ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: plant in vitro culture; plant extracts; gas chromatography; hexadecanoic acid, antifungal activity
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:26:36 CET)
Eysenhardtia platycarpa (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant used in México and it lacks biotechnological studies for its use. The aim of this work was to establish a cell suspension cultures (CSC) of E. platycarpa, determine the phytochemical profile, and evaluate its antifungal activity. Friable callus and CSC were established with 2 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid plus 0.1 mg/L kinetin. The highest total phenolics of CSC was 15.6 mg GAE/g dry weight and the total flavonoids content ranged from 56.2 to 104.1 µg QE/g dry weight. CG‒MS analysis showed that the dichloromethane extracts of CSC, sapwood and heartwood have a high amount of hexadecanoic acid (22.3 ‒ 35.3 %) and steroids (13.5 ‒ 14.7%). Heartwood and sapwood defatted hexane extracts have the highest amount of stigmasterol (≈ 23.4%) and β-sitosterol (≈ 43%), and leaf extracts presented β-amyrin (16.3%). Methanolic leaves extracts showed mostly sugars and some polyols, mainly D-pinitol (74.3%). Dichloromethane and fatty hexane extracts of CSC exhibited the percentages inhibition higher for Sclerotium cepivorum with 71.5 and 62.0%, respectively. The maximum inhibition for Rhizoctonia solani was with fatty hexane extracts of the sapwood (51.4%). Our study suggest that CSC extracts could be used as a possible complementary alternative to synthetic fungicides.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0408.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Salvia pachyphylla; plant extracts; antioxidant; antimicrobial; antiproliferative; enzyme inhibitory
Online: 18 October 2018 (09:56:26 CEST)
The antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and enzyme inhibitory properties of five extracts from aerial parts of Salvia pachyphylla were examined to assess the prospective of this plant as a source of natural products with therapeutic potential. Those properties were analyzed performing a set of standard assays. The extract obtained with dichloromethane showed the most variety of components, as yielded promising results in all completed assays. Furthermore, the extract obtained with ethyl acetate exhibited that greatest antioxidant activity as well as the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Remarkably, both extracts obtained with n-hexane or dichloromethane revealed significant antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria; also, they showed greater antiproliferative activity against three representative cell lines of the most common types of cancers in women worldwide, and against a cell line that exemplifies cancers that typically develop drug resistance. Despite that other extracts were less active, such as the methanolic or aqueous, their results are promising for the isolation and identification of novel bioactive molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0393.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: sustainability; entomopathogenic fungi; food security; fertilizer; micronutrients; organic matter; plant growth biostimulants
Online: 25 November 2022 (01:07:55 CET)
Entomopathogenic fungi perform important functions in the ecosystem as natural antagonists of insects, which can be used in agriculture. Interestingly, recent studies showed a significant promotion of tested plants growth in the presence of fungi. We hypothesize that some of various compounds produced by entomopathogenic fungi can positively affect plant development. To test this hypothesis, fungal extracts of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana were prepared at different conditions of temperature and pH. In addition to determination of the ammonium nitrogen content, the composition of extracts was analyzed by elemental ICP-OES. Then, their effect on the wheat germ growth was studied using various extract concentrations. After experiments, tested plants were measured, weighed, and the chlorophyll content was determined. Finally, the impact of extracts on the selected G+ and G- bacteria growth was examined to exclude the possibility of interference with soil microorganisms. The highest length of the wheat shoot was obtained for the use of 10-times diluted extract (10%) at pH 10 obtained at 20°C. In contrast, addition of 10% extract (pH 10) obtained at 75°C resulted in the shortest shoot. Generally, the extracts obtained at 75°C showed phytotoxic properties leading to lower values of shoot length and fresh weight in comparison to the control group. Our preliminary results are the first confirming the potential of fungal water extracts as factors promoting plant growth. Further detailed study should be carried out to confirm the effects in real environment conditions. Also, the consistency of the plant growth stimulation across different entomopathogenic fungi, and agriculturally used plant species should be tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0425.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: quorum sensing; autoinducer; organic plant extracts; biofilms; swimming motility; swarming motility
Online: 27 July 2022 (15:07:29 CEST)
Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of intra- and inter-species communication system which is employed by bacteria to regulate their collective behavior in a cell population-dependent manner. QS has been implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic bacteria. This work aimed to investigate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) potential of ethanolic extracts of eight aromatic plants of Cyprus namely, Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Lavendula spp., Calendula officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Sideritis cypria, and Aloysia citriodora. We initially assess the effects of the extracts on autoinducer 2 (AI-2) signaling activity, using Vibrio harveyi BB170 as a reported strain. We subsequently assess the effect of the ethanolic extracts on QS-related processes including biofilm formation and swarming and swimming motilities of Escherichia coli MG1655. Of the tested ethanolic extracts those of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Salvia officinalis were the most potent AI-2 signaling inhibitors while the extracts from the other plants exhibited low to moderate inhibitory activity. The three ethanolic extracts also inhibited the biofilm formation (>60%) of E. coli MG1655, as well as its swimming and swarming motility in a concentration-dependent manner. These extracts may consider true anti-QS inhibitors because they disrupt QS-related activities of E. coli MG1655 without affecting bacterial growth. The results suggest that plants from the unexplored flora of Cyprus could serve as a source to identify novel anti-QS inhibitors to treat infectious diseases caused by pathogens resistant to antibiotics
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0659.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: bioactive compounds; cyanobacteria; cytoskeleton; F-actin; microcystins; microtubules; Oryza sativa; oxidative stress; plant cell
Online: 26 November 2020 (09:52:01 CET)
Microcystins (MCs) are cyanobacterial toxins and potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), which are involved in plant cytoskeleton (microtubules and F-actin) organization. Therefore, studies on the toxicity of cyanobacterial products on plant cells have so far being focused on MCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of extracts from 16 (4 MC-producing and 12 non-MC-producing) cyanobacterial strains from several habitats, on various enzymes (PP1, trypsin, elastase), on the plant cytoskeleton and H2O2 levels in Oryza sativa (rice) root cells. Seedling roots were treated for various time periods (1, 12 and 24h) with aqueous cyanobacterial extracts and underwent either immunostaining for α-tubulin or staining of F-actin with fluorescent phalloidin. DCF-DA staining was performed for H2O2 imaging. The enzyme assays confirmed the bioactivity of the extracts of not only MC-rich (MC+), but also MC-devoid (MC-) extracts, which induced major time-dependent alterations on both components of the plant cytoskeleton. These findings suggest that a broad spectrum of bioactive cyanobacterial compounds, apart from MCs or other known cyanotoxins (such as cylindrospermopsin), can affect plants by disrupting the cytoskeleton.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chromolaena odorata; liver; breast; cancer; plant
Online: 4 April 2023 (04:37:21 CEST)
Siam weed, scientifically known as Chromolaena odorata and belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a fast-growing plant with prolific seed production. Although it is a traditional medicinal plant, it has become an agricultural weed in Africa and Asia, posing a threat to biodiversity and causing environmental damage. Despite this, C. odorata is highly regarded as a medicinal herb in tropical Africa, with anticancer effects on breast, liver, and colorectal cancer. However, it is important to regulate the intake of the plant extract as it can have a hepatotoxic effect on liver cells at higher doses. Further research needs to be conducted on the plant extract, and proper orientation and knowledge of its oral daily administration are necessary. This review summarizes current scientific investigations using ethanolic and methanolic aqueous extracts of C. odorata leaves on various cancer cells, to uncover its potential as an anticancer agent. The investigations were sourced from online databases like Google Scholar, PubMed, and other online-based journals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Green synthesis; Plant extract; Reduced graphene oxide; Applications; Graphene oxide
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:50:53 CET)
Graphene is a remarkable material with numerous applications. Due to its thin and lightweight design, it is ideal for a variety of applications. The synthesis of high-quality graphene in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner continues to be a significant challenge. Chemical reduction is considered to be the most advantageous method for preparing reduced graphene oxide (rGO). However, this process necessitates the use of toxic and harmful substances, which can have a detrimental effect on the environment and human health. Thus, to accomplish the objective, the green synthesis principle has prompted researchers worldwide to develop a simple method for green reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which is readily accessible, sustainable, economical, renewable, and environmentally friendly in nature. For example, the use of natural materials such as plants is generally considered safe. Furthermore, plants contain reducing and capping agents. The current review will focus on the discovery and application of rGO synthesis using extracts from a variety of different parts of the plant. The review aims to aid current and future researchers in their search for a novel plant extract that acts as a reductant in the green synthesis of rGO. The review aims to assist current and future researchers in their research for a novel plant extract that acts as a reductant in the green synthesis of rGO as well as their potential applications in a variety of industries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0387.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: bio-stimulant; seaweed liquid extract; rice; Oryza sativa; plant growth promoter
Online: 25 October 2022 (10:55:27 CEST)
Rice is considered as the most important crop for most of the world population. Utilization of seaweed as bio-stimulant can be an alternative way to enhance rice plant growth and productivity, as well as a strategic move to reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer that is harmful to the environment. Seaweed and its derivative products have been widely used as bio-stimulant in the agricultural industry because of their potential use in increasing plant growth and productivity. Auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinin are some of growth regulators found in seaweed extract, as well as macro and micronutrients required for plant growth and development. Several studies have found that seaweed extract has a variety of favorable effects as a plant growth promoter, including early seed germination and establishment, improved nutritional quality, increased yield and crop performance, and increased tolerance to environmental stress. The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the impacts of several seaweed species on seed germination, crop development and production, enhancement of rice plants (Oryza sativa) nutritional quality and the modes of action of seaweed extract includes the chemical components that might be causing plant physiological changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Plant extract; LC-MS-ESI; Bioactif compound; Biological activities; Benin
Online: 4 August 2023 (07:41:44 CEST)
Jatropha multifida L. is a plant belong to Euphorbiaceae family used in Benin pharmacopoeia because of its medicinal properties. The objective of this work is to appreciate the therapeutic power of this plant through the evaluation of some of its biological activities. After the preliminary phytochemistry, the polyphenols and flavonoids were quantified and identified by the LC-MS-ESI. The antimicrobial power of the extracts was investigated by agar medium diffusion. The antioxidant power of the extracts was evaluated by the reduction of the DPPH radical, the ABTS radical cation, the feric ion (FRAP) and the lipid peroxidation (LPO). Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by inhibition of protein (albumin) denaturation. Indeed, different phenolic and flavonoid compounds namely, 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid, o-Coumaroylquinic acid, Apigenin-apiosyl-glucoside, Luteolin-galactoside, Luteolin-glucoside, Luteolin-rhamnoside, Quercetin-glucoside, Quercetin-arabinoside, Dicaffeoyquinic acid, Kaempferol-rhamnoside were identify. The J. mutifida extracts has a bactericidal effect with reference strains of wich CMBs vary from 22.67 mg/ml (S. aureus, S. enteridis, L. monocytogenes and C. albicans) to 47.61 mg/ml (E. coli) and with the meat isolated strains (S. equorum, S. saprophiticus, S. haemoliticus, S. cohnii and S. lentus). Ethanolic extract show the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.72±0.03 mg/ml) while methanolic extract showed the highest ferric ion reduction (46.23±1.10 µgEAA/g). Contrary to the FRAP method, the reducing power with ABTS method of water-ethanolic extract was greater (0.49±0.11 mol ET/g). The same extract show the highest albumin denaturation inhibition power (97.31±0.35%) at 1000µg/ml. J. multifida extracts are rich in bioactive compound with good biological activity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0969.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Antioxidant activity; climate change; Douro Demarcated Region; phenolic compounds; plant extracts; sustainable viticulture; Vitis vinifera L.
Online: 13 August 2023 (17:46:13 CEST)
Plant-based extracts have been recently employed as sustainable tools to improve biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and increase grape quality. However, knowledge about the effect of these extracts on secondary metabolism compounds, that are fundamental for grape and wine quality, is still scarce. In this study, a trial was installed in an experimental vineyard with the variety Touriga Franca located at University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Baixo Corgo sub-region of the Douro Demarcated Region, in two growing seasons: 2019 and 2020. Foliar sprayings with the natural products, nettle extract (NE) and Japanese knotweed extract (JKE), were tested to evaluate their effect on downy mildew incidence and severity, on grapevines bioactive compounds contents and antioxidant activity, at veraison and harvest. NE and JKE have stimulated an improvement in the concentration of total carotenoids in leaves and the concentration of total phenolics in berries along with an improved concentration of total phenolics and flavonoids in leaves and berries. Thus, it was verified that these extracts enhance grapevines bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity and, consequently, the physiological performance of the plant and the quality of the berries. Considering the challenges posed by climate change in the Mediterranean basin viticulture sector, the use of plant extracts might represent a sustainable tool to mitigate the increasing severity of drought, often associated to heatwaves and high irradiation. Moreover, downy mildew incidence results suggest that an integrated disease management approach combining conventional control with alternative fungicides can be used in the future for a more sustainable viticulture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0967.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Apiosporina morbosa; phytohormones; plant defense; plant immunity; plant-pathogen interactions
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:54:54 CEST)
Black Knot (BK) is a deadly disease of European (Prunus domestics) and Japanese (Prunus salicina) plums caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Apiosporina morbosa. After infection, the appearance of warty black knots indicates a phytohormonal imbalance in infected tissues. Based on this hypothesis, we quantified phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid, tryptophan, indoleamines (N-acetylserotonin, serotonin, and melatonin), and cytokinins (zeatin, 6-benzyladenine, and 2-isopentenyladenine) in temporally collected tissues of susceptible and resistant genotypes belonging to European and Japanese plums during of BK progression. The results suggested auxin-cytokinins interplay driven by A. morbosa appears to be vital in disease progression by hampering the plant defense system. Taken together, our results indicate the possibility of using the phytohormone profile as a biomarker for BK resistance in plums.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0022.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: decision-making; plant movement; kinematics; plant behavior
Online: 1 March 2023 (11:04:12 CET)
Finding a suitable support is a key process in the life history of climbing plants. Climbers that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Numerous studies on climbing plant behavior have elucidated the mechanistic details of support searching and attachment. Far fewer studies have addressed the ecological significance of support-searching behavior and the factors that affect it. Among these, the diameter of supports influences their suitability for twining plants. When support diameter increases beyond some point climbing plants are unable to maintain tensional forces and therefore lose attachment to the trellis. Here we further investigate this issue by putting pea plants in the situation to choose between supports of different diameters while their movement was recorded by means of a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results indicate that the way climbing plants move can vary depending on whether they are presented with one or two potential supports. Furthermore, when presented with a choice between a thin and a thick support, the plants showed a distinct preference for the former than the latter. The present findings shed further light on how climbers make decisions as far as support search is concerned, and provide evidence that plants adopt one of several alternative plastic responses in a way that optimally corresponds to environmental scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: AMF; Vegetable production; plant pests; plant diseases
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:30:06 CEST)
AMF (Arbuscular Mychorhizal Fungi) are very well known due to their importance in promoting growth and developments of plants especially vegetables. These fungi can be grown easily, stored and multiplied with simple means, also the application of these fungi is generally on the layer of the soil or near the roots in the inner layers of the soils. The growth of the amf fungi is very easy and they are highly adjustable to any soil and environmental conditions. In this review our main focus is on the use of amf for production of vegetables and also the effect of amf against insects and pests. The amf is known to reduce several symptoms caused by different insect pests and also plant diseases thereby promoting healthy growth of the plants. Also use of this amf will increase the uptake of nutrient from the soils through symbiotic relationships between plants and fungi. The uptake of important minerals which are drawn from deeper layers of soils is observed with the help pf amf. This study reveals the benefits of the use of amf under severe disease and pest incidences thereby known as an alternate for harmful chemical pesticides and fungicides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1308.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: anthracnose; plant elicitation; plant biostimulants; electrochemically activated solutions
Online: 18 May 2023 (08:52:59 CEST)
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important crop for food security and for national economics for several countries worlwide. One of the most important factors of risk in common bean production is the fungal disease anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which in some cases, causes complete yield losses; this kind of plant disease is usually managed through the application of chemical products such as fungicides, that are commonly not accepted by society, this rejection is based on the relationship of pesticides with health damage and environmental contamination. In order to help in solving this drawbacks, the present work propose the use of Electrochemically Activated Salt Solutions(EASS) as a safer pathogen control agent in crops due to it have shown an elicitor and biostimulant effect on plants such as tobacco and apple. With this background, this manuscript presented in vitro results of the evaluation of the inhibitory effect for multiple bean pathogens and in vivo results of EASS in the common bean-Colletotrichum pathosystem by in vitro evaluations of the inhibitory effect for multiple bean pathogens and in vivo evaluation of the infection severity and defense activation such as secondary metabolites production and antioxidant activity. EASS presence in growth media had strong inhibitory effect, at beginning of experiment, for some of the evaluated fungi. EASS showed effect against the development of the disease when applied in specific doses to prevent distress in plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant butenolides; karrikins; seed germination; plant ecology; crop physiology; plant development; swailing; vegetation restoration
Online: 17 August 2023 (03:13:14 CEST)
Fire-related cues could alter vegetation community composition by promoting or excluding different types of plants. Smoke-derived compounds have been a hot topic in plant and crop physiology. There are some fire-prone areas in Australia, both Americas, some Mediterranean countries and regions with extensive prescribed or illegal burning like central European, which are subjected to a direct impact of fire (heat, minerals accumulation from the burning matter) and/or the indirect one (smoke) and undergo compositional and structural changes. This review first updates information about the effect of the compounds on plants' kingdoms and focuses on the research advances in the field of smoke compounds and attempts to gather and summarize the recent state of research and opinions on the role of smoke-derived compounds in plants' lives. We finish our review by discussing major research gaps, which include: Why plants respond to smoke chemicals? Is the response of seeds to smoke and smoke compounds an evolutionary-driven trait allowing plants to adapt to local environment?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0351.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Ash; ash dieback; disease management; Fraxinus excelsior; fungal plant pathogen; Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; mycology; plant pathology; plant pathogen; plant science; tree disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:50:43 CET)
Ash trees have considerable economic, cultural and environmental value on the island of Ireland. However, European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is currently under threat from the invasive ascomycete pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. This pathogen is the causal agent of ash dieback disease, which was initially reported in Poland in 1992. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has since spread across Europe and the first recorded case of the disease on the island of Ireland was in 2012 at a forestry plantation in Co. Leitrim. The pathogen is now present in all 26 counties in Ireland and 6 counties in Northern Ireland, and it is considered unfeasible to eradicate. The spread of ash dieback disease is reflected in recent policy changes, which focus on management rather than eradication strategies. Since the first formal description of H. fraxineus in 2006, considerable research efforts have been made by the international scientific community to understand the biology of the pathogen and to develop management strategies against it. This review provides an update of current knowledge of H. fraxineus biology and infection. We then explore examples of mitigation techniques that have been trialled in Europe, in order to identify strategies that are feasible for disease management at a local level on the island of Ireland. Finally, we outline five key avenues of research that have the potential to provide breakthroughs in methods to protect valuable F. excelsior resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Game theory; Plant behavioral ecology; Plant competition; Plant interaction mechanisms; Root foraging strategies; Root methods
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:29:43 CET)
Understanding how plants change their root foraging strategy in the presence of neighbors is of paramount importance for plant ecology and agriculture. The root tragedy of the common (RToC) is a plant behavior predicted by game theory models in which competing plants forage for soil resources inefficiently. The RToC is generally assumed to be induced by non-self root recognition, and researchers consider root overproliferation and reduced fitness with respect to a plant growing solo as the trace left by plants engaging in an RToC in experiments and model results. Herein, I first challenge both notions, and argue that the RToC is a suboptimal phenotypically plastic response of plants that is based in soil resource information exclusively. Second, I discuss how this new perspective carries important implications for the design of experiments investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying observable plant root responses. Finally, I discuss why placing the RToC theory in the context of more general root research is fundamental: The RToC represents a mechanistic foundation for understanding the belowground behavior of plants interacting with neighbors, and a spatially explicit approach to RToC may produce more comprehensive results.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0080.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: plant-parasitic nematodes; resistance; xenobiotic metabolism; ABC transporters; gene silencing
Online: 17 November 2020 (11:40:02 CET)
The molecular interaction between the nematode and the host plant cells is complex and sophisticated. Initial contact with the plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) triggers immune response in the host plant system which includes the release of toxic molecules. To put a bridle on this immune response, PPNs trigger pivotal cytoprotective mechanisms, such as antioxidant and detoxification pathways. Mechanisms of these pathways have been studied in PPNs and the specific genes involved have been targeted for gene silencing research in view of developing novel control measures. However, one of the important group of proteins involved in detoxification pathways known as ABC-transporters are not being studied until recently in PPNs. This opinion article focusses on the current knowledge and future prospects of ABC transporters in PPNs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0152.v2
Online: 23 February 2023 (02:56:41 CET)
A synoptic review of plant disease epidemics and outbreaks was made using two complementary approaches. The first approach involved reviewing scientific literature published in 2021, in which quantitative data related to new plant disease epidemics or outbreaks were obtained via surveys or similar methodologies. The second approach involved retrieving new records added in 2021 to the CABI Distribution Database, which contains over a million global geographic records of organisms from over 50,000 species. The literature review retrieved 186 articles, describing studies in 62 categories (pathogen species/species complexes) across >40 host species on 6 continents. Pathogen species with >5 articles were: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, cassava mosaic viruses, citrus tristeza virus, Erwinia amylovora, Fusarium spp. complexes, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, Magnaporthe oryzae, maize lethal necrosis co-infecting viruses, Meloidogyne spp. complexes, Pseudomonas syringae pvs, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Xylella fastidiosa, and Zymoseptoria tritici. Automated searches of the CABI Distribution Database identified 617 distribution records new in 2021 of 283 plant pathogens. A further manual review of these records confirmed 15 pathogens reported in new locations: apple hammerhead viroid, apple rubbery wood viruses, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus, Colletotrichum siamense, cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, Erwinia rhapontici, Erysiphe corylacearum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4, Globodera rostochiensis, Nothophoma quercina, potato spindle tuber viroid, and tomato brown rugose fruit virus. Of these, 4 pathogens had at least 25% of all records reported in 2021. We assessed two of these pathogens – tomato brown rugose fruit virus and cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus – to be actively emerging in/spreading to new locations. Although three important pathogens – Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense – were represented in the results of both our literature review and our interrogation of the CABI Distribution Database, in general our dual approaches revealed distinct sets of plant disease outbreaks and new records, with little overlap.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1089.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: insect vector; host plant; plant virus; virus detection; virus transmission
Online: 22 September 2023 (05:18:27 CEST)
The phytophagous insect pests were vectors and could transmit the majority of the phytoviruses to their host plants. The orders of Hemiptera and Thysanoptera were the most common vectors of phytoviruses. The orders Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera, and Hemiptera were also the vectors of phytoviruses. Furthermore, aphids, whiteflies, cicadas, spittlebugs, leafhoppers, planthoppers, assassin bugs, plant bugs, stink bugs, lygaeid bugs, and thrips were among the most phytophagous insects that vector and transmit phytoviruses to healthy plants. The occurrence of a single species of these phytophagous insects resulted in one or more phytoviruses in general, and the Hemipteran order, in particular, vectored a lot of phytoviruses species. This review manuscript is focused on vectors of phytoviruses, techniques for their detection, and future directions. It will play a vital role in exploring scientific information concerning the interactions of phytoviruses and vector insects, the effect of phytoviruses on host behavior, mediators of phytoviruses transmission, persistent phytoviruses, some other insect vectors of the phytopathogen, mechanisms of host plant resistance against phytoviruses, and techniques of phytoviruses detection, as well as some important points to be considered in the future sustainably.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1575.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Nitrogen uptake; nitrogen metabolism; plant stress response; plant-microbe interaction
Online: 23 August 2023 (05:24:14 CEST)
Abstract Plant uptake and assimilation of essential nitrogen compounds from the soil are mainly in the form of nitrate and ammonium ions. Plant nitrate transporters (NRTs) play a crucial role in nitrate uptake from the soil into the roots. NRT structural analysis reveals the mechanisms by which these transporters function. Similarly, plant ammonium transporters (AMTs) mediate the uptake of ammonium ions, and their structural analysis has provided valuable information on their mechanisms. After nitrogen uptake by plant roots, the nitrogen metabolism pathway involves the incorporation of nitrogen into organic compounds. Glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GoGAT) are the master players in this pathway. They work together to convert ammonium ions into glutamine and glutamate, respectively. Different isoforms of GS and GoGAT exist, enabling plants to fine-tune nitrogen metabolism based on environmental cues. Under severe abiotic stress conditions, nitric oxide (NO) has been found to enhance plant survival under drought. Furthermore, the interaction between salinity stress and nitrogen availability in plants has been studied, with NO identified as a potential mediator of responses to salt stress. On the other hand, excessive use of nitrate fertilizers can lead to health and environmental issues. Therefore, alternative strategies, such as establishing nitrogen fixation in plants through diazotrophic microbiota, have been explored to reduce reliance on synthetic fertilizers. Ultimately, genomics can identify new genes related to nitrogen fixation, which could be harnessed to improve plant productivity. By deciphering the genetic basis of nitrogen-fixing traits, researchers aim to develop crops that efficiently utilize nitrogen from the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: MPDB2.0,; medicinal plant; medicinal plant database of Bangladesh; folk medicine
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:29:00 CET)
Medicinal plants are generally defined as rare herbals with potent medicinal activities that can be used as an alternative treatment for diseases. Recent studies exploring novel medicine developments, originating from folk-medicinal practices challenges this notion and suggests that both the circumference of the term medicinal plant and their potential application covers a substantially extensive verse than previously suggested. While medicinal plants are not limited to the borders of any country, Bangladesh and its south-east Asian neighbors do boast a huge collection of potent medicinal plants with considerable folk-medicine history compared to most other countries of the world. MPDB 2.0 is the continuation of MPDB 1.0, it serves as both a data repertoire for medicinal of Bangladesh and a user-friendly interface for researchers, health practitioners, drug developers, and students who wish to study the various medicinal & nutritive plants scattered around Bangladesh and the underlying phytochemicals contributing to their efficacy in folk medicine. While in developing MPDB 2.0 human diseases have been highly focused upon, the information in this database is not limited in its application for human diseases or diseases only, as many of the plants indexed here can serve in developing biofuel or bioremediation technologies or nutritive diets or cosmetics, etc. MPDB 2.0 comprises a collection of more than five hundred medicinal plants from Bangladesh along with a record of their corresponding scientific, family, and local names together with their utilized parts, information regarding ailments, active compounds, and PubMed ID of related publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0108.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Plant phenotyping, Plant pixel classification, Colour space, , Gaussian mixture model, Earth mover distance, Variance ratio, Plant segmentation.
Online: 15 December 2017 (16:52:23 CET)
Segmentation of a region of interest is an important pre-processing step for many colour image analysis techniques. Similarly segmentation of plant in digital images is an important preprocessing step in phenotying plants by image analysis. In this paper we present an analytical study to statistically determine the suitability of colour space representation of an image to best detect plant pixels and separate them from background pixels. Our hypothesis is that the colour space representation in which the separation of the distributions representing plant pixels and background pixels is maximized would be the best for detection of plant pixels. The two classes of pixels are modelled as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In our GM modelling we don't make any prior assumption about the number of Gaussians in the model. Rather a constant bandwidth mean-shift filter is used to cluster the data and the number of clusters and hence the number of Gaussians is automatically determined. Here we have analysed following representative colour spaces like $RGB$, $rgb$, $HSV$, $Ycbcr$ and $CIE-Lab$. This is because these colour spaces represent several other similar colour spaces and also an exhaustive study of all the colour space will be too voluminous. We also analyse the colour space feature from the two-class variance ratio perspective and compare the results of our hypothesis with this metric. The dataset for this empirical study consist of 378 digital images of plants and their manual segmentation. Dataset consist of various species of plants (arabidopsi, tobacco, wheat, rye grass etc.) imaged under different lighting conditions, indoor and outdoor, controlled and uncontrolled background. In results we obtain better segmentation of the plants in $HSV$ colour space, which is supported by its Earth mover distance (EMD) on the GMM distribution of plant and background pixels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0520.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: plant-plant interactions; stress gradient hypothesis; functional trait ecology; inter-plant distance; individual-based models; consumer-resource models
Online: 17 February 2022 (19:37:10 CET)
Ecologists use the net biotic interactions among plants to predict fundamental ecosystem features. Following this approach, ecologists have built a giant body of theory founded on observational evidence. However, due to the limitations that a phenomenological approach raises both in empirical and theoretical studies, an increasing number of scientists claim the need for a mechanistic understanding of plant interaction outcomes, and a few studies have taken such a mechanistic approach. In this synthesis, we propose a modeling framework to study the plant interaction mechanistically. We first establish a conceptual ground to frame plant-plant interactions, and then, we propose to formalize this research line theoretically developing a family of individual-based, spatially-explicit models in which biotic interactions are an emergent property mediated by the interaction between plants’ functional traits and the environment. These models allow researchers to evaluate the strength and sign of biotic interactions under different environmental scenarios and thus constitute a powerful tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying facilitation, species coexistence, or the formation of vegetation spatial patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Butyrylcholinesterase; plant cell suspension cultures; kifunensine; N-glycosylation; plant-made biopharmaceuticals
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:22:12 CEST)
The production and N-glycosylation of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a model highly glycosylated therapeutic protein, in a transgenic rice cell suspension culture treated with kifunensine, a strong α-mannosidase I inhibitor, was studied in a 5 L bioreactor. A media exchange was performed at day 7 of cultivation by removing spent sugar rich media (NB+S) and adding fresh sugar free (NB-S) media to induce the rice α-amylase 3D (RAmy3D) promoter to produce rice recombinant human BChE (rrBChE). Using a 1.25X concentrated sugar-free medium together with an 80% reduced working volume during the media exchange lead to a total active rrBChE production level of 79 ± 2 µg (g FW)-1 or 7.5 ± 0.4 mg L-1 in the presence of kifunensine, which is 1.5-times higher than our previous bioreactor runs using normal sugar free medium with no kifunensine treatment. Importantly, the amount of secreted active rrBChE in culture medium was enhanced in the presence of kifunensine, comprising 44% of the total active rrBChE at day 5 post-induction. Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE gel and Western blot analyses reveal different electrophoretic migration of purified rrBChE bands with and without kifunensine treatment, which is attributed to different N-glycoforms. N-Glycosylation analysis shows substantial increase of oligomannose glycans (Man5/6/7/8) in rrBChE treated with kifunensine compared to controls. However, mass transfer limitation of kifunensine is likely the major reason for incomplete inhibition of α-mannosidase I in this bioreactor study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: intellectual property; intellectual property protection; plant variety protection, plant breeders’ rights, essentially derived variety; utility patent; plant breeding; biotechnology.
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:03:30 CEST)
This review examines the categorization of Essentially Derived Varieties (EDV) introduced in the 1991 revision of the Convention of the Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales (UPOV). Challenges in the implementation of the concept and progress made on a crop-by-crop basis to provide greater clarity and more efficient implementation are reviewed. The current approach to EDV remains valid provided i) clarity on thresholds can be achieved including through resource intensive research on an individual crop species basis and ii) that threshold clarity does not lead to perverse incentives to avoid detection of essential derivation. However, technological advances leading to new varieties resulting from the simultaneous introduction or change in expression of more than “a few” genes will so challenge the concept to require a new Convention. Revision could include deletion of the concept of essential derivation and revision on a crop-by-crop basis of the breeder exception. Countries that allow utility patents for individual plant varieties per se should consider removing that possibility unless plant breeders utilize those encouragements for risk taking and investment to broaden the germplasm base upon which the long-term sustainability of plant breeding resides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic; thermoacoustic; fuel cells; waste-fired power plant; zero emission power plant
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:21:28 CEST)
A layout of urban waste fired zero emission power plant is described in this paper. The principle of layout, which comes from similar coal-fired plants retrieved from the literature, integrates gasification with a power generation section, and implements two parallel conversion processes, one supplied by the heat of the gasifier consisting of a thermoacousticmagnetohydrodynamic (TAMHD) generator, while in the second one the syngas is treated in order to obtain almost pure hydrogen, which is fed to fuel cells. The CO2 deriving from the oxidation of Carbon base is stocked in liquid form. The novelty of the proposed layout lies in the fact that the entire conversion is performed without solid moving parts. The resulting plant avoids any type of emissions in the atmosphere, increases mechanical efficiency as compared to traditional plants, thanks to the absence of moving parts, nonetheless, resolving at its root the ever-increasing waste-related pollution problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1686.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Microbial biofertilizers; microbial symbioses; plant interactions; crop resistance; plant stimulation; sustainable agriculture
Online: 26 July 2023 (02:47:09 CEST)
In sustainable agriculture, plant nutrients are the most important elements. Biofertilizers introduce microorganisms that improve the soil nutrients and increase their accessibility to crops. In order to meet the demands of a growing population, healthy crops need to be produced using the right type of fertilizers to provide them with all the major nutrients they require. However, an increasing dependency on chemical fertilizers is destroying the environment and negatively af-fecting the health of humans. Thus, using microbes as bioinoculants as the best replacement of chemical fertilizers as eco-friendly way for plant growth and soil fertility is believed to be the best method for improving plant growth and soil fertility. In sustainable agriculture, these microbes provide significant benefits to crops. In addition to colonizing plant systems (epiphytic, endo-phytic, and rhizospheric), beneficial microbes play a key role in absorbing nutrients from surrounding ecosystems. Plant associate microbes can promote plant growth regardless of natural and extreme conditions. Plant growth promoting microbes promote plant growth through a variety of direct and indirect methods, such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth hormone production, siderophores, HCN, several hydrolytic enzymes, and potassium, zinc, and phosphorus solubilization. Research on biofertilizers has been extensive and even available, which demonstrates how these microbes can deliver nutrients to crops in sufficient quantities to enhance their yield. This review examines in detail the direct and indirect mechanisms of PGPR action and their interaction in plant growth and resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0378.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: FHB; plant metabolomic; plant-pathogen interaction; barley; wheat; Brachypodium distachyon; pathway enrichment
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:22:55 CEST)
Background: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious fungal disease of crop plants due to substantial yield reduction and production of mycotoxins in the infected grains. The breeding progress in increasing resistance with maintaining a high yield is not possible without a thorough examination of the molecular basis of plant immunity responses; Methods: LC-MS based metabolomics approaches powered by three-way ANOVA and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) selection, correlation network and functional enrichment were conducted on grains of resistant and susceptible to FHB genotypes of barley and wheat as well as model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) still poorly known at metabolomic level; Results: We selected common and genotype-specific DAMs in response to F. culmorum inoculation. Immunological reaction at metabolomic level was strongly diversified between resistant and susceptible genotypes. DAMs common for all tested species from porphyrins, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids metabolic pathways were highly correlated and reflects conservativeness in FHB response in Poaceae family. Resistant related DAMs belonged to different structural classes including tryptophan derived metabolites, pirimidines, amino acids proline and serine as well as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. Physiological response to F. culmorum of Bd was close to barley and wheat genotypes however, metabolomic changes were strongly diversified. Conclusions: Combined targeted and untargeted metabolomics provides comprehensive knowledge about significant elements of plant immunity with potential of being molecular biomarkers of enhance resistance to FHB in grass family. Thorough examination of Bd21 metabolome in juxtaposition with barley and wheat diversified genotypes facilitate their setting as model grass for plant-microbe interaction.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: global change; plant-herbivore interactions; plant-pathogen interactions; coexistence; antagonistic biotic interactions
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:36:26 CEST)
Indirect effects of global change via changing species interactions have been largely ignored in studies predicting global change impacts on ecosystems. Antagonistic biotic interactions, however, can strongly affect ecosystems and are likely to be affected by global change drivers themselves. We synthesize current knowledge on the impact of invertebrate herbivores and pathogens on plant productivity, diversity and community composition, and outline theory and expectations on how important global change drivers – nitrogen enrichment, climate change and elevated CO2, and plant and insect diversity loss, may affect enemy impact on plant communities. We illustrate that our ability to predict global change impact requires a holistic perspective, taking into account direct as well as indirect effects via the biotic component of ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Mediterranean flora; endemic plants; IUCN assessments; island biogeography; plant conservation; Tyrrhenian islands; biological forms; plant evolution and distribution; plant diversity
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:06:51 CET)
The vascular flora of Sardinia has been investigated for more than 250 years, with particular attention to the endemic component, due to their phylogeographic and conservation interest. However, continuous changes in the floristic composition through natural processes, anthropogenic drivers or modified taxonomical attributions require constant updating. We checked all available literature, web sources, field and unpublished data from authors and acknowledged external experts to compile an updated checklist of vascular plants endemic to Sardinia. Life and chorological forms, and the conservation status of the updated taxa list were reported. Sardinia hosts 340 taxa (15% of the total native flora) endemic to the Tyrrhenian islands and other limited continental territories; 195 of these are exclusive to Sardinia. Asteraceae (50 taxa) and Plumbaginaceae (42 taxa) are the most representative families, while the most frequent life forms are hemicryptophytes (118 taxa) and chamaephytes (105 taxa). The global conservation status, available for 200 taxa, indicates that most endemics are under the ‘Critically Endangered’ (25 taxa), ‘Endangered’ (31 taxa) or ‘Least Concern’ (90 taxa) IUCN categories. This research provides an updated basis for future biosystematics, taxonomic, biogeographical and ecological studies, and for supporting more integrated and efficient policy tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1744.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Frankenia; Frankeniaceae; nomenclature; ITS phylogeny; plant endemics; plant morphology; southern African flora; taxonomy
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:44:36 CEST)
The taxonomic identity and phylogenetic relationships of several southern African perennial taxa related to Frankenia repens are discussed. In particular, F. nodiflora Lam., a misunderstood species described from the Cape region and synonymised to F. pulverulenta, is restored for plants endemic to salt-pans and riverbeds in the coastal lowlands across the Cape plains (Western Cape Province, South Africa). Further, a revision of morphologically close plants, usually identified as F. pulverulenta or F. repens, also occurring in similar saline ecosystems of the inland western South Africa revealed the existence of two distinct new entities not matching any described taxa of the genus. Molecular analyses of nuclear ribosomal (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) DNA sequence data together with morphological divergence allow recognition of those taxa at species rank, within an independent lineage close to F. repens. In consequence, two new species are described in the so-called “F. repens group”: F. nummularia from the Nama-Karoo Biome (Western Cape and Northern Cape Provinces), and F. namaquana from the Succulent Karoo Biome (Northern Cape Province). Full morphological description and type designation are reported for each accepted species, as well as data on ecology, habitat, distribution and taxonomic relationships to other close relatives are given. Further, an identification key is presented to facilitate recognition of the southern African taxa of Frankenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1122.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant cell culture; elicitation; methyl jasmonate; paclitaxel; plant secondary metabolism; C14-hydroxylated taxoids
Online: 28 April 2023 (05:28:39 CEST)
The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) on growth and taxoid formation in the cell culture of Himalayan yew was investigated for elucidate the specifics of the action of phytohormones on dedifferentiated plant cells in vitro. The characteristics of the same suspension culture of Taxus wallichiana was compared in 2017 ("young culture") and in 2022 ("old culture") - 1.5 or 6 years after culture induction, respectively. Cells were grown in flasks and bioreactors, MeJ (100 µM) was added at the exponential growth phase. It was found that cell culture demonstrated good growth (dry weight (DW) accumulation 10–18 g/l, specific growth rate µ = 0.15–0.35 day-1) regardless of "age", cultivation system and MeJ addition. UPLC–ESI-MS analysis showed the presence of C14-hydroxylated taxoids (yunnanxane, taxuyunnanine C, sinenxane C, sinenxane B) in cell biomass in the amounts comparable to plants. The content of C14-OH taxoids during 5 years of cultivation increased by 3-5 times. It was 0.2–1.6 mg/g DW for "young culture” and 0.6-10.1 mg/g for “old culture” depending on cultivation conditions. The ratio of individual compounds changed also: in the "young culture" was predominant yunnanxane, in the "old culture" - sinenxane C. Important that C13-hydroxylated taxoids were found in trace amounts only in the "young culture” (below 0.05 mg/g DW) and were not detected in the "old culture”. The response to MeJ was radically different depending on culture’s «age». In the “young culture”, exogenous MeJ had no effect on the content of C14-OH com-pounds, but significantly (almost 10 times) increased the content of C13-OH compounds. In particular, paclitaxel concentration was elevated up to 0.12–0.19 mg/g DW, which is comparable to its content in the bark of yew trees. By contrast, MeJ added to the "old culture” had minor effect on the synthesis of C13-OH toxoids that appeared in trace amounts only (below 3.5 µg/g DW for paclitaxel) but notably increased the content of C14-OH compounds (1.5–2.0 times in flasks and 5–8 times in bioreactors). These findings suggest that hormonal signaling in dedifferentiated yew cells grown in vitro is different from that in plants and change with culture age. This might be a result of the high level of heterogeneity of cells in vitro and their constant auto-selection for proliferate intensity which leads to predominant formation of C14-OH taxoids versus C13-OH taxoids and modified cell response to exogenous MeJ treatment. These results have both fundamental and practical biotechnological application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0472.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: grass endophyte; Festuca; symbiosis; microbiome; plant hormone; defense response; plant-fungal interactions; holobiont
Online: 25 November 2022 (07:08:50 CET)
Plants harbor a large diversity of endophytic microbes. Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) is a cool-season grass known for its symbiotic relationship to the systemic and vertically- via seeds - transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë uncinata but the effect of the endophyte on the microbial endophyte community and phytohormones is largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the endophytic bacterial and fungal communities in the leaves and roots, analyzed phytohormone concentrations and plant performance parameters in Epichloë-symbiotic (E+) and Epichloë-free (E-) individuals of two meadow fescue cultivars. The endophytic leaf microbial community differed between leaf and root tissues independent of endophyte symbiosis while the fungal community was different in leaves of Epichloë-symbiotic and Epichloë-free plants in both cultivars. At the same time, endophyte symbiosis decreased salicylic acid and increased auxin concentrations in leaves. Epichloë-symbiotic plants showed a higher biomass, chlorophyll content (SPAD) and higher seed mass at the end of the season. Our results demonstrate that Epichloë-symbiosis alters the leaf fungal microbiome, which coincides with changes in phytohormone concentrations, indicating that Epichloë endophytes affect both, plant immune responses and other fungal endophytes. Whether the effect of Epichloë endophytes on other fungal endophytes is connected to changes in the phytohormone concentrations remains to be elucidated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0142.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant Diseases; Modern Agriculture; Plant Health; AWS DeepLens; SageMaker; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 14 September 2020 (06:24:16 CEST)
In the Agriculture sector, control of plant leaf diseases is crucial as it influences the quality and production of plant species with an impact on the economy of any country. Therefore, automated identification and classification of plant leaf disease at an early stage is essential to reduce economic loss and to conserve the specific species. Previously, to detect and classify plant leaf disease, various Machine Learning models have been proposed; however, they lack usability due to hardware incompatibility, limited scalability and inefficiency in practical usage. Our proposed DeepLens Classification and Detection Model (DCDM) approach deal with such limitations by introducing automated detection and classification of the leaf diseases in fruits (apple, grapes, peach and strawberry) and vegetables (potato and tomato) via scalable transfer learning on A.W.S. SageMaker and importing it on AWS DeepLens for real-time practical usability. Cloud integration provides scalability and ubiquitous access to our approach. Our experiments on extensive image data set of healthy and unhealthy leaves of fruits and vegetables showed an accuracy of 98.78% with a real-time diagnosis of plant leaves diseases. We used forty thousand images for the training of deep learning model and then evaluated it on ten thousand images. The process of testing an image for disease diagnosis and classification using AWS DeepLens on average took 0.349s, providing disease information to the user in less than a second.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: revegetation; forest, springs preservation; Arjuna mount; plant species; nursery; fertilization; planting; plant care
Online: 27 August 2019 (04:34:25 CEST)
The research objectives was to determine the plants vegetation profile in forest revegetation and Mount Arjuna springs. The method used was descriptive method. While based on the techniques and tools used to research, the author uses the survey method to obtain facts that occur in the research area, namely in the area around the springs of Arjuna mount, Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. Data obtained in the field are then processed and analyzed using GIS, ArcView 3.3 and Google Earth programs. The results of the study explain the profile of plant vegetation, namely plant stratification, bird wealth, taxonomic wealth and plant density have a significant effect on forest revegetation and springs in Arjuna mount. The forest vegetation profile has a positive and significant effect on the preservation of springs. The better the profile of forest vegetation, the preservation of springs will be better, and vice versa.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1830.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Chemical composition; Chlorophyll; Plant health
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:44:23 CEST)
The chlorophyll content and mineral compositions of plants are highly dependent on the species' physiological responses and environmental stress tolerance. The chlorophyll content is important for determining abiotic stress tolerance in tomatoes and peppers. Several studies found that foliar applications of specific components increased tomato and pepper output by increasing nutrient uptake. After transferring the seedlings to the incubator, three tomatoes (Mobil, Korall, and Tyking F1) and three pepper varieties (Carma, Fokusz, and Bobita F1) were sprayed. The following solutions were applied at a rate of 4 mL to each different plant: sodium bicarbonate (0.52%), 50 mg L-1 salicylic acid, and distilled water. A chlorophyll sensor (SPAD-502) was used to collect 5 measurements from each plant after 2 days and 8 days of spraying. Five plant sap samples were collected from ten plants after 38 days of transplantation. The calcium ion (Ca+2), potassium ion (K+), and nitrate (NO3-) contents (mg L-1) in plant sap were measured using three calibrated electronic sensors of the type (HORIBA instruments LAQUA-TWIN). The factorial analysis of two factors was used in data collection and statistical analysis. The first variable was the variety and the second was the spray treatment, and each record had five observations. The Tukey-Kramer test in Minitab 20 was used to assess differences in means between groups. Minitab 20's regression response optimizer was used to determine the maximum and minimum responses to calcium, potassium, nitrate, and chlorophyll content factors in each plant. Salicylic acid 50 mg L-1 produces the strongest multiple responses, particularly in tomato cultivars (Tyking F1 and Korall). The multiple minimum responses were for the variety (Mobil). Spraying (Mobil) with salicylic acid (50 mg L-1) and sodium bicarbonate (0.52%) produced unsatisfactory results. Salicylic acid 50 mg L-1 elicits also the most powerful multiple responses, particularly in the (Carma) pepper cultivar. The results revealed multiple minimum responses for the variety (Bobita F1). Finally, it is recommended that growers grow tomatoes (Mobil) without any supportive spraying treatment because the vigor of tomato (Mobil) seedlings was significantly higher in suboptimal environmental conditions. Gardeners should consider growing (Carma) pepper with a supportive spraying application of salicylic acid 50 mg L-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0714.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: plant sterols; database; Polish population
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:32:16 CEST)
Plant sterols are compounds with multiple biological functions, mainly cholesterol-reducing. There are no comprehensive databases on plant sterols, which makes it difficult to estimate their intake in the Polish population. In this study we used international food databases, supplemented by scientific data from the literature, to create a database on plant sterols in the food consumed in Poland to assess the size and sources of dietary plant sterols in the adult population of Poland. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify possible sources of published food composition data for plant sterols. The study group consisted of 5690 participants of the WOBASZ II survey. We identified 361 dietary sources of plant sterols based on the consumption of foods and dishes reported by participants. Cereals and fats provided 61% of the total plant sterols, and together with vegetables and fruits, this totaled 80%. Total plant sterol intake for the Polish population was 282.97 mg/day, and divided by men and women was 320.77 and 252.19 mg/day, respectively. Canola oil provided the most plant sterols at 16.92%, followed by white bread at 16.65% and soft margarine at 8.33%. This study found that the database of plant sterols facilitates the calculation of plant sterols in the typical Polish diet, and the results are comparable to those of other studies, despite different methodologies of nutritional assessment and slightly different databases. The main sources of dietary plant sterols did not differ from the data for other populations. This study confirmed the observations of other research that women's diets may have a higher plant sterol density compared to men.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0035.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: EuAP2 genes; Flowering; Plant Development
Online: 24 October 2019 (11:04:57 CEST)
EuAP2 genes are famous for their role in flower development. A legacy of the founding member of this subfamily of transcription factor, whose mutants lacked petals in Arabidopsis. However, studies of other euAP2 genes in several species have accumulated evidence highlighting the diverse roles of euAP2 genes in other aspects of plant development. Here, we emphasize other developmental roles of euAP2 genes in various species and suggest a shift from regarding euAP2 genes as just flowering genes to consider the global role they may be playing in plant development. We hypothesize that their almost universal expression profile and pleiotropic effects of their mutation suggest their involvement in fundamental plant development processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Signalling, rhizosphere microbiome, plant hormones
Online: 7 March 2019 (11:58:15 CET)
Signalling is a strongly influenced area trending to be applied in almost every focus of biological sciences. The part of signalling or communication from cellular level to a whole organism including plant as well as animal drags a vast diversity of wealthy structural compounds. There is immense demand for new bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, agro and food industries. Plant-associated microbes present an attractive and promising source. The concept of the microbiome and the significance it has to host health, diseases state, and the role of immune have been the hub of research that has led to advances in our understanding of the massive power of the small unseen majority of the microbes (Peterson Andrew H., 2013). Before we say about microbiome—plant relation, it is important to first understand the working concept of the microbiome. Every organism on earth counts on their neighbours to sustain life. Microbiome can be considered a community of microorgasims who can prove to be loveable and hateful. The analysis of microbiome structure and function was protagonise in studies of human hosts and has been extensively documented as essential to genetic and functional capacity attributed to the host, comprehending aspects of metabolism and physiology. Plants are crowded with microbial organisms, counting those that colonize internal tissues, also those that adhere to external surfaces. The wide diversity of microorganisms in the soil rhizosphere is collectively plant–soil-associated microbes cover the plant microbiome. The intricate involvement of microbiome serves to plant health and as a tank of additional genes that plants can access when needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1513.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC); CAM plant; Atacama Desert; solar energy; environmental engineering; sustainability
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:23:15 CEST)
Excess energy from photosynthesis can be collected through biophotovoltaic platforms to generate green electrical power. This research evaluated the in-situ performance of different CAM (Crassulaceae acid metabolism) plants from Calama city located in the Atacama Desert for energy recovery as biophotovoltaic cell (BPV) using AISI 316L and Cu as electrodes. The species evaluated were Aloe perfoliata, Cereus jamacaru, Austrocylindropuntia subulata, Agave potatorum, Malephora crocea, and Kalanchoe daigremontiana. The results indicate that K. daigremontiana can be used as in-situ BFV because it has a maximum cell potential of 0.248 V and a minimum of 0.139 V with a recurrence close to 89% in the ranges [0.2 - 0.25] V. This is one of the few investigations that evaluate the potential of native CAM plants as BFV energy sources, providing new knowledge for the development of sustainable alternatives for horticultural crop production systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1701.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: ITS phylogeny; plant endemics; plant morphology; South African flora; Spergularia; Sperguleae; taxonomy; trnL-trnF phylogeny.
Online: 24 May 2023 (05:20:49 CEST)
The name “Spergularia hanoverensis Simon” has been misapplied for an endemic taxon confined to inland semi-desert ecosystems in central-western South Africa. It is commonly accepted to be a small annual species occurring in saline habitats in a wide elevation range, but its real identity still remains obscure. In the context of a taxonomic and phylogenetic research on the African species of Spergularia, we found that the name apparently was never validly published still. After revision of herbarium material housed in the South African herbaria, a voucher collected from Hanover was found at PRE bearing some labels handwritten by E. Simon that suggest it might be an intended type for the name. Additional herbarium material and wild populations from Karoo region were identified that matched the samples in that voucher, and taxonomic research was conducted to clarify their identity. Those Karoo plants show a woody dense compact habit, woody perennial at base; stems prostrate to ascendent; leaves entirely glabrous, somewhat glaucous; with large white-hyaline conspicuous stipules; inflorescence glanduliferous, many-flowered subdichasial cyme, with minute bracts; flowers small, with white petals about equalling sepals, stamens 78, and styles free from base; capsule small, with seeds dimorphic, unwinged to broadly winged, with testa always densely tuberculate, among other characters. Molecular analyses of plastid (trnL-trnF region) and nuclear ribosomal (5.8S-ITS2 region) DNA sequence data support morphological differentiation of the Karoo plants, for which the name S. hanoverensis is here effectively published. A full morphological description, as well as data on ecology, habitat, distribution, and taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of S. hanoverensis are compared to other members of the “South African group”, namely S. glandulosa. S. namaquensis, and S. quartzicola, from which the new species considerably differs. Adaptative significance of dimorphic seeds of S. hanoverensis is briefly commented in context to habitat preference of the species. An identification key is presented for the South African related taxa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: tomato cultivar; allelopathy; competitive ability; plant-plant interactions; weed suppression; sustainable agriculture; weed management; vegetable
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:33:20 CEST)
The present study aims to identify tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars with weed-suppressive ability against target weed species in the tomato growing season. A greenhouse study was conducted with 17 tomato cultivars and target weeds Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.). Tomato plants and weed species were grown in the same pot. The height, chlorophyll, and dry weight biomass of the weeds were measured 28 days after sowing. The largest effect of tomato interference was on Palmer amaranth. Cultivar 15 reduced Palmer amaranth height, chlorophyll, and biomass by 58, 28, and 83%, respectively. Chlorophyll percentage of yellow nutsedge seedlings was suppressed by 15% by cultivar 64, whereas 13% of its height was reduced by cultivar 20. Cultivar 15 reduced biomass of yellow nutsedge by 40%. The percentage of chlorophyll of large crabgrass was reduced by 22% with cultivar 5, whereas the height and biomass were reduced by 35 and 44% with cultivars 38 and 63, respectively. Factoring all parameters evaluated, cultivars 38, 33, and 7 were most suppressive against the problematic weed species in tomato.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Plant water transport, plant long-distance water transport, sorption hypothesis, cohesion theory, cohesion-tension theory
Online: 12 April 2019 (20:55:26 CEST)
In the case of vascular plants the process of water loss by leafs and water absorption by the root is well known. There is agreement on the passive nature of long-distance moisture movement in the dead cells of the xylem; however, controversy exists focusing on the long-distance water transport principle. Hales (1726) founded a view of bulk flow based on water suction after experiments with cut twigs. The previous doctrine of long-distance water transport within vessel elements and tracheid of the xylem of intact plants – the relevant cohesion theory in text books – was developed mainly by Boehm (1893), Renner (1911) and Dixon (1914) with plant artefacts. Water movement according to this theory is based on an assumed hydrodynamic bulk fluid flow in xylem in continuous water columns (free of water vapour space), under tension, according to the law of Poiseuille (see e.g. Dixon 1914). Physically hydrodynamics is part of fluid mechanics, as a result Poiseuille’s law is usually valid only for hydrodynamic bulk flow in ideal capillaries (Sutera & Skalak, 1993). Besides the basic requirement for transport, according to cohesion theory, the existence of ideal capillaries is not compatible with either: “Because vessel elements and tracheid do not stand as ideal capillaries. …” (Bresinsky et al. 2008, translated from German). Unlike ideal capillaries, the walls of vessel elements and tracheid interact with the transported water. These walls are able to function as a source or as a sink for the transported water because of interaction with the cell walls. With the interaction, vessel elements and tracheid, part of the xylem, can shrink and swell, unlike ideal capillaries. Because the xylem (in woody plants part of the wood) is inconsistent with the basic law of fluid flow, the equation of mass balance (Zimmermann et al. 2004) and cohesion theory are not strictly followed.Many plant physiologists view the cohesion theory as appropriate, however, this theory remains controversial, i.e. by Eisenhut (1988), Laschimke (1990) and Hahn (1993). Nultsch (1996) gives doubts referring to the present doctrine of plant water transport. Zimmermann et al. (2004) reject the cohesion theory and conclude: “... that the arguments of the proponents of the Cohesion Theory are completely misleading” (Zimmermann et al. 2004). Hence cohesion theory can be treated as inapplicable and the question arises: how does water transport in fact function? In the following, it is gone into in more detail. A sorption hypothesis of actual water transport, based on empirical fact, shall be addressed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0135.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncom; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 21 November 2017 (03:33:00 CET)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of bacterial strains from the endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0031.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncomm; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 8 September 2017 (14:02:56 CEST)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of hundreds bacterial isolates obtained from endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0411.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: nanomaterials; carbon dots; doping; plant growth
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:47:52 CEST)
Carbon dots have received much attention due to their unique physicochemical properties and diverse applications in bioimaging, optoelectronic devices, catalysis, and agriculture. Here in this work, we report a simple hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus-doped carbon dots (N, P-CDs). The optical and physical properties of the synthesized N, P-CDs were analyzed using systematical spectroscopy and electrical characterization. The synthesized N, P-CDs show strong photoluminescence at 626 nm and demonstrate high stability under UV light and other conditions. Moreover, we incorporate the synthesized N, P-CDs into water spinach by root spraying and leaf spraying. It was found that N, P-CDs could effectively promote the growth of water spinach by increasing the photosynthetic rate, and the content of total phenols and anthocyanins in water spinach
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant; agriculture; pest resistance; defence response
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:19:37 CEST)
Salvia hispanica (chia) is a highly nutritious food source and has gained popularity due to its high omega-3 fatty acid content. Red spider mites are a serious problem in the production of S. hispanica. However, no study has been conducted to analyse the defensive response to the infestation of red spider mites in S. hispanica. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the defensive response of S. hispanica to red spider mites, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of S. hispanica when infested by red spider mites. In the comparative assessment of leaf transcriptomes, a total of 1743 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between control and mite-infested S. hispanica. From these, 1208 (69%) transcripts were up-regulated and 535 (31%) were down-regulated. The DEGs included transcription factors, defense hormones, and secondary metabolites that were either suppressed or activated in response to spider mite herbivory. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that plant secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates, and signalling pathways, including the jasmonic acid signalling pathway, may play an important role in the defence against red spider mites. This study provides novel insights into the defence response of S. hispanica in response to insect herbivory and could be a resource for the improvement of pest resistance in the chia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1926.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Sustainability; plant production; fungus; crop production
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:56:35 CEST)
Purpureocillium lilacinum PL11 (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) is a ubiquitous fungus found in several habitats, mainly in the soil, and belongs to the Ophiocordycipitaceae family. This fungus was shown to have potential applications in agriculture as a biocontrol agent and biofertilizer. P. lilacinum can inhibit plant‒pathogenic fungi and nematodes, including root-knot and potato cyst nematodes. Additionally, P. lilacinum produces siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), enhancing plant development and increasing soil nutrient availability. P. lilacinum has been extensively studied in various commodities, including pineapple, maize, soybean, and legume. Most studies have evaluated P. lilacinum as a biocontrol agent, especially for nematode control. Other studies have evaluated the production of secondary metabolites and bioremediation, and few studies have used this fungus as a plant growth promoter. This review addressed important aspects of using this fungus. P. lilacinum is a promising fungus that can be used for agricultural production, reducing environmental impact, and thus collaborating for a sustainable agriculture production system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0055.v1
Online: 3 March 2023 (03:44:17 CET)
Power generation using renewable technologies has become a primordial option to satisfy the energy demand all over the world, being solar concentrating technologies widely applied for this purpose. A combination of Parabolic Trough Collector with Direct Steam Generation has been considered an excellent option for power generation, due to the economic cost and complexity in the plant are reduced. The thermal evaluation of the solar power plant as well as the PTC in the DSG process is very important in viability and economic analysis. In this sense, as the main objective of this work, a numerical tool for evaluating DSG with PTC technology has been developed. The software SOLEEC is a versatile, reliable, accurate and friendly to the user for thermally evaluating a DSG with PTC technology. The user has the possibility to compare the thermal behavior of different geometrical dimensions for a PTC; and even consider different materials; in order to satisfy the demand of superheated steam by a DSG process. The software has an error less than 5% when compared with literature results and in this paper is used to evaluate a power plant in Mexico obtaining that the change to DSG proposing different PTC could reduce the solar field about 35%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Nanotechnology; Plant Nutrition; Nano Urea; Potato
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:14:27 CET)
In today’s world, it is the need of the hour to adopt new technology to sustain the production of the future. Nanotechnology is gaining popularity for its efficiency in various applied fields of science. In agriculture, nanomaterials have a huge impact on the efficiency of fertilizers pesticides, etc. As it requires very fewer quantities and has a negligible residual effect the environment is safe with the innovation of Nano fertilizer. Keeping this view into account an experimental Trial at a farmer’s field was carried out at Berui village in the Hooghly District of West Bengal during the winter (rabi) season of 2019 – 20 under the supervision of Berui Cooperative, KVK-Hooghly, BCKV, and IFFCO with nano-Urea, nano-Zn and nano-Cu using RBD design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that the highest tuber yield was obtained in T-7 (50% N+100% P & K+ 2 spray of nano-Urea), and that was followed by T-10 (50% N + 100% P & K + 50% Zn + 1 spray each of Nano-Urea, Zn and Cu) and T-8 (100% N-P-K + 50% Zn + 2 spray of Nano-Zn). The performance of nano fertilizers, Nano- Urea, was quite promising and economically viable as compared to the 100% recommended dose with commercial fertilizers (RDF).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: melanin; extraction; isolation; animal; plant; microbes
Online: 27 May 2022 (09:07:30 CEST)
Melanins are phenolic biopolymers synthesised by most of the living organism mainly for photoprotection or surviving in harsh conditions. Melanin is localised in different areas or complexed with different other biomolecules when observed from animals to microbes. This makes the melanin extraction procedure different in animal, plant and microbial tissues. Basically, the alkali-acid extraction is used in most protocols of which slight variations are there depending on the tissue used. This review will try to compile melanin extraction procedures from different cells and tissues ranging from animals to bacteria.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0205.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antioxidants; Medicinal plant; Justicia adhatoda L.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:37:29 CET)
There are many medicinal plants that have various medicinal properties in their different parts. The medicinal plants are major backbone of pharmaceutical industries. In this article we compare the antioxidants properties from various plants parts (root, stem, leaf, flower and bark) of the most important medicinal plant, Justicia adhatoda L. Various plant parts showed the good amount of antioxidant properties. These results enhance the medicinal properties of this plant due to the presence of good amount of antioxidants; among all the plant parts leaves and flowers showed maximum natural antioxidants, hence the study could be saying that this plant has good efficacy of antioxidants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: forest health; plant health; tree disease;
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:48:23 CEST)
Trees provide key ecosystem services, but the health and sustainability of these plants is under increasing biotic and abiotic threat, including from the growing incidences of non-native invasive plant pests (including pathogens). The island of Ireland (Ireland and Northern Ireland) is generally accepted to have a high plant health status, in part due to its island status and because of the national and international regulations aimed at protecting plant health. To establish a baseline of the current pest threats to tree health for the island of Ireland, the literature and unpublished sources were reviewed to produce a dataset of pests of trees on the island of Ireland. The dataset contains 396 records of pests of trees on the island of Ireland, the majority of pests being arthropods and fungi, and indicating potentially more than 44 non-native pest introductions. The reliability of many (378) of the records was judged to be high, therefore the dataset provides a robust assessment of the state of pests of trees recorded on the island of Ireland. We analyse this dataset and review the history of plant pest invasions, including (i) discussion on notable native and non-native pests of trees, (ii) pest interceptions at borders and (iii) pests and climate change. The dataset establishes an important baseline for the knowledge of plant pests on the island of Ireland, and will be a valuable resource for future plant health research and policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant; sesquiterpenes; biosynthesis; graph grammars; database;
Online: 1 March 2019 (14:30:16 CET)
Plants produce a diverse portfolio of sesquiterpenes that are important in their response to herbivores and the interaction with other plants. Their biosynthesis from farnesyl diphosphate depends on the sesquiterpene synthases. Here, we investigate to what extent metabolic pathways can be reconstructed just from knowledge of the final product and the reaction mechanisms catalyzed by sesquiterpene synthases. We use the software package MedØlDatschgerl (MØD) to generate chemical networks and elucidate pathways contained in them. As examples, we successfully consider the reachability of the important plant sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and β-farnesene. We also introduce a graph database to integrate simulation results with experimental biological evidence for selected predicted sesquiterpenes biosynthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0371.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: biosynthesis; nanoparticles; plant extracts; Citrus reticulata
Online: 16 November 2018 (04:33:22 CET)
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents has introduced new opportunities in upgrading medical treatment. Plant extracts contains different capping and reducing agents naturally thus provided simpler and less expensive way to synthesize AgNPs. In present work, Citrus reticulata mediated stabilised AgNPs was synthesized. Optimum concentration of reactants was achieved by varying the amount of extracts (1-11 ml) and AgNO3 concentration (0.5-3 mM). Surface Plasmon peak of Citrus reticulata mediated AgNPs was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer and functional groups of capping agents were examined by FTIR analysis. Surface Plasmon peaks of Citrus reticulata fresh peel, seed, and juice extracts were observed at 420 nm. But in dry peel extract, absorption peak of AgNPs appeared at 410 nm. Colour of different extracts was changed after the reduction of AgNO3 to AgNPs by reducing agents present in the extracts. FTIR analysis showed band peaks at 3316 cm-1 correspond to amide (N-H and O-H) stretching vibrations while alkanes peaks was observed at 1638 cm-1 which showed C=C stretching aromatic ring (flavonoids). Furthermore, Citrus reticulata fresh peel mediated AgNPs showed impressive stability up-to 112 days. In conclusion, Citrus reticulata fresh peel extract provided an excellent source of reducing agents for synthesizing stabilized AgNPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant extracts; antifungal activity; fungal pathogens
Online: 13 October 2016 (11:50:21 CEST)
Abstract Plant fungal pathogens are frequently found as one of limiting factors for crop production. More than 10,000 species of fungi can cause disease in plants. To control the diseases, many farmers are still rely on the use of chemical fungicides, however most synthetic fungicides can cause acute toxicity, and some cause chronic toxicity as well. Thus, an appropriate technological improvement towards a more effective use of natural resources is required in agriculture to develop environmentally friendly sustainable farming system. This paper highlights the potential of extracts of tropical plants as antifungal agent to control plant fungal diseases. Information and data presented in this paper are mainly derived from selected and related references that previously published in the scientific journals. Many higher plants of tropical origin with fungicidal activities and their potential for fungal disease control of agricultural crops have been studied, however most of the studies have been done under in vitro condition. Some plant extracts showed strong antifungal activities on in vitro as well as in vivo tests, but some plant extracts showed significant antifungal activities on in vitro test, but did not obvious on in vivo tests. A great variation in antifungal activities were shown by plants extracts of different species and plant parts, in one hand, and on the other hand, variation was also observed on the responses of different fungal species to the same plant extract. Since the purpose of the use of plant extract is to control plant fungal diseases, the field trial is needed to ensure the stability of efficacy of certain plant extract. In addition, isolation and identification of active substances in the extracts is needed to assess possible mode of action and side effect of their use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1056.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Onopordum nervosum ssp. platylepis; spontaneous plant; cultivated plant; drying; chemical composition; clotting milk activity; antioxidant activity
Online: 15 September 2023 (11:22:31 CEST)
This study aims to evaluate the effect of different drying methodologies (room, microwave, convective, oven and freeze-drying) on the chemical composition, the microbiological quality of extracts and the biological activities namely clotting milk and antioxidant activities for both spontaneous and cultivated Onopordum nervosum ssp. platylepis. The results showed that the drying methodology has significantly affected the phenolic composition. Freeze dried flowers showed the best amounts of total phenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins followed by the microwave dried flowers. However, the latest presented the lowest protein content. Finally, the biological activities were significantly dependent on the used drying process. The effective concentration EC50 values let to classify the samples according to their decreasing power to inhibit DPPH free radicals: dryer<oven<room <microwave<freeze-drying. The drying process significantly affected the clotting milk activity, freeze dried flowers showed the highest activity. All the obtained results do not reveal a significant difference between cultivated and spontaneous plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: rhizosphere; phyllosphere; endophyte; plant microbiome; plant mycobiome; rare microbiome; fungi; bacteria; microbes; soil microbiology; inoculum; microbial ecology
Online: 1 August 2022 (15:22:30 CEST)
A plant’s health and productivity is influenced by its associated microbes. Although the common microbiome is often thought to be the most influential, significant numbers of rare or uncommon microbes (eg. specialized endosymbionts) may also play an important role in the health and productivity of certain plants in certain environments. To help identify rare/specialized bacteria and fungi in the most important angiosperm plants, we contrasted microbiomes of the shoots, roots and rhizospheres of Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, maize, wheat, sugarcane, rice, tomato, coffee, common bean, cassava, soybean, switchgrass, sunflower, Brachiaria, barley, sorghum, and pea. Plants were grown inside sealed jars on sterile sand or field soil. About 95% and 86% of fungal and bacterial diversity inside plants was uncommon, however judging by read abundance, up to half of the mycobiome consists of uncommon fungal cells, while less than 11% of bacterial endophytes are rare. Uncommon seed transmitted microbiomes consisted mostly of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes that most heavily colonized shoots, to a lesser extent roots and least of all rhizospheres. Soil served as a more diverse source of rare microbes than seeds, replacing or excluding the majority of the uncommon seed transmitted microbiome. With the rarest microbes, their colonization pattern could either be the result of stringent biotic filtering by most plants, or uneven/stochastic inoculum distribution in seeds or soil. Several strong plant-microbe associations were observed such as seed transmission to shoots, roots and/or rhizospheres of Sarocladium zeae (maize), Penicillium (pea and Phaseolus), and Curvularia (sugarcane), while robust bacterial colonization from cassava field soil occurred with the cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya into Arabidopsis and Panicum roots, and Streptomyces into cassava roots. Some abundant microbes such as Sakaguchia in rice shoots or Vermispora in Arabidopsis roots appeared in no other samples, suggesting they were infrequent, stochastically deposited propagules from either soil or seed (impossible to know based on the available data). Future experiments with culturing and cross inoculation of these microbes between plants may help us better understand host preferences and their role in plant productivity, perhaps leading to their use in crop microbiome engineering and enhancement of agricultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0398.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Preparation of Off-Site Consequence Analyses; Chemicals Control Act; Risk Assessment; Paint Manufacturing Plant; Plating Industry Plant
Online: 23 September 2021 (10:18:56 CEST)
: Chemical accidents can occur anywhere. The need for chemical management in Korea was realized following the 2012 Gumi hydrofluoric acid accident in 2012. The Chemicals Control Act was enacted in 2015. This system evaluates the risks (high, medium, low) and consequent safety management at all plants that handle hazardous chemical substances. However, the system was criticized as excessive when most plants were designated high-risk without considering their size. Thus, laboratories and hospitals handling very small quantities were subject to regulation. Accordingly, in 2021 Korea revised the system to include off-site consequence analyses and a Korean-style risk analysis. Plants handling very small quantities, such as laboratories and hospitals, were exempt from regulation. In this study, plating and paint manufacturing companies, which were classified as high-risk in the previous system, even though they were medium-size business plants, were re-evaluated as low-risk plants. In the Korean-style risk analysis, it is possible to see at a glance what is lacking in the plants, such as cooperation between local residents and local governments and the construction of safety facilities according to the type of accident scenario. The revised system is a reasonable regulation for medium business plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0463.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: disturbance; drylands; photovoltaic; plant community; plant traits; rare species; renewable energy; seed traits; seed banks; solar energy
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:55:44 CEST)
Seed bank survival underpins plant population persistence but studies on seed bank trait-environment interactions are few. Changes in environmental conditions relevant to seed banks occur in desert ecosystems owing to solar energy development. We developed a conceptual model of seed bank survival to complement methodologies using in-situ seed bank packets. Using this framework, we quantified the seed bank survival of two closely related annual desert plant species, one rare (Eriophyllum mohavense) and one common (Eriophyllum wallacei) and the seed bank-environment interactions of these two species in the Mojave Desert within a system that emulates microhabitat variation associated with solar energy development. We tracked 4,860 seeds buried across 540 seed packets and found, averaged across both species, that seed bank survival was 21% and 6% for the first and second growing seasons, respectively. After two growing seasons, the rare annual had a significantly greater seed bank survival (10%) than the common annual (2%). Seed bank survival, across both species, was significantly greater in Shade (10%) microhabitats compared to Runoff (5%) microhabitats and Control microhabitats (3%). Our study confers insight into this early life-stage across rare and common congeners and their environmental interactions using a novel conceptual framework for seed bank survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0198.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: plant vegetation profile; forest rehabilitation; vegetation stratification; bird wealth; taxonomic wealth; plant density; springs in Arjuna mount
Online: 20 August 2019 (04:02:08 CEST)
The research objectives was to determine the plants vegetation profile in forest revegetation and Mount Arjuna springs. The method used was descriptive method. While based on the techniques and tools used to research, the author uses the survey method to obtain facts that occur in the research area, namely in the area around the springs of Arjuna mount, Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. Data obtained in the field are then processed and analyzed using GIS, ArcView 3.3 and Google Earth programs. The results of the study explain the profile of plant vegetation, namely plant stratification, bird wealth, taxonomic wealth and plant density have a significant effect on forest revegetation and springs in Arjuna mount. The forest vegetation profile has a positive and significant effect on the preservation of springs. The better the profile of forest vegetation, the preservation of springs will be better, and vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Arachis quality; pod separation; plant extraction; peanut
Online: 1 September 2023 (16:38:26 CEST)
Keywords: Arachis quality; pod separation; plant extraction, peanut
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1985.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: medicinal plant; bioactive molecules; terpenoids; GC-MS
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:54:10 CEST)
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley is a food and medicinal plant with a wide range of applica-tions including anti-proliferative, anti-fertility, anti-HIV and anti-cancerous. The current study investigated the phytochemical constituents of L. siceraria fruits using gas chromatog-raphy/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of L. siceraria n-hexane fruits revealed five isoprenoids which were present in all investigated landraces, 1-Dodecene, 2,3-Dimethyldodecane, E-15-Heptadecenal, Eicosane and Tridecane, 6-propyl. Bioactive molecules with a lower carbon number on their chemical structure such as 1-Dodecene and 2,3-Dimethyldodecane with 12 and 14 carbon structures were recorded at a shorter retention rate range of 9.08-16.29 min over a lower relative peak area ranging from 1.09-6.97 %. While com-pounds with longer carbon chains ranging from 16-20 carbons (E-15-Heptadecenal, Eicosane and Tridecane, 6-propyl) had longer retention rate range of 13.42-18.00 mins over a higher relative peak area range of 2.25-11.41%. An agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis grouped landrac-es into 5 clusters (I -V). Landraces were clustered according to their fruit and seed attributes, and isoprenoid units significant to each cluster. The majority of phytochemicals revealed were terpenoids, these are responsible for attracting pollinators, fruit growth, palatability and attrac-tive aromatic scents. This is the most comprehensive study on the n-hexane fruit phytochemical constituents of different L. siceraria landraces to date.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: sweet potato; IbNCED1; plant height; ABA; GA
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:22:49 CEST)
Plant height is one of the key agronomic traits for improving the yield of sweetpotato. The phytohormones, especially gibberellins (GAs) are crucial to regulate plant height. The 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the key enzyme for abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis signalling in higher plants. However, its role in regulating plant height has not been reported to date. Here, we cloned a NCED gene, IbNCED1, from sweetpotato cultivar Jishu26. This gene encoded the 587-amino acid polypeptide containing an NCED superfamily domain. The expression level of IbNCED1 was highest in the old tissues in the field-grown Jishu26. The expression of IbNCED1 was induced by ABA and GA. Overexpression of IbNCED1 promoted the accumulation of ABA and inhibited the content of active GA3 and plant height, and affected the expression levels of genes involved in the GA metabolic pathway. IbNCED1 overexpression reduced sensitivity to GA3 and exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the dwarf phenotype. In conclusion, we suggest that IbNCED1 regulates plant height and development by controlling the accumulation of active GA3 signalling pathway in transgenic sweetpotato.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1695.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Industry; micropropagation; plant tissue culture; Sri Lanka
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:53:43 CEST)
Lack of reliable information on PTC industry in Sri Lanka is hampering the advancement of the technology. Hence, this study attempted to assess the current status of PTC industry in Sri Lanka in order to ascertain the type and the level of interventions needed to broaden the horizons of the industry. Data of last 05 years were collected through qualitative research methods including a questionnaire-based survey, personal interviews, etc. and personal interviews to identify product diversity, R&D, available facilities, production capacity, and markets. Information was analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistical software to assess the current status, and identify gaps, challenges and opportunities. COVID pandemic and the economic crisis had a heavy toll on the PTC industry. Six major challenges experienced by business owners were identified as increasing capacity, opportunities to build market linkages, demand fluctuations, issues relating to awareness and insufficient support given by the government. Proper identification and screening of mother plants, determining the production capacities and marketing, knowledgeable and skilled human resources, were identified as important contributory factors for success. Development strategies identified mainly include instinctive decision making and government support. Embracing the significant trade achievements through resource reallocation, prioritization and improvisation processes at individual, family group, inter-organizational levels and across these levels need to be regulated through a responsible authority. These interpretations and recommendations of this research can be utilized both by the policy makers and public and private sector organizations for decision making purposes targeting commercial scale advancements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1196.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant detection; Otsu; UAS; Canapa sativa; CHM
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:22:06 CEST)
Diffusion in recent decades of Cannabis sativa L. varieties with low concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is leading to a specialization in the whole sector, requiring innovative techniques for input optimization according to the variety and the growing environment. The continuous agricultural evolution aims at increasing the sustainability of cultivation systems, pushing toward precision technologies application for inputs management. Cannabis monitoring can benefit from Unmanned Aerial Systems applications combined with image thresholding techniques for reliable and effective near-real-time plant detection and numbering. The work compares and evaluates the potential of two threshold segmentation techniques for Cannabis plant detection and counting in two experimental fields in Italy on a multitemporal scale, bringing such techniques in competition with machine learning for object detection. The Otsu segmentation technique demonstrated more reliable performances at the early stage of cultivation with an accuracy of 0.95. The Canopy Height Model technique showed increasing performances during the growing season. Future works will compare thresholding segmentation techniques with machine learning (ML) approaches and their potential as a supporting tool for ML image annotation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: plant movement; circumnutation; machine learning; classification; kinematics
Online: 12 January 2023 (09:34:31 CET)
Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Climbers that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Support search is characterized by oscillatory movements (i.e., circumnutation), in which plants rotate around a central axis during their growth. Numerous studies have elucidated the mechanistic details of circumnutation, but how this phenomenon is controlled remains unclear. Here, we use supervised machine learning algorithms to generate models that learn to discriminate between the presence/absence of a support in the environment. Results indicate that there is a difference in the pattern of circumnutation, depending on the presence of a support, that can be learned and classified rather accurately. We also identify distinctive kinematic features that contribute to the classification tasks. Overall, machine learning approaches appear to be powerful tools for understanding the movement of plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Phytocytokines; Induced resistance; Priming; Plant Immunity; Peptides
Online: 4 January 2023 (12:07:11 CET)
The plant immunity system is more and more revisited and new elements and roles are attributed to participate in the response to biotic stress. New terminology is also applied trying to identify different players in the whole scenario of immunity: Phytocytokines are one of those elements that are gaining more attention due the characteristics of processing and perception, and showing they are part of a big family of compounds that can amplify the immune response. This review aims to highlight the last findings about the role of phytocytokines in the whole immune response on biotic stress, including basal and adaptive immunity, and to expose the complexity in their action in plant perception and signaling events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: olive; xylem sap; metabolomics; plant age; genotype
Online: 8 March 2021 (10:56:37 CET)
Vascular pathogens are the causal agents of main diseases threatening the health and growth of olive crops worldwide. The use of endophytic microorganisms represents a challenging and promising strategy for management of vascular diseases in olive. Although current research has been focused on analyzing the structure and diversity of the endophytic microbial communities inhabiting the olive xylem, the characterization of this ecological niche has been overlooked and to date remain unexplored, despite that the characterization of the xylem sap composition is essential to unravel the nutritional requirements of xylem-limited microorganisms. In this study, branches from plantlets and adult olive trees of cultivars ‘Picual’ and ‘Arbequina' were selected to characterize the chemical composition of olive xylem sap extracted using a Scholander pressure chamber. Metabolome and ionome analyses of xylem sap were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based and by inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Olive xylem sap metabolites included a higher relative percentage of sugars (54.35%), followed by alcohols (28.85%), amino acids (8.01%), organic acids (7.68%) and osmolytes (1.12%). Within each of these groups, the main metabolites in the olive xylem sap were mannitol, ethanol, glutamine, acetate and trigonelline, whereas K and Cl- were the main element and inorganic anion, respectively. Metabolomic profile varied when comparing olive plant age and genotype. The levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose and mannitol, choline, B and PO43 were significantly higher in adult trees than in plantlets for both olive genotypes, whereas NO3- and Rb content showed the opposite behavior. On the other hand, levels of aspartate, phenylalanine and Na were significantly higher in ‘Picual’ than in ‘Arbequina’ whereas Fe showed the opposite behavior but only for adult trees. Non-supervised hierarchical clustering analysis separated xylem sap composition firstly according to the plant age and then by the olive cultivar. Supervised PLS-DA analysis revealed that B, ethanol, Fe, Fructose, glucose, mannitol, sucrose and Sr were the most significative compounds discriminating adult trees from plantlets, whereas asparagine, aspartate, glutamate and phenylalanine or aspartate, arginine, ethanol and Sr were the most contributory compounds in the discrimination of both olive genotypes for adult trees or plantlets, respectively. Knowledge of the chemical composition of xylem sap will lead to a better understanding of the complex nutritional requirements of olive xylem-inhabiting microorganisms, including its vascular pathogens, and would allow the design of artificial growing media to improve culturing the olive microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0545.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: LCIA; plant protection; compost; sustainable greenhouse production
Online: 22 December 2020 (09:32:12 CET)
Italian floriculture is facing structural changes. Possible options to maintain competitiveness of the involved companies include promotion of added values, from local productions to environmental sustainability. To quantify value and benefits of cleaner production processes and choices, a holistic view is necessary, and could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Previous studies on ornamental products generally focused on data from one company or a small sample. The aim of this study was a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment of two ornamental species (Cyclamen persicum Mill. and Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey) using data from a sample of 20 companies belonging to a floriculture district in Treviso, Veneto region. We also assessed the potential benefits for the environmental impact of the selected species of alternative management choices regarding plant protection and reuse of composted waste biomass. Life cycle impact assessment showed the higher impact scores for the zonal geranium, mainly as a consequence of greenhouse heating with fossil fuels. This factor, along with higher uniformity of production practices and technological level of equipment, translated in lower variability observed in comparison with cyclamen production, which shows a wider results range, in particular for eutrophication, acidification and human toxicity potentials. The application of integrated pest management had significant benefits in terms of impact reduction for acidification and human toxicity of cyclamen, while reduced use of mineral nutrients through compost amendment of growing media resulted in a reduced eutrophication potential. The achievable benefits for zonal geranium were not observable because of the dominant contribution of energy inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: blueberry; crop modeling; plant nutrition; machine learning
Online: 19 September 2020 (03:27:32 CEST)
Nutrient management of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) depends on several yield-limiting features. Machine learning models can process such yield-impacting variables to predict berry yield. We investigated the effects of local variables on yields and nutrient management of lowbush blueberry. We collected 1504 observations from N-P-K fertilizer trials conducted in Quebec, Canada. Meteorological indices at various phenological stages showed the greatest impact on yield. High mean temperature at flower bud opening and after fruit maturation, and total precipitation at flowering showed positive effects. Low mean temperature and low total precipitation before bud opening, at flowering, and by fruit maturity, as well as number of freezing days (< -5ºC) before flower bud opening, showed negative effects. Soil fertility variables, leaf nutrient compositions and N-P-K fertilization showed smaller effects. Gaussian processes predicted berry yields from historical weather data, soil analysis, fertilizer dosage, and leaf nutrients with a root-mean-square-error of 1447 kg ha-1 on the testing data set. An in-house Markov chain algorithm optimized yields modelled with Gaussian processes from leaf nutrient composition, soil test value, and fertilizer dosage conditioned to specified historical weather features. We propose to use conditioned machine learning models to manage nutrients of lowbush blueberry at local scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: life support for space; plant molecular pharming
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:31:34 CEST)
Space missions have always assumed that the risk of spacecraft malfunction far outweighs the risk of human system failure. This assumption breaks down for longer duration exploration missions and exposes vulnerabilities in space medical system. Space agencies can no longer buy down the majority of human system risk through the crew member selection process and emergency re-supply or evacuation. No mature medical solutions exist to close the risk gap. With recent advances in biotechnology, there is promise in augmenting a space pharmacy with a biologically-based space foundry for on-demand manufacturing of high-value medical products. Here we review the challenges and opportunities of molecular pharming, the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, as the basis of a space medical foundry to close the risk gap in current space medical systems. Plants have long been considered an important life support object in space and can now also be viewed as programmable factories in space. Advances in molecular pharming-based space foundries will have widespread application in promoting simple and accessible pharmaceutical manufacturing on Earth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biostimulant; plant defence; mushrooms; antioxidant; septoriosis; wheat
Online: 5 March 2020 (12:08:56 CET)
The Septoria Leaf Blotch Complex (SLBC), caused by the two ascomycetes Zymoseptoria tritici and Parastagonospora nodorum, can reduce global yearly yield of wheat by up to 50%. In the last decade in Italy, SLBC incidence has increased; notably, durum wheat has proven to be more susceptible than common wheat. Field fungicide treatment can efficiently control these pathogens, but it leads to the emergence of resistant strains and adversely affects human and animal health, and the environment. Our previous studies indicated that active compounds produced by Trametes versicolor can restrict the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and the biosynthesis of their secondary metabolites (e.g. mycotoxins). Specifically, we identified Tramesan: a 23 KDa -heteropolysaccharide secreted by T. versicolor that acts as a pro-antioxidant molecule in animal cells, fungi, and plants. Foliar-spraying of Tramesan (3.3 µM) in SLBC-susceptible varieties of durum significantly diminished symptoms of Stagonospora Nodorum Blotch (SNB) and Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB) by 75% and 65%, respectively. Tests were conducted under controlled conditions as well as in field. We show that Tramesan elicits wheat defence against SNB and STB augmenting the synthesis of defence-related hormones, notably JA and SA, that in turn switch on the expression of markers of defence (PR1, PR4 inter alia). In field experiments, yield of durum wheat plants treated with Tramesan was similar to that of untreated ones. The results suggest the use of Tramesan for protecting durum wheat against SLBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0215.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: coevolution; herbivory; host-plant specialization; phylogeny; speciation
Online: 17 October 2019 (10:12:05 CEST)
During the last two decades, ecological speciation has been a major research theme in evolutionary biology. Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation between populations evolves as a result of niche differentiation. Phytophagous insects represent model systems for the study of this evolutionary process. The host-plants on which these insects feed and often spend parts of their life cycle constitute ideal agents of divergent selection for these organisms. Adaptation to feeding on different host-plant species can potentially lead to ecological specialization of populations and subsequent speciation. This process is thought to have given birth to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects and is often put forward in macroevolutionary scenarios of insect diversification. Consequently, numerous phylogenetic studies on phytophagous insects have aimed at testing whether speciation driven by host-plant adaptation is the main pathway for the diversification of the groups under investigation. The increasing availability of comprehensive and well-resolved phylogenies and the recent developments in phylogenetic comparative methods are offering an unprecedented opportunity to test hypotheses on insect diversification at a macroevolutionary scale, in a robust phylogenetic framework. Our purpose here is to review the contribution of phylogenetic analyses to investigate the importance of plant-mediated speciation in the diversification of phytophagous insects and to present suggestions for future developments in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0258.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: power quality; wind power plant; voltage fluctuations
Online: 21 May 2019 (11:19:57 CEST)
Integration of wind energy into the grid faces a great challenge regarding power quality. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)~61400-21 standard defines the electrical characteristics that need to be assessed in a Wind Turbine (WT), as well as the procedure to measure the disturbances produced by the WT. One of the parameters to be assessed are voltage fluctuations or flicker. To estimate the flicker emission of a Wind Power Plant (WPP), the standard establishes that a quadratic exponent should be used in the summation of the flicker emission of each WT. This exponent was selected based on studies carried out in WPPs with type I and II WTs. Advances in wind turbines technology have reduced their flicker emission, mainly thaks to the implementation of power electronics for the partial or total management of the power injected into the grid. This work is based on measurements from a WPP with 16 type III WTs. The flicker emission of a single WT and of the WPP were calculated. Low flicker emission values at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the WPP were obtained. The flicker estimation at the PCC, based on the measurement from a single WT, was analyzed using different exponents. The results show that a cubic summation performs better than the quadratic one in the estimation of the flicker emission of a WPP with type III WTs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: endophytes; resistance inducers; biological control; abiotic stress; plant-microbe interactions; sustainability; integrated pest management; microorganisms; plant disease control
Online: 4 February 2021 (12:07:42 CET)
Plant diseases cause losses of approximately 16% globally. Thus, management measures must be implemented to mitigate losses and guarantee food production. In addition to traditional management measures, resistance induction and biological control have gained ground in agriculture due to their enormous potential. Endophytic fungi colonize plant tissues internally and have the potential to act as biological control agents, as elicitors in the process of resistance induction and in attenuating abiotic stresses. In this review, we list the action of this group of microorganisms as potential agents which can act in controlling plant diseases and describe several examples in which endophytes were able to reduce the damage caused by pathogens and adverse conditions. This is due to their arsenal of molecules generated during the interaction by which they form a kind of biological shield in the plant. Studies on these microorganisms have grown due to the existing diversity and the multiple benefits they can offer. Finally, considering that endophytic fungi can be an important tool in managing diseases due to the large amount of biologically active substances produced, bioprospecting this class of microorganisms is tending to increase and generate valuable products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass crops; biofuels; plant miRNAs; miR156; miR156/SPL-system; plant biotechnology; abiotic and biotic stresses; bio-confinement
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:52:23 CEST)
Currently, energy security and environmental degradation are the two biggest challenges before humanity that can be surmounted with the use of green and sustainable biofuels produced from lignocellulosic crops. In the future, to ensure adequate and cost-effective supply of biofuels, it requires a sufficient amount of amenable and quality lignocellulosic feedstocks. Therefore, agricultural yields of lignocellulosic biomass crops should be substantially increased by intense genetic maneuvering of key gene regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways that control plant biomass yield. Recently, numerous miRNAs families are identified, characterized, and validated across the plant kingdom. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21 to 24 nucleotides long, non-coding small RNAs, act as regulators of their target genes via inducing modifications in transcription, translation, and epigenome. MiRNAs represent many hallmark characteristics like sequence-specific regulation, tissue, and species-specific expression, evolutionary conservation, and functional diversity. They coordinate well physiological and life cycle processes in plants under adverse environmental conditions. Hence, miRNAs offer accurate, precise, and efficient regulatory switches in the miRNA-targeted genetic networks. It is evident from the study of the miR156 family and its target SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes network that controls highly significant agronomic traits in crop plants. The miR156/SPL module acts as a master circuit that synchronizes many intricate complex biological functions such as growth and development, and metabolic processes by sensing internal and external environmental signals in plants. Therefore, miR156 can prove a potential target for miRNAs based plant biotechnology to harmonize complex biofuel traits and improve biomass yield in lignocellulosic biomass crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1622.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Blumeria graminis; resistance genes; resistance; germplasm; gene bank; biodiversity; plant breeding; plant genetic resources; crop wild relatives; pre-breeding
Online: 24 July 2023 (12:21:45 CEST)
Sources of resistance to powdery mildew in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) collected in Jordan, Lebanon, and Libya Jerzy H. Czembor 1, *, Elżbieta Czembor 1 1 Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute (IHAR-PIB), Radzikow, 05-870 Błonie, Poland; firstname.lastname@example.org (E.C.) *Correspondence: email@example.com) Abstract Barley powdery mildew (BPM) is caused by the pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). It is an economically important disease and plant pathologists are looking for new sources of resistance to BPM. Barley genetic resources present in gene banks are often a rich source of disease resistance to be used by breeders. These new sources of resistance to BPM are often used in combination (pyramiding) with those that are already used in modern cultivars. Barley accessions, including the wild subspecies Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Hvs), are stored in many gene banks and often are a valuable source of economically important characteristics. This source of biodiversity should be more efficiently used to improve barley in the process of plant breeding. However, their proper characterization and availability are urgently needed. The resistance to BPM in 81 accessions of wild barley (Hvs) collected in Jordan (47), Lebanon (23), and Libya (11) was investigated. The seed samples of these accessions were obtained from the ICARDA gene bank and collected in 10 expeditions from 1981 to 1995. Twenty European differential isolates of BPM were used to select accessions with efficient resistance. Thirty-one resistant single plant lines were selected from 15 accessions from Jordan and Libya based on tests performed with the most avirulent isolate of Bgh available. These resistant single plant lines were tested for the presence of specific resistance genes using a differential set of Bgh isolates. After analysis of obtained results, it was concluded that all tested 31 single plant lines of wild barley have genes for resistance that are not represented in the Pallas isolines differential s. Twenty-six lines of Hvs selected from accessions originated in Jordan and Libya showed resistance reaction to all isolates used. Identified new sources of effective resistance to BPM in single plant lines of Hvs will be further tested and used in barley pre-breeding programs. Keywords: Blumeria graminis; resistance genes; resistance; germplasm; gene bank;
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: agriculture 4.0; chlorophyll; early diagnosis; fungal tree pathogens; mycology; plant disease; plant pathology; smart viticulture; vegetation indices; wine grapes
Online: 11 May 2021 (14:21:25 CEST)
The Armillaria genus represents one of the most common causes of chronic root rot disease in woody plants. The disease damage prompt assessment is crucial for pest management. However, the disease detection current methods are limited at the field scale. Therefore, an alternative approach that can enhance or supplement traditional techniques is needed. In this study, we investigated the potential of hyperspectral methods to identify the changes between fungi-infected and uninfected plants of Vitis vinifera in early detecting the Armillaria disease. The hyperspectral imaging sensor Specim-IQ was used to acquire images of leaves of the Teroldego Rotaliano grapevine cultivar. We analysed three groups of plants: healthy, asymptomatic, and diseased. Highly significant differences were found in the Near infrared (NIR) spectral region with a decreasing pattern from healthy to diseased plants attributable to internal leaf structure changes. Asymptomatic plants emerged from the other groups due to a smaller reflectance in the red-edge spectrum (around 705nm). Hypothetically associated with the presence of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence strategy. Furthermore, significant differences were observed in the wavelengths close to 550 nm in diseased plants versus asymptomatic. We used linear discriminant analysis from a machine learning context to classify the leaves based on the most significant variables (vegetation indices and single bands), with resulting overall accuracies of 85% and 84% respectively in healthy vs. diseased and healthy vs. asymptomatic. To our knowledge, this study represents the first report on the possibility of using hyperspectral data for root rot disease diagnosis on woody plants. Although further validation studies are required, it appears that the spectral reflectance technique, possibly implemented on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), could be a promising tool for a cost-effective, non-destructive method of Armillaria disease early diagnosis and mapping in the field, contributing to a significant step forward in precision viticulture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: invasion ecology; biotic resistance; exotic plants; heterospecific pollen; reproductive interference; alien plants; indirect plant-plant interactions; Darwin's naturalization hypothesis
Online: 9 February 2020 (16:32:53 CET)
1. Heterospecific pollen interference has recently been proposed as a mechanism contributing to the success of alien invaders, as heterospecific pollen of alien plants interferes with the reproduction of natives by reducing fruit and seed set. However, no study has looked at the opposite interaction. Moreover, few studies have considered the roles of phylogenetic and trait distances between pollen donors and recipients. 2. We did a large multi-species experiment in which we used alien and native species both as pollen recipients and as pollen donors, and included phylogenetic as well as trait distance as explanatory variables. 3. We found that both alien and native recipients suffered from heterospecific pollen from donors of the opposite status in terms of seed and fruit set. Phylogenetic distance and trait distance both affected heterospecific pollen interference, but the effect depended on recipient and donor statuses. 4. We conclude that heterospecific pollen interference affects both native and alien recipients, thus indirectly altering community composition and increasing biotic resistance against invaders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Air pollution; coal-fired thermal power plant; oil thermal power plant; geocoded; lung cancer; bladder cancer; North-eastern Italy
Online: 20 June 2017 (08:50:26 CEST)
This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged >75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. The findings of this descriptive study indicated that air pollution may have a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers, limited to women aged ≥ 75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1334.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: endophytes; Miscantus; antifungal activity; plant growth promotion properties
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:34:37 CEST)
Modern technologies can satisfy human needs only with the use of large quantities of fertilizers and pesticides that are harmful to the environment. For this reason, it is possible to develop new technologies for sustainable agriculture. The process could be made by using endophytic microorganisms with a (possible) positive effect on plant vitality. Bacterial endophytes have been reported as plant growth promoters in several kinds of plants under normal and stress conditions. In this study, isolates of bacterial endophytes from the roots and leaves of Miscanthus giganteus plants were tested for the presence of plant growth-promoting properties and their ability to inhibit pathogens of fungal origin. Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas libanensis were the predominant bacteria in leaves whereas other pseudomonads prevailed in roots. Selected bacterial isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus, to fix nitrogen, and to produce IAA, ACC deaminase and siderophore. Leaf bacterial isolate Pantoea ananatis 50 OL 2 had high production of siderophores and weak capabilities for phytohormone production. The root bacterial isolate of Pseudomonas libanensis 5 OK 7A showed the best results of phytohormone production. Four fungal cultures - Fusarium sporotrichioides DBM 3229, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum SS-01, Botrytis cinerea and Sphaerodes fimicola were used to test the antifungal activity and these cultures were selected for their representatives of known pathogenic fungi families, especially for crops. All selected roots endophyte isolates significantly inhibited the pathogenic growth of Fusarium sporotrichoides with a mean inhibition diamater (zone ≥ 5 mm). These results demonstrated that the root endophytic Pseudomonas sp. could be used as biofertilizer for crops.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biopesticides; Formulations; Fungicidal; Pesticidal plants; Plant extracts; Regulations
Online: 22 August 2023 (14:51:19 CEST)
Before the green revolution, crude plant materials and plant-extracts were used for crop protection. However, their use was swiftly replaced by synthetic pesticides after World War II due to increased demand for more effective pesticides in intensified farming systems. The 20th century saw a steady increase in the use of synthetic pesticides until the mid-21st century when the world started to realize the negative impact of synthetic pesticides. The increased environmental awareness and the need for safe human food led to increased research and development of biopesticides as crop protection options in modern agriculture. This paper brings into perspective the global history of the application and use of botanical biopesticides in crop production. It also highlights the research progress, product development and registration challenges, and opportunities for business and adoption at the farm level in Kenya.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Saponins; emulsifiers; foaming agents; plant extract; food functionality
Online: 4 August 2023 (09:46:20 CEST)
Saponins are a diverse group of naturally occurring plant secondary metabolites present in a wide range of foods ranging from grains, pulses, green leaves to sea creatures. They consist of a hydrophilic sugar moiety linked to a lipophilic aglycone, resulting in an amphiphilic nature and unique functional properties. The amphiphilic structures enable saponins to exhibit surface-active properties, forming stable foams and complexes with various molecules. In the context of food applications, saponins are utilized as natural emulsifiers, foaming agents, and stabilizers. They contribute to texture and stability in food products and have potential health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering and anticancer effects. Saponins possess additional bioactivities that make them valuable in the pharmaceutical industry as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiparasitic agents to name a few. Saponins can demonstrate cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines and can also act as adjuvants, enhancing the immune response to vaccines. Their ability to form stable complexes with drugs further expands their potential in drug delivery systems. However, challenges such as bitterness, cytotoxicity, and instability under certain conditions need to be addressed for effective utilization of saponins in foods and related applications. In this paper, we have reviewed chemistry, functionality, and application aspects of saponins from various plant sources and have summarised the regulatory aspects of food application of Quillaja saponins. Further research to explore the full potential of saponins in improving food quality and human health has been suggested. It is expected that this article will be a useful resource for researchers in food, feed, pharmaceutical and material science.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biofertilizers; corroborant; plant quality; rhizosphere; sustainable agriculture; zeolites
Online: 28 July 2023 (13:58:15 CEST)
In the light of current justified international concerns about pollution caused by both greenhouse gases and by current agricultural practices, as well as the management of livestock manure, zeolite rocks with a prevalent zeolite content (a mineral endowed with peculiar chemical-physical properties), are widely used worldwide. They have a high extraction potential and represent an effective and scientifically proven means of pollution control. Moreover, based on the results of countless laboratory and field experiments, zeolitites (in particular Italian chabazite) rich in potassium (K) but low in sodium (Na) and with high drainage and water retention properties, have an effective potential for environmental protection, reduction of fertilizers and irrigation water, and increase of agronomic production. In agriculture and horticulture, in particular, the permanent correction of agricultural soils and growing media with appropriate amounts of zeolitites makes it possible to reduce the input of synthetic fertilizers and water as well, in order to substantially increase yields in quantity and quality. However, there are few scientific articles describing the use of zeolite in agriculture and its benefits for farmers. This review is aimed at gaining a better insight into the application of zeolitites in agriculture, particularly in difficult climatic situations, and to provide more information on how these minerals can ensure both the reduction of the use of fertilizers and the increase of plant protection. In addition, details and explanations are provided on the term 'zeolitite' used in order to ensure higher quality agricultural products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1625.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Microbial biofertilizers; microbial symbioses; plant interactions; crop resistance
Online: 25 July 2023 (08:58:55 CEST)
To identify soil microbial communities, it is essential to understand their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are bacteria capable of promoting plant growth. In addition, rhizobacteria also serve as biological control agents. In addition to fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilising insoluble phosphate and secreting hormones such as indoloacetic acid, kinetics and gibberellins, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria help plants grow directly. Furthermore, they facilitate plant growth indirectly by inducing systemic resistance, siderophores, antibiotics, lytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide production and stress regulation. This review examines in detail the direct and indirect mechanisms of PGPR action and their interaction in plant growth and resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1200.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: plant phenotype; soybean leaf; image segmentation; object detection
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:14:41 CEST)
Plant phenotype plays an important role in crop breeding and planting. Leaf phenotype is an important part of plant phenotype. In order to analyze the leaf phenotype, the target leaf is required to be segmented from the complex background image. In this paper, an automatic soybean leaf segmentation method based on object detection and interactive segmentation models is proposed. Firstly, the Libra R-CNN object detection algorithm is used to detect all soybean leaves in the image. Then, based on the idea that the target soybean leaf is located in the center of the image and the area is large, the detection bounding box of the target leaf is selected. In order not to destroy the segmentation result, the bounding box is optimized to completely enclose the whole leaf. Finally, according to the optimized bounding box, the prior channels of foreground and background are constructed using Gaussian model. The two channels together with the original image are as the input of the interactive object segmentation with inside-outside guidance model to segment the target soybean leaf. A large number of qualitative and quantitative experimental results show that the method has high segmentation accuracy and strong generalization capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0399.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Biosensors; Machine-Learning; Motion detection; Plant-Human interaction
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:13:44 CEST)
This paper describes preliminary results of measuring the impact of human body movements on plants. In particular, we analyze the influence of eurythmic gestures of human actors on lettuce and beans. In an eight week experiment, we exposed rows of lettuce and beans to weekly eurythmic movements (similar to Qi Gong) of a eurythmist, while at the same time measuring changes in voltage between the roots and leaves of lettuce and beans using the plant spikerbox (https://backyardbrains.com/products/plantspikerbox). We compared this experimental group of vegetables with a control group of vegetables whose voltage differential was also measured while never being exposed to eurythmy. Using t-tests, we found a clear difference between the experimental and the control group which was also verified with a machine learning model. In other words, the vegetables showed a noticeably different pattern in electric potentials in response to eurythmic gestures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1800.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: biofilm; ESBL; KPC-2; wastewater treatment plant; phenotyping
Online: 26 June 2023 (11:14:25 CEST)
The detection of antibiotic-resistant facultative pathogenic bacteria in surface waters is common in the present day. However, there is limited understanding of the factors that influence the spread and stabilization of resistance in this habitat, particularly regarding the role of biofilms. Despite the perceived differences between sediments, biofilms, and open water, their potential contribution to the long-term maintenance of resistances remains unclear. In this study, we investigated Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the Mur and Drava rivers in Austria. Samples were collected from both the water column and sediment at two locations per river: upstream and downstream of an urban area, including a sewage treatment plant. The iso-lates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 21 antibiotics belonging to seven distinct classes. Additionally, any isolates exhibiting an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase phenotype were further analyzed for the presence of specific antimi-crobial resistance genes. E. coli isolates obtained from the two rivers exhibited resistance to at least one of the tested anti-biotics, with rates of 25.83% and 23.66% respectively. The most prevalent antimicrobial re-sistances observed were towards ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, and na-lidixic acid. Surprisingly, there was a similar proportion of resistant bacteria observed in both open water and sediment samples, contrary to expectations. The difference in resistance levels between samples collected upstream and downstream of the cities was minimal. Out of the total isolates, 13 E. coli were found to carry ESBL genes with one isolate carrying the gene for KPC-2 carbapenemase. There were no significant differences between the biofilm (sediment) and open water samples in the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Even the difference between the samples upstream and downstream of the cities and their wastewater treatment plants was minor. There seems to be no evidence of a large adaptive effect in this analysed biofilm population of E. coli. The un-typical phenotype of the KPC-producing and some of the ESBL-producing E. coli from this study could, however, be an indication that such adaptation effects generally exist in water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0898.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Alfalfa; Plant Growth Vigor; Inbreeding; Target Capture; GWAS
Online: 12 May 2023 (07:23:24 CEST)
Alfalfa primarily produces seeds through cross-pollination among different individuals. Self-pollination results in severe inbreeding depression, such as weak seedlings and termination of growth. Identifying the genetic loci associated with vigorous plant growth could enable the elimination of deleterious alleles and eventually develop inbred alfalfa lines for hybrid production. In this study, 215 alfalfa accessions were self-pollinated for three generations. Within accessions, pairs of weak and strong plants were sampled and bulked for exome sequencing. We extracted individual DNA from 534 plants that included parental clones, strong and weak pairs of plants, and plants selected based on the number of seeds produced. Among them, we formed 42 pools, including 16 with strong plants and 17 with weak plants, 3 top-seeded plants, 3 low-seeded plants, and 3 no-seeded plants. Along with 79 individuals, these pools were sequenced in the target regions covering 112,626 contigs across the entire alfalfa genome. From the 121 samples, (42+79) genotyped, 13.2 million SNPs including indels were generated. After filtering for MAF (>5%), depth (<20X), and no missing genotype and removing indels, a total of 588,136 SNPs were obtained which were used for final analysis. A genome-wide association study was performed and identified 11 genetic loci associated with alfalfa plant growth vigor. The GO analysis generated 12 significantly enriched GO terms. The associated SNPs were on, and near genes involved in stress response, defense responses against pathogens, and plant reproduction. These identified SNPs benefit the development of alfalfa inbred lines by purging the deleterious alleles and biomass improvement through marker-assisted selection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0487.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Plant proteins; legumes; protein digestibility; germination; peptidomics; proteomics
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:14:36 CET)
Legume seed protein is an important source of nutrition, but it is less digestible than animal protein. Poor protein digestibility in legume seeds and seedlings may partly reflect defences against herbivores. Protein changes during germination typically increase proteolysis and digestibility, by lowering the levels of anti-nutrient protease inhibitors, activating proteases, and breaking down storage proteins (including allergens). Germinating legume sprouts also show striking increases in free amino acids (especially asparagine), but their roles in host defence or other processes are not known. While the net effect of germination is generally to increase the digestibility of legume seed proteins, the extent of improvement in digestibility is species and strain dependent. Further research is needed to highlight which changes contribute the most to improved digestibility of sprouted seeds. Such knowledge could guide the selection of varieties that are more digestible, and also guide the development of food preparations that are more digestible, potentially combining germination with other factors altering digestibility, such as heating and fermentation. Techniques to characterize the shifts in protein make-up, activity and degradation during germination need to draw on traditional analytical approaches, complemented by proteomic and peptidomic analysis of mass spectrometry identified peptide breakdown products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Temporary Immersion Bioreactor; Micropropagation; Plantain; plant tissue culture
Online: 6 January 2023 (06:26:15 CET)
The genus Musa spp. contains commercially important fleshy fruit producing plants including plantains and bananas with a strong potential of providing food security and source of revenue to farmers. Occasionally, plantlets are often not available to fulfill the supply demand of farmers particularly in Caribbean region. Concerns with the quality of vegetative tissues along with the possibility of the transmission of phytopathogens makes availability of plantlets limited to farm-ers. Micropropagation of plantains offers an alternative to producing large number of in-vitro plantlets. However, conventional methods of micropropagation techniques require high produc-tion costs and are labor-intensive. Recently, Temporary Immersion Bioreactor (TIB) has emerged as an alternative to conventional micropropagation methods. Our work utilized SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), molecular and biochemical tools (qRT-PCR and ICP-OES) to characterize and compare the morphological, elemental composition, and photosynthetic gene expression of plantains cultured on TIB. Additionally, morphological features of growth and propagation rates were analyzed for comparing outputs obtained from temporary immersion bioreactor with conventional micropropagation (CM) techniques. Results showed higher growth and multiplication rates for plantlets cultivated in TIB. Gene expression analysis of selected photosynthetic genes demonstrated high transcript abundance of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in plantain tissues obtained by TIB. Elemental composition analysis showed higher content of iron in plantains grown in TIB suggesting a potential correlation with PEPC expression. These results demonstrate the potential of TIB to be an efficient method to produce healthy in-vitro plantains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0521.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant–microbe interactions; endophytes; comparative transcriptomics; velvet genes
Online: 29 November 2022 (02:06:31 CET)
Epichloë species form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. VelA is a key global regulator in fungal secondary metabolism and development. In previous studies, we showed the requirement of velA for E. festucae to form a mutualistic interaction with Lolium perenne. We showed that VelA regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in membrane transport, fungal cell wall biosynthesis, host cell wall degradation and secondary metabolism, along with several small-secreted proteins in Epichloë festucae. Here, by a comparative transcriptomics analysis on perennial ryegrass seedlings and mature plants, which are endophyte free or infected with wild type (mutualistic interaction) or mutant ∆velA E. festucae (antagonistic or incompatible interaction), regulatory effects of the endophytic interaction on perennial ryegrass development was studied. We show that ∆velA mutant associations influence the expression of genes involved in primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and response to biotic and abiotic stresses compared to wild type associations, providing an insight into processes defining mutualistic versus antagonistic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0366.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Vibration Detection; Progress; Power Plant; Bibliometrics; Visual Analysis
Online: 17 October 2022 (10:50:11 CEST)
After long years of development, the technology of analyzing the working condition of power units based on vibration signals has had relatively stable applications, but the accuracy and the degree of automation and intelligence for fault diagnosis are still inadequate due to the limitations of the current development of key technologies. With the development of big data and artificial intelligence technology, the involvement of new technologies will be an important boost to the development of this field. To support the subsequent research, bibliometrics is used as a tool to sort out the development of the technology in this field at the macro level; at the micro level, the classical and key literature is studied to grasp the development status at the technical level and prepare for the selection of entry points to continue in-depth innovation afterwards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Verticillium wilt; cotton; transmembrane protein; resistance; plant immunity
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:28:04 CEST)
Verticillium wilt (VW) is a soil borne fungal diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, and lead to serious damage to cotton production annually in the world. In our previous study, a transmembrane protein 214 protein (TMEM214) gene associated with VW resistance was map-based cloned from Gossypium barbadense (G. barbadense). TMEM214 proteins are a kind of transmembrane protein, but their function in plants is rarely studied. To reveal the function of TMEM214s in VW resistance, all six TMEM214s were cloned from G. barbadense in this study. These genes were named as GbTMEM214-1, GbTMEM214-4 and GbTMEM214-7 according to their location on the chromosomes, and the encoded proteins are all located on cell membrane. TMEM214 genes were all induced by Verticillium dahliae inoculation and showed significant differences between resistant and susceptible varieties, but the expression patterns of GbTMEM214s under different hormone treatments were significantly different. Virus-induced gene silencing analysis showed the resistance to VW of GbTMEM214s-silenced lines decreased significantly, which further proves the important role of GbTMEM214s in the resistance to Verticillium dahliae. Our study provides an insight into the involvement of GbTMEM214s in VW resistance, which was helpful to better understand the disease resistance mechanism of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0593.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Theobroma cacao; light; abiotic stress; physiology; plant nutrition
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:56:26 CEST)
Cacao is an understory plant cultivated under full-sun monocultures to multi-strata agroforestry systems, where cocoa trees are planted together with fruit, timber, firewood, and leguminous trees, or grown within thinned native forests. Under agroforestry systems of cultivation, cacao is subjected to excess shade due to high density of shade trees, and overgrown or unmanaged pruning of shade trees. Cacao is tolerant to shade, and the maximum photosynthetic rate occurs around irradiance of 400 μmol m−2 s−1 but excess shade reduces the irradiance further which is detrimental to photosynthesis and growth functions. Intra-specific variation is known to exist in cacao for the required saturation irradiance. A greenhouse study was implemented with 58 cacao genotypes selected from four geographically diverse groups: (i) wild cacao from river basins of the Peruvian Amazon, (PWC), (ii) Peruvian farmers’ collection (PFC), (iii) Brazilian cacao collection (BCC) and (iv) national and international cacao collections (NIC). All the cacao genotypes were subjected to 50% and 80% shade where photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was 1000 and 400 μmol m-2 ּs-1 respectively. Intra-specific variations were observed for growth, physiological and nutritional traits, and tolerance to shade. Cacao genotypes tolerant to shade were: UNG-77 and UGU-130 from PWC; ICT-2173, ICT-2142, ICT-2172, ICT-1506, ICT-1087, and ICT-2171 from the PFC; PH-21, CA-14, PH-990 and PH-144 from BCC; and ICS-1, ICS-39, UF-613 and POUND-12 from NIC. Genotypes that tolerate excess shade might be useful plant types to maintain productivity and sustainability in agroforestry systems of cacao management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0461.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Germplasm; Genetic plant resources; Preservation; Propagation; in vitro
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:28:31 CEST)
Germplasm is a valuable natural resource in plant diversity that is crucial for its potential use. It provides knowledge about a species genetic composition. Germplasm protection strategies are not just planting hope threatened with extinction, they preserve medicinal and other essential plants on which survival rests. The successful use of genetic plant resources necessitates diligent collection, storage, analysis, documentation, and germplasm exchange. Slow growth cultures, cryopreservation, pollen and DNA banks, botanic gardens, genetic reserves and farmer’s fields are few conservation techniques. However, usage of an in vitro procedure with any chance of genetic instability leads to the destruction of the entire substance. Improved understanding of basic regeneration biology would, in turn, undoubtedly increase the capacity to regenerate plants from in vitro harvested explants, thus expanding selection possibilities. Germplasm conservation seeks to conserve endangered and vulnerable plant species worldwide for future proliferation and development; it is also the bedrock of agricultural production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0336.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: plant fructans; fructosyltransferase; metabolism; evolution aspects; functional foods
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:11:41 CEST)
Fructan, a fructose polymer, is used as carbohydrate reserve in many plants. The nutritional and therapeutic benefits of fructans have attracted increasing interest by consumers and food industry. In the course of evolution, many plants have developed the ability of regulating plant frunctan metabolism genes to produce different structures and chain length fructans, which are strongly correlated with their survival in harsh environments. De nevo domestication of fructan-rich plants based on genome editing is a viable and promising approach to improve human dietary quality and reduce the risk of chronic disease. These advances will greatly facilitate breeding and production of tailor-made fructans as a healthy food ingredient from wild plants such as polygonati rhizoma. The purpose of this review is to broaden our knowledge on plant fructan biosynthesis, evolution and beneficial applications for human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: micro minerals, selenium, deficiency, soil-plant relationship, Kosovo
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:17:35 CEST)
Minerals play many important functions in plant and animal metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the concentration of Se and other minerals and their relationships in soils and fodder plants in Kosovo. Seventy-three samples of each soil and fodder plants (grass, maize, and wheat) from 30 farms were collected. Both soil and plant samples, after processing and digestion, were analyzed for mineral concentration by ICP-MS. Mineral concentrations in soil and fodder crops, and the best predicting/explanatory models for micro minerals concentration, achieved by stepwise linear regression, are presented. Results showed very low concentration of Se in most of the soil and all fodder samples. In addition, the concentration of Co, Zn and Fe was not sufficient to satisfy requirements for all categories of farm animals. Plant Se concentration showed a positive relationship with Se concentration in soils. Plant Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe and Pb, in general, showed no significant relationship with their concentration in soil, while plant Co and Cd showed positive relationship only in maize, and Cu in wheat grain. Among the soil properties, pH had the highest effect on the concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Cd and Pb in fodder crops.