ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0490.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: mangroves, organic matter, roots, hydrodynamics, coastal ptotection
Online: 29 August 2018 (09:28:56 CEST)
Recently, coastal swamps have been acknowledged for their capability to alleviate shorelines and defend coastal communities. Mangroves play a prominent role in obstructing water currents in riverbanks, shorelines, and coastal areas. Mangrove roots have the significant contribution to the resiliency of the vegetation structure. Yet, mangrove model has lately been called into question by lab experimental evidence. In this paper, the flow characteristics past root models are reviewed. coastal swamps are among the most fruitful and carbon‐rich ecosystems on the planet. Long‐term carbon putting away in coastal wetlands happens mostly below ground as soil organic matter. Mangrove servs as a carbon sink, impacts wetland ecosystem configuration, purpose, and firmness. To expect and ease the properties of climate change, there is a necessity to advance considerate of environmental controls on wetland. The impact of four soil formation factors are reviewed. Across the shorelines, soil organic matter was highest in mangrove forests and it was lower areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0100.v1
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:11:47 CET)
The soil has lost organic matter in the past centuries. Adding organic matter to soils is one of the management practices applied to recover the levels of soil carbon of the past. Is it a good practice to reduce global warming? In fact, one of the practices promoted to combat climate change is increasing soil organic matter. However, the addition of organic residues to the soil could facilitate the liberation of CO2 and wastes could also have no positive effects on soil properties. In this sense, what it is important is: a) to know which is the expected effect of the organic matter added to the soil; b) how this application alters the soil processes; c) which are the management practices that should be applied; d) how much is the real amount of carbon sequester by the soil and; e) the balance at short and long period after the application of the organic matter. The adequate strategy should be to favour the increment of biologically stabilized soil organic matter considering medium and long time. However, it is necessary to adapt the strategies to the local environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0221.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: metal adsorption; soil organic matter; iron oxide; Semi-quantitative analysis method; antagonistic effect; DCB extraction
Online: 14 December 2021 (10:23:18 CET)
The combination of organic matter, iron oxide, and clay minerals is of great significance for the adsorption of copper ions (Cu). The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of Cu adsorption and laws governing Cu complexation to organic–inorganic, organic–clay mineral, and iron-oxide–clay mineral complexes in the sediments in the estuary of plateau fault and sinking lake——Dianchi Lake. In this study, Cu adsorption tests were performed on the three complexes, in order to study the kinetic behavior of adsorption, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used. The samples before and after adsorption were characterized via scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Our results show that, the Freundlich isotherm models model was able to describe adsorbent behavior in comparison to the Langmuir models. During the Cu adsorption process, the iron-oxide–clay mineral complex is able to adsorb Cu, via coordination exchange, through the –OH contained therein. Organic-matter–clay mineral complexes bonded to the surfaces of clay minerals by replacing the hydroxyl groups with functional groups (carboxyl groups or phenolic hydroxyl groups) contained in the organic matter. Organic–inorganic composites then adsorbed Cu through the coordination exchange of –OH in the polar functional groups of alcohols, phenols, and carboxylic acids. The adsorption capacity of Cu in these three sediment complexes was observed to have the following order: organic–inorganic complex > organic-matter–clay mineral complex > iron-oxide–clay mineral complex. The semi-quantitative analysis results of Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy show that the organic matter (changes in the peak area of functional groups such as carboxyl groups) in the organic-inorganic composite material has an important effect on the amount of copper ions adsorbed by clay minerals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0193.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: chromophoric dissolved organic matter; polluted waters; optical properties; Yinma River watershed
Online: 23 August 2016 (10:35:36 CEST)
Spectral characteristics of CDOM in water column are a key parameter for bio-optical modeling. Knowledge of CDOM optical properties and spatial discrepancy based on the relationship between water quality and spectral parameters in Yinma River watershed with in situ data collected highly-polluted waters are exhibited in this study. Seasonal field data sets collected over a period of 2 months in 2015 in Yinma River Watershed. Based on the comprehensive index method, the riverine waters showed serious contamination, especially the COD, Fe, Mn, Hg and DO were out of range contamination warning. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended matter (TSM) with prominent non-homogenizing were significantly high in the riverine waters, but chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) was opposite. Ternary phase diagram showed that non-algal paritcles absorption played an important role in total non-water light absorption (>50%) in most sampling locations, and mean contribution of CDOM were 13% and 22% in summer and autumn respectively. Analysis of ratio of absorption at 250-365 nm (E250:365) and spectral slope (S275-295) indicated that CDOM had higher aromaticity and molecular weight in autumn than in summer, is consistent with the results of water quality and relative contribution. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the environmental variables OSM had a strong correlation with CDOM absorption, followed by heavy metal, e.g., Mn, Hg and Cr6+. However, for the specific UV absorbance (SUVA254), the seasonal values showed opposite results compared with the reported literature. The potential reasons were the more UDOM (uncolored Dissolved Organic Matter) from human source (wastewater effluent) existed in waters. Terrigenous inputs simultaneously are in relation to the aCDOM(440)-DOC relationship with the correlation coefficient was 0.90 in summer (2-tailed, p<0.01), and 0.58 in autumn (2-tailed, p<0.05). Spatial distribution of CDOM parameters exhibited that the downstream regions focused on dry land have high CDOM molecular weight and aromatic hydrocarbon. Partial sampling locations around the cities or countries generally showed abnormal values due to terrigenous inputs. As a bio-optical model parameter, spectral characteristic of CDOM is helpful in adjusting the derived algorithms in highly-polluted environments. The study on organic carbon and pollutants in highly-polluted waters had an important contribution to global carbon balance estimation and water environment protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0475.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Chernozems; No-till; soil organic matter; Calcium; double-shot pyrolysis; GC/MS
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:53:08 CET)
Reducing the amount of precipitation in summer in the Chernozems area alters soil organic matter (SOM). To compensate for the lack of moisture, farmers are introducing new agricultural technologies such as no-till cultivation. In turn, no-till practices influence the composition of SOM. We examined the impacts of the rise of aridity and no-till technology on the chemical composition of bioavailable and recalcitrant pools of OM. The properties of SOM were assessed using double-shot pyrolysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The thermolabile substances that are volatilised in the first stage of pyrolysis (300°C) are considered the bioavailable pool. Accordingly, substances are obtained in the second pyrolysis stage (500°C) were attributed to the recalcitrant pool. Identified in both steps of pyrolysis, products were assigned to different chemical groups (lignin-derivative, polysaccharide-fragments, indoles, etc.) and relative abundances were calculated. In work for the separation of substances, a polar column was used for chromatography of the thermolabile fraction. With an increase in aridity in Сhernozems, the content in the bioavailable pool of polysaccharide fragments decreased and the proportion of indoles increased. In the recalcitrant pool, the abundance of six-membered rings with nitrogen and aromatic compounds decreases at the same time the contents of unsubstituted and O-substituted acyclic compounds as well as pyridine increases. The influence of the NT was more noticeable in the recalcitrant OM. The NT practice promotes biological activity and to rich in nitrogen compounds the bioavailable OM; this process contributes to the accumulation of carbon in the recalcitrant OM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0642.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Organic Matter; TOC; Global Sensitivity Analysis; Modelling; Paris Basin, Toarcian
Online: 26 October 2018 (16:47:28 CEST)
The active debate about the processes governing the organic-rich sediment deposition generally involves the relative roles of elevated primary productivity and enhanced preservation related to anoxia. However, other less spotlighted factors could have a strong impact on such deposits: e.g. residence time into the water column (bathymetry), sedimentation rate, transport behavior of organo-mineral floccules on the sea floor. They are all strongly interrelated and may be obscured in the current conceptual models inspired from most representative modern analogues (i.e. upwelling zones and stratified basins). To improve our comprehension of organic matter distribution and heterogeneities, we conducted a sensitivity analysis on the processes involved in organic matter production and preservation which have been simulated within a 3D stratigraphic forward model. The Lower-Middle Toarcian of the Paris Basin was chosen as a case study as it represents one of the best documented example of marine organic matter accumulation. The relative influence of the critical parameters (bathymetry, diffusive transport, oxygen mixing rate and primary production) on the output parameters (Total Organic Carbon, and oxygen level), determined performing a Global Sensitivity Analysis, shows that, in the context of a shallow epicontinental basin, a moderate primary productivity (> 175 gC.m-².yr-1) can led to local anoxia and organic matter accumulation. We argue that, regarding all the processes involved, the presence and distribution of organic-rich intervals is linked as a first-order parameter to the morphology of the basin (e.g. ramp slope, bottom topography). These interpretations are supported by very specific ranges of critical parameters which allowed to obtain output parameter values in accordance with the data. This quantitative approach and its conclusions open new perspectives about the understanding of global distribution and preservation of organic-rich sediments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0338.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: organic solar cells; heterojunction; IQE; organic LED
Online: 15 August 2020 (05:21:17 CEST)
We revisit the argument that link the efficiency of a solar cell to its reverse operation as a LED, in the case where the material is organic. In organic cells, exciton transport is an intermediate process between sunlight absorption and the generation of electric current. We show that quenching exciton radiation can be beneficial to cell efficiency, without contradicting the general rule prevailing for semiconductor cells. Our treatment allows us to discuss both bulk heterojunction and planar junctions.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0613.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: fullerene aggregation; organic solar cells; fluorescence; organic photovoltaics
Online: 30 September 2018 (16:35:40 CEST)
We report on the effects of the film morphology on the fluorescence spectra for a thin film including a quinoxaline-based co-polymer (TQ1) and a fullerene derivative (PC70BM). The ratio between the polymer and the fullerene derivative, as well as the processing solvent were varied. Beside the main emission peak at 700 nm in the fluorescence spectra of thin films of this phase-separated blend, a broad emission band is observed with a maximum at 520 - 550 nm. The intensity of this emission band decreases with an increasing degree of mixing in the film and becomes most prominent in thicker films, films with high PC70BM content, and films that were spin-coated from solvents with lower PC70BM solubility. We assign this emission band to aggregated PC70BM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0334.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: organic producer; organic practices; surveillance data; health and safety
Online: 20 September 2021 (13:40:18 CEST)
Research indicates that farmers’ demographic characteristics and production practices have safety and health implications. However, current systems do not identify organic farmers independently from conventional farmers, and literature on how organic and conventional farmers compare is very limited. We conducted a secondary analysis of 2012 Census of Agriculture data to compare organic and non-organic farms and principal operators (POs) in New Mexico (NM). Organic farms were smaller in size, and POs of farms with organic sales were significantly younger (55.8±9.5 vs. 60.5±5.5 years) and less experienced (19.5±6.8 vs. 25.2±6.8 years). Significant differences were also found in POs ethnicity, race, and primary occupation. More farms with organic sales had a female PO compared to farms with non-organic sales (27% vs. 19%). Other significant differences related to work arrangements, household income, living conditions, and access to Internet. National surveys and regional studies may not accurately typify and describe the local organic producer, which is essential in order to advance policy, develop health interventions, and properly address occupational safety and risk among organic farmers. This study makes a unique contribution to understanding the importance of surveillance and collecting place-based data that are specific to the organic producer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0370.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: organic farming; persistent organic pollutants; crops; peasant farmers; education
Online: 20 July 2018 (04:09:42 CEST)
Organic farming products are fast gaining acceptance from consumers all over the world due to the perceived belief that they are safe for human consumption. In recent years, there has been an increase in the levels of persistent organic and inorganic pollutants in the environment. These pollutants may be found in materials such as sewage sludge, treated wastewater, farmyard manure (human and animal feaces and urine) that are used for organic farming. The present review examined through literature the presence of these emerging pollutants in crops that are cultivated from farming activities practicing organic farming. The review highlighted and documented various pollutants that may be found in crops due to non-compliance with legislation establishing organic farming. The need to develop a robust method for identifying safe products from organic farming was highlighted. The impact of non-compliance and lack of proper education on the peasant farmers practicing backyard farming was also enumerated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0109.v1
Subject: Keywords: soil organic carbon sequestration, climate, organic agriculture, cancer, earthworm, fire
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:28:54 CEST)
Shutdown for just six days enables land plants to entirely fix CO2 excess of +4 Gt C per yr. Rebuilding soil organic carbon (SOC) in worm-worked humus is the only practical carbon capture and storage (CCS) capable of freely offsetting annual anthropogenic emissions. A case is made to redirect all available resources towards proven, earthworm-based, organic husbandry. Priority is to safely combat mounting global threats due to irreversible species extinction, perilous climate change and deteriorating human wellbeing (mental/physical health). All three interlinked risks are underpinned by a relentless, yet largely ignored, critical loss of precious topsoil. A first step to topsoil recovery is vermi-composting all vegetable and animal ‘wastes’ for return to the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0096.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: solution-processed organic phototransistor; organic photodetector; organic semiconductor; low-voltage OFETs; optical memory; OPTs for biomedical and information technology.
Online: 6 December 2021 (19:50:15 CET)
Today, more disciplines are intercepting each other, giving rise to “cross-disciplinary” research. Technological advancements in material science and device structure and production have paved the way towards development of new classes of multi-purpose sensory devices. Organic phototransistors (OPTs) are photo-activated sensors based on organic field-effect transistors that convert incident light signals into electrical signals. The organic semiconductor (OSC) layer and three-electrode structure of an OPT offer great advantages for light detection compared to conventional photodetectors and photodiodes, due to their signal amplification and noise reduction characteristics. Solution processing of the active layer enables mass production of OPT devices at significantly reduced cost. The chemical structure of OSCs can be modified accordingly to fulfil detection at various wavelengths for different purposes. Organic phototransistors have attracted substantial interest in a variety of fields, namely biomedical, medical diagnostics, healthcare, energy, security, and environmental monitoring. Lightweight and mechanically flexible and wearable OPTs are suitable alternatives not only at clinical levels but also for point-of-care and home-assisted usage. In this review, we aim to explain different types, working mechanism and figures of merit of organic phototransistors and highlight the recent advances from the literature on development and implementation of OPTs for a broad range of research and real-life applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0610.v1
Online: 25 May 2021 (13:01:54 CEST)
: This study was conducted to evaluate the behavior of nitrate, moisture and organic matter in a soil with low agronomic input. The test was conducted on silty-sandy soil, a temporal variability of the variables in the different seasons was observed in the three theses. The theses were observed in parallel twice a week. Nitrates showed an increase during the summer-autumn season with higher values in the thesis containing organic matter, “bare soil” followed by the thesis “fallow” and finally by the “cultivated” (see below in experimental set up). The humidity was higher in the “bare soil” thesis followed by “fallow” and “cultivated” one during the summer, in winter the “cultivated” showed the lowest humidity compared to the other two theses. The organic matter does not show great variability in the seasons but is higher in the “fallow” thesis followed by “bare soil” and “cultivated” one. The Montecarlo test informed us that organic matter and humidity were autocorrelated within 5-7.5 m of distance (10-15 lag) while nitrates even if they seemed to be not autocorrelated with each other and have a cyclical pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0149.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: organic electronics; organic semiconductors; molecular design; crystal design; π-stacking; charge mobility
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:23:32 CEST)
Chemical versatility of organic semiconductors provides nearly unlimited opportunities for tuning their electronic properties. However, despite decades of research, relationship between molecular structure, molecular packing and charge mobility in these materials remains poorly understood. This reduces the search for high-mobility organic semiconductors to the inefficient trial-and-error approach. For clarifying the abovementioned relationship, investigations of the effect of small changes in the chemical structure on OSs properties are particularly important. In this study, we address computationally the impact of substitution of C-H atom pairs by nitrogen atoms (N-substitution) on molecular properties, molecular packing and charge mobility of crystalline oligoacenes. Besides of decreasing frontier molecular orbital levels, N-substitution dramatically alters molecular electrostatic potential yielding pronounced electron-rich and electron-deficient areas. These changes in the molecular electrostatic potential strengthen face-to-face and edge-to-edge interactions in the corresponding crystals and result in the crossover from the herringbone packing motif to π-stacking. When the electron-rich and electron-deficient areas are large, sharply defined and, probably, have certain symmetry, charge mobility increases up to 3-4 cm2V-1s-1. The results obtained highlight the potential of azaacenes for application in organic electronic devices and are expected to facilitate rational design of organic semiconductors for steady improvement of organic electronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0154.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: calcareous soil; plantation ages; organic carbon mineralization; fitting parameters; organic carbon accumulation
Online: 14 November 2019 (09:17:50 CET)
Soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization is closely related to carbon source or sink of terrestrial ecosystem. Understanding soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization under plum plantation is essential for improving our understanding of SOC responses to land-use change in karst rocky desertification ecosystem. In this study, 2-y, 5-y and 20-y plum plantations and adjacent woodland were sampled and a 90-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of plum plantation with different years on SOC mineralization in subtropical China. Results showed that: (1) there was no significant difference in SOC content between different planting years, but there were significant differences in accumulative SOC mineralization (Ct) and potential SOC mineralization (C0); (2) the dynamics of the SOC mineralization was a good fit to a first-order kinetic model. Both C0 and Ct in calcareous soil of this study was several to ten folds lower than that in other soils, indicating that SOC in karst region has higher stability. (3) Correlation analysis revealed that both Ct and C0 was significantly correlated with soil calcium (Ca) and C/N, indicating the important role of Ca and C/N in SOC mineralization in karst rocky desertification area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0388.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Mollisol; soil organic matter; microorganisms; microbial index; crop growing season
Online: 21 February 2022 (12:05:40 CET)
Tillage has been reported to induce seasonal changes of organic carbon (Сmicro) and nitrogen (Nmicro) in biomass of microorganisms. Soil microorganisms execute such ecosystem functions as: it is an immediate sink of labile biophil elements; it is an agent of a conversion, catalysis and synthesis of humus substances; it transforms soil contaminants into non-hazardous wastes; it participates in soil aggregation and pedogenesis as a whole. However, the seasonal turnover of microorganisms on arable lands in temperate ecosystems has not been investigated on a relevant level. Hence, we aimed to study the dynamics of such soil microbial biomass patterns as: Сmicro, Nmicro, microbial index (MI = (Сmicro/CTOC)·100, %) and CO2-C emission on the background of 9 years of tillage and 22 years of abandoned (Ab) and fallow (F) usage. Our study was conducted on a long-term experimental site on a Mollisol in the northeast China. The maximum Сmicro and Nmicro content was found: at the beginning of the growing season – in 0-10-; in mid-July – in 20-40 cm layers, while the minimum – in August-October. The Сmicro content ranged from 577.79- and 381.79 mg-1 kg-1 under Ab in spring to 229.53- and 272.86 mg-1 kg-1 in autumn under CT (conventional tillage) and F in 0-10- and 10-20 cm layers, respectively. The amplitude of Nmicro content changes was several times lower comparatively to Сmicro. The smallest quartile range (IQR0.25-0.75) of such changes was under: no-till (NT) and Ab in 0-10-, NT and F – in 10-20- and CT - in 20-40 cm layers. The widest Сmicro : Nmicro ratio was found at F and CT – in 0-20- and CT and rotational tillage (Rot) – in 20-40 cm layers. MI dynamics resembled the trends of Сmicro and Nmicro and changed from 0.72 0.168- tо 2.00 0,030 %. The highest part of Сmicro in CTOC was at Ab (1.82 1.85 %) and NT (1.66 1.52 %) – in 0-10-; Ab (1.23 1.27 %) and NT (1.29 1.32 %) – in 10-20- and – Ab (1.19 1.09 %) and F (1.11 1.077 %) – in 20-40 cm layers, correspondingly. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between Сmicro and CTOC increased from the upper 0-10- to the lower 20-40 cm layer, it was "strong" and "high" between Сmicro and CTOC. Different use of Mollisol affected the amplitude of Сmicro and Nmicro seasonal changes, but it didn’t change their trend. Our results suggest the key role of Ab and NT technologies in Сmicro accumulation in total organic carbon (TOC).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0326.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: organic; conventional; potato; quality; disease
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:44:40 CEST)
Interest in organic foods is increasing at a moment when humanity is facing a range of health challenges including the concern that some conventionally produced foods may pose possible adverse effects on human and livestock health. With the increasing human population, intensive production is increasingly trending towards high-input systems that aim to close yield gaps, increase crop yields, and develop new crop varieties with higher yield potential and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, all within the context of incorporating specific traits to satisfy consumer demand. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most consumed foods under different cultural diets, however its production faces some challenges related to soilborne diseases, marketable yield and quality, sugars and dry matter content of the produced tubers, tuber content in terms of nitrate, minerals, vitamins, bioactive compounds and antioxidants, and consumer appreciation regarding the sensory characteristics of tubers and processed products. Different studies have been investigating some of these challenges, with sometimes straightforward and sometimes connflicting results. This variability in research results indicates the general non-transferability of the results from one location to another under the same management practices in addition to differences in plant material. This review compares some characteristics of raw or boiled potato and processed products from potato tubers grown organically and conventionally. Ideally, such information may be of benefit in decision making by consumers in their dietary choices, by potato growers in their selection of crop management practices, and by scientists looking at potential areas for future research on potatoes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0115.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: organic photovoltaics; self-assembly; thermodynamics
Online: 5 November 2018 (12:06:31 CET)
We develop an optimized force-field for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and demonstrate its utility for predicting thermodynamic self-assembly. In particular, we consider short oligomer chains, model electrostatics and solvent implicitly, and coarsely model solvent evaporation. We quantify the performance of our model to determine what the optimal system sizes are for exploring self-assembly at combinations of state variables. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to predict the self-assembly of P3HT at ~350 combinations of temperature and solvent quality. Our structural calculations predict that the highest degrees of order are obtained with good solvents just below the melting temperature. We find our model produces the most accurate structural predictions to date, as measured by agreement with grazing incident X-ray scattering experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0282.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: bacteria; compost; organic waste; decomposition; inoculum
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:26:35 CEST)
Composting is one of the most economical and environmentally safe methods of recycling organic waste. Soil microorganisms play a significant role in decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients. This study was designed to prepare a suitable microbial inoculum and its evaluation on composting heap to decrease the time of waste degradation. The bacteria were isolated and molecular characterized from the soil near composting area by using 16S ribotyping technique. The identified strains of bacillus cereus used as an inoculum gives better results to expedite the degradation of organic waste. The prepared bacterial inoculum with molasses was also compared with commercial inoculum by optimizing physical and chemical parameters (temperature, oxygen, C: N, pH, and moisture content) of composting heap. Monthly reading of these parameters was taken from experimental and control treatments. The highest decomposition rate of organic waste was recorded in treatment A (experimental heap) where molasses and bacterial inoculum were added and less decomposition was observed in treatment D (experimental heap) where no inoculum and molasses were added. It was concluded from the studies that the prepared bacterial inoculum with two strains of Bacillus was effective and prepared mature compost in 2.5 months by increasing decomposition efficiency of organic waste. Furthermore, the prepared compost was also sustainable in its physical and chemical characteristic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0599.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: organic dyes; adsorption; removal; wastewaters; environment
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:14:49 CEST)
Even in the first quarter of XXI century, the presence of organic dyes in wastewaters is a normal occurrence in a series of countries, and being these compounds toxics, their removal from these waters is of a necessity. Among the separation technologies, adsorption processing appeared as one of the most widely used to reach this goal. The present work reviewed the most recent approaches (first half of 2021 year) about the use of a variety of adsorbents on the removal of, also, a variety of organic dyes of different nature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0399.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Metal organic frameworks; Photocatalysis; Water purification
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:44:33 CET)
This review analyzes the preparation and characterization of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and their application as photocatalysts for water purification. The study begins by highlighting the problem of water scarcity and the different solutions for purification, including photocatalysis with semiconductors such as MOFs. It also describes the different methodologies that can be used for the synthesis of MOFs, paying attention to the purification and activation steps. The characterization of MOFs and the different approaches that can be followed to learn on the photocatalytic processes are also detailed. Finally, the work reviews literature focused on the degradation of contaminants from water using MOF-based photocatalysts under light irradiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: organic private labels, competitive advantage, retailing
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:09:27 CEST)
The main aim of the study was to analyze/determine how international modern retailers’ chains can achieve a competitive advantage by introducing private labels (PLs) in the organic category and in turn stimulate consumption of food produced with respect of sustainability principles. Following a review of the relevant literature data collection process involved two steps. First, to select retailers with organic private labels (OPLs) and producers delivering products under OPLs, there were conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with the representatives of the management board of 17 enterprises. A group of 6 enterprises was selected, including 3 retailers having OPLs, 2 producers delivering products under OPLs and one enterprise that was categorized as producer and distributor. Based on the results of the interviews, six sources of the competitive advantage of the OPLs were identified and further discussed. Second, to analyze more in depth assortment-based competitive advantage of the OPLs, 8 enterprises (5 retailers having OPLs, 2 producers delivering products under OPLs and one enterprise categorized as a producer and distributor) were approached for the interviews. To explore price-related competitive advantage three products offered under the premium PLs, the economy PLs, the organic PLs, the producer brands and the imported brands were selected for the subsequent analysis. Increasing competition in the food retailing sector pose many challenges on the retailers and stimulate them to develop the PLs that is in line with global trends. In case of the OPLs, the more popular strategy while introducing them is to differentiate the PLs with quality and image related attributes comparable to leading producer brands. Retail chains introducing the OPLs achieve the competitive advantage related to six sources: price, range of assortment, type of PLs, image of retailer, sustainability and specific process and product related attributes of organic food. Additionally the retailers use their reputation and image of retailers’ brand to guarantee the quality of new organic products introduced under the PLs. To achieve or maintain the competitive advantage, retailers tend to introduce the OPLs positioned as value added PLs. They perceive the OPLs as a way to influence the consumers' decision to buy and increase their loyalty towards store brands. The strategies of the retailers evolve and the largest retailers decided to create the premium OPLs, the others focus on introduction of the international OPLs or aim at development of new PLs based on the analysis of consumers' preferences. There are several factors behind the decision to introduce or extend the premium OPLs i.e. to expand the assortment of organic products and green products line, to increase category margins and to enhance retailer’s image among customers. Other large retailers create the OPLs with special product line design focusing on health- and environmental related attributes and high quality guaranteed by the organic regulations and the certification. The process of the introducing the premium PLs should be influenced by the inherent characteristic of organic food and its production methods that respect the principles of the sustainable development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0011.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: enzyme; immobilization; organic-inorganic nanoflower; nanobiocatalysts
Online: 2 April 2018 (08:15:44 CEST)
A recent breakthrough in preparation of immobilized enzyme based biocatalysts achieving highly enhanced enzymatic activities and stabilities has become a great alternative to conventional immobilization techniques. The functional hybrid nanobiocatalysts (FHNs) fabricated in this immobilization composed of organic components (amino acid, peptide, protein, enzyme and plant extract) and inorganic components (various metal ions) give flower-like morphology with narrow size distribution and porous structure. The enzyme incorporated FHNs exhibite greatly enhanced catalytic activities and stabilities compared to free and conventionally immobilized enzymes under various experimental conditions. In addition to that, the FHNs consisting of other organic components act as Fenton-like reagents and show peroxidase-like activity owing to presence of metal ions and porous structure in the FHNs. This report basically focuses on preparation, characterization, and bioanalytical applications of the FHNs and explain mechanism of the FHNs formation and thier enhanced activities and stabilities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0317.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Invasive weeds; Organic Fertilizers; Vermicomposting Technology; Ethiopia.
Online: 21 October 2021 (22:53:58 CEST)
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian and a key sector of its economy. However, Lack of productive and environmentally friendly technology is not widely applicable elsewhere. Likewise, the vermicomposting technology is a recently emerging science which not effectively transferred to the users across the country. Thus, this review is aimed to shine the importance, unexploited opportunities and the challenges hindered for further expansions in Ethiopian context. Vermicompost is among the powerful organic fertilizers which enhance soil Fertility and productivity. As agrarian society; there are plenty of raw byproducts and weed species which are not center of focus (i.e cattle waste, crop residues and invasive weeds like P.Juliflora, P.hysterophorus and E.crassipes respectively). However, there are many constraints there like policy issue, handling problems and sensitivity of the worms for different environmental factors which hindered to invest on a wide range. Generally, the number and weight of vermiculture as well as amount of produced casts are promised and every possible ways were recommended to entertain on the large scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0553.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: mushroom; organic-debris; fruiting bodies; diversity; frequency
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:22:51 CEST)
A The present investigation was undertaken in foothill regions of Uttarakhand from July-2016 up to December-2018. A total of thirty four different sites ranging from the roadside areas, grasslands to forests were studied and Mushroom fruiting bodies were collected. A total of One Hundred sixty six fruiting counts were obtained and 68 mushroom genera belonging to 15 orders and 43 families were identified. During collection visits mushroom were apparent from organic debris of diversified habitats ranging from humid soil; grassland; leaf litter; living tree trunk; dead wood log of forest zone. Maximum fruiting bodies (75%) were obtained between July to September and minimum i.e. 6% between November – February. Among the collected mushroom Stereum rugosum, Crepidotus variabilis, Laccaria laccata, Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applantum, Cantharellus cibarius were more prevalent. Out of all collected mushroom sample the frequency of Mushroom belonging to order Agaricales was 45.18% followed by Polyporales i.e., 27.7%. The collected mushroom were cultured on PDA medium and their mycelial forms were preserved for further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0170.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Air pollution; environmental hazards; Volatile Organic Compounds
Online: 8 January 2021 (16:59:01 CET)
Air pollution is a serious global issue, responsible for approximately one in every nine deaths each year, ranking it among the greatest environmental hazards to human health. It is of particular concern in urban areas, where elevated pollutant concentrations and potential sufferers converge. Over one half of the world’s population presently lives in urban areas, and the urban population ratio is expected to reach 68% by 2050. Common air pollutants include particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). While elevated rates of air pollution pose serious health risks for humans, outdoor plants can help reduce the harmful effects of air pollution by filtering and purifying the air around us.In this project Common Ivy, Aster and Miniature Andromeda plants were evaluated for air pollutant mitigation. In this study we developed a vegetation barrier model with the plant located in the middle of the greenhouse box, and air pollutant was sprayed on one side of the plant. Dispersion patterns of sprayed pollutants were tested with and without vegetation barrier. Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC), and Particulate Matter (PM2.5/PM10) were taken before spraying, then at 0 and 30 minutes after spraying, using both monitors.The results show mitigation rates (in 177 ft3 of air after 30 min): for TVOC the minimum reduction is 5 mg/m3; for HCHO, 1 mg/m3; for CO2, 2000 ppm; for PM2.5, 2000 ug/m3; and for PM10 it was 1000 ug/m3.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0547.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Carbon dots; organic light-emitting diode; photoluminescence
Online: 20 November 2020 (14:48:50 CET)
In the last 10 years, carbon dots (CDs) synthesized from renewable organic resources have been gathered a considerable amount of attention in different fields for their peculiar photoluminescent properties. Moreover, the synthesis of CDs fully responds to the principles of the circular chemistry and the concept of safe-by-design. This review will focus on the different strategies for the incorporation of CDs in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and on the study of the impact of CDs properties on the OLEDs performance. The main current research outcomes and highlights are summarized to guide users towards the fully exploitation of use these materials in optoelectronic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020041
Online: 8 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
A prime site of astrobiological interest within the Solar System is the interior ocean of Enceladus. This ocean has already been shown to contain organic molecules, and is thought to have the conditions necessary for more complex organic biomolecules to emerge and potentially even life itself. This sub-surface ocean has been accessed by Cassini, an unmanned spacecraft that interacted with the water plumes ejected naturally from Enceladus. The encounter speed with these plumes and their contents, was between 5 and 15 km s−1. Encounters at such speeds allow analysis of vapourised material from submicron-sized particles within the plume, but sampling micron-sized particles remains an open question. The latter particles can impact metal targets exposed on the exterior of future spacecraft, producing impact craters lined with impactor residue, which can then be analysed. Although there is considerable literature on how mineral grains behave in such high-speed impacts, and also on the relationship between the crater residue and the original grain composition, far less is known regarding the behaviour of organic particles. Here we consider a deceptively simple yet fundamental scientific question: for impacts at speeds of around 5–6 kms−1 would the impactor residue alone be sufficient to enable us to recognise the signature conferred by organic particles? Furthermore, would it be possible to identify the organic molecules involved, or at least distinguish between aromatic and aliphatic chemical structures? For polystyrene (aromatic-rich) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (solely aliphatic) latex particles impinging at around 5 km s−1 onto metal targets, we find that sufficient residue is retained at the impact site to permit identification of a carbon-rich projectile, but not of the particular molecules involved, nor is it currently possible to discriminate between aromatic-rich and solely aliphatic particles. This suggests that an alternative analytical method to simple impacts on metal targets is required to enable successful collection of organic samples in a fly-by Enceladus mission, or, alternatively, a lower encounter speed is required.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.3390/sci1010004.v1
Online: 30 November 2018 (00:00:00 CET)
An array of Ag nanowires has been prepared from a facile, templated approach on Cu(BTC) (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) metal organic framework (MOF) micropillars. The Ag-deposited scaffolding material may be used to prepare electronic or optoelectronic devices for various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: tomato; biofumigation; organic; inorganic fertilizer; sustainability; environment
Online: 12 November 2018 (11:47:29 CET)
Intensive greenhouse horticulture can cause various environmental problems. Among them, the management, storage and processing of crop residues can provoke aquifer contamination, pest proliferation, bad odors or the abuse of phytosanitary treatments. Biosolarization put in value any fresh plant residue and is an efficient technique for the control of soil-borne diseases. This study aims to examine an alternative means of managing greenhouse crop residues through biosolarization and to investigate the influence of organic matter on yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, L.) fruit. With this purpose, the following nutritional systems were evaluated: inorganic fertilization with and without brassica pellets (Fert, Fert + and Fert ++), fresh tomato plant debris with and without brassica pellets (Rest, Rest + and Rest ++) and no fertilizer application (Control). The addition of organic matter equaled all the treatments except for control with regard to yield and quality of the tomato fruit. In light of these results, the application of tomato plant debris to the soil through biosolarization is postulated as an alternative for the management of crop residues, solving an environmental problem and having a favorable impact on the production and quality of tomatoes as a commercial crop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: transparent electrode; organic photovoltaic; distributed Bragg reflector
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:09:37 CEST)
We demonstrated an ITO-free, highly transparent organic solar cell with the potential to be integrated into window panes for energy harvesting purposes. A transparent, conductive ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer electrode and a Ag:Ca thin film electrode were used in this transparent device as the bottom and top electrode, respectively. To further improve the transmittance of the solar cell, the thickness of the top ZnO layer was investigated by both experiment and simulation. An average visible transmittance of > 60% was reached, with a maximum transmittance of 73% at 556 nm. Both top and bottom illumination of the solar cell generated comparable power conversion efficiencies, which indicates the wide application of this solar cell structure. In addition, we fabricated distributed Bragg reflector mirrors with sputtered SiO2 and TiO2, which efficiently increased the power conversion efficiency over 20% for the solar cells on glass and PET substrates,
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0385.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based molecules; photophysical properties; Charge transporting property; organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs); organic solar cells (OSCs).
Online: 31 May 2019 (11:05:22 CEST)
A series of D–π–A diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based small molecules have been designed for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic solar cells (OSCs) applications. Appling the PBE0/6-31G(d,p) method, the ground state geometry and relevant electronic properties were investigated. The first excited singlet state geometry and the absorption and fluorescent spectra were simulated at the TD-PBE0/6-31G(d,p) level. The calculated results reveal that the photophysical properties are affected through the introduction of different end groups. Furthermore, the electronic transitions corresponding to absorption and emission exhibit intramolecular charge transfer feature. It was disclosed that the designed molecules act not only as luminescent for OLEDs, but also donor materials in OSCs. Moreover, they also can be used as potential electron transfer materials using for OLEDs and OSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0459.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: growth and yield; Tetrapluera tetraptera; organic fertilizers; seedlings
Online: 26 August 2022 (10:18:12 CEST)
The study was carried out to investigate the growth response of Tetrapluera tetraptera to selected organic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers: poultry manure and cow dung of different concentration and mixture were used to raise seedlings from Germination experiment for a period of 12 weeks. Six treatments were used for this research: T1 (control experiment), T2 (10g of poultry manure), T3 (10g of cow dung), T4 (20g of poultry manure), T5 (20g of cow dung), T6 (15g of poultry manure + 15g of cow dung). Growth parameters such as diameter, plant height and number of leaves were measured weekly over a period of twelve (12) weeks. Data obtained were subjected to Anova and mean separated using Duncan multiple range tests. on the height parameter assessed on Tetrapluera tetraptera, the highest plant height mean of 12.20cm was recorded in treatment 6 (15g of poultry manure + 15g of cow dung) while the lowest mean plant height 7.19cm was recorded in treatment 3 (10g of cow dung) . the highest mean stem diameter was recorded in treatment 4 with a value of 0.43mm from while the least was recorded in Treatment 1 with mean value of 0.21 m. also, highest mean number of leaves was recorded treatment 4 (12.81) while the least was observed in T3 (11.01) . The results showed that organic manure has considerable effect on the growth of Tetrapluera tetraptera seedlings and it use should be encouraged. T3 (10g of poultry Manure + 10g of cow dung) was hereby recommended to be the best of all in the growth of Tetrapluera tetraptera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0183.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: growth and yield; Khaya senegalensis; organic fertilizers; seedlings
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:26:44 CEST)
The study investigated the comparative effect organic fertilizers on the growth of Khaya senegalensis (Desr). Four treatments were used for this research: T1 20g of poultry manure, T2 (20g of cow dung), T3 (10g of poultry Manure + 10g of cow dung), T4 (Control experiment). Growth parameters such as diameter, plant height and number of leaves were measured weekly over a period of twelve (12) weeks. Data obtained were subjected to ANOVA and mean separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. on the height parameter assessed on Khaya Senegalensis, the highest plant height mean of 8.40cm was recorded in treatment 1(20g of poultry Manure) while the lowest mean plant height 7.19cm was recorded in treatment 4 (Control experiment). Also, the highest mean stem diameter was recorded in Treatment 1 with a value of 0.309mm from while the least was recorded in Treatment 4 with mean value of 2.1175mm. However, highest mean number of leaves was recorded treatment 1 (20g of poultry manure) while the least was observed in T3 (10g of poultry Manure + 10g of cow dung). The results showed that organic manure has considerable effect on the growth of Khaya senegalensis seedlings and it use should be encouraged. T3 (10g of poultry Manure + 10g of cow dung) is hereby recommended to be the best of all in the growth of Khaya senegalensis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: AnchoisFert; Fish waste; Green extraction; Limonene; Organic fertilizer
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:32:23 CET)
Is the production of the “AnchoisFert” organic fertilizer via the circular economy process based on omega-3 lipid extraction of milled anchovy fillet leftovers with citrus limonene followed by mild drying economically and technically viable? This study answers this question and identifies the main obstacles, chiefly of economic and organizational nature, to be overcome prior to commercialization of this new organic fertilizer. Along with non-variable and proven efficacy, successful competition with conventional organic and inorganic fertilizers requires affordable cost and regular supply. This, inter alia, requires to establish new and mutually beneficial relationship between bioeconomy firms and fish processing companies.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Metal organic framework; Mn-MOF-74; nanomaterial; degradation
Online: 30 March 2021 (13:53:07 CEST)
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) composed of metal ions and multifunctional organic ligands are one of the most attractive porous materials. Their potential applications in gas storage, separation, catalysis, biomedicine and many other fields have attracted much attention. In this study, Nano-Mn-MOF-74 with nano size were successfully synthesized by adding acetic acid and characterized it by SEM, TEM and XRD. Furthermore, a new method to trace the degradation process of nanoMOFs through detection of ligand concentration under physiological conditions was developed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0029.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: miombo; carbon stocks; aboveground; belowground; soil organic carbon
Online: 1 March 2021 (14:16:54 CET)
Miombo woodlands are extensive dry forest ecosystems in central and southern Africa covering ≈2.7 million km2. Despite their vast expanse and global importance for carbon storage, the long-term carbon stocks and dynamics have been poorly researched. The objective of this paper is to present and summarize the evidence gathered on above- and belowground (root and soil) carbon stocks of miombo woodlands from the 1960s to mid-2018 through a review. We analyzed data to answer: (1) What is the range of aboveground and belowground carbon stocks found in miombo woodlands over the last six decades? (2) Are there differences in carbon stocks based on land-management categories? (3) Does precipitation influence aboveground carbon stocks in old-growth miombo? (4) Do differences in cover type, age and region influence carbon stocks? (5) How does previous land-use affect carbon stocks in re-growth miombo? A literature review protocol was used to identify 56 publications from which quantitative data on aboveground and soil carbon pools were extracted. We found that the mean aboveground carbon stock in old-growth miombo was 30.83±16.76 Mg C ha-1 (range 1.48—107.24 Mg ha-1). Old-growth miombo had an average calculated root carbon stock of 16.49±9.18 Mg C ha-1 (range 0.8—57.81 Mg ha-1). Soil carbon stocks in old-growth miombo varied widely, between 8.75 and 134.6 Mg C ha-1 while in re-growth miombo they varied between 10.73 and 52.2 Mg C ha-1. It must be noted these soil data are given only for information; they inconsistently refer to varying soil depths and are thus difficult to interpret. The wide range reported suggests a need for further studies, much more systematic in methods and reporting. Other limitations of the dataset include the lack of systematic sampling and lack of data in some countries, viz. Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0266.v1
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:18:39 CET)
Produced in many world’s countries at over 1 million tonne/year rate by extraction of certain woods and barks with boiling water, tannin is a class of high molecular weight biophenols increasingly used in a number of industries. This study offers a new bioeconomy insight into an old natural product that, we argument in this study, will play a crucial role in the development of the bioeconomy of forest regions. After providing an updated picture of key economic and production aspects, we show how flourishing research on tannin’s biological activity and technological applications has revealed many new properties which are likely to drive significant growth in demand in the near and mid-term future. The study concludes with selected recommendations for bioeconomy scholars and for policy-makers based in forest areas.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: innovative grape varieties; organic wine; biogenic amine; polyphenol
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:58:14 CET)
Society considers wine as a special product among food and beverages because of its high gastronomical value and its positively distinctive quality. In recent years, philosophies of the agricultural techniques and development of the oenological technology have been focused on the reduction of wasteful, "polluting" elements, and trends are moving towards an environmental friendly approach. Due to the stricter regulations and rules (with the limited amount and selection of the permitted chemicals) resistant, also known as interspecific or innovative grape varieties can be the ideal basic materials of alternative cultivation technologies. In terms of variety selection, innovative varieties can be equivalent to international varieties, although organically their quality could not compete with them. These grapes are more resistant to various fungal diseases and infections than international varieties. Well-founded analytical and organoleptic results have to provide the scientific background of resistant varieties, as these cultivars with the environmental friendly cultivation techniques, could be the raw material of the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0231.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: organic acids; sugars; anthocyanins; antioxidant enzymes; ascorbic acid
Online: 10 September 2020 (09:11:16 CEST)
The changes in nutritional quality, bioactive compounds and antioxidant enzymes in the juice of four blood orange cultivars (‘Moro’, ‘Tarocco’, ‘Sanguinello’ and ‘Sanguine’) stored during 6 months at 2 and 5 °C plus 2 days at 20 °C for shelf life were studied. Sucrose was the sugar found at higher concentration and decreased during storage for all cultivars, as did glucose and fructose. Organic acids decreased at both temperatures and the highest content was found in ‘Sanguinello’, especially the major (citric acid) and ascorbic acid. Total phenolics content (TPC), total anthocyanins (TAC), and the individual (cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-(6″-malonylglucoside)) increased for all cultivars, the ‘Sanguinello’ having the higher concentrations. Antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher also in ‘Sanguinello’ and increased during storage. Overall, these results together with the sensory analysis suggest that ‘Sanguinello’ would be the best cultivar for prolonged storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0374.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: natural cosmetics; organic cosmetics; green cosmetics; cosmetology; certification
Online: 27 May 2020 (05:02:20 CEST)
The market of natural and organic cosmetics has been growing in last decades. The increase in interest in this type of product is a consequence of the concern that consumers have been presenting in relation to the environment and health. In addition to the appreciation the use of sustainable ingredients in cosmetic formulations, the consumers are also concerned about pollution caused by the use of plastics, which leads industries to reinvent themselves and rethink about the composition of packaging. The factor that most drives the purchase of natural and organic cosmetics is the fact that the consumer, in addition to contributing to the preservation of the environment, is also using a sustainable product. The growing demand for natural and organic cosmetics results in a concern of the brands with the organic issue, with the decreased use of animal derived ingredients and with the updating the parameters required for certification of a cosmetic as natural or organic. Due to the few studies available in this area, the importance of clarifying the definitions and concepts of natural and organic cosmetics is evident, in order to contribute with accurate information for the cosmetic sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: secondary organic aerosol; isoprene epoxydiol; aqueous aerosol; cloudwater
Online: 29 September 2019 (02:50:17 CEST)
Chemical processing of organic material in aqueous atmospheric aerosols and cloudwater is known to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA), although the extent to which each of these processes contributes to total aerosol mass is unclear. In this study, we use GAMMA 5.0, a photochemical box model with coupled gas and aqueous-phase chemistry, to consider the impact of aqueous organic reactions in both aqueous aerosols and clouds on isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) SOA over a range of pH for both aqueous phases, including cycling between cloud and aerosol within a single simulation. Low-pH aqueous aerosol, in the absence of organic coatings or other morphology which may limit uptake of IEPOX, is found to be an efficient source of IEPOX SOA, consistent with previous work. Cloudwater at pH 4 or lower is also found to be a potentially significant source of IEPOX SOA. This phenomenon is primarily attributed to the relatively high uptake of IEPOX to clouds as a result of higher water content in clouds as compared to aerosol. For more acidic cloudwater, the aqueous organic material is comprised primarily of IEPOX SOA and lower-volatility organic acids. For both cloudwater and aqueous aerosol, pH is the most significant factor considered in this study in determining the mass of aqueous phase organic acids and IEPOX SOA. Other factors, such as the time of day or sequence of aerosol-to-cloud or cloud-to-aerosol transitions, contribute to less than 15% difference in the final aqSOA fractional composition. The potential significance of cloud processing as a contributor to IEPOX SOA production could account for discrepancies between predicted IEPOX SOA mass from atmospheric models and measured ambient IEPOX SOA mass, or observations of IEPOX SOA in locations where mass transfer limitations are expected in aerosol particles.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0208.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Beijing; surface water; organic pollution; health risk assessment
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:37:11 CEST)
The study of the distribution and health risk assessment is meaningful to provide basic data for environmental management．To investigate the pollution of potential toxic organics and their health risk to human beings, water samples were collected at 7 sites of main surface water of Beijing during wet and dry seasons respectively. The targeted 92 organics were detected, including phthalates (PAEs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenols. The results showed that: there were 56 organics detected out, and the number ratios of detected compounds to the total compounds of the same kind increased as the following: VOCs, phthalates, phenols, PAHs. 8 VOCs were detected in wet season, and 3 in dry season. The concentration of 2,2-Dichloropropane was highest as 10.62ug/L, while the concentrations of other VOCs were below 5ug/L; There were 11 phthalates detected during dry season. The content of Bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate was highest as 188.47ng/L; 17 phenols were found in samples during wet season, and the highest concentration was 1244.73ng/L for 4-nitrophenol; PAHs could be detected in all samples, and the detected compounds and the corresponding average concentrations were higher in wet seasons than those in dry seasons, which indicated that non-point pollution was possibly the main pollution source. The health risk assessment of the detected 56 pollutants by using a model from US EPA showed that, the risk caused by the four kinds of toxic organics in this study was in the acceptable ranges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0140.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: waste cooking oils; plasticizers; syngas; volatile organic compounds
Online: 11 April 2019 (10:32:33 CEST)
The consideration toward Waste Cooking Oils (WCOs) is changing from hazardous waste to valuable raw material for industrial application. During the last five years some innovative processes based on the employment of recycled WCO have appeared in the literature. In the present review article, the most recent applications of recycled Waste Cooking Oil are reported and discussed. These include the production of bio-plasticizers, the application of chemicals derived from WCOs as energy vectors, and the use of WCOs as solvent for pollutant agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0625.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: organic solar cells; perovskite solar cells; encapsulation; stability
Online: 30 November 2018 (09:38:24 CET)
Photovoltaic is one of the promising renewable sources of power to meet the future challenge of energy need. Organic and perovskite thin film solar cells are an emerging cost-effective photovoltaic technology because of low-cost manufacturing processing and a light-weight. The main barrier of commercial use of organic and perovskite solar cells is the poor stability of devices. Encapsulation of these photovoltaic devices is one of the best ways to address this stability issue and enhance the device lifetime by employing materials and structures that possess high barrier performance for oxygen and moisture. The aim of this review paper is to find different encapsulation materials and techniques for perovskite and organic solar cells according to the present understanding of reliability issues. It discusses the available encapsulate materials and their utility in limiting chemicals such as water vapour, oxygen penetration. It also covers the mechanisms of mechanical degradation within the individual layers and solar cell as a whole, and possible obstacles to their application in both organic and perovskite solar cells. The contemporary understanding of these degradation mechanisms, their interplay and their initiating factors (both internal and external) are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0399.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: consumer perception; environment; health; income level; organic farming
Online: 25 June 2018 (16:40:48 CEST)
In the field of agricultural food production, the transition between organic and inorganic farming methods has been an issue of much debate. The debate, on one hand, stresses the urgency for the transition in order to preserve environment and health; and, on the other hand, emphasizes the pressure of maintaining food production for a large growing population. Thus, the dilemma is how to find an agricultural system that would balance between obtaining food security and ensuring a safe sustainably environment-friendly food production system. This article focuses on the debate, in the context of Bangladesh, and questions whether it is the proper time, and stage in the development process, to attempt the transition from inorganic conventional food production methods to organic food production methods. This article contemplates why the organic rice market is not expanding in Bangladesh, and attempts to explain the slow growth of the market through the two main factors of income constraint and lack of awareness among people about the environmental and health detriments of inorganic farming methods. The study is exploratory in nature, and finds that it is not mainly the lack of awareness but the income constraint that can be principally attributed to the slow expansion of the organic rice market in Bangladesh. Through exploring consumers’ awareness about organic farming methods and their demand for organic products, this study shows how income as the major constraint, besides price, affects consumers demand for organic and inorganic rice in Bangladesh. Income being identified as the major barrier reveals the potential of the organic rice market to grow in the future, as Bangladesh continues its journey towards becoming a middle-income country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: petroleum sludge; characterization; total organic carbon; metal concentration
Online: 8 August 2017 (13:24:39 CEST)
Thermal plasma technique is becoming prominent in the treatment of variety of waste ranging from municipal solid waste, incinerator residue, hospital waste, electronics waste and industrial sludge. Application of the new treatment technology to petroleum sludge requires information on the nature and characteristics of the sludge that will be use to optimize the treatment system. In this investigation, petroleum sludge obtained from Petronas Melaka was characterized for its physical and chemical features. Proximate and ultimate analysis as well as determination of elemental composition were carried out. The sludge was found to contain high moisture (78.91%), low ash (5.06%), low volatiles (5.52%) and high fixed carbon (10.51%). The sludge has a TOC of 54.48% and HHV of 23.599MJ/kg. Despite the high moisture content, the higher heating value (HHV) is high when compared to literature values. The high value of HHV may be associated with the high fixed carbon, low ash content and high value of TOC. The apparent density of the sludge is slightly lower. Fourteen heavy metals are detected in significant quantities. Proper waste management that will safely dispose the sludge is required. The waste disposal technique should take into cognizant the possibility of leaching of heavy metals into ground water on one hand and the gasification of lighter ones on the other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0030.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: neutral organic radical; perchlorotriphenylmethyl radical; tetrathiafulvalene; donor-acceptor
Online: 4 November 2016 (14:19:09 CET)
During the last years there has been a high interest in the development of new purely-organic single-component conductors. Very recently, we have reported a new neutral radical conductor based on the perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical moiety linked to a monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF) unit by a -conjugated bridge (1). Interestingly, this system behaves as a semiconductor with high conductivity and small energy gap under high pressure. With the aim of developing a new material with improved conducting properties, we have designed and synthesized the radical dyad 2 which was functionalized with an ethylenedithio (EDT) group in order to improve the intermolecular interactions of the TTF subunits. The physical properties of the new radical dyad 2 were studied in detail in solution to further analyze its electronic structure as well as its potential use as radical conductor in the solid state.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0133.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, graphene, reduced graphene oxide, organic functionalization, dye, organic photovoltaics, dye sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:07:43 CEST)
This review proposes an overview on the use of organic functionalized carbon nanostructures (CNSs) into solar energy conversion schemes. Our attention has focused in particular on the contribution given by organic chemistry to the development of new hybrid materials that find application in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC), organic photovoltaics (OPV), perovskite solar cells (PSC) and also in photocatalytic fuel production, focusing in particular on the most recent literature. The request for new materials able to accompany the green energy transition that are abundant, low cost, with low toxicity, from renewable sources has further increased the interest in CNSs that meet all these requirements. The inclusion of an organic molecule, thanks to both covalent and non-covalent interactions, into a CNS, leads to the development of a completely new hybrid material able of combining and improving the properties of both starting materials. Besides the numerical data, which unequivocally state the positive effect of the new hybrid material, we hope that these examples can be inspiring for further research in the field of photoactive materials from an organic point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0421.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: electrospinning; microfibers; piezoelectric crystals; nitroanilines; fluorescence; functional organic materials
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:22:10 CEST)
N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline (NNDM4NA, C8H10O2N2), is a superelastic and superplastic charge-transfer molecular crystal with a high molecular dipole moment, µ=7.95 D, which crystal-lizes in the acentric polar point group 2. Highly aligned poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) polymer micro-fibers with embedded NNDM4NA nanocrystals were fabricated using the electrospinning tech-nique. The composite fibers display an extraordinarily high piezoelectric output response, where for a small stress of 5.0x103 Nm-2, an effective piezoelectric voltage coefficient of geff=3.6 VmN-1 was obtained. The fibers were found to display solid state blue fluorescence with a long (147 ns) life-time decay. Furthermore, the composite fibers exhibit an average increase of 67% on the Young modulus reaching 55 MPa, while the tensile strength reaches 2.8 MPa when compared with solely PLLA fibers. The results show that nanocrystals, from small organic molecules, with elastic and piezoelectric properties form hybrid functional 2-dimensional luminescent array which are me-chanical strong and generate high output voltages making them promising for applications in energy harvesting and as solid-state blue emitters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0471.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: carbon sequestration; evolutionary game theory; organic fertilizer; food security
Online: 29 August 2022 (07:29:22 CEST)
The application of organic fertilizers plays a crucial role in achieving carbon sequestration in the agricultural sector. This paper discusses how farmers can more smoothly promote organic fertilizer extension services. An evolutionary game model is developed to describe the conflicting interests of Chinese farmers and local governments in organic fertilizer extension services, and the dynamic evolution of the game players and the influence of parameter adjustment on the strategic choices of both parties is presented. In this paper, the game model and the main results are validated with the help of simulation tools, and a sensitivity analysis of the selected parameters is performed. The results show that (1) the implementation of subsidy policy is less helpful for organic fertilizer extension services; (2) The ideal event probability of the game was found to be positively related to the cost of applying inorganic fertilizers, additional benefits to farmers, political returns to local governments, and penalties for not using organic fertilizers; (3) This is important for improving the performance of local governments, reducing government regulatory costs, improving policy support for organic fertilizer extension services, and reducing the cost of implementing organic fertilizer extension services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0340.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: eutrophication; phosphorus sorption; soil Olsen P; soil organic matter
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:40:00 CEST)
The Mediterranean region offers good weather conditions for outdoor pig production (OPP), which is considered more environmentally friendly than intensive indoor production. However, the continuous input of food and pigs' excreta increases the soil organic matter (SOM) and phosphorus (P), increasing the risk of waterbodies eutrophication. This work aimed at evaluating in OPP areas soil P dynamics and the role of SOM on P sorption and P release. The experiment was done for two years, at an area of 2.8 ha with an animal charge of 9 adults ha-1. Georeferenced soil samples were taken at 0.20 m depth, and a soil P sorption experiment was carried out. At the end of the experiment, for the background value, the levels of SOM increased between 85–376%, and Olsen P values ranged between -82–884%. SOM levels above 2% caused a decrease in the binding energy of P sorption according to the linear model b=-15.541SOM+115.20 (p <0.01) as well as a decrease of the soil P sorption capacity Qmax=-41.272SOM+298.37 (p <0.01). To avoid the accumulation of SOM and P preventing hotspots for waterbodies eutrophication, an adequate animal charge together with soil cultivation for pig grazing can be a cost-effective practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: dyslipidemia; fetal programing; lipid metabolism; NAFLD; persistent organic pollutants
Online: 3 September 2021 (13:56:53 CEST)
Animal studies have shown that developmental exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) permanently affect blood/liver balance of lipids. No human study has evaluated associations between in utero exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and later life lipid metabolism. In this pilot, maternal plasma levels of PBDEs (BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180) were determined at delivery in participants of GESTation and Environment (GESTE) cohort. Total cholesterol (TCh), triglycerides (TG), low and high density lipoproteins (LDL-C and HDL-C), total lipids (TL), and PBDEs were determined in serum of 147 children at ages 6-7. General linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between maternal POPs and child lipid levels with adjustment for potential confounders, and adjustment for childhood POPs. In utero BDE-99 was associated with lower childhood levels of TG (p=0.003), and non-significantly with HDL-C (p=0.06) and TL (p=0.07). Maternal PCB-138 was associated with lower childhood levels of TG (p=0.04), LDL-C (p=0.04), and TL (p=0.02). Our data indicate that in-utero exposures to POPs may be associated with long-lasting decrease in circulating lipids in children, suggesting increased lipid accumulation in the liver, a mechanism involved in NAFLD development, consistent with previously reported animal data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0158.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Organic Solar Cells; Triple Junction; Tandem, Energy Harvesting; Temperature.
Online: 6 April 2021 (09:21:56 CEST)
The organic solar cells (OSCs) have drawn attention in the past decade due to its cynosure in industrial manufacturing because of its promising properties such as low weight, highly flexible and low cost production. However, low η restricts the utilization of OSCs for potential application such as low cost energy harvesting devices. In this paper, OSCs structure based on triple junction tandem scheme is reported with three different absorber materials with the objective to enhance the absorption of photons which in turn improves the η, as well as its correlating performance parameters. The investigated structure gives the higher value of η = 14.33% with Jsc=16.87 (mA/m2), Voc=1.0 (V), and FF=84.97% by utilizing a stack of three different absorber layers with different band energies. The proposed structure is tested under 1.5 (AM) with 1 sun (W/m2). The impact of top, middle and bottom sub cells thickness on η is analyzed with a terse to find the optimum thickness for three sub cells to extract high η. The optimized structure is then tested with different electrode combination and the highest η is recorded with FTO/Ag. Moreover, the influence of upsurge temperature is also demonstrated on the proposed structure and observed that the upsurge temperature has greatly affected the electrical parameters of the device and η decreases from 14.33% to 11.40% when the temperature of the device rises from 300-400 K.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: organic acids; swine; broilers; digestibility; meat quality; meat preservation
Online: 5 April 2021 (09:34:20 CEST)
Because the application of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) causes accelerated adverse effects on the animal diet, the scientific community has taken progressive steps to enhance sustainable animal productivity without using AGP in animal nutrition. Organic acids (OAs) are non-antibiotic feed additives and a promising feeding strategy in the swine and broiler industry. Mechanistically, OAs improve productivity through multiple and diverse pathways: (a) reduction of pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by reducing the gut pH; (b) boosting the digestibility of nutrients by facilitating digestive enzyme secretion and increasing feed retention time in the gut system; (c) having a positive impact and preventing meat quality deterioration without leaving any chemical residues. Recent studies have reported the effectiveness of using encapsulated OAs and synergistic mechanisms of OAs combinations in swine and broiler productivity. On the other hand, the synergistic mechanisms of OAs and the optimal combination of OAs in the animal diet are not completely understood, and further intensive scientific explorations are needed. Moreover, the ultimate production parameters are not similar owing to the type of OAs, concentration level, growth phase, health status of animals, hygienic standards, and environmental factors. Thus, those factors need to be considered before implementing OAs in feeding practices. In conclusion, the current review evaluated the basics of OAs, mode of action, novel strategies to enhance utilization, influence on growth performances, nutrient digestibility, quality traits, and meat preservation of swine and broilers and their potential concerns regarding utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0314.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Grain yield; Maize; Organic and Inorganic fertilizers; Soil fertility
Online: 10 November 2020 (13:24:08 CET)
The study was carried out to determine the influence of organic and inorganic fertilizers on maize yield and soil fertility; to determine economically optimum organic and inorganic fertilizer combinations for maize production. The study was performed in a randomized complete block design consisting of 10 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were: Control, 100% of R-NP (138 N and 92 P), 100% of vermicompost,100% of conventional compost, 25% R-NP +75% of vermicompost, 50% of R-NP + 50% of vermicompost, 75% of R-NP+25% of from vermicompost, 25% of R-NP +75% of conventional compost, 50% of R-NP+50% of conventional-compost, 75% of R-NP +25% of conventional-compost. All rates of vermicompost and conventional compost were applied based on N equivalence. Results indicate that applications of inorganic fertilizers with a combination of organic source fertilizers were increases maize yield and yield components and improves the nutrient status of the soil. The highest maize grain yield (7494.3 kg ha-1) and above-ground biomass yield (18718.0 kg ha-1) were obtained from the applications of 50% recommended NP fertilizer plus 50% vermicompost which is based on the recommended N equivalent respectively. Similarly, we found that a combination of both inorganic and organic fertilizers application also is the best strategy to improve major soil nutrients, maintain soil fertility. The economic analysis revealed that the highest net benefit of (108,872.0 ETB ha-1) was obtained from the application of 50% recommended NP fertilizer plus 50% vermicompost based on the recommended N equivalence. Yet, the lowest yield and net benefit value were attained from the control or unfertilized plot. Therefore, this study suggests that an appropriate proportion of organic fertilizer with inorganic fertilizer not only for higher yield maize production with an assurance of potential economic returns to the small hold farmers but also improve and maintain the soil fertility and should be adopted with similar soil type and agro-ecologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0442.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Carbonaceous material; Raman spectra; gold deposit; Hainan; Organic matter
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:52:43 CEST)
Carbonaceous material (CM) is common in meta-sediments and is generally interpreted to be intimately associated with gold mineralization. For the Bumo deposit in Hainan Province, South China, CM is mainly hosted by greenschist facies- to amphibolite-facies metamophic rocks of the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Baoban Group and by auriferous veins and is used as an important gold prospecting indicator. However, the genesis of CM and the relationship with gold mineralization are still not clear. Field work and thin section observation indicates that two types of CM occur, i.e., layered and veinlet. Layered CM, up to meters thick, prevails in the deposit. More importantly, Au-bearing sulfides are commonly distributed along the boundary between the quartz veins and layered CM. In contrast, veinlet CM, co-precipitated with gold and sulfides, has the thickness of micro- to centi- meters, and these thin veins occur in quartz veins and hydrothermally altered rocks. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis indicates that layered CM has a stringy shape and laminate structure, while veinlet CM occurs as isometric particles. Raman carbonaceous material geothermometer indicates that layered CM with high maturity is formed at elevated temperatures of 400 – 550°C, consistent with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In contrast, veinlet CM with low maturity is formed at 200 – 350°C, generally consistent with gold mineralization. In addition, layered CM has δ13C values ranging from -30 to -20%, demonstrating a biogenic origin. Consequently, it is interpreted that layered CM is formed by a pre-ore metamorphic event during Caledonian, and its reducing nature promotes gold precipitation via destabilization of aqueous Au bisulfide complexes or facilitating sulfidation. Veinlet CM is hydrothermal origin, and its precipitation modified the chemical conditions of ore fluids, leading to the destabilization of Au complexes and thus favorable for mineralization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0227.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: peatland management; microbiome; methanogens; dissolved organic matter; Methylococcaceae; sulfate
Online: 16 February 2020 (16:22:46 CET)
Drained peatlands are significant sources of the greenhouse gas (GHG) carbon dioxide. Rewetting is a proven strategy to protect carbon stocks; however, it can lead to increased emissions of the potent GHG methane. The response to rewetting of soil microbiomes as drivers of these processes is poorly understood, as are biotic and abiotic factors that control community composition. We analyzed the pro- and eukaryotic microbiomes of three contrasting pairs of minerotrophic fens subject to decade-long drainage and subsequent rewetting. Also, abiotic soil properties including moisture, dissolved organic matter, methane fluxes and ecosystem respiration rates. The composition of the microbiomes was fen-type-specific, but all rewetted sites showed higher abundance of anaerobic taxa compared to drained sites. Based on multi-variate statistics and network analyses we identified soil moisture as major driver of community composition. Furthermore, salinity drove the separation between coastal and freshwater fen communities. Methanogens were more than tenfold more abundant in rewetted than in drained sites, while their abundance was lowest in the coastal fen, likely due to competition with sulfate reducers. The microbiome compositions were reflected in methane fluxes from the sites. Our results shed light on the factors that structure fen microbiomes via environmental filtering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0281.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: genetic algorithms; MOFs; metal-organic frameworks; molecular modelling; arrays
Online: 21 December 2019 (10:55:20 CET)
Gas sensor arrays, also known as electronic noses, leverage a diverse set of materials to identify the components of complex gas mixtures. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising materials for electronic noses due to their high-surface areas and chemical as well as structural tunability. Using our recently reported genetic algorithm design approach, we examined a set of 50 MOFs and searched through the over 1.125x1015 unique array combinations to identify optimal arrays for the detection of CO2 in air. We found that despite individual MOFs having lower selectivity for O2 or N2 relative to CO2, intelligently selecting the right combinations of MOFs enabled accurate prediction of the concentrations of all components in the mixture (i.e. CO2, O2, N2). We also analyzed the physical properties of the elements in the arrays to develop an intuition for improving array design. Notably, we find that diversity among the surface areas in the MOFs leads to improved sensing. Consistent with the observation, we found that, as one might expect, the best arrays consistently had more structural diversity than the worst arrays.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: beauty; life; scaling law; adaptation; differentiation; organic world view
Online: 19 September 2019 (04:12:01 CEST)
As Christopher Alexander conceived and defined through his life’s work – The Nature of Order – wholeness is a recursive structure that recurs in space and matter and is reflected in human minds and cognition. Based on the definition of wholeness, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed, and it is able to address not only why a structure is beautiful, but also how much beauty the structure has. Given the circumstance, this paper is attempted to argue for the wholeness as the scientific foundation of sustainable urban design and planning, with the help of the mathematical model and topological representation. We start by introducing the wholeness as a mathematical structure of physical space that pervasively exists in our surroundings, along with two fundamental laws – scaling law and Tobler’s law – that underlie the 15 properties for characterizing and making living structures. We argue that urban design and planning can be considered to be wholeness-extending processes, guided by two design principles of differentiation and adaptation, to transform a space – in a piecemeal fashion – into a living or more living structure. We further discuss several other urban design theories and how they can be justified by and placed within the theory of wholeness. With the wholeness as the scientific foundation, urban design can turn into a rigorous science with creation of living structures as the primary aim.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0101.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: adaptive capacity; multiple stressors; sustainable livelihoods; organic cattle raising
Online: 10 January 2019 (15:42:26 CET)
Using the sustainable livelihoods analytical framework, adaptability of cattle raising to multiple stressors (e.g. climate change and market conditions) in the dry tropics of Chiapas, Mexico was evaluated. Three case studies located in the Frailesca region of Chiapas were analyzed: (I) peasant cattle raising in a rural village in the Frailesca Valley; (II) peasant cattle raising in a rural village in a natural protected area in the Frailesca Highlands; and (III) holistic cattle raising by farmers with private land ownership in the Frailesca Valley. Adaptability was evaluated using an index on a scale of one to a hundred; average values were: case I = 20.9 ± 1.4; case II = 32.1 ± 1.8; and case III = 63.6 ± 3.5. In order to increase farms adaptability and reduce the vulnerability of cattle raising families, there is a need to modify public policy to take into account the conditions of the most vulnerable farmers (cases I and II). Given the economic, environmental, and social context of Mexico´s dry tropics, establishing ecological or organic cattle raising and silvopastoral systems may reduce the vulnerability of farm families and increase their level of adaptability of their farms to multiple stressors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0427.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: organic photovoltaics; charge transport; semi-empirical; kinetic Monte Carlo
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:09:55 CET)
Evaluating new, promising organic molecules to make next-generation organic optoelectronic devices necessitates the evaluation of charge carrier transport performance through the semi-conducting medium. In this work, we utilize quantum chemical calculations (QCC) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations to predict the zero-field hole mobilities of ~100 morphologies of the benchmark polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene), with varying simulation volume, structural order, and chain-length polydispersity. Morphologies with monodisperse chains were generated previously using an optimized molecular dynamics force-field and represent a spectrum of nanostructured order. We discover that a combined consideration of backbone clustering and system-wide disorder arising from side-chain conformations are correlated with hole mobility. Furthermore, we show that strongly interconnected thiophene backbones are required for efficient charge transport. This definitively shows the role "tie-chains" play in enabling mobile charges in P3HT. By marrying QCC and KMC over multiple length- and time-scales, we demonstrate that it is now possible to routinely probe the relationship between molecular nanostructure and device performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: parenteral nutrition, neonatal solution; calcium; phosphate; organic; inorganic; precipitation;
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:57:18 CEST)
The aim of the study was to determine the maximum safe concentration of calcium and phosphate in neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions when various combinations of inorganic and organic salts are applied. Twelve PN solutions for neonatal use were aseptically prepared. Increasing concentration of inorganic and organic calcium and phosphate were added to the standard formulas. Each admixture was separately tested according to following conditions; after mixing, 37°C for 24 h, and maximum safe combination of calcium and phosphate were stored at 4°C for 30 days and followed by 24 h at 37°C. Visual inspections against a black and white contrast background, microscopic observation of undiluted PN solutions as well as the membrane filter after filtration of the PN solution, pH evaluation, and spectrophotometry at 600 nm were examined in triplicate. Safe maximum concentration of organic and inorganic calcium and phosphate was proposed individually for each composition of parenteral nutrition solutions. Surprisingly organic calcium with organic phosphate showed precipitation but over the therapeutic range. The protective effect of amino acid was observed and higher concentrations of calcium and phosphate were free of precipitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0190.v1
Subject: Keywords: apricot; total phenolic; antioxidant activity; organic growing; Hasanbey; Alyanak
Online: 20 January 2018 (14:15:22 CET)
This research was carried out to see the effects of organic farming and determine the yield and some pomological characteristics of apricots in Isparta, Turkey. Isparta province which is located in the west Mediterranean part of Turkey has also gained importance in terms of especially organic apricot production. Two apricot varieties (Hasanbey, Alyanak) were grown with organic farming practices in this study. These two varieties are table types apricot varieties commonly grown in Turkey’s one of the world's major producers. In this research, pomological characteristics as fruit size (fruit height, fruit width, fruit weight, fruit length), fruit firmness, pH, total soluble solid (TSS) content, titrable acidity (TA) and yield values were determined. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity were also determined. Hasanbey cultivar had higher yield value (66.21 kg/tree) than Alyanak (45.71 kg/tree) cultivar. At the same time the total phenolic content of Hasanbey (307.12 mg GAE/100g) variety was determined higher than Alyanak (175.91 mg GAE/100g). Antioxidant activity of Alyanak and Hasanbey were determined as 32.86 mg/ml IC50 and 17.37 mg/ml IC50 respectively. In terms of observed characteristics, Hasanbey cultivar was found to be prominent in Isparta. It can also been recommended for other places similar to Isparta ecological conditions (highland climate).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0038.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sewage sludge recycling; soil organic fertility; heavy metals bioavailability
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:41:57 CET)
The biomass fraction of processed municipal and industrial wastes added to soil can maintain, and in some case improve, the soil’s organic fertility. One of the main constraints in the agricultural use of the sewage sludge is its content of heavy metals. In the long term, soil administration of sewage sludge in agriculture could result in a risk of environmental impact. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medium-term fertilization with sewage sludge diversely processed on the soil’s organic carbon content and humification – mineralization soil’s processes and on the physical and mechanical properties of soil. Furthermore, the heavy metals accumulation in soil, in their total and available form, has been investigated. After eight years of administration to soil, the use of sewage sludge as an agricultural soil amendment has contributed to maintaining the soil’s organic fertility. An increase in concentrations of total Ni and Zn was detected in soil. For bioavailable form (DTPA-extractable) this trend was evidenced for all heavy metals analysed. However, the concentrations of total and available heavy metals in the soil did not exceed the legal threshold established by Italian law for unpolluted soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0104.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: controlled releasefertilizer (CRF); organic fertilizer; nitrous oxide; row; canopy
Online: 15 March 2017 (09:01:01 CET)
A field experiment was conducted for 2 years in Green Tea Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Iruma, Saitama, Japan from March 2014 to December 2015. Controlled release fertilizers (CRF) or organic fertilizers (ORG) which is the mixture of chicken manure and oil cakewere applied with the amount of 450 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in 2014 and 397 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in 2015. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissionsfrom soil in green tea fields were measured by closed chamber method. The results showed that CRF has significantly lower N2O compared to ORG. The cumulative N2O emissions from CRF accounted for 51% of N2O emissions from ORG fields and 138% of control with no fertilizer treatment. The N2O flux from the row was higher than that of under the canopy, since fertilizer were applied on the row. However the total emission from the area between the rows was lower than that under the canopy because of the area ratio of row and canopy was 1:5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: organic pollutants; enzymatic remediation; sulforhodamine B; soybean peroxidase; chloroperoxidase
Online: 6 March 2017 (07:45:32 CET)
Enzymatic degradation of organic pollutants is a new and promising remediation approach. Peroxidases are one of the most commonly used classes of enzymes to degrade organic pollutants. However, it is generally assumed that all peroxidases behave similarly and produce similar degradation products. In this study, we conducted detailed studies of the degradation of a model aromatic pollutant, Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB dye), using two peroxidases—soybean peroxidase (SBP) and chloroperoxidase (CPO). Our results show that these two related enzymes had different optimum conditions (pH, temperature, H2O2 concentration...etc.) for efficiently degrading SRB dye. High-performance liquid chromatography and LC-mass spectrometry analyses confirmed that both SBP and CPO transformed the SRB dye into low molecular weight intermediates. While most of the intermediates produced by the two enzymes were the same, the CPO treatment produced at least one different intermediate. Furthermore, toxicological evaluation using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds demonstrated that the SBP-based treatment was able to eliminate the phytotoxicity of SRB dye, but the CPO-based treatment did not. Our results show, for the first time, that while both of these related enzymes can be used to efficiently degrade organic pollutants, they have different optimum reaction conditions and may not be equally efficient in detoxification of organic pollutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0007.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Crop production, Soil management, Soil Organic Carbon, Soil productivity
Online: 2 January 2017 (14:25:02 CET)
Crop productivity is directly dependent to soil fertility. High soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil is vital as it leads to improved soil quality, increased productivity, and stable soil-aggregates. In addition, with the signing of the climate agreement, there is growing interest in carbon sequestration in landscapes. This paper looks at how SOC can be increased so that it not only contributes to reduction of CO2, but also translates to increased food production thereby enhancing food security. This synergy between mitigation and enhancing food security is even more relevant for mountain landscapes of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region where there remains huge potential to increase CO2 sequestration and simultaneously address food security in the chronic food deficit villages. Soil samples were collected from seven transects each in Bajhang and Mustang and from 4 land use types in each transect. Samples of soils were taken from two depths in each plot; 0-15 cm below the soil surface and 15-30 cm below the soil surface to compare the top soil and subsoil dynamics of the soil nutrients. The lab analysis was performed to assess the soil texture, soil color, soil acidity in 'power of hydrogen' (pH), macro-nutrients as soil fertility. Secondary data was used to analyze the level of food deficit in the villages. The result shows that most of the sample soils from Mustang were clay (82.1%) which is 46 samples out of 56. The pH value of soil from Bajhang ranged from 5.29 to 9.09. The pH value of soil ranged from 5.65 to 8.81 in Mustang. SOC contents of sampled soils from Bajhang ranged from 0.20% to 7.69% with mean amount of 2.47% ± 0.17. SOC contents of sampled soils from Mustang ranged from 0.51% to 8.56% with mean amount of 2.60% ± 0.25. By land use type, forest land had the highest carbon (C) content of 53.61 t ha-1 in Bajhang whereas in Mustang, agricultural land had the highest C content of 52.02 tons ha-1. Based on these data, we can say that there is potential for increasing SOC through improved soil health and crop production and soil. Sustainable soil management should be practiced for higher productivity. Livestock may also provide farmyard manure, which can be used to fertilize cultivated soils, which increases soil productivity. Increasing productivity would aid in increasing the access and availability of food in these mountain villages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0308.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Olive pruning; compost; recycling; Capsicum annuum L.; soil organic carbon (SOC); soil organic matter (SOM); olive young tree; Olea europaea L.; peat replacement.
Online: 20 January 2022 (14:26:24 CET)
To substitute of conventional manure and peat with alternatives sourcing from environmental conservation concerns, several promising alternatives has been attracting scientific parties’ interest, recently. However, among them compost perform the best, mostly and support carbon sequestration and mitigation against climate change. The article describes the made locally produced 70% in volume olive pruning branches compost (COMP) performance in two trials as an organic amendment in pepper production and an olive sapling substrate during 2019-2021 organic management in Turkey. The application of COMP to pepper trial conducted using factorial randomised block design with 4 replications and 6 treatments increased total organic matter and soil organic carbon, significantly (p<0.05) as compared to non-used plots in two locations. The olive sapling trial was conducted using a randomised plot design with 4 replications and 4 treatments. After the 12 months of growth, compost had the largest architecture rooted plants significantly different (p<0.05). Fresh volume (cm3) of COMP used saplings were obtained 35% less than 40% peat treatment, significantly (p<0.05) while 6th month measurement was found as 40%. It is concluded that to enhance circular economy recycling and composting olive pruning branches is lucrative for the country to reduce external input usage in organic horticultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0271.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: non-enzymatic sensor; glucose; cobalt metal-organic framework; electrochemical detection
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:26:09 CEST)
The integration of metal nanoparticles and solid carriers can achieve ideal stability, high load and good conductivity. In this work, copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were sequentially deposited on a cobalt metal-organic framework (Co-MOF) by bonding with exposed imino groups, followed by a reduction reaction to prepare a new Cu@Co-MOF composite. Cu@Co-MOF acts as a non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor to detect glucose (Glu) in an alkaline medium. The composite working electrode of Cu@Co-MOF/GCE (GCE = glassy carbon electrode) improves the electrocatalytic activity for Glu oxidation. Cu@Co-MOF/GCE shows excellent electrocatalytic performances in Glu concentration ranging 0.005~1.8 mmol∙L−1 (mM): the sensitivities are 282.89 μA∙mM−1∙cm−2 in 0.005-0.4 mM Glu and 113.15 μA∙mM−1∙cm−2 in 0.4-1.8 mM Glu respectively with low detection limit of 1.6 μM (S/N = 3) and high selectivity and stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0246.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: meat attachment; food neophobia; consumer preference; preference for organic foods
Online: 27 April 2022 (03:45:28 CEST)
Meat-based diets are still the norm and vegans and vegetarians represent only a small minority of the population. A transition respectively behavioural change towards a diet with less meat can only occur with the adoption of a positive attitude towards dietary changes based on reasons and motivations. The main aim of this study is to validate the so-called meat attachment scale (MEAS) for Germany in order to analyse if this construct is a barrier towards a diet with less meat in this country. The findings show that the MEAS can be applied in Germany and a similar structure as reported for Spain and other countries could be found. Furthermore, a correlation analysis demonstrated that food neophobia and MEAS are not correlated with each other. That is, that meat attachment represents an independent and single predictor for trust in food (processing) technologies as e.g. plant-based proteins or cultured meat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0088.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Iodine; leaching; HYDRUS 1D model; Simulation; Organic and inorganic amendments
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:07:01 CEST)
This study investigated the ability of a HYDRUS 1D model for predicting the vertical distribution of potassium iodine (200 ppm) in soil columns after amendment with five different common remediation materials (gypsum, lime, fly ash, charcoal and sawdust) at a rate of 2.5% (w/w), relative to an unamended control soil. Results shows that relative to the unamended soil, iodine leaching was decreased by all amendments but that the magnitude of the decreases varied with the soil amendment applied. Iodine content was highest in the upper layer of the soil columns and decreased progressively with soil depth. The model was evaluated via comparison of the model simulated values with measured values from the soil column studies. The results showed that the HYDRUS 1D model efficiency was near to 1, indicating that the stimulated results were near to the measured values. Therefore, this study showed that iodine leaching through a soil could be ascertained well using a HYDRUS 1D model. The model over predicted iodine leaching, resulting to a weak correspondence between the simulated and the measured results for iodine leaching. This suggests that the HYDRUS-1D model does not explain accurately different organic and inorganic amended soil and the preferential flow that occurs in these columns. This may be due to the fact that Freundlich isotherm, which is part of the transport equations, does not sufficiently describe the mechanism of iodine adsorption onto the soil particles. This study would help to select amendments for an effective management strategy to reduce exogenous iodine losses from agro-ecosystems. This would also improve understanding of iodine transport in soil profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0108.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Organic acid; Digestive enzymes; Immune response; Microencapsulation; Vibrio sp.; Shrimp
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:44:12 CEST)
Use of antibiotics and other chemicals to combat disease outbreaks have been a bottleneck for the sustainable growth of shrimp industry. Among various replacement proposed, organic acid (OA) and their salts (OS) are commonly used by farmers and feed millers. However, in free forms, their requirement is very high (2-3 kg/MT) as they tend to disassociate before reaching the hindgut. The dosage can be reduced by microencapsulation of the ingredients. In this study, a 63-day trial was conducted to assess the effects of OA and OS (COMP) microencapsulated (ENCAP) with fat (HF), fat + alginate (HA), wax esters – (WE), and HA and WE (HAWE) on performance, digestive enzyme, immune, and resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A positive control (PC, 200 g/kg fishmeal - FM) and a negative control (NC, 130 g/kg FM) diet were formulated. Eight other diets were formulated supplementing NC diet with microencapsulated OA (OAHF, OAHA, OAWE, OAHAWE) and OS (OSHF, OSHA, OSWE, OSHAWE). Among the ENCAPs, significant difference was observed in serum malondialdehyde (P = 0.026) where HF showed the lowest level (6.4 ±0.3 mmol/L). Significant interactions between COMP and ENCAP were observed in lipid deposition (P = 0.047), serum alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase (P < 0.0001), and hepatopancreatic and serum phenol oxidase (P < 0.0001). Despite no differences, 96-h mortality during pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge in all treatment diets (45% - 56%) was lower compared to the NC diets (63%). In conclusion, use of HF microencapsulated OA diets could provide improved performance and disease resistance that could contribute to the reduction of antibiotic use by the shrimp industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0455.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: organic wastes; cow manure; CO2 effluxes; ammonia stripping; C:N ratio
Online: 20 May 2021 (07:37:58 CEST)
Although carbon (C) efflux from soils treated with organic wastes was widely covered in temperate and cold regions, still such data is not sufficient from arid and semi-arid regions. Saudi Arabia produces more than 335,000 tons/year of cow manure (CM), this CM either left as raw manure or being composted. The application of high C/N amendments is expected to increase soil organic carbon and reduce CO2 fluxes. A 90-day incubation experiment was conducted to study CO2 efflux, organic C microbial biomass C, available NH4+and NO3-when added to agricultural soil. Six manure types were added: cow manure, cow manure compost, cow manure biochar, cow manure stripped ammonia at pH 12 with a temperature of 95oC, cow manure stripped ammonia at pH 9 with a temperature of 95oC and control. The application of CM resulted in a considerable increase in soil available nitrogen, CO2 efflux compared to other treatments. Cow manure biochar showed the lowest CO2 efflux. Cumulative CO2 effluxes of cow manure effluents were lower than CM this possibly due to the relatively high C:N ratio of manure effluent. The content of, P, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were decreased as incubation time increased. microbial biomass C of cow manure stripped ammonia at pH 12 with a temperature of 95oC were increased at 7 and 60 days illustrating to temperature effect on the decomposing of manure materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0293.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Metal-Organic Framework; MOF-801; Modulators; Ethanol; Marangoni Flow Effect
Online: 10 March 2021 (16:22:10 CET)
We report that ethanol, used together with water, plays a crucial role in tuning the structures of a zirconium-based Metal-Organic Framework, the 12-connected MOF-801, and the possible mechanisms of this modulating effect. By employing the cosolvent system of ethanol and water just under room temperature without the presence of a monotopic carboxylic acid as the modulator, MOF-801 in various morphologies of different sizes can be synthesized. The linear correlation between the ethanol/water ratio and the crystal sizes is also demonstrated. The growth mechanism is mainly explained by ethanol’s binding with the metal ion clusters and the Marangoni Flow Effect. Ethanol competes with the linker molecules in coordinating with the Zr metal clusters, a role similar to that of the modulators. The Marangoni Flow Effect, which dominates at a certain solvent ratio, further promotes the 1-D alignment of the MOF-801 crystals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0584.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Bio-organic fertilizer; Bio-chemical fertilizer; Grain yield; N-Fixer
Online: 24 July 2020 (13:46:30 CEST)
The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of All Cosmos Industries (ACI) bio-organic and bio-chemical fertilizers and ACI N-Fixer (N-Bio Booster) on the paddy yields based on the field trial plots at Langkat, Medan, Indonesia. This application of ACI bio-organic fertilizer (NPK 5/5/5) and ACI bio-chemical (NPK 15/15/15) fertilizer and ACI N-Fixer tests were conducted at the paddy farm at Langkat from May-October 2018. This study employed a factorial randomized complete block design which consisted of two factors, namely: Factor I with four types of fertilizers while Factor II consisted of two paddy varieties (Inpari 30 and Inpari 32). Overall, the filled grains in the ACI treatments are significantly (P< 0.05) higher than those in the control treatments that used Normal Chemical Compound NPK. Overall, total weight per meter² (368-617g) in ACI treatments are also significantly (P< 0.05) higher than those (319-371g) in the control treatments. At harvesting time at 105 days after transplanting, significantly higher (P< 0.05) colony counts (13-15 x 106 CFU/mL) (for ACI treatments), than those (8 x 106 CFU/mL) in the controls positively indicated higher total yields of paddy grains per hectare. It was found that the application of ACI bio-organic and bio-chemical fertilizers and ACI N-Fixer can improve paddy yields of the two rice varieties, between 16.4-38.2% (up to 5.75 MT/ha), in the field trial plots at Langkat. These commercial fertilizers play an imperative role in refining the soil fertility and thereby can increase the yield of rice production. Therefore, it is highly recommended that ACI bio-organic and ACI bio-chemical fertilizers and ACI N-Fixer (N-Bio Booster) can be employed to increase the paddy yield in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0223.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Iron oxides; nanoparticles; organic dye degradation; photocatalytic effect; antibacterial behavior
Online: 11 July 2020 (03:38:48 CEST)
Currently, the use of sustainable chemistry as an ecological alternative for the generation of products or processes, free of polluting substance has assumed a preponderant role. The aim of this work is propose a bioinspired, facile, at low cost, non-toxic and environmentally friendly alternative to obtaining magnetic nanoparticles whit a majority phase of magnetite (Fe3O4). Is important to empathize that the synthesis was based on the chemical reduction through the Cnicus Benedictus extract, whose use as reducing agent has not been reported in the synthesis of iron oxides nanoparticles. In addition, the Cnicus Benedictus is abundant endemic plant in Mexico, with several medicinal properties and a large number of natural antioxidants. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited significant magnetic and antibacterial properties and an enhanced photocatalytic activity. The crystallite size of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NP’s) was calculated by Williamson-Hall method. The photocatalytic properties of the Fe3O4 NP´s were studied by kinetics absorptions models in the Congo red (CR) degradation. Finally the antibacterial effect of the Fe3O4 NP´s were evaluated mediated the Kirby-Bauer method against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria. This route offers a green alternative to obtain Fe3O4 NP´s with remarkable magnetic, photocatalytic and antibacterial properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0309.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: growth rate; vigor; UAV; sUAS; organic; weed competitiveness; Phaseolus vulgaris
Online: 19 April 2020 (01:30:11 CEST)
Vigorous early-season growth rate allows crops to compete more effectively against weeds and to conserve soil moisture in arid areas. Many crop species, including common bean, show genetic variation in growth rate between varieties. Despite this, the genetic basis of the early-season growth-related traits has not been well resolved in the species, in part due to historic phenotyping challenges. Using a range of UAV- and ground-based methods, we evaluated early-season growth vigor of two populations. These growth data were then used to find QTLs associated with several growth parameters. Our results suggest that early-season growth rate is the result of complex interactions between several genetic and environmental factors and highlight the need for the high-precision phenotyping provided by UAVs. The QTLs identified in this study are the first in common bean to be identified remotely using UAV technology and will be useful for developing crop varieties that compete with weeds more effectively. Ultimately, this will reduce crop losses and mitigate the need for herbicides and manual labor for weed control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0037.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: magnetic covalent organic frameworks; nanocomposite; core-shell; p-nitrophenol; reduction
Online: 4 February 2020 (05:09:06 CET)
In this work, magnetic CuFe2O4/Ag nanoparticles activated by porous covalent organic frameworks (COF) was fabricated to evaluate the heterogenous reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The core-shell CuFe2O4/Ag@COF was successfully prepared by polydopamine reduction of silver ions on CuFe2O4 nanoparticles, followed by COF layer condensation. With integrating the intrinsic characteristics of the magnetic CuFe2O4/Ag core and COF layer, the obtained nanocomposite exhibited features of high specific surface area (464.21 m2 g-1), ordered mesoporous structure, strong environment stability, as well as fast magnetic response. Accordingly, the CuFe2O4/Ag@COF catalyst showed good affinity towards 4-NP via π-π stacking interactions and possessed enhanced catalytic activity compared with CuFe2O4/Ag and CuFe2O4@COF. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of CuFe2O4/Ag@COF (0.77 min-1) is 3 and 5 times higher than CuFe2O4/Ag and CuFe2O4@COF, respectively. The characteristics of bi-catalytic CuFe2O4/Ag and the porous COF shell of CuFe2O4/Ag@COF made a contribution to improve the activity of 4-NP reduction. The present work demonstrated a facile strategy to fabricate COF activated nano-catalysts with enhanced performance in the fields of nitrophenolic wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0072.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Faraday rotation; Thin films; Magneto-optics; Organic material; Tolane derivatives
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:26:26 CEST)
We present organic, diamagnetic materials based on structurally simple (hetero-) tolane derivatives. They form crystalline thin-film aggregates that are suitable for Faraday rotation (FR) spectroscopy. The resulting new materials are characterized appropriately by common spectroscopic (NMR, UV-Vis), microscopy (POM), and XRD techniques. The spectroscopic studies give extremely high FR activities thus makes these materials promising candidates for future practical applications. Other than a proper explanation, we insist in the complexity of designing efficient FR materials starting off from single molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0353.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: organic food; sustainable consumption; visualization; personal shopping data; reflection; feedback
Online: 31 July 2019 (11:11:50 CEST)
Although food retailers have embraced organic certified food products as a way to reduce their environmental loading, organic sales only make up a small proportion of total sales worldwide. Most consumers have positive attitudes towards organic food, but attitudes are not reflected in behaviour. This article addresses consumers’ attitude-behaviour gap regarding their purchase organic food and reports on how visualization of personal shopping data may encourage them to buy more organic food. Through the design of the visualization tool, the EcoPanel, and through an empirical study of its use, we provide evidence on the potential of the tool to promote sustainable food shopping practices. Sixty-five users tested the EcoPanel for five months and interviews were made with ten of these. The test users increased their purchase of organic food with 23%. The informants used the EcoPanel to reflect on their shopping behaviour and to increase their organic shopping. We conclude that the visualization of food purchases stimulates critical reflection and the formation of new food shopping practices. This implies that food retailers may increase sales of organic food through using a visualization tool available for their customers. In this way these retailers may decrease their environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0183.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; biogas; green energy; municipal solid waste; organic waste
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:33:58 CEST)
Global waste generation keeps increasing over the year and requires innovative solutions to minimize their impacts on environmental quality and public health. Predicted 2.2 billion tonnes per year of global municipal waste generation in the year 2025 which 1.6 fold is higher than in 2012. Hence, a strategic plan must be ascertained to overcome the future challenges of MSW locally and globally. Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) coined an initiative to demonstrate a showcase pilot plant for green energy production from MSW. Therefore, the data was obtained from the survey and actual sampling within the UPM compound to estimate the MSW generated and it's potentially used for green energy production. It is estimated that 5.0 – 7.0 tonne per day of MSW generated which about 30 - 35% is an organic fraction. Upon separation, the organic fractions were digested into biogas through anaerobic. At the maximum conversion of organic fraction, about 775 kWh of electricity may able to generate from the waste. In this study, the complete biorefinery setup and utilize organic components from the MSW generated in UPM was proposed that the biogas subsequently will be used to produce green energy in the form of electricity or cooking fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0515.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: EMICORON; organic synthesis; synthesis improvements; G-quadruplex structures; anticancer activity
Online: 26 July 2018 (14:25:19 CEST)
In this paper, the modification of two synthetic steps to obtain EMICORON, with respect to the usual protocol, is reported. EMICORON is a benzo[ghi]perylen-diimmide which was synthesized the first time in our laboratory in 2012 and showed to have in-vivo antitumor activities interfering with tumor growth and development by a multi-target mechanism of action. The provided modifications regarded the reaction times and the reaction conditions as well as the work-up procedures and allowed to increase the global yield of the process from 28% to about 40%. Thus, this new procedure may be more suitable in order to get larger amounts of EMICORON for further preclinical studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0215.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: fly ash; nanocomposite; environmental pollution; volatile organic compounds; heavy metal
Online: 16 April 2018 (16:15:22 CEST)
Air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), as well as water pollutants including heavy metal, are harmful to human and environment. Effective control and reduction of their pollution is therefore an important topic for today’s scientists. Fly ash (FA) is a type of industrial waste that can cause multiple environmental problems if discharged into the air. On the other hand, because of its high porosity, large specific surface area, and other unique characteristics, the FA can also be used as a low-cost and high efficient adsorbent with some simple modifications. This paper reviews the effects of FA on treatment of the above air and water pollution based on our research experience over many years, including to the current status of global FA utilization, physicochemical properties, principle of adsorption, and the application direction of FA in the future. It focuses on the use of nanocomposite technology to fabricate functional FA fibrous membranes to adsorb VOCs from air, and treat heavy metal wastewater. This present review first describes the fabrication technology of FA nanocomposites and their mechanism of adsorption VOCs from air. Utilization of nanofiber technology to fabricate multi-functional FA emerging composite materials to mitigate air and water pollution has great potential in the future, especially use of pollutant material to control other pollutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0083.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: quantum spin liquids; quantum spin frustration; organic compounds; thermal expansion
Online: 14 December 2017 (06:55:06 CET)
The quasi-two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salt κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3 is one of the prime candidates for a quantum spin-liquid due the strong spin frustration of its anisotropic triangular lattice in combination with its proximity to the Mott transition. Despite intensive investigations of the material's low-temperature properties, several important questions remain to be answered. Particularly puzzling are the 6 K anomaly and the enigmatic effects observed in magnetic fields. Here we report on low-temperature measurements of lattice effects which were shown to be particularly strongly pronounced in this material (R. S. Manna et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 016403 (2010)). A special focus of our study lies on sample-to-sample variations of these effects and their implications on the interpretation of experimental data. By investigating overall nine single crystals from two different batches, we can state that there are considerable differences in the size of the second-order phase transition anomaly around 6 K, varying within a factor of 3. In addition, we find field-induced anomalies giving rise to pronounced features in the sample length for two out of these nine crystals for temperatures T < 9 K. We tentatively assign the latter effects to B-induced magnetic clusters suspected to nucleate around crystal imperfections. These B-induced effects are absent for the crystals where the 6 K anomaly is most strongly pronounced. The large lattice effects observed at 6 K are consistent with proposed pairing instabilities of fermionic excitations breaking the lattice symmetry. The strong sample-to-sample variation in the size of the phase transition anomaly suggests that the conversion of the fermions to bosons at the instability is only partial and to some extent influenced by not yet identified sample-specific parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0425.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: quorum sensing; autoinducer; organic plant extracts; biofilms; swimming motility; swarming motility
Online: 27 July 2022 (15:07:29 CEST)
Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of intra- and inter-species communication system which is employed by bacteria to regulate their collective behavior in a cell population-dependent manner. QS has been implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic bacteria. This work aimed to investigate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) potential of ethanolic extracts of eight aromatic plants of Cyprus namely, Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Lavendula spp., Calendula officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Sideritis cypria, and Aloysia citriodora. We initially assess the effects of the extracts on autoinducer 2 (AI-2) signaling activity, using Vibrio harveyi BB170 as a reported strain. We subsequently assess the effect of the ethanolic extracts on QS-related processes including biofilm formation and swarming and swimming motilities of Escherichia coli MG1655. Of the tested ethanolic extracts those of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Salvia officinalis were the most potent AI-2 signaling inhibitors while the extracts from the other plants exhibited low to moderate inhibitory activity. The three ethanolic extracts also inhibited the biofilm formation (>60%) of E. coli MG1655, as well as its swimming and swarming motility in a concentration-dependent manner. These extracts may consider true anti-QS inhibitors because they disrupt QS-related activities of E. coli MG1655 without affecting bacterial growth. The results suggest that plants from the unexplored flora of Cyprus could serve as a source to identify novel anti-QS inhibitors to treat infectious diseases caused by pathogens resistant to antibiotics
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0030.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: naturally organic boron containing compounds; prebiotic candidate; microbiome; intestinal microflora; symbiosis
Online: 2 June 2022 (09:04:15 CEST)
Boron (B) is considered a prebiotic chemical element with a role in both the origin and evolution of life, as well as an essential micronutrient for plants, some bacteria, fungi, and algae. B has beneficial effects on the biological functions of humans and animals, such as reproduction, growth, calcium metabolism, bone formation, energy metabolism, immunity, brain function, and steroid hormones. In the future, naturally organic B (NOB) species may become promising novel prebiotic candidates. We included the most relevant works about NOB species, starting from our 30-year research experience. NOB-containing compounds have been shown essential for the symbiosis between different kingdoms. New insights into the essentiality of NOB species for healthy symbiosis between the human/animal host and the microbiota will determine the use of natural B-based nutraceuticals to target the colon (colonic foods). The mechanism of action (MoA) of NOB species is related to both the B signaling molecule [autoinducer-2–borate (AI-2B)], as well as the fortification of the colonic mucous gel layer with NOB species from the specific prebiotic boron-rich diet. Therefore, both microbiota and the mucous gel layer of the colon become the NOB species’ target. This paper reviews the evidence supporting the essentiality of the NOB species on the symbiosis between the microbiota and the human/animal host with the stated aim of highlighting the MoA and target of these species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0101.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: electronic paste; organic vehicle; mixed-solvents; solubility parameter; low residual rate
Online: 7 December 2021 (11:46:21 CET)
The copper end paste used in multilayer ceramic capacitors sintered in nitrogen atmosphere will lead to carbon residue of organic vehicle, which will lead to the reduction of electrode conduc-tivity and high scrap rate. With an attempt to leave no residue in the sintering, the compatibility of solvents and thickeners should be improved because it has an important influence on the hi-erarchical volatilization and carbon residue of organic vehicles. In this work, the volatility of different solvents was compared and several solvents were mixed in a definite proportion to prepare an organic vehicle with polyacrylate resins. The hierarchical volatility and solubility parameters of mixed solvents were adjusted effectively by changing proportions of different components, the thermogravimetric curves of resins and organic vehicles were measured by thermogravimetric analyzer, the effect of solubility parameter on the dissolvability of resins in the solvent and the residual of organic vehicles were studied. Results showed that the hierar-chical volatilization of solvents can be obtained by mixing different solvents; the intrinsic vis-cosity of the organic vehicle is higher and the thermal decomposition residue of polyacrylate resins is lower when the solubility parameters of mixed solvents and polyacrylate resins are closer. The low residual sintering of organic vehicles can be achieved by using the mixed solvent with hierarchical volatility and approximate solubility parameters as resins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0309.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Trichoderma atroviride; volatile organic compounds; tomato; biostimulation; biocontrol; Fusarium wilt disease
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:03:42 CEST)
The promotion of plant growth and suppression of plant disease using beneficial microorganisms is considered an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizers or pesticides in the field. In this study, a coconut-scented antagonistic Trichoderma strain LZ42, previously isolated from Genoderma lucidum-cultivated soil, was investigated for biostimulatory and biocontrol functions in tomato seedlings. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses suggested that strain LZ42 is closely related to T. atroviride. Tomato plants showed increased aerial and root dry weights in greenhouse trials after treatment with T. atroviride LZ42 formulated in talc, indicating the biostimulatory function of this fungus. T. atroviride LZ42 effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease in tomato seedlings, with an 82.69% control efficiency, which is similar to that of fungicide treatment. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by T. atroviride LZ42 were found to affect the primary root growth direction and promote the root growth of tomato seedlings in root Y-tube olfactometer assays. The fungal VOCs from T. atroviride LZ42 were observed to significantly inhibit F. oxysporum in a sandwiched Petri dish assay. SPME-GC-MS analysis revealed several VOCs emitted by T. atroviride LZ42; the dominant compound was tentatively identified as 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (6-PP). 6-PP exhibited a stronger ability to influence the direction of the primary roots of tomato seedlings but not the length of the primary roots. The inhibitory effect of 6-PP on F. oxysporum was the highest among the tested pure VOCs, showing a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 5.76 μL mL-1 headspace. In conclusion, T. atroviride LZ42, which emits VOCs with multiple functions, is a promising agent for the biostimulation of vegetable plants and integrated management of Fusarium wilt disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0775.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land Degradation; Land Productivity Dynamics; Vegetation Cover Change; Soil Organic Carbon
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:29:58 CEST)
Land degradation a serious and nationwide environmental concern in Ethiopia. The problem is its iterative relationship between land degradation, climate change, and agriculture, exacerbating one another via negative and positive feedback loops. Due to the need for an efficient response to land degradation in the country, different sustainable land management practices have been implemented since the late 1980s. The objective of this study was to analyze land degradation neutrality status using remote sensing data in the study area. We have studied the land degradation neutrality conditions of the North Wello Zone by using indicators data, namely land cover change, land productivity dynamics, and soil organic carbon stock. The result shows that the settlement areas consistently expanded at the fifth speed (2010-2018) from 1995 to 2010. Between 1995 and 2010, forestland declined by 18 percent, while an increasing trend of 26.8 percent from 2010 to 2018. The assessment results also indicate that 52.8 percent of the total area is stable and characterized by less stressed land productivity. The soil organic carbon is comparatively abundant in the high and midland vegetation areas but very thin in lowland areas. Most of the highland and midland parts of the study areas are in the conditions of stable and increasing land productivity with high biomass and soil organic content. However, most lowland areas showed a decline in land productivity conditions.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: organic rice; agricultural research; participation; public funding; scientists; monitoring and evaluation
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:57:32 CET)
This paper reports on the conception and implementation of a participatory approach within an agricultural research project aimed at fostering the transition towards organic in the Italian rice district. We investigate the relationships among scientists and stakeholders, exploring researchers’ attitudes, barriers, and potential in relation to participatory research. We use participant observation, in-depth interviews, and systematic cataloguing of communication documents, from the beginning to two years into project implementation, for a total period of three years. The results of the analysis show that, despite a high level of authoritative commitment to participation, scientists reveal a scarcity of knowledge and skills, and poor attitudes that come from a negative perception of participatory research. They engage in various forms of collaboration with stakeholders, as long as decision-making remains essentially in their hands. With the deep analysis of a case study, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on the quality of participatory agricultural research, in particular presenting evidence on the key role of researchers and their attitudes. The paper also contributes to the development of a culture of learning by doing, through honest monitoring and evaluation, and the capacity to learn from failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0306.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Oil-producing microorganism; Rhodotorula mucilaginosa; liquid fermentation; extraction; green organic solvent
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:45:25 CET)
This study was focused on the development of oil-producing microorganisms to generate lipids. The yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (R. mucilaginosa) was selected for liquid-state cultivation, and the conditions for growth of the yeast cells were assessed. Additionally, the relationships between different nutrient elements and the growth of R. mucilaginosa were explored. The lipid accumulation of R. mucilaginosa is increased under nitrogen-restricted conditions. As the concentration of the carbon source increases, the accumulation of lipids is increased. However, if the carbon source concentration is further increased, the growth of yeast is inhibited. From a large-scale liquid fermentation culture with a fixed inoculation amount of 5%, and from a batch of culture experiments, it was determined that a suitable oil-producing culture was obtained on the 6th day, and the optimum conditions involved a carbon source concentration of 60 g/L, a nitrogen source concentration of 0.5 g/L, and a KH2PO4 concentration of 7.0 g/L. After utilizing different carbon sources in this study, it was found that glucose was the carbon source most conducive to the accumulation of R. mucilaginosa lipids. In addition, the extraction method and solvent for the extraction of R. mucilaginosa lipids were chosen. The acid-heat method using the green organic solvent ethyl acetate exhibited the best performance for extraction of yeast lipids under environmentally friendly and safe conditions. The analysis of lipids showed that the fatty acids obtained primarily contained C16:0, C18:1 and C18:2, and especially C18:1 (41%) lipids, indicating that R. mucilaginosa lipids are a good bio-oil source for the production of biodiesel.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: multiferroics; metal-organic perovskites; magneto-electric effect; magnetic anisotropy, canted antiferromagnet
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:36:42 CET)
Hybrid metal-organic compounds as relatively new and prosperous magnetoelectric multiferroics provide opportunities to improve the polarization, magnetization and magneto-electric coupling at the same time, which usually have some limitations in the common type-I and type-II multiferroics. In this work we investigate the crystal of guanidinium copper(II) formate [C(NH2)3]Cu(HCOO)3 and give novel insights concerning the structure, magnetic, electric and magneto-electric behaviour of this interesting material. Detailed analysis of crystal structure at 100 K is given. Magnetization points to the copper(II)-formate spin-chain phase that becomes ordered below 4.6 K into the canted antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, as a result of super-exchange interaction over different formate bridges. The performed ab-initio colinear density functional theory (DFT) calculation confirm the AFM-like ground state as a first approximation and explain the coupling of spin-chains into the AFM ordered lattice. In versatile measurements of magnetization of a crystal, including transverse component besides the longitudinal one, very large anisotropy is found that might originate from canting of the coordination octahedra around copper(II) in cooperation with the canted AFM order. With cooling down in zero fields the generation of spontaneous polarization is observed step-wise below 270 K and 210 K and the effect of magnetic field on its value is observed also in the paramagnetic phase. Measured polarization is somewhat smaller than the DFT value in the c-direction, possibly due to twin domains present in the crystal. The considerable magneto-electric coupling below the magnetic transition temperature is measured with different orientations of the crystal in magnetic field, giving altogether the new light onto the magneto-electric effect in this material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0051.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Metal-Organic Framework; Photocatalysis; Band-Gap modulation; Strain Engineering; Catalyst Selectivity.
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:00:06 CET)
In recent years, the class of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials emerged. These materials' unique properties can be assigned to their structure, containing inorganic nodes connected with organic linkers. Due to their porosity and flexibility, MOFs have become suitable for various energy-related applications, including gas storage, hydrogen production and heterogeneous catalysis, and photocatalysis. Using DFT+U calculations, we show that the substitution of metal centers in inorganic nodes and the strain engineering of UiO-66 alters the electronic and optical properties of this material. We show that applying mechanical strain on UiO-66 enables the control of absorption coefficient in the UV-Vis spectrum and the photocatalytic processes' selectivity when reactants for several photocatalytic processes are present. The presented findings could lead to general strategies for designing novel MOFs for sustainable energy conversion applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0475.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: sol–gel method; polyurethane; flame retardant; organic-inorganic hybrid; synergistic effect
Online: 18 December 2020 (15:01:40 CET)
This study used the sol–gel method to synthesize a non-halogenated hyperbranched flame retardant containing nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, HBNPSi, which was then added to a polyurethane (PU) matrix to form an organic–inorganic hybrid material. Using 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of P- and Si-mapping, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, this study determined the organic and inorganic dispersity, morphology, and flame retardance mechanism of the hybrid material. The condensation density of the hybrid material PU/HBNPSi was found to be 74.4%. High condensation density indicates a dense network structure of the material. The P- and Si-mapping showed that adding inorganic additives in quantities of either 20% or 40% results in homogeneous dispersion of the inorganic fillers in the polymer matrix without agglomeration, indicating that the organic and inorganic phases had excellent compatibility. In the burning test, adding HBNPSi to PU resulted in the material passing the UL-94 standard at the V2 level, unlike the pristine PU, which did not meet the standard. The results demonstrated that after non-halogenated flame retardant was added to PU, the material’s flammability and dripping were lower, thereby proving that flame retardants containing elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon exert an excellent flame retardant synergistic effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0335.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Biomass burning; SMOKE; NCO; GFASv1.3; Black carbon; Organic carbon; Southern Hemisphere
Online: 15 August 2020 (04:19:14 CEST)
Wildfires generate large amounts of atmospheric pollutants yearly. The development of an emissions inventory for this activity is a challenge today, mainly to perform modeling of air quality. There are free available databases with historical information about this source. The main goal of this study was to process the results of biomass burning emissions for the year 2014 from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS). The pollutants studied were the black carbon, the organic carbon, fine and coarse particulate matter, respectively. The inputs were pre-formatted to enter to the simulation software of the emission inventory. In this case, the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) was used and the values obtained in various cities were analyzed. As a result, the spatial distribution of the forest fire emissions in the Southern Hemisphere was achieved, with the polar stereographic projection. The highest emissions were located in the African continent, followed by the northern region of Australia. Future air quality modeling at a local level could apply the results and the methodology of this study. The biomass burning emissions could add a better performance of the results and more knowledge on the effect of this source.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0478.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioinformatics; Drug Design; Small Organic Molecule; Target identification; Web-based Server
Online: 25 July 2020 (17:50:30 CEST)
Drug design is used for different applications of bioinformatics tools analyze DNA, genome, and sequence target region of a small organic molecule in order to understand the molecules of disease. Bioinformatics tools are identified a newly wide research field and minimize future risks through web servers and data mining. Clinical sample test performed with the bioinformatics tools as the biomedical detective. A particular structure and configuration of protein obliging in Drug design concluded Bioinformatics. This review bioinformatics tools and webserver will discuss functions of small organic molecules according to clinical pharmacology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0185.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; Antioxidant defense; Glyoxalase; Ion homeostasis; Organic acid; Osmotic stress
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:02:34 CET)
Salinity is a serious environmental hazard which limits world agricultural production by adversely affects plant physiology and biochemistry. Hence increase tolerance against salt stress is very important. In this study, we explored the function of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in enhancing salt stress tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). After pretreatment with BABA, seedlings were exposed to NaCl (100 mM and 150 mM) for 2 days. Salt stress increased Na content and decreased K content in shoot and root. It disrupted the antioxidant defense system by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2O2 and O2•−), methylglyoxal (MG) content and causing oxidative stress. It also reduced the growth and photosynthetic pigments of seedlings but increased proline (Pro) content. However, BABA pretreatment in salt-stressed seedlings increased ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) contents; GSH/GSSG ratio; and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glyoxalase I (Gly I), and glyoxalase II (Gly II) as well as growth and photosynthetic pigments of plants. In addition, compared to salt stress alone BABA increased Pro content, reduced the H2O2, MDA and MG contents and decreased Na content in root and increased K content in shoot and root of rapeseed seedlings.
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: organic semiconductor; electronic polarization; GW approximation; electrostatic interaction; molecular orientation dependence
Online: 27 November 2019 (05:18:10 CET)
I demonstrate that the ionization energy (IE) and the electron affinity (EA) of organic molecular crystals can be predicted from first-principles. Here, I describe the induced electronic polarization and the electrostatic effects upon crystalline IE and EA. I also demonstrate that the electronic polarization mainly originates from the screened coulomb interaction inside the crystalline bulk phase, and that the electrostatic contribution to IE and EA crucially depends on the orientation of the molecule at the surface. The former is well described by the GW approximation, while the latter is reasonably estimated by the difference in frontier orbital energy between the gas phase and the surface at the level of a generalized gradient approximation to the density functional theory. The present methodology enables to demonstrate the impact of the electrostatic effect upon the energy level of the injected charge at a multi-monolayer surface of an organic semiconductor thin film.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0277.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: composting; enriched organic fertilizers; hygiene; soil fertilization; sustainable production; yield quality
Online: 24 October 2019 (11:01:26 CEST)
Faecal sludge (FS) contains a significant amount of plant nutrients. After drying and composting, FS has been used as soil ameliorant in several countries. Use of FS-based compost on lettuce may meet reservations due to possible microbiological contamination. The objectives of this research are: (l) to determine the fertilizer value of different formulations of sawdust and faecal sludge compost (SDFS) pellets, (2) to compare the effect of these SDFS formulations with poultry manure, commercial compost, mineral fertilizer and non-fertilization on lettuce cultivation. The SDFS products were made by enriching and pelletized with ammonium sulphate, mineral-NPK or ammonium sulphate + muriate of potash + triple super phosphate. Lettuce was cultivated in a greenhouse and in an open field. The result showed that the fresh weight obtained from all SDFS pellets with/without enrichments were higher than those obtained from commercial compost, poultry manure, mineral fertilizer or no fertilizer. Cultivation in the open field gave higher yields than those in the greenhouse. No helminth eggs were detected in composts or lettuces. Some faecal coliforms were detected in lettuces despite fertilization treatments. A properly treated fecal sludge-based fertilizer can be a sustainable solution for lettuce production which helps urban and peri-urban agriculture.