Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Cancer Vaccines for Genitourinary Tumors: Recent Progresses and Future Possibilities

Version 1 : Received: 29 April 2021 / Approved: 10 May 2021 / Online: 10 May 2021 (14:54:43 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Maiorano, B.A.; Schinzari, G.; Ciardiello, D.; Rodriquenz, M.G.; Cisternino, A.; Tortora, G.; Maiello, E. Cancer Vaccines for Genitourinary Tumors: Recent Progresses and Future Possibilities. Vaccines 2021, 9, 623. Maiorano, B.A.; Schinzari, G.; Ciardiello, D.; Rodriquenz, M.G.; Cisternino, A.; Tortora, G.; Maiello, E. Cancer Vaccines for Genitourinary Tumors: Recent Progresses and Future Possibilities. Vaccines 2021, 9, 623.

Journal reference: Vaccines 2021, 9, 623
DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9060623

Abstract

Background: In the last years, many new treatment options have widened the therapeutic scenario of genitourinary malignancies. Immunotherapy has shown efficacy, especially in the urothelial and renal cell carcinomas, with no particular relevance in prostate cancer. However, despite the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, there is still high morbidity and mortality among these neo-plasms. Cancer vaccines represent another way to activate the immune system. We sought to summarize the most recent advances in vaccine therapy for genitourinary malignancies with this review. Methods: We searched Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Database for clinical trials conducted in the last ten years, focusing on cancer vaccines in the prostate, urothelial and renal cancer. Results: Various therapeutic vaccines, including DNA-based, RNA-based, peptide-based, dendritic cells, viral vectors, and modified tumor cells, have been demonstrated to induce specific immune responses in a variable percentage of patients. However, these responses rarely corresponded to significant survival improvements. Conclusions: Further pre-clinical and clinical studies will improve the knowledge about cancer vaccines in genitourinary malignancies to optimize dosage, select targets with a driver role for tumor development and growth, and finally overcome resistance mechanisms. Combination strategies represent possibly more effective and long-lasting treatments.

Keywords

prostate cancer, renal cancer, urothelial cancer, vaccines, immunotherapy

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.