Gurwin, A.; Kowalczyk, K.; Knecht-Gurwin, K.; Stelmach, P.; Nowak, Ł.; Krajewski, W.; Szydełko, T.; Małkiewicz, B. Alternatives for MRI in Prostate Cancer Diagnostics—Review of Current Ultrasound-Based Techniques. Cancers2022, 14, 1859.
Gurwin, A.; Kowalczyk, K.; Knecht-Gurwin, K.; Stelmach, P.; Nowak, Ł.; Krajewski, W.; Szydełko, T.; Małkiewicz, B. Alternatives for MRI in Prostate Cancer Diagnostics—Review of Current Ultrasound-Based Techniques. Cancers 2022, 14, 1859.
The purpose of this review is to present the current role of ultrasound-based techniques in the diagnostic pathway of prostate cancer (PCa). With overdiagnosis and overtreatment of a clinically insignificant PCa over the past years, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) became recommended for every patient suspected of PCa before performing a biopsy. It enabled targeted sampling of the suspicious prostate regions, improving the accuracy of the traditional systematic biopsy. However, mpMRI is associated with high costs, relatively low availability, long and separate procedure or exposure to the contrast agent. The novel ultrasound modalities such as shear wave elastography (SWE), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) or high frequency micro-ultrasound (MicroUS) may be capable of maintaining the performance of mpMRI without its limitations. Moreover, the real-time lesion visualization during biopsy would significantly simplify the diagnostic process. Another value of these new techniques is the ability to enhance the performance of mpMRI by creating the image fusion of multiple modalities. Such models might be further analyzed by artificial intelligence to mark the regions of interest for investigators and help to decide about the biopsy indications. The dynamic development and promising results of new ultrasound-based techniques should encourage researchers to thoroughly study their utilization in prostate imaging.
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