Lam, D.; Clark, S.; Stirzaker, C.; Pidsley, R. Advances in Prognostic Methylation Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer. Cancers2020, 12, 2993.
Lam, D.; Clark, S.; Stirzaker, C.; Pidsley, R. Advances in Prognostic Methylation Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2020, 12, 2993.
There is a major clinical need for accurate biomarkers for prostate cancer prognosis, to better inform treatment strategies and disease monitoring. Current clinically recognised prognostic factors, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, lack sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing aggressive from indolent disease, particularly in patients with localised intermediate grade prostate cancer. There has therefore been a major focus on identifying molecular biomarkers that can add prognostic value to existing markers, including investigation of DNA methylation, which has a known role in tumorigenesis. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of DNA methylation biomarker studies in prostate cancer prognosis, and highlight the advances that have been made in this field. We cover the numerous studies into well-established candidate genes, and explore the technological transition that has enabled hypothesis-free genome-wide studies and the subsequent discovery of novel prognostic genes.
DNA methylation; epigenetics; biomarkers; circulating DNA; cfDNA; prostate cancer; early detection; prognosis
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