in PCa as well. In comparison with publicly available datasets, we have identified characteristic DEGs and novel lncRNAs implicated in signature PCa pathways in an Indian PCa cohort which have perhaps not been reported. As a pilot study, this has set a precedent for us to validate further experimentally, and we firmly believe this will pave a way towards discovery of biomarkers and development of novel therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Sexual wellbeing; prostate cancer; e-learning
Online: 10 August 2021 (13:50:09 CEST)
Sexual issues and treatment side effects are not routinely discussed with men receiving treatment for prostate cancer and support to address these concerns is not consistent across settings. This study evaluates a brief e-learning resource designed to improve sexual wellbeing support and examine its effects on healthcare professionals’ sexual attitudes and beliefs. Healthcare professionals (n=44) completed an online questionnaire at baseline which included a modified 12-item sexual attitudes and beliefs survey (SABS). Follow-up questionnaires were completed immediately after the e-learning and at 4 weeks. Data were analysed using one-way, repeat measures ANOVAs to assess change in attitudes and beliefs over time. Significant improvements were observed at follow-up for a number of survey statements including ‘knowledge and understanding’, ‘confidence in discussing sexual wellbeing’ and the extent to which participants felt ‘equipped with the language to initiate conversations’. The resource was seen as concise, relevant to practice, and as providing useful information on potential side effects of treatment. Brief, e-learning has potential to address barriers to sexual wellbeing communication and promote delivery of support for prostate cancer survivors. Practical methods and resources should be included with these interventions to support implementation of learning and long-term changes in clinical behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pyruvate kinase M2; prostate cancer; cancer metabolism; mTOR; autophagy
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:32:52 CET)
Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is essential for aerobic glycolysis and is highly expressed in various cancer tissues. Although high PKM2 expression is observed in prostate cancer tissues, its functional role in cancer metabolism is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of PKM2 in regulating autophagy and its associated pathways in prostate cancer cells. PKM2 expression was silenced using various PKM2 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and then we measured PKM2-related cellular pathways associated with autophagy. PKM2 siRNA-transfected prostate cancer cells showed significantly reduced viability. Acridine orange staining and immunoblotting analysis showed that PKM2 downregulation markedly increased autophagic cell death. Results of western blotting analysis showed that PKM2 knockdown affected protein kinase B/mechanistic target of rapamycin 1 pathway, which consequently downregulated the expression of glycolytic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase A and glucose transporter 1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that PKM2 inhibition alters cancer cell metabolism and induces autophagy. Thus, the present study provides a strategy for the development of PKM2-targeted novel anticancer drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: cancer genetics; cancer epigenetic; tumor microenvironment; monocytes; TAMs; prostate cancer; cancer biomarkers
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:42:15 CEST)
Epidemiological data highlight prostate cancer as a significant global health issue, with high incidence and substantial impact on patients' quality of life. The prevalence of this disease is associated with various factors, including age, heredity, and race. Recent research in prostate cancer genetics has identified several genetic variants that may be associated with an increased risk of developing the disease. However, despite the significance of these findings, genetic markers for prostate cancer are not currently utilized in clinical practice as reliable indicators of the disease. In addition to genetics, epigenetic alterations also play a crucial role in prostate cancer development. Aberrant DNA methylation, changes in chromatin structure, and microRNA (miRNA) expression are major epigenetic events that influence oncogenesis. Existing markers for prostate cancer, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), have limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The cost of testing, follow-up procedures, and treatment for false-positive results and overdiagnosis contributes to the overall healthcare expenditure. Improving the effectiveness of prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis requires either narrowing the risk group by identifying new genetic factors or enhancing the sensitivity and specificity of existing markers. Immunological biomarkers (both circulating and intra-tumoral), including markers of immune response and immune dysfunction, represent a potentially useful area of research for enhancing the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. Our review emphasizes the need for developing novel immunological biomarkers to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of prostate cancer. We highlight the most recent achievements in the identification of biomarkers provided by circulating monocytes and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). We highlight that monocytes-derived and TAMs-derived biomarkers can enable to establish the missing links between genetic predisposition, hormonal metabolism and immune responses in prostate cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; ultrasonography; biopsy; micro-ultrasound; elastography; contrast-enhanced ultrasound
Online: 21 March 2022 (04:26:46 CET)
The purpose of this review is to present the current role of ultrasound-based techniques in the diagnostic pathway of prostate cancer (PCa). With overdiagnosis and overtreatment of a clinically insignificant PCa over the past years, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) became recommended for every patient suspected of PCa before performing a biopsy. It enabled targeted sampling of the suspicious prostate regions, improving the accuracy of the traditional systematic biopsy. However, mpMRI is associated with high costs, relatively low availability, long and separate procedure or exposure to the contrast agent. The novel ultrasound modalities such as shear wave elastography (SWE), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) or high frequency micro-ultrasound (MicroUS) may be capable of maintaining the performance of mpMRI without its limitations. Moreover, the real-time lesion visualization during biopsy would significantly simplify the diagnostic process. Another value of these new techniques is the ability to enhance the performance of mpMRI by creating the image fusion of multiple modalities. Such models might be further analyzed by artificial intelligence to mark the regions of interest for investigators and help to decide about the biopsy indications. The dynamic development and promising results of new ultrasound-based techniques should encourage researchers to thoroughly study their utilization in prostate imaging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: antioxidants; oxidative stress; prostate cancer; benign prostatic hyperplasia; biomarkers; pathways
Online: 2 June 2020 (09:27:21 CEST)
Introduction: Lowered thiol or sulfhydryl (-SH) groups and glutathione (GSH) metabolism may be associated with prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The main objectives of this study were to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on the associations among -SH groups, GSH, GSH peroxidase (GPx), GSH reductase (GR) and GSH transferase (GST) and PCa/BPH. Methods: Four electronic databases were searched for studies that reported -SH and GSH variables in PCa/BPH and healthy controls (HC) and the data were meta-analyzed by calculating Hedges’s g with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Twenty studies were included in this meta-analysis including 800 PCa and 791 BPH patients and 592 HC. Total -SH (g=-1.750, -2.341/-1.159), GPx (g=-0.789, -1.234/-0.344), GSH (g=-2.219, -4.132/-0.305), and the combination of -SH, GPx, and GSH (g=-1.271, -1.271/-0.800) were significantly lower in PCa patients than in HC. -SH (g=-1.752, -3.123/-0.381) and the combination of -SH, GPx, and GSH (g=-0.813, -1.298/-0.327) were significantly lower in BPH patients than in HC. GPx was significantly lower in PCa than in BPH patients (g=-0.455, -0.896/-0.014). Heterogeneity levels were very high, but Egger’s test showed that none of the biomarkers showed significant publication bias. Conclusion: Thiol/GPx antioxidant defenses are significantly attenuated in patients with PCa while patients with BPH occupy an intermediate risk group position between PCa patients and HC. Those results suggest that reduced thiol-related antioxidant mechanisms play a crucial role in prostatic disorders, especially in PCa. Future research should examine whether thiols/GPx antioxidants are associated with the onset of PCa/BHP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0246.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hemoglobin; monocytes; overall survival; prostate cancer; radiotherapy
Online: 16 September 2022 (10:11:15 CEST)
The prognostic value of inflammatory indices such as absolute monocyte count (AMC) has been a subject of interest in recent prostate cancer (PCa) literature, while hemoglobin concentration (HGB) has been recognized as a survival factor in castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer, but its value remains unclear in localized disease. The aim of this study was to test the prognostic value of these two simple and inexpensive biomarkers for survival based on a cohort of 1016 patients treated with primary radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy for localized or locally advanced intermediate- or high-risk PCa. Complete survival data was available for all cases based on the National Cancer Registry with a median observation time of 120 months (IQR 80.9-144.7). Missing blood test data were supplemented using the Nearest Neighbor Imputation, and the Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for analysis. The median age was 68.8 years (IQR 63.3-73.5). The five-year overall survival was 82.8%, and 508 patients were alive at the time of analysis. The median time between blood tests and the first day of radiotherapy was 6 days (IQR 0-19). HGB (p = 0.009) and AMC (p = 0.003) were independent prognostic factors for survival, along with age, ISUP Grade Group, clinical T stage and maximum PSA concentration. The study demonstrated that HGB and AMC can be useful biomarkers for overall survival in patients treated with radiotherapy for localized intermediate- or high-risk PCa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Adaptive radiotherapy; Lymph node; MR-linac; MRgRT; Oligometastases; SBRT; prostate cancer
Online: 14 October 2022 (08:53:36 CEST)
Introduction: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a daily-adaptive MR-guided SBRT on 1.5 T MR-linac in patients affected by lymphnode oligometastases from PCa. Materials and Methods: The present study is a prospective observational study conducted in a single institution (protocol n°: MRI / LINAC n. 23748). Patients with oligometastatic lymphnodes from PCa treated with daily-adaptive MR-guided SBRT on 1.5T MR-linac were included in the study. Minimum required follow-up of 3 months after SBRT. Primary end-point was local progression-free survival (LPFS). Secondary end-points were: nodal progression-free survival (NPFS), and progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity. Results: 118 lymphnode oligometastases from PCa were treated with daily-adaptive 1.5T MR-guided SBRT in 63 oligometastatic patients. 63.5% patients were oligoprogressive and 36.5% oligoprogressive. Two-year LPFS was 94.5%. Median NPFS was 22.3 months, and the 2-year NPFS was 46.5%. Having received hormone therapy before SBRT was correlated with lower NPFS at the multivariate analysis (1-y NPFS 87.1% versus 42.8%; p= 0.002 - HR 0.199, 95% CI 0.073-0.549). Furthermore, the oligorecurrent state during ADT was correlated with a lower NPFS than the oligoprogressive state. Median PFS was 10.3 months, the 2-year PFS was 32.4%. Patients treated with hormone therapy before SBRT had a significantly lower 1-year PFS the others (28% versus 70.4%; p= 0.01 - HR 0.259, 95% CI 0.117-0.574). No acute and late toxicities occurred during treatment. Conclusion: the present is the largest prospective study of 1.5T lymphnode SBRT on MR-linac in patients with PCa. Lymphnode SBRT by 1.5T MR-linac provides high local control rates with an excellent toxicity profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0298.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: classification; prostate cancer; gleason score; machine learning; next-generation sequencing
Online: 26 November 2019 (04:01:21 CET)
1) Background: One of the most common cancer that affects men worldwide and North American men is prostate cancer. Gleason score is a pathological grading system to examine the potential aggressiveness of the disease in the prostate tissue. The advancement in computing and next-generation sequencing technology now allow us to study the genomic profiles of patients in association with their different Gleason score more accurately and effectively. 2) Methods: In this study, we used a novel machine learning method to analyze gene expression of prostate tumors with different Gleason scores, and identify potential genetic biomarkers for each Gleason group. We obtained a publicly-available RNA-Seq dataset of a cohort of 104 prostate cancer patients from the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository, and categorized patients based on their Gleason scores to create a hierarchy of disease progression. A hierarchical model with standard classifiers in different Gleason groups, also known as nodes, was developed to identify and predict nodes based on their mRNA or gene expression. In each node, patient samples were analyzed via class imbalance and hybrid feature selection techniques to build the prediction model. The outcome from analysis of each node is a set of genes that can differentiate each Gleason group from the remaining groups. To validate the proposed method, the set of identified genes are used to classify a second dataset of 499 prostate cancer patients collected from cBioportal . 3) Results: The overall accuracy of applying this novel method to the first dataset was 93.3%, and further validated to 87% accuracy using the second dataset. This method also identified genes that were not previously reported as potential biomarkers for specific Gleason groups. In particular, PIAS3 was identified as a potential biomarker for Gleason score 4+3=7, and UBE2V2 for Gleason score 6. 4) Insight: Previous reports show that the genes predicted by this newly proposed method strongly correlate with prostate cancer development and progression. Furthermore, pathway analysis shows that both PIAS3 and UBE2V2 share similar protein interaction pathways, the JAK/STAT signaling process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Prostate cancer, post-GWAS, functional variants, pathway analysis, upstream analysis, Oncomine
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:13:15 CEST)
Understanding the role of risk regions identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have made considerable progress lately referred to the post-GWAS era. Annotation of the genes to the GWAS and fine-mapped functional variants, and understanding their biological pathway/gene networks enrichments is expected to give rich dividend by elucidating the mechanisms underlying prostate cancer. To this aim, we compiled and analysed currently available post-GWAS data on genes identified through GWAS and validated through experimental studies in prostate cancer to investigate molecular biological pathways enriched for assigned functional genes. The results highlight some well-known cancer signalling pathways, antigen presentation process and enrichment in cell growth and development gene networks suggesting prostate cancer may result from the accumulation of the effects of functional variants through multiple gene sets and pathways. The upstream analysis identifies critical transcription factors, which supplements the results regarding the regulatory role of the post-GWAS genes. We also identified the common genes between post-GWAS and three well-annotated prostate cancer Oncomine data in patient samples in order to uncover possible main genes in prostate cancer development/progression. Post-GWAS generated knowledge of gene networks and pathways, if analysed further and targeted appropriately, will have an important impact on clinical management of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation; virtual screening; molecular docking; prostate cancer; caveolin-1
Online: 7 October 2016 (12:09:06 CEST)
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is 22 kDa caveolae protein, acts as a scaffold within caveolar membranes. It interacts with alpha subunits of G-protein and thereby regulates their activity. Earlier studies reported elevated or up-regulated levels of caveolin-1 in the serum of prostate cancer patients. Secreted Cav-1 promotes angiogenesis, cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities in prostate cancer patients. Cav-1 upregulation is mainly related to prostate cancer metastasis. Keeping above facts in view, the present study was designed to explore Cav-1 as a target for prostate cancer therapy using computational approach. Molecular docking, structural base molecular modelling and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate Cav-1 inhibitors. A predictive model was generated and validated to establish a stable structure. ZINC database of biogenic compounds was used for induced fit docking (IFD) and high throughput virtual screening. The H-bond interactions of the compounds with active site residues of Cav-1 were estimated by IFD and 100 ns long molecular dynamic simulations. The reported compounds showed significant binding and thus can be considered as potent therapeutic inhibitors of Cav-1. This study provides a valuable insight into biochemical interactions of Cav-1 for therapeutic applications and warrants for experimental validation of the predicted ‘active(s)’.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; prostate cancer; review; PRISMA; CNN
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:03:33 CEST)
Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the deadliest and most common causes of malignancy and death in men worldwide, more specifically with higher prevalence and mortality in developing countries. Factors such as age, family history, race and certain genetic mutations are some of the factors contributing to the occurrence of PCa in men. The recent advances in technology and algorithms gave rise to the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of PCa. With the availability of medical image datasets and emerging trends in state-of-the-art machine and deep learning techniques, there is a growth in recent related publications. Materials and Methods: In this study, we present a systematic review of PCa diagnosis with medical images using machine learning and deep learning techniques. We conducted a thorough review through relevant studies indexed in four databases (IEEE, PubMed, Springer and ScienceDirect) using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. With well-defined search terms, a total of 608 articles were identified and 77 met the final inclusion criteria. Key elements in the included papers were presented and conclusions were drawn from them. Results: Findings showed that the United States has the most research in PCa diagnosis with machine learning, Magnetic Resonance Images are the most used datasets and transfer learning is the most used method of diagnosing PCa in recent times. In addition, some available PCa datasets and some key considerations for choice of loss function in the deep learning models were presented. The limitations and lessons learnt were discussed and some key recommendations were made. Conclusion: The discoveries and the conclusions of this work have been organized so as to enable researchers in the same domain to use this work and make crucial implementation decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0605.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Prostate cancer; Middle Eastern Ancestry; Copy number alteration
Online: 26 February 2021 (10:47:12 CET)
Background: Our knowledge of prostate cancer (PCa) genomics mainly reflects European (EUR) and Asian (ASN) populations. Our understanding of the influence of Middle Eastern (ME) and African (AFR) ancestry on the mutational profiles of prostate cancer is limited. Design, setting and participants: To characterize genomic differences between ME, EUR, ASN and AFR ancestry, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies for NKX3-1 deletions and MYC amplification was carried out on 42 tumors arising in individuals of ME ancestry. These were supplemented by analysis of copy number profiles of 401 tumors of all ancestries. Outcome measurement and statistical analysis: FISH results of NKX3-1 and MYC were assessed in the ME cohort and compared to other ancestries. Gene level copy number aberrations (CNAs) for each sample were statistically compared between ancestry groups. Results and Limitation: NKX3-1 deletions by FISH were observed in 17/42 (17.5%) prostate tumors arising in men of ME ancestry, while MYC amplifications were only observed in 1/42 (0.23%). Using CNAs called from arrays, the incidence of NKX3-1 deletions was significantly lower in ME vs. other ancestries (20% vs. 52%; p = 2.3 x 10-3). No differences in MYC amplifications was noted between the two cohorts using array-based CNAs. Across the genome, tumors arising in men of ME ancestry had fewer CNAs than those of other ancestries (p = 0.014). Additionally, the somatic amplification of 21 specific genes was more frequent in tumors arising in men of ME vs. EUR ancestry (Proportions test; Q < 0.05). Those included amplifications in the glutathione S-transferase family on chromosome 1 (GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTM5) and the IQ Motif Containing family on chromosome 3 (IQCF1, IQCF2, IQCF13, IQCF4, IQCF5, IQCF6). Conclusion: Significant differences in genetic background exists between different ancestries. The lower number of somatic CNAs observed in prostate cancer arising in men of ME ancestry may explain the relatively good prognosis in this population. Larger studies are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0067.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: prostate cancer detection; machine learning; logistic regression; decision tree classifier; random forest classifier;
Online: 3 July 2023 (11:30:41 CEST)
This article presents a comparative analysis of three Machine Learning models, namely Logistic Regression, Decision Tree Classifier, and Random Forest Classifier, for prostate cancer detection. The models were trained and evaluated using clinical data, and their performance was assessed using various evaluation metrics. The results show that Logistic Regression achieved the highest accuracy (90%) among the three models, followed by Random Forest Classifier (76.67%) and Decision Tree Classifier (73.33%). Similarly, Logistic Regression demonstrated superior precision (95.65%) and F1 Score (93.62%), indicating its effectiveness in identifying true positive cases. However, the Decision Tree Classifier exhibited higher recall for the negative class (83.33%) compared to the positive class (70.83%), while Random Forest Classifier showed balanced recall for both classes (66.67% for negative and 79.17% for positive). These findings suggest that Logistic Regression outperforms the other models in terms of accuracy and precision, while the Decision Tree Classifier and Random Forest Classifier provide better recall for certain classes. The results highlight the potential of Machine Learning in prostate cancer detection and provide insights for further research and improvement of the models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: prostate cancer; castrate resistance, non-metastatic CRPC, clinical trial, epithelial mesenchymal transition, STAT3
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:28:10 CEST)
Nearly one third of men will incur biochemical recurrence after treatment for localized prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the therapeutic mainstay, however almost all patients will eventually transition to a castrate resistant state (castrate resistant prostate cancer, CRPC). Subjects with CRPC generally develop symptomatic metastatic disease (mCRPC) and incur mortality several years later. Prior to metastatic disease, men acquire non-metastatic CRPC (nmCRPC) which lends the unique opportunity for intervention to delay disease progression and symptoms. This review addresses current therapies for nmCRPC, as well as novel therapeutics and pathway strategies targeting men with nmCRPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, RNA-seq, prostate cancer, biomarkers, RNA genes
Online: 9 February 2021 (10:26:47 CET)
Prostate cancer (Pca) is a highly heterogeneous disease and the second more common tumor in males. Molecular and genetic profiles have been used to identify subtypes and guide therapeutic intervention. However, roughly 26% of primary Pca are driven by unknown molecular lesions. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and custom RNAseq-data normalization to identify a gene expression signature which segregates primary PRAD from normal tissues. This Core-Expression Signature (PRAD-CES) includes 33 genes and accounts for 39% of data complexity along the PC1-cancer axis. The PRAD-CES is populated by protein-coding (AMACR, TP63, HPN) and RNA-genes (PCA3, ARLN1) sparsely found in previous studies, validated/predicted biomarkers (HOXC6, TDRD1, DLX1), and/or cancer drivers (PCA3, ARLN1, PCAT-14). Of note, the PRAD-CES also comprises six over-expressed LncRNAs without previous Pca association, four of them potentially modulating driver’s genes TMPRSS2, PRUNE2 and AMACR. Overall, our PCA capture 57% of data complexity within PC1-3. GO enrichment and correlation analysis involving major clinical features (i.e., Gleason Score, AR Score, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion and Tumor Cellularity) suggest that PC2 and PC3 gene signatures might describe more aggressive and inflammation-prone transitional forms of PRAD. Of note, surfaced genes may entail novel prognostic biomarkers and molecular alterations to intervene. Particularly, our work uncovered RNA genes with appealing implications on Pca biology and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer immunotherapy; prostate cancer; CAR; PSMA; NK-92 cell line
Online: 15 May 2020 (17:39:20 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) has become the most common tumor among males in Europe and the USA. Adoptive immunotherapy appears as a promising strategy to control the advanced stages of the disease by specific targeting the tumor, in particular through chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy. Despite the advancements of CAR-T technology in the treatment of hematological malignancies, solid tumors still represent a challenge. To overcome current limits, other cellular effectors than T lymphocytes are under study as possible candidates for CAR-engineered cancer immunotherapy. A novel approach involves the NK-92 cell line, which mediates strong cytotoxic responses against a variety of tumor cells but has no effect on non-malignant healthy counterparts. Here, we report a therapeutic approach against PCa based on engineering of NK-92 cells with a CAR recognizing the human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is overexpressed in prostatic neoplastic cells. Upon CAR transduction, NK-92/CAR cells acquired high and specific lytic activity against PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells in vitro, and also underwent degranulation and produced high levels of IFN-γ in response to antigen recognition. Lethal irradiation of the effectors, a safety measure requested for the clinical application of retargeted NK-92 cells, fully abrogated replication but did not impact on phenotype and short-term functionality. PSMA-specific recognition and antitumor activity were retained in vivo, as adoptive transfer of irradiated NK-92/CAR cells in prostate cancer-bearing mice restrained tumor growth and improved survival. Anti-PSMA CAR-modified NK-92 cells represent a universal, off-the-shelf, renewable and cost-effective product endowed with relevant potentialities as a therapeutic approach for PCa immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: apoptosis; evading apoptosis; expression variability; cancer functional pathway; prostate cancer phenotype; immortality; proliferation; P53 signaling; transcriptomic network
Online: 9 March 2021 (08:44:15 CET)
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death among men but its genomic characterization and best therapeutic strategy are still under debate. The Genomic Fabric Paradigm (GFP) considers the transcriptome as a multi-dimensional mathematical object subjected to a dynamic set of expression correlations among the genes. Here, GFP is applied to gene expression profiles of three (one primary, and two secondary) cancer nodules and the surrounding normal tissue from a surgically removed prostate tumor. GFP was used to determine the regulation and rewiring of the P53 signaling, apoptosis, prostate cancer and several other pathways involved in survival and proliferation of the cancer cells. Genes responsible for the block of differentiation, evading apoptosis, immortality, insensitivity to anti-growth signals, proliferation, resistance to chemotherapy and sustained angiogenesis were found as differently regulated in the three cancer nodules with respect to the normal tissue. The analysis indicates that even histo-pathologically equally graded cancer nodules from the same tumor have substantially different transcriptomic organizations, raising legitimate questions about the validity of meta-analyses comparing large populations of healthy and cancer humans. The study suggests that GFP may provide a personalized alternative to the biomarkers’ approach of cancer genomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: modified citrus pectin; non-metastatic biochemically relapsed prostate cancer
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:29:02 CEST)
The optimal therapy for patients with non-metastatic biochemically relapsed prostate cancer (BRPC-M0) after local therapy is elusive. Thus, the evaluation of new non-toxic compounds in BRPC-M0 patients is warranted. PectaSol® modified citrus pectin (P-MCP) is a food supplement generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is a competitive inhibitor of galectin-3 protein, involved in cancer pathogenesis. P-MCP treatment of BRPC-M0 patients for 6 months led to a 75% prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) improvement. To determine the longer-term effects of P-MCP we investigated an additional 12 months of treatment (phase II) with oral P-MCP at 4.8 grams X 3/day in patients with no disease progression in the previous 6 months. Of the 46 patients that entered the second phase, 7 patients withdrew consent and continued therapy independently, and 39 received another 12 months of therapy. After a total of 18 months P-MCP treatment, 62% (n=24) had a decreased/stable PSA, 90% (n=35) had improved PSADT, and 85% (n=33) had a durable long-term response, with a decreased/stable PSA, and/or improvement of PSADT, and negative scans. No patient had grade 3/4 toxicity. In conclusion, P-MCP may have long term durable efficacy, and is safe, in BRPC-M0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1875.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; somatic alteration; epigenomics; epigenetic machinery; African ancestry; southern Africa; health disparity
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:24:27 CEST)
Prostate cancer is driven by acquired genetic alterations, including those impacting the epigenetic machinery. With African ancestry a significant risk factor for aggressive disease, we hypothesize that dysregulation among the roughly 656 epigenetic genes may contribute to prostate cancer health disparities. Interrogating prostate tumor genomic data from 109 men of southern African and 56 men of European Australian ancestry, we found African-derived tumors to present with a longer tail of epigenetic driver gene candidates (72 versus 10). Biased towards African-specific drivers (63 versus 9 shared), many are novel to prostate cancer (18/63) including several putative therapeutic targets (CHD7, DPF3, POLR1B, SETD1B, UBTF and VPS72). Through clustering of all variant types and copy number alterations, we describe two epigenetic PCa taxonomies capable of differentiating patients by ancestry and predicted clinical outcomes. We identified top genes in African and European-derived tumors that represent a multifunctional “generic machinery”, alteration to which may be instrumental in epigenetic dysregulation and prostate tumorigenesis. In conclusion, numerous somatic alterations in the epigenetic machinery drive prostate carcinogenesis but African-derived tumors appear to achieve this with greater diversity amongst such alterations. The greater novelty observed in African-derived tumors illustrates the significant clinical benefit to be derived from a much needed African tailored approach to prostate cancer healthcare aimed at reducing prostate cancer health disparities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nuclear receptors; AR; androgen receptors; prostate cancer; STAT3; treatment; transcription factors
Online: 27 October 2019 (11:02:25 CET)
The nuclear receptor superfamily comprises a large group of proteins with functions essential for cell signaling, survival and proliferation. There are multiple distinctions between nuclear superfamily classes defined by hallmark differences in function, ligand binding, tissue specificity, and DNA binding. In this review, we utilize the initial classification system, which defines subfamilies based on structure and functional difference. The defining feature of the nuclear receptor superfamily is that these proteins function as transcription factors. The loss of transcriptional regulation or gain of functioning of these receptors is a hallmark in numerous diseases. For example, in prostate cancer the androgen receptor is a primary target for current prostate cancer therapies. Targeted cancer therapies for nuclear hormone receptors have been more feasible than others to develop due to ligand availability and cell permeability of hormones. To better target these receptors, it is critical to understand their structural and functional regulation. Given that late-stage cancers often develop hormone insensitivity, we will explore the strengths and pitfalls of targeting other transcription factors outside of the nuclear receptor superfamily such as the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0302.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: immune checkpoint; HVEM; BTLA; monoclonal antibody; cancer immunotherapy; humanized mice; prostate cancer
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:26:57 CEST)
The Herpes Virus Entry Mediator (HVEM) delivers a negative signal to T cells mainly through the B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA) molecule and thus, could represent a novel immune checkpoint during an anti-tumor immune response. A formal demonstration that HVEM can be targeted for cancer immunotherapy is however still lacking. Here, we first show that HVEM and BTLA were associated to a worse prognosis in patients with prostate adenocarcinomas, indicating a detrimental role for this pair of molecule during prostate cancer progression. We then show that a monoclonal antibody to human HVEM significantly impacted the growth of a prostate cancer cell line in immuno-compromised NOD.SCID.gc-null mice reconstituted with human T cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we showed that HVEM expression by the tumor was mandatory to observe the therapeutic effect. Mechanistically, tumor control was dependent on CD8+ T cells and was associated to an increase in the proliferation and number of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Accordingly, the expression of genes belonging to various T cell activation pathways were enriched in tumor infiltrating leukocytes, whereas genes associated with immuno-suppressive pathways were decreased, possibly resulting in modifications of leukocyte adhesion and motility. Finally, we developed a simple in vivo assay in humanized mice to directly demonstrate that HVEM was an immune checkpoint for T-cell mediated tumor control. Our results show that targeting HVEM is a promising strategy for prostate cancer immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: prostate cancer; diffusion MRI; false positives; biophysical modelling; deep learning
Online: 26 May 2022 (08:30:28 CEST)
False positives on multiparametric (mp)-MRI result in a large number of unnecessary biopsies in men with clinically insignificant diseases. This study investigates whether quantitative diffusion MRI can improve differentiation between false positives, true positives and normal tis-sue. Twenty-three patients underwent mp-MRI and Vascular, Extracellular and Restricted Diffu-sion for Cytometry in Tumours (VERDICT)-MRI, followed by transperineal biopsy. The patients were categorised into two groups following biopsy: (1) significant cancer - true positive (2) atro-phy/inflammation/high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) - false positive. The clinical apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the lesions were obtained, and the intravoxel inco-herent motion (IVIM), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and VERDICT models were fitted using a deep learning approach. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between true positive and false positive lesions were found in ADC, IVIM perfusion fraction (f) and diffusivity (D), DKI diffusivity (DK) and kurtosis (K) and VERDICT intracellular volume fraction (fIC), extracellular-extravascular vol-ume fraction (fEES) and diffusivity (dEES) values. Significant differences between false positives and normal tissue were only found for the VERDICT fIC. These results demonstrate that model-based diffusion MRI could reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies due to false positive prostate lesions and shows promising sensitivity to benign diseases that mimic cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: BRD9; Prostate Cancer; SWI/SNF; Survival; pathways; signal transduction; human cohorts; targeted therapy
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:51:57 CEST)
Background and aims: Despite recent advances in advanced prostate cancer treatments, there are no clinically useful biomarkers or treatments for men with such cancers. Targeted therapies have shown promise, but there remain fewer actionable targets in prostate cancer than in other cancers. This work aims to characterize BRD9, currently understudied in prostate cancer, and investigate its co-expression with other genes to assess its potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target in human prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Omics data from a total of 2053 prostate cancer patients across 11 independent datasets were accessed via Cancertool and cBioPortal. mRNA expression and co-expression, mutations, amplifications, and deletions were assessed with respect to key clinical parameters including survival, Gleason grade, stage, progression and treatment. Network and pathway analysis was carried out using Genemania, and heatmaps were constructed using Morpheus. Results: BRD9 is overexpressed in prostate cancer patients, especially those with metastatic disease. BRD9 expression did not differ in patients treated with second generation antiandrogens versus those who were not. BRD9 is co-expressed with many genes in the SWI/SNF and BET complexes, as well as those in common signaling pathways in prostate cancer. Summary and conclusions: BRD9 has potential as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in prostate cancer. BRD9 also shows promise as a therapeutic target, particularly in advanced prostate cancer, and as a co-target alongside other genes in the SWI/SNF and BET complexes, and those in common prostate cancer signalling pathways. These promising results highlight the need for wider experimental inhibition and co-targeted inhibition of BRD9 in vitro and in vivo, to build on the limited inhibition data available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Thienopyrimidines, RP-010, Prostate cancer, Metastasis, Wnt/β-catenin, Apoptosis.
Online: 4 March 2019 (13:37:02 CET)
Thienopyrimidines are a versatile group of compounds that contain a biologically active pharmacophore and reported to have anticancer efficacy in vitro. Here, we report for the first time, that thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine - based compounds, designated the RP series, have efficacy in prostate cancer cells. The lead compound, RP-010, was efficacious in PC3 and DU-145 prostate cancer (PC) cells (IC50< 1µM). The cytotoxicity of RP-010 was significantly lower in normal cells. RP-010 (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 µM) arrested prostate cancer cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, induced mitotic catastrophe and apoptotic signaling in both PC cell lines. Mechanistic studies suggested that RP-010 (1 and 2 µM) inhibits the wingless-type MMTV (Wnt)/β-catenin signaling pathway, mainly by inducing β-catenin fragmentation, while down regulating important proteins in the pathway, i.e. LRP-6, DVL3, and c-Myc. Interestingly, RP-010 (1 and 2 µM) induced the nuclear translocation of the negative feedback proteins, Naked 1 and Naked 2, in the signaling pathway. In addition, RP-010 (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 µM) significantly decreased the migration and invasiveness of PC cells in vitro. Finally, RP-010 did not produce significant toxic effects in zebrafish at concentrations up to 6 µM. In conclusion, RP-10 is a promising anticancer compound in metastatic prostate cancer and did not produce overt toxicity in an in vivo zebrafish model. Future mechanistic and efficacy studies are needed in-vivo to optimize the lead compound RP-010 for clinical use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; knockout mouse models; genetically-engineered mouse models; xenografts; patient derived xenografts; organoids; signaling pathways
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:16:25 CEST)
In 2022, prostate cancer (PCa) is estimated to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the United States – almost 270,000 American men are estimated to be diagnosed with PCa in 2022 . This review compares and contrasts in vivo models of PCa with regards to the altered genes, signaling pathways, and stages of tumor progression associated with each model. The main type of model included in this review are genetically engineered mouse models, which include conditional and constitutive knockout model. 2D cell lines, 3D organoids and spheroids, xenografts and allografts, and patient derived models are also included. The major applications, advantages and disadvantages, and ease of use and cost are unique to each type of model, but they all make it easier to translate the tumor progression that is seen in the mouse prostate to the human prostate. Although both human and mouse prostates are androgen-dependent, the fact that the native, genetically unaltered prostate in mice cannot give rise to carcinoma is an especially critical component of PCa models. Thanks to the similarities between the mouse and human genome, our knowledge of PCa has been expanded, and will continue to do so, through models of PCa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0503.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; stacking; prostate cancer; indolent tumor; aggressive tumor; gleason grade; ml-classifiers
Online: 7 July 2023 (15:35:47 CEST)
Accurately distinguishing between indolent and aggressive tumors is a crucial unmet need in the clinical management of prostate cancer (PCa). The traditional Gleason grading system has been utilized for this purpose; however, there is often ambiguity in classifying tumors with a Gleason grade of 7. Clinicians commonly resort to using secondary Gleason grades, such as 3+4 or 4+3, to classify these tumors as indolent or aggressive, respectively. Unfortunately, such classifications are prone to misinterpretation, leading to erroneous diagnoses and prognoses. To address this challenge, we investigated the application of Machine Learning (ML) techniques to classify PCa patients based on gene expression data sourced from The Cancer Genome Atlas. By comparing gene expression levels between indolent and aggressive tumors, we sought to identify distinctive features for developing and validating a range of ML algorithms and stacking techniques. The stacking based model achieved an impressive accuracy of 96% for all samples encompassing primary Gleason grades 6 to 10. Notably, when excluding Gleason grade 7 from the analysis, the accuracy further improved to 97%. This study underscores the effectiveness of the stacked ML algorithm for accurately classifying indolent versus aggressive PCa. Leveraging gene expression data and employing a combination of classifiers, this approach offers a powerful solution to address the unmet need in robustly distinguishing between different types of PCa tumors. Future implementation of this methodology may significantly impact clinical decision-making and patient outcomes in the management of prostate cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; prostate cancer; tissue biomarkers; microRNA; EMT-related proteins; metastasis
Online: 14 July 2023 (16:12:32 CEST)
Prostate cancer is the most occurred malignant disease in the male population in over one-half of the countries and still constitutes the fifth leading cause of death in 2020, worldwide. Metastatic prostate cancer is a lethal malignancy that mostly is terminated within several years through the patient's death. Researchers should focus on the phenomenon which is rigorously appertaining to metastatic cascade and operating as an initiator of metastases to provide the knowledge needed to solve the problem of diagnostics and treatment of advanced prostate cancer patients. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is one such phenomenon. The current review is based mainly on three papers published in 2021, which describe the most important tissue-specific factors managing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and are discussed with scientific papers published in acknowledged journals. The effect of the current review is the specification of profiles of precise tissue factors predicting the progression of the prostate neoplasm to its metastatic stage in a new edition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION); prostate cancer; sentinel node; magnetometer; lymphadenectomy
Online: 7 November 2017 (02:50:25 CET)
Sentinel lymph node dissection (sLND) using a magnetometer and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a tracer was successfully applied in prostate cancer (PCa). Radioisotope-guided sLND combined with extended pelvic LND (ePLND) achieved better node removal, increasing the number of affected nodes or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes outside the established ePLND template. We determined the diagnostic value of additional magnetometer-guided sLND after intraprostatic SPION-injection in high-risk PCa. This retrospective study included 104 high-risk PCa patients (PSA >20 ng/ml and/or Gleason score ≥8 and/or cT2c) from a prospective cohort who underwent radical prostatectomy with magnetometer-guided sLND and ePLND. The diagnostic accuracy of sLND was assessed using ePLND as a reference standard. Lymph node metastases were found in 61 of 104 patients (58.7%). sLND had a 100% diagnostic rate, 96.6% sensitivity, 95.6% specificity, 96.6% positive predictive value, 95.6% negative predictive value, 3.4% false negative rate, and 4.4% false positive rate (detecting lymph node metastases outside the ePLND template). These findings demonstrate the high sensitivity and additional diagnostic value of magnetometer-guided sLND, exceeding that of ePLND through the individualized extension of PLND or the detection of sentinel lymph nodes / lymph node metastases outside the established node template in high-risk PCa.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: prostatic carcinoma; MRI prostate; MRI prostate stromal sarcoma
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:51:05 CEST)
We present a case of neglected atypical high grade prostatic stromal sarcoma (PSS) at the transitional zone , invading the peripheral zone, prostatic capsule & peri prostatic fat reaching to pelvic side wall, it showed T2WI hyperintense signal (compared to typical cases of PSS showing T2WI hypointense signal) corresponding to developing on top of pre-existing nodular hyperplasia. Careful reviewing of prostatic central / transitional zone lesions is mandatory especially at T2WI, diffusion & contrast images to exclude malignancy which can be easily missed due to multiple signal patterns described. Most common tumors at transitional zone is stromal sarcoma which could be typical showing T2 hypointense signal or atypical showing T2 hyperintense signal intensity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: prostate cancer; brachytherapy; low dose rate brachytherapy, tri-modality therapy, salvage brachytherapy, focal brachytherapy
Online: 30 August 2023 (09:50:47 CEST)
Over a century ago, low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy was introduced to treat prostate cancer (PCa). Since then, it has been widely applied worldwide, including in East Asia. LDR brachythera-py has been performed in 88 institutes in Japan. Beneficial clinical outcomes of LDR brachytherapy for intermediate-to-high-risk PCa have been demonstrated in large clinical trials. These clinical outcomes were achieved through advances in methods, such as urological precise needle puncture and seed placement, and the quantitative decision-making regarding radiological parameters by radiation oncologists. Combined use of LDR brachytherapy with other therapeutical modalities, such as external beam radiation and androgen deprivation therapy, for clinical risk classification of PCa has led to better anticancer treatment efficacy. In this study, we summarized basic LDR brachytherapy findings that should remain unchanged and be passed down in urology depart-ments. We also discussed the applications of LDR brachytherapy for PCa in various clinical settings, including focal and salvage therapies. In addition, we highlighted technologies associated with brachytherapy that are under development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0057.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: [18F]PSMA-1007; fluorine-18; PSMA; automation; prostate cancer; PET
Online: 17 August 2017 (06:10:57 CEST)
Radiolabelled tracers targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have become important radiopharmaceuticals for the PET-imaging of prostate cancer. In this connection we recently developed the fluorine-18 labelled PSMA-ligand [18F]PSMA-1007 as next generation radiofluorinated Glu-ureido PSMA inhibitor after [18F]DCFPyL and [18F]DCFBC. Since radiosynthesis so far was suffering for rather poor yields novel procedures for the automated radiosyntheses of [18F]PSMA-1007 have been developed. We herein report on both the two-step and the novel one-step procedures, which have been performed on different commonly used radiosynthesisers. Using the novel one-step procedure the [18F]PSMA-1007 was produced in good radiochemical yields ranging from 30-70 % and synthesis times less than 55 minutes. Furthermore, upscaling to product activities up to 50 GBq per batch was successfully conducted. All batches passed quality control according to European Pharmacopoeia standards. Therefore, we were able to disclose a new, simple and at the same time high yielding production pathway for the next generation PSMA radioligand [18F]PSMA-1007. Actually it turned out that the radiosynthesis is as easily realised as the well-known [18F]FDG synthesis and thus transferable onto all currently available radiosynthesisers. Using the new procedures, clinical daily routine can be sustainably supported in-house even in larger hospitals by a single production batch.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; radical prostatectomy; pelvic lymph node dissection; lymph node invasion; preoperative nomogram
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:39:13 CEST)
Introduction: The aim of the study was to test and validate the performance of the 2012 Briganti nomogram as a predictor for pelvic lymph node invasion (LNI) in men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) with extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), to examine their performance and to analyse the therapeutic impact of using different nomogram cut-off . Material and methods: The study group consisted of 222 men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent RP with ePLND between 01/2012 and 10/2018. Measurements included: preoperative PSA, clinical stage (CS), primary and secondary biopsy Gleason pattern and percentage of positive cores. The area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic analysis was appointed to quantify accuracy of the primary nomogram model to predict LNI. The extent of estimation associated with the use of this model was graphically depicted using calibration plots. Results: The median number of removed lymph nodes was 16 (IQR 12-21). A total of 53 of 222 patients (23,9%) had LNI. Preoperative clinical and biopsy characteristics differed significantly (all p<0.005) between men with and without LNI. A nomogram-derived cut-off of 7% could lead to a reduction of 43% (95/222) of lymph node dissection, while missing 19% (10/53) of patients with LNI. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value associated with the 7% cut-off were 81.1%, 50.3%, and 96.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Analysed nomogram demonstrated high accuracy for LNI prediction. A nomogram-derived cutoff of 7% confirmed good performance characteristics within a first external validation cohort from Poland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: extra-prostatic extension; magnetic resonance imaging; radical prostatectomy; nerve-sparing; prostate cancer; staging; diagnostic accuracy
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:05:55 CET)
The accuracy of multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) in pre-operative staging of prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. Objective: To evaluate the ability of mpMRI to accurately predict PCa extra-prostatic extension (EPE) on a side-specific basis using a risk-stratified 5-point Likert scale. This study also aimed to assess the influence of mpMRI scan quality on diagnostic accuracy. Patients and Methods: We included 124 men who underwent robot-assisted RP (RARP) as part of the NeuroSAFE PROOF study at our centre. Three radiologists retrospectively reviewed mpMRI blinded to RP pathology and assigned a Likert score (1-5) for EPE on each side of the prostate. Each scan was also ascribed a Prostate Imaging Quality (PI-QUAL) score for assessing the quality of the mpMRI scan, where 1 represents poorest and 5 represents best diagnostic quality. Outcome measurements and statistical analyses: Diagnostic performance is presented for binary classification of EPE including 95% confidence intervals and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: A total of 231 lobes from 121 men (mean age 56.9 years) were evaluated. 39 men (32.2%), or 43 lobes (18.6%) had EPE. Likert score ≥3 had sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), NPV, PPV of 90.4%, 52.3%, 96%, 29.9%, respectively, and AUC was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77-0.86). AUC was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.37-0.9), 0.77 (0.71-0.84) and 0.92 (0.88-0.96) for biparametric scans, PI-QUAL 1-3 and PI-QUAL 4-5 scans, respectively. Conclusions: MRI can be used effectively by genitourinary radiologists to rule out EPE and help inform surgical planning for men undergoing RARP. EPE prediction was more reliable when the MRI scan was a) multi-parametric and b) of a higher image quality according to the PI-QUAL scoring system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: lymphadenectomy; magnetometer; prostate cancer; sentinel lymph node dissection; spion; superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:38:28 CET)
Targeted radioisotope-guided sentinel lymph node dissection (sLND) has shown high diagnostic accuracy in prostate cancer (PCa). To overcome the downsides of the radioactive tracers, magnetometer-guided sLND using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was successfully applied in PCa. This prospective study (SentiMag Pro II, DRKS00007671) determined the diagnostic accuracy of magnetometer-guided sLND in intermediate- and high-risk PCa. Fifty intermediate- or high-risk PCa patients (PSA≥10 ng/ml and/or Gleason score ≥7; median PSA 10.8 ng/ml, IQR 7.4–19.2 ng/ml) were enrolled. After intraprostatic SPIONs injection a day earlier, patients underwent magnetometer-guided sLND and eLND, followed by radical prostatectomy. SLNs were detected in vivo and in ex vivo samples. Diagnostic accuracy of sLND was assessed using eLND as the reference. SLNs were detected in all patients (detection rate 100%), with 447 SLNs (median 9, IQR 6–12) being identified and 966 LNs (median 18, IQR 15-23) being removed. Thirty-six percent (18/50) of patients had LN metastases (median 2, IQR 1–3). Magnetometer-guided sLND had 100% sensitivity, 97.0% specificity, 94.4% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, 0.0% false negative rate, and 3.0% additional diagnostic value (LN metastases only in SLNs outside the eLND template). In vivo, one positive SLN/LN-positive patient was missed, resulting in a sensitivity of 94.4%. In conclusion, this new magnetic sentinel procedure has high accuracy for nodal staging in intermediate- and high-risk PCa. The reliability of intraoperative SLN detection using this magnetometer system requires verification in further multicentric studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1881.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Euphorbia ingens; Anticancer; Antiproliferative; Prostate Cancer; Network Pharmacology; Phyto-chemicals; Mechanism of action; Molecular targets
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:46:44 CEST)
Euphorbia ingens is traditionally used to treat and manage cancer in Ambeere community of Embu County in Kenya. Whilst research has demonstrated the bioactivities of E. ingens including antimicrobial, antitubercular and antifungal activities, scientific validation of its anticancer properties is limited. This study evaluated the antiproliferative potentials of E. ingens on human prostate cancer cell line (DU-145). The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to assess the antiproliferative activity, chemical constituents were analysed by qualitative colour method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. At the same time, the investigation of putative molecular targets and mechanisms of action of E. ingens was done through network pharmacological analysis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was carried out to validate the network predictions of putative targets. Our result showed E. ingens ethyl acetate inhibited DU-145 growth (IC50 of 9.71 ± 0.4 µg/ml) with a high selectivity index of 8.26. There was the presence of phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins; additional 18 compounds were identified by the GC-MS approach. ESR1, IL6, MMP9, CDK2, MAP2K1, AR, PRKCD, CDK1, CDC25B, and JAK2 were indicated as key targets of E. ingens against prostate cancer with the PI3K-AKT, MAPK, and p53 signalling pathways identified as the most probable mechanisms of action. There was significant downregulation of AR and BCL2, and upregulation of p53 and caspase-3 in E. ingens-treated DU-145 cells compared to 0.2 % DMSO negative control. Our results suggest that E. ingens has phytochemical compounds efficacious at inhibiting the proliferation of DU-145 cells; therefore, the plant can be considered a potential source of compounds that may be used to manage and treat prostate cancer; however, further in vivo evaluations are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; immunotherapy; focal therapy; combination immunotherapy; tumor immune microenvironment; in vivo vaccination
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:01:20 CEST)
Due to slow progression and susceptibility to radical forms of treatment low-grade PC is associ-ated with high overall survival (OS). With the clinical progression of PC the therapy is getting more complex. The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) makes PC a difficult target for most immunotherapeutics. Its general immune resistance is established by i.e. immune evasion through Treg cells, synthesis of immunosuppressive mediators, and defective expression of surface neoantigens. The success of sipuleucel-T in clinical trials initiated several other clinical studies that specifically target the immune escape of the tumor and eliminate the immunosuppres-sive properties of TME. In the settings of PC treatment, this can be commonly achieved with radi-ation therapy (RT). Also, focal therapies usually applied for localized PC, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) were shown to boost anti-cancer response. Nevertheless, the present guide-lines restrict their application to localized and low-grade PC. This review explains how RT and focal therapies enhance the immune response. We also provide data supporting the combination of RT and focal treatments with immune therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Prostate Specific Antigen; Frailty; Prostate cancer screening; Hypogonadism; Benign Prostatic Obstruction
Online: 17 August 2023 (08:49:01 CEST)
Objectives With this study we present, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the implications of PSA tests on the lives of frail men. Methods We searched the available literature for studies analyzing the role of PSA as a screening and prognostic tool for prostatic diseases in frail men, using keywords: Prostate-specific antigen, Frailty, Prostate cancer screening, Hypogonadism and Benign Prostatic Obstruction (BPO). Results PSA in frail men with more than 15 years life expectancy can detect prostate cancer in curable stages, while it enables monitoring response to different prostate cancer treatments and follow-up of testosterone replacement for hypogonadism. PSA also predicts clinical progression of patients with BPO. However, PSA is widely being offered, without personalized patient evaluation, adding to the financial burden of healthcare systems. Conclusion A frailty assessment of men for the potential benefit of PSA tests on their quality of life can reduce unnecessary costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: PSMA PET CT; Biochemical Recurrence; prostate cancer recurrence; prostate bed recurrence
Online: 22 May 2023 (07:25:45 CEST)
Aim of the study: To draw inferences from a retrospective evaluation of PSMA PET CT scans performed for the evaluation of biochemical recurrence. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 295 PSMA PET CT scans spanning 3 years between 2020 and 2022 was undertaken. Results: Of 295 PET CT scans, 179 were positive, 66 negative and 50 had indeterminate findings. In positive group, 67 had radical prostatectomy and PSMA avid lesions were seen most commonly in pelvic lymph nodes. Remaining 112 positive scans, in non-radical prostatectomy group; 25 had recurrence only in prostate, 17 had recurrence involving prostate bed; 28 had no recurrence in prostate gland, while 42 had recurrence in prostate as well as extra prostatic sites. Overall, in non-prostatectomy group, 75 % population was harbouring a PSMA avid lesion in prostate gland while in remaining 25% population recurrence did not involve prostate gland. Majority of indeterminate findings were seen in small pelvic or retroperitoneal lymph nodes or skeletal regions (ribs/others) and in 9 patients indeterminate focus was seen in the prostate bed only. Follow up PSMA PET CT was helpful in prior indeterminate findings and unexplained PSA rise. Conclusion: A higher recurrence in prostate bed while evaluating biochemical recurrence prompts us to think; whether prostatectomy should be offered more proactively? Follow up PSMA PET CT is helpful for indeterminate findings; a PSA rise of 0.7 ng/ml in 6 months can result in positive PSMA PET CT while negative scan can be seen upto 2ng/ml PSA rise in 6 months.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0720.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Prostate cancer; androgen receptor; AR signaling pathway; disease progression; therapeutic re-sistance; personalized treatment; androgen deprivation therapy; AR-targeted therapies
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:09:13 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer-related deaths globally, with an increasing incidence over the years. Our review article aims to unlock the secrets of androgen receptors in prostate cancer susceptibility, progression, and treatment by analyzing recent literature. Androgen receptor (AR) plays a crucial role in male development and maintains masculine characteristics. However, in prostate cancer, AR signaling pathway aberrations can lead to disease progression and treatment resistance. Understanding AR regulation and function in healthy and diseased states is essential for developing effective treatment strategies to combat this disease and improve patient outcomes. Our findings have significant implications for developing new treatments and identifying biomarkers for early detection and personalized treatment targeting the AR signalling pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cell stress response; stressome; extracellular vesicle; heat shock protein 90 (HSP90); cell division control 37 (CDC37); prostate cancer; exosome; ectosome
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:50:14 CET)
Tumor cells exhibit a resistance-associated secretory phenotype involving extracellular vesicles (EVs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). This response occurs in response to cell stress and cancer therapeutics. HSPs are stress-responsive molecular chaperones promoting proper protein folding, while also being released from cells with EVs as well as in free form as alarmins. We have here investigated the secretory phenotype of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells using proteome analysis. We have also examined the roles of the key co-chaperone CDC37 in stressome release, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and tumor progression. A number of HSP family members and their common receptor CD91/LRP1 were enriched at high levels in CRPC cell-derived EVs among over 700 other protein species. The small EVs (30 to 200 nm in size, potentially exosomes) were released even in a non-heated condition from the prostate cancer cells, whereas EMT-coupled release of EVs (200 to 500 nm, likely ectosomes) with associated HSP90α was increased after heat shock stress (HSS). Lactate dehydrogenase, a marker of membrane leakage/damage of cells, was also released upon HSS from the prostate cancer cells. During this stress response, intracellular CDC37 was also transcriptionally inducible by heat shock factor 1, and knockdown of CDC37 decreased EMT-coupled release of EVs. Triple knockdown of CDC37, HSP90α, and HSP90β was required for efficient reduction of the chaperone trio and to reduce tumorigenicity of the CRPC cells in vivo. Taken together, the data indicated that CDC37 and HSP90 are essential for stressome release and for tumorigenesis in resistant cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Prostate cancer; Somatic point mutations; Copy number variation; Regulatory variant, Hi-C; Per-sonalized medicine; Biomedical machine learning
Online: 19 January 2023 (02:10:02 CET)
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed non-skin cancer in the world. Previous studies showed that genomic alterations represent the most common mechanism for molecular alterations that cause the development and progression of PC. Great efforts have been done to identify common protein-coding genetic variations; however, the impact of non-coding variations including regulatory genetic variants is not still well understood. To gain an understanding of the functional impact of genetic variants, particularly, regulatory variants in PC, we developed an integrative pipeline (AGV) that used whole genome/exome sequences, GWAS SNPs, chromosome conformation capture data, and ChIP-Seq signals to investigate the potential impact of genomic variants on the underlying target genes in PC. We identified 646 putative regulatory variants, of which 30 of them significantly altered the expression of at least one protein-coding gene. Our analysis of chromatin interactions data (Hi-C) revealed that the 30 putative regulatory variants may affect 131 coding and non-coding genes. Interestingly, our study showed the 131 protein-coding genes are involved in disease-related pathways including Reactome and MSigDB in which for most of them targeted treatment options are currently available. Together, our results provide a comprehensive map of genomic variants in PC and revealed their potential contribution to prostate cancer progression and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; BCPAP cells; 8505C cells; prostate cancer; LNCaP cells; DU145 cells; kidney cancer; HL-60 cells; cancer gene software
Online: 20 June 2019 (10:28:48 CEST)
The dynamic and never exactly repeatable tumor transcriptomic profile of people affected by the same form of cancer requires a personalized and time-sensitive approach of the gene therapy. The Gene Master Regulators (GMRs) were defined as genes whose highly controlled expression by the homeostatic mechanisms commands the cell phenotype by modulating major functional pathways through expression correlation with their genes. The Gene Commanding Height (GCH), a measure that combines the expression control and expression correlation with all other genes, is used to establish the gene hierarchy in each cell phenotype. We developed the experimental protocol, the mathematical algorithm and the computer software to identify the GMRs from transcriptomic data in surgically removed tumors, biopsies or blood from cancer patients. The GMR approach is illustrated with applications to our microarray data on human kidney, thyroid and prostate cancer samples, and on thyroid, prostate and blood cancer cell lines. We proved experimentally that each patient has his/her own GMRs, that cancer nuclei and surrounding normal tissue are governed by different GMRs, and that manipulating the expression has larger consequences for genes with higher GCH. Therefore, we launch the hypothesis that silencing the GMR may selectively kill the cancer cells from a tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0605.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA); technetium-99m; single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); molecular imaging; HYNIC
Online: 8 June 2023 (08:11:15 CEST)
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well validated prostate cancer marker, but reported PSMA-targeted tracers derived from the Lys-urea-Glu pharmacophore including the clinically validated [99mTc]Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA have high off-target uptake in kidneys, spleen and salivary glands. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated three novel 99mTc-labeled PSMA-targeted tracers and investigated if the tracers derived from the Lys-urea-Aad pharmacophore could have minimized uptake in off-target organs/tissues. In vitro competition binding assays showed that compared with HYNIC-iPSMA, the three novel ligands had slightly weaker PSMA binding affinity (average Ki = 3.11 vs 8.96 - 11.6 nM). Imaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies in LNCaP tumor-bearing mice showed that [99mTc]Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA and the three novel tracers successfully visualized LNCaP tumor xenografts in SPECT images and were excreted mainly via the renal pathway. The average tumor uptake at 1 h post-injection varied from 5.40 to 18.8 %ID/g, and the tracers derived from the Lys-urea-Aad pharmacophore had much lower uptake in spleen and salivary glands. Compared with the clinical tracer [99mTc]Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA, the Lys-urea-Aad derived [99mTc]Tc-EDDA-KL01127 had lower background uptake and superior tumor-to-background contrast ratios, and is therefore promising for clinical translation to detect prostate cancer lesions with SPECT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0576.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; radiation therapy; intensity-modulated radiation therapy; image-guided radiation therapy; volumetric modulated arc therapy; stereotactic body radiation therapy; brachytherapy; metastasis direct therapy; hydrogel spacer
Online: 10 July 2023 (09:43:22 CEST)
Abstract: A recent approach to radiotherapy for prostate cancer is the administration of high doses of radiation to the prostate while minimizing the risk of side effects. Thus, image-guided radiotherapy utilizes advanced imaging techniques and is a feasible strategy for increasing the radiation dose. New radioactive particles are another approach to achieving high doses and safe procedures. Prostate brachytherapy is currently considered as a combination therapy. Spacers are useful to protect adjacent organs, specifically the rectum, from excessive radiation exposure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer; new hormonal agents; transcriptomic profiling; DNA damage repair genes; tumor suppressor genes; androgen receptor; immunotherapy; CDK4/6 inhibitors; PARP inhibitors; AKT inhibitors.
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:17:07 CEST)
De novo metastatic hormone-sensitive PC (mHSPC) accounts for 5-10% of all prostate cancer (PC) diagnoses but it is responsible for nearly 50% of PC-related deaths. Since 2015, the prognosis of mHSPC has slightly improved thanks to the introduction of new hormonal agents and chemotherapy combined with androgen deprivation therapy from the first-line setting. This review describes the current therapeutic opportunities in de novo mHSPC, focusing on potential molecular biomarkers identified in the main clinical trials that have changed the standard of care, the genomic features of de novo mHSPC, and the principal ongoing trials that are investigating new therapeutic approaches and the efficacy of a biomarker-guided treatment in this setting. The road towards a personalized treatment for de novo mHSPC is still long considering that the randomized clinical trials, which have furnished the basis of the current therapeutic options, stratified patients according to clinical criteria that not necessarily reflect the biological rationale of the chosen therapy. The role of transcriptomic profiling of mHSPC as predictive biomarker requires further validation, as well as it remains to ascertain how the genomic alterations detected in mHSPC, that are considered predictive in the castration-resistant disease, can be exploited in the mHSPC setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Long non-coding RNA; Prostate androgen-regulated transcript 1; miR-204-3p; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:57:26 CEST)
Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor of the lung and the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80%–85% of lung cancer, 40% of NSCLCs will have spread beyond the lungs by the time it is diagnosed. Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) prostate androgen-regulated transcript 1 (PART-1) was reported that promote the development of several cancers. In the current study, we conducted experiments to investigate the role of PART-1 in the proliferation, invasion, and migration of NSCLC. The expression level of the PART-1 gene increased significantly in the NSCLC cell lines, including A549, H1229, H1650, H1975, and PC9. Knocking down of PART-1 inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and migration of A549 cells, moreover, decreased the tumor proliferation in nude mice. We confirmed that PART-1 targeted miR-204-3p directly, and miR-204-3p targeted the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) directly. Furthermore, we discovered that PART-1 involved the NSCLC progression by regulating the miR-204-3p-targeted IGFBP-2 pathway. LncRNA PART-1 might be a target for treating NSCLC, and a warning sign of diagnosis of early lung cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0647.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: nonlinear gradients; diffusion imaging; prostate imaging
Online: 12 February 2021 (08:51:40 CET)
Purpose: Prostate cancer remains the 2nd leading cancer killer of men, yet it is also a disease with a high rate of overtreatment. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has shown promise as a reliable, grade-sensitive imaging method, but it is limited by low image quality. Currently, DWI image quality is directly related to low gradient ampli-tudes, since weak gradients must be compensated with long echo times. Methods: We propose a new type of MRl accessory, an "inside-out" and nonlinear gradient, whose sole purpose is to deliver diffusion encoding to a region of interest. Performance was simulated in OPERA and the resulting fields were used to simulate DWI with two compartment and kurtosis models. Experiments with a nonlinear head gradient prove the accuracy of DWI and ADC maps diffusion encoded with nonlinear gradients. Results: Simulations validated thermal and mechanical safety while showing a 5 to 10-fold increase in gradient strength over prostate. With these strengths, lesion CNR in ADC maps approximately doubled for a range of anatomical positions. Proof-of-principle experiments show that spatially varying b-values can be corrected for accurate DWI and ADC. Conclusions: Dedicated nonlinear diffusion encoding hardware could improve prostate DWI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; brachytherapy; lower urinary tract symptom; international prostate symptom score (IPSS); overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS)
Online: 22 May 2023 (16:28:32 CEST)
To examine the association of clinical, treatment, and dose parameters with late urinary toxicity after low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) for prostate cancer, we retrospectively studied patients with prostate cancer who underwent LDR-BT from January 2007 through December 2016. Urinary toxicity was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Overactive Bladder (OAB) Symptom Score (OABSS). Severe and moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were defined as IPSS ≥ 20 and ≥ 8, respectively; OAB was defined as a nocturnal frequency of ≥ 2 and a total OABSS of ≥ 3. In total, 203 patients (median age, 66 years) were included, with a mean follow-up of 8.4 years after treatment. The IPSS and OABSS worsened after 3 months of treatment; these scores improved to pretreatment levels after 18–36 months in most patients. Patients with a higher baseline IPSS and OABSS had a lower frequency of moderate and severe LUTS and OAB at 24 and 60 months, respectively. LUTS and OAB at 24 and 60 months were not correlated with the dosimetric factors of LDR-BT. Although the rate of long-term urinary toxicities assessed using IPSS and OABSS was low, the baseline scores were related to long-term function. Refining patient selection may further reduce long-term urinary toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0936.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: neuroendocrine; mosaic; prostate cancer; immunohistochemistry; tumour marker
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:55:17 CEST)
Background: Mosaic cancers are composed of two or several genetically different cell populations. Mosaicism has been considered to be rare among malignancies, with the exception of the germ cell tumours. Although it has been described that neuroendocrine foci may be present within an adenocarcinoma of the prostate, this was ment for advanced stage disease and the clinical relevance of the histological finding has not been clarified. Patients and methods: We recently published the analysis of a small cohort of patients who had neuroendocrine cancer of the prostate. Contrarily to the general assumption of a rare disease with poor prognosis, the incidence was found to be 2%, being 50 fold higher than the earlier data. During the follow-up the overall survival of some metastatic patients reached several years. The particularity of patients with favourable outcome was the parallel elevation of PSA and NSE. They received anticancer treatments in an alternating way directed according to the tumour marker that was in rise. The aim of this paper is to show the pathological background of our clinical observations. Results: Histological images of de novo mosaic prostate cancers are shown. A model explaining the development of mosaic prostate cancers is presented. The hypothesis of mosaicism within adenocarcinomas is formulated in addition. Conclusion: Mosaic neuroendocrine-/adenocarcinoma of the prostate is underestimated regarding its incidence as well as its prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer, moderate hypofractionation, post-prostatectomy radiotherapy
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:30:46 CEST)
Background: Optimal hypofractionated schedule of post-prostatectomy radiotherapy remains to be established. We evaluated treatment outcomes and toxicity of the moderately hypofractionated post-prostatectomy radiotherapy in 16 daily fractions delivered with IMRT/VMAT. The treatment schedule selection was motivated by limited technology resources. Methods: One hundred consecutive M0 patients with post-prostatectomy radiotherapy were evaluated. Radiotherapy indication was adjuvant (ART) in 19%, early salvage (eSRT) in 46% and salvage (SRT) in 35%. The dose prescription for prostate bed PTV was 52.8 Gy in 16 fractions of 3.3 Gy. The Common Terminology Criteria v.4 for Adverse Events scale was used for toxicity grading. Results: The median follow-up was 61 months. Five-year biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS) was 78.6%, distant metastases-free survival was 95.7% and overall survival was 98.8%. Treatment indication was the only significant factor for 5-year bRFS in multivariate analysis which was 84.6% vs. 67.6% for ART or eSRT vs. SRT respectively (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05–0.47, p=0.001). Acute GI toxicity grade 2 was recorded in 24%, grade 3 in 2% and acute GU toxicity grade 2 in 10% and no grade 3. Cumulative rate of late GI toxicity grade ≥2 was observed in 9% and late GU toxicity grade ≥2 in 16%. Conclusion: Observed results confirmed efficacy and acceptable toxicity of post-prostatectomy hypofractionated radiotherapy in 16 daily fractions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; prognostic nutritional index; inflammation; prognosis
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:50:23 CEST)
Background: In this paper, it was aimed to evaluate the biomarker potential as well as the effect of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which is calculated using the albumin level reflecting nutritional status and lymphocyte count reflecting immune status, in determining the prognosis of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). Methods: This retrospective observational study included the complete data of 108 patients with mCPSC who were treated for at least three months between January 1, 2010, and June 1, 2021. The relationship between cancer specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and PNI was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier method for OS, PFS, and CSS, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used in statistical analyses. Results: The median age of 108 patients included in the study was 68.54 (61.05-74.19) years. While 71.3% (n = 77) of the patient population were high-volume according to CHAARTED, 52.8% (n = 57) were high-risk based on LATITUDE. 49.75 was determined as the best cut-off point for the PNI. OS (months) was found to be significantly lower in patients with low PNI (median: 34.93, 95% CI: 21.52–48.34) compared to patients with high PNI (median: 65.60, 95% CI: 39.36–91.83) (p=0.016). Patients with high PNI (median: 48.20, 95% CI: 34.66–61.73) had significantly better CSS (months) than patients with low PNI (median: 27.86, 95% CI: 24.16–31.57) (p=0.001). Conclusions: PNI calculated at the time of diagnosis strongly predicts OS and CSS but not PFS in patients with mCSPC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; lymph node invasion; radical prostatectomy
Online: 11 April 2022 (14:13:34 CEST)
Lymph node invasion in prostate cancer is a significant prognostic factor indicating worse prognosis. While it affects significantly both survival rates and recurrence, proper management remains a heated issue. Thorough evaluation of risk factors associated with nodal involvement, such as lymph node density or extracapsular extension, is crucial to establish potential expansion of the disease and to substratify patients clinically. There are multiple strategies that may be taken into consideration for patients with positive lymph nodes. Nowadays therapeutic methods are generally based on observation, radiotherapy, and androgen deprivation therapy. However current guidelines are incoherent in terms of indication of the most effective management approach. Future management strategies will be expected to reach for novel diagnostic tools and therapies, such as photodynamic therapy or diagnostic imaging with prostate specific membrane antigen. Nevertheless, this heterogeneous group of men remains a vast therapeutic concern, and both clarification of the guidelines and optimal substratification of patients is required.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: SCAN zinc-finger; SCAND1; CDC37; MZF1; prostate cancer
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:10:22 CEST)
Cell division control 37 (CDC37) increases the stability of HSP90 client proteins and is thus essential for numerous intracellular oncogenic signaling pathways, playing a key role in prostate oncogenesis. Notably, elevated expression of CDC37 was found in prostate cancer cells, although the regulatory mechanisms through which CDC37 expression becomes increased are unknown. Here we show both positive and negative regulation of CDC37 gene transcription by two members of the SCAN transcription factor family- MZF1 and SCAND1, respectively. Consensus DNA-binding motifs for myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1 / ZSCAN6) were abundant in the CDC37 promoter region. MZF1 became bound to these regulatory sites and trans-activated the CDC37 gene whereas MZF1 depletion decreased CDC37 transcription and reduced tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells. On the other hand, SCAND1, a zinc-fingerless SCAN box protein that potentially inhibits MZF1, accumulated at MZF1-binding sites in CDC37 gene, negatively regulated CDC37 gene and inhibited tumorigenesis. SCAND1 was abundantly expressed in normal prostate cells but was reduced in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role of SCAND1 in prostate cancer. These findings indicate that CDC37, a crucial protein in prostate cancer progression, is regulated reciprocally by MZF1 and SCAND1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Prostate cancer; robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP); console-time.
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:36:11 CEST)
Longer operating time in radical prostatectomy may escalate the risk of perioperative complications. Various factors like cancer extent, procedure’s level of difficulty, habitus and previous surgeries may lengthen robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and therefor compromise outcomes. Objective: this study investigates the influence of operating time on outcomes after RARP in real life settings in a monocentric single surgeon study. Methods: 500 consecutive patients who underwent RARP between April 2019 and August 2022 were included. Patients were divided in three groups. Short (n=157; 31.4%) under or equal to 120 minutes, average (n=255; 51%) between 121 and 180 minutes, long (n=88; 17,6%) above 180 minutes console-time. Demographic, baseline and perioperative data were analyzed and compared between groups. Univariate logistic regression was completed to investigate the association between console-time and outcomes and to predict factors which may prolong surgery. Results: hospital stay and catheter days were significantly longer in group 3 with medians 6 and 7 days (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Those findings were confirmed in univariate analysis, p=0.012 for Catheter days and p<0.001 for Hospital stay. Moreover, major complications were higher in patients with longer procedures p=0.008. Prostate volume was the only predictor for prolonged console time (p=0.005). Conclusion: RARP is a safe procedure and most patients will be discharged uneventfully. Yet longer console-time is associated with longer hospital stay, catheter days and major complications. Caution has to be taken in large prostate to avoid longer procedures, which may prevent postoperative advert events.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1469.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Prostate cancer; Radical prostatectomy; Venous thromboembolism,; Mechanical prophylaxis; Pharmacological prophylaxis
Online: 22 May 2023 (07:12:49 CEST)
Radical prostatectomy (RP) is one of the recommended treatments to achieve oncological outcomes in localized prostate cancer. However, radical prostatectomy is a major abdominopelvic surgery. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-known complication associated with surgical procedures including RP. There is a lack of consensus regarding VTE prophylaxis in urological procedures. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate different aspects of VTE in post-Radical Prostatectomy patients. A comprehensive literature search was performed, and relevant data were extracted. The primary aim was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis (wherever possible) of VTE occurrence in post-RP patients in relation to surgical approach, pelvic lymph node dissection, and type of prophylaxis (mechanical or combined prophylaxis). The secondary aim was to investigate- the incidence and other risk factors of VTE in post-RP patients. A total of 16 studies were included for quantitative analysis. Statistical methods for analysis included the DerSimonian-Laird random effects. We were able to conclude that the overall incidence of VTE in post-radical prostatectomy is 1% and minimally invasive procedures (MIS), including laparoscopic as well as robotic procedures for radical prostatectomy and RP without pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) are associated with less risk of developing VTE. Additional pharmacological prophylaxis to mechanical methods may not be necessary in all cases and should be considered in high-risk patients only.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Ewing sarcoma; Prostate adenocarcinoma; Cauda equina syndrome; Dual primary malignancy.
Online: 23 November 2022 (07:47:52 CET)
Introduction: A dual malignancy with both Ewing Sarcoma and Prostate Adenocarcinoma has not been reported in the English literature. We report a case of simultaneous diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma and prostate adenocarcinoma with profound clinical manifestation. Case presentation: A 53-year-old male with advanced metastatic prostate cancer (Gleason-9) admitted with classical presentation of cauda equina syndrome including incontinence, back pain, and paresis following bilateral nephrostomy insertion for the treatment of bilateral renal hy-dronephrosis. The patient was diagnosed with an epidural abscess at the level of L5-S1 and an emergency surgical spine decompression was performed. No abscess was found, and pathology results showed a concomitant primary Ewing sarcoma in the spine. Conclusions: Very rare occurrences of a dual primary malignancy, in this case, Ewing sarcoma and prostate adenocarcinoma, should be kept in mind in patients suffering from complex clinical course of malignancies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Tadalafil; prostate cancer; aromatase; adipocytes; bone; androgen receptors; obesity; osteoporosis
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:53:13 CET)
Tadalafil is a selective phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) associated symptoms. Besides its classical actions on PDE5 within the genitourinary tract, where the specific enzyme expression is maximal, it may exert different systemic effects. This is mainly due to the pleiotropic distribution of PDE5 enzyme throughout human (and animal) body, where it can exert protective effects in different clinical conditions. Recently, it has been demonstrated that tadalafil may display novel actions on androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity, cytochrome P19a1 (Cyp19a1) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in different in vitro systems, such as adipose, bone and prostate cancer cells where it can act as a selective modulator of steroid hormone production. This may determine novel potential mechanism(s) of control in pathophysiologic pathways. In this review we summarize basic research and translational results applicable to the use of tadalafil in the treatment of different clinical conditions.