ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0158.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: speech enhancement; online applicability; real-time factor
Online: 8 March 2023 (15:25:56 CET)
Deep-learning-based speech enhancement techniques have been recently grown in interest, since their impressive performance can potentially benefit a wide variety of digital voice communication systems. However, such performance has been evaluated mostly in offline audio processing scenarios (i.e. feeding the model, in one go, a complete audio recording, which may extend several seconds). It is of great interest to evaluate and characterize the current state-of-the-art in applications that process audio online (i.e. feeding the model a sequence of segments of audio data, concatenating the results at the output end). Although evaluations and comparisons between speech enhancement techniques have been carried out before, as far as the author knows, the work presented here is the first that evaluates the performance of such techniques in relation to their online applicability. Meaning, this work measures how the output signal-to-interference ratio (as a separation metric), the response time and memory usage (as online metrics) are impacted by the input length (the size of audio segments), in addition to the amount of noise, amount and number of interferences, and amount of reverberation. Three popular models were evaluated, given their availability on public repositories and online viability: MetricGAN+, Spectral Feature Mapping with Mimic Loss, and Demucs-Denoiser. The characterization was carried out using a systematic evaluation protocol based on the Speechbrain framework. Several intuitions are presented and discussed, and some recommendations for future work are proposed.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Real-time PCR; peanut; food allergen; chloroplast marker; DNA isolation
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:33:10 CEST)
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) contains allergenic proteins, which make it harmful to the sensitised population. The presence of peanut in foods must be indicated on label, to prevent accidental consumption by allergic population. In this work, we use chloroplast markers for specifically detection of peanut by real-time PCR, in order to increase the assay sensitivity. Binary mixtures of raw and processed peanut flour in wheat were performed at concentrations ranging from 100000 to 0.1 mg/kg. DNA isolation from peanut, mixtures and other legumes was carried out following three protocols for obtaining genomic and chloroplast-enrich DNA. Quantity and quality of DNA was evaluated, obtaining better results for protocol 2. Specificity and sensitivity of the method has been assayed with specific primers for three chloroplast markers (mat k, rpl16 and trnH-psbA) and Ara h 6 peanut allergen-coding region was selected as nuclear low-copy target and TaqMan probes. Efficiency and linear correlation of calibration curves were within the adequate ranges. Mat k chloroplast marker yielded the most sensitive and efficient detection for peanut. Moreover, detection of mat K in binary mixtures of processed samples was possible up to 10 mg/kg even after boiling, and autoclave 121°C 15 min, with acceptable efficiency and linear correlation. Applicability of the method has been assayed in several commercial food products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0261.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: ellipsometry; quantum cascade laser; in-line monitoring; polymer films; polymer processing; real-time; mid-infrared spectroscopy
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:07:04 CET)
Recent developments in mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic ellipsometry enabled by quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) resulted in a drastic improvement in signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional thermal emitter based instrumentation. Thus, it was possible to reduce the acquisition time for high-resolution broadband ellipsometric spectra from multiple hours to less than 1 second. This opens up new possibilities for real-time in-situ ellipsometry in polymer processing. To highlight these evolving capabilities we demonstrate the benefits of a QCL based MIR ellipsometer by investigating single and multilayered polymer films. The molecular structure and reorientation of a 2.5m thin biaxially oriented polyethylene terephtalate film is monitored during a stretching process lasting 24.5 s to illustrate the perspective of ellipsometric measurements in dynamic processes. In addition, a polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol/polyethylene multilayer film is investigated at continuously varying angle of incidence ( 0∘ – 50∘) in 17.2 s, highlighting an unprecedented sample throughput for the technique of varying angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the MIR spectral range. The obtained results underline the superior spectral and temporal resolution of QCL ellipsometry and qualify this technique as suitable method for advanced in-situ monitoring in polymer processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1360.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: artificial intelligence; holistic health records; pancreatic cancer; real-time monitoring; primary and secondary data
Online: 20 October 2023 (16:12:43 CEST)
The healthcare domain is increasingly adopting IoT and Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems, generating vast volumes of healthcare data. This shift is driven by the growing need of delivering the right information to the right individuals, at the right time. The latter underscores the importance of adopting a comprehensive strategy for efficiently collecting, utilizing, and analyzing health-related data to not only enhance overall healthcare management but also for the provision of timely and personalized prevention strategies. The latter is of highest importance especially in scenarios where lack of effective treatments or poor survival rates (such in pancreatic cancer) renders typical healthcare strategies ineffective. In this article, we introduce an innovative and integrated platform that is specifically designed and developed for accessing, processing, and analyzing data in challenging healthcare scenarios, such as dealing with pancreatic cancer. This platform, called iHelp, combines multidisciplinary technologies and provides healthcare professionals reliable risk modelling, analysis, and prediction techniques so that individuals (at risk of developing pancreatic cancer) can be provided with timely, reliable, and personalized prevention and intervention measures. A key innovation in the iHelp platform is the standardized data management approach called Holistic Health Records (HHRs) that facilitate the capturing of all health determinants in a standardized and well-structured way for processing towards the provision of health risk detection and personalized healthcare decision support. In the development of iHelp platform, the HHRs are evaluated through different real-world healthcare datasets, including datasets coming from hospital systems, data from wearables, questionnaires, and mobile applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0159.v1
Online: 12 January 2022 (09:50:31 CET)
A new method for short circuit fault location is proposed based on instantaneous signal measurement and its derivatives, and is based on the retardation phenomena. The difference between the times in which a signal is registered in two detectors is used to locate the fault. Although a description of faults in terms of a lumped circuit is useful for elucidating the methods for detecting the fault. This description will not suffice to describe the fault signal propagation hence a distributed models is needed which is given in terms of the telegraph equations. Those equations are used to derive a transmission line transfer function, and an exact analytical description of the short circuit signal propagating in the transmission line is obtained. The analytical solution was verified both by numerical simulations and experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0100.v1
Online: 9 September 2019 (12:04:50 CEST)
Nowadays, security is a top priority. In fact, biometrics uses cutting-edge technologies to identify terrorists and criminals. But the practice of distinguishing humans based on intrinsic physical or behavior traits goes back thousands of years. With the widespread use of computers in the late 20th century, new possibilities for digital biometrics emerged and new technologies were generously used. Among these, we remember high resolution security video cameras and drones. So, the aim of the present project is to study and explain the features of these technologies, especially the ones of the the Phantom 4 Pro+ aircraft and analyze its operating methods in order to identify human faces during live streaming of videos. For this purpose, it will be used Paul Viola and Michael Jones’ face detection algorithm, which includes Haar features and cascade classifiers to identify faces, eyes and ears of an individual.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Multimodality; Real-time processing; Interoperability; Resource-constrained processing; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 3 May 2023 (06:54:40 CEST)
Smart living, a concept that has gained increasing attention in recent years, revolves around integrating advanced technologies in homes and cities to enhance the quality of life for citizens. Sensing and human action recognition are crucial aspects of this concept. Smart living applications span various domains, such as energy consumption, healthcare, transportation, and education, which greatly benefit from effective human action recognition. This field, originating from computer vision, seeks to recognize human actions and activities using not only visual data but also many other sensor modalities. This paper comprehensively reviews the literature on human action recognition in smart living environments, synthesizing the main contributions, challenges, and future research directions. This review selects five key domains: Sensing Technology, Multimodality, Real-time Processing, Interoperability, and Resource-Constrained Processing, as they encompass the critical aspects required for successfully deploying human action recognition in smart living. These domains highlight the essential role that sensing and human action recognition play in successfully developing and implementing smart living solutions. This paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to explore further and advance the field of human action recognition in smart living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0352.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Quality real-time systems; Automated Machine Learning; Real-time embedded control systems; Cyber-physical systems; Neural Networks
Online: 25 May 2022 (11:17:19 CEST)
A correct system design can be systematically obtained from a specification model of a real-time system that integrates hybrid measurements in a realistic industrial environment, this has been carried out through complete Matlab / Simulink / Stateflow models. However, there is a widespread interest in carrying out that modeling by resorting to Machine Learning models, which can be understood as Automated Machine Learning for Real-time systems that present some degree of hybridization. An induction motor controller which must be able to maintain a constant air flow through a filter is one of these systems and it is discussed in the paper as a study case of closed-loop control system. The article discusses a practical application of ML methods that demonstrates how to replace such closed loop in industrial control systems with a Simulink block generated from neural networks to show how the proposed procedure can be applied to derive complete hybrid system designs with artificial neural networks (ANN). In the proposed ANN-based method to design a real-time hybrid system with continuous and discrete components, we use a typical design of a neural network, in which we define the usual phases: training, validation, and testing. The generated output of the model is made up of reference variables values of the cyber-physical system, which represent the functional and dynamic aspects of model. They are used to feed Simulink/Stateflow blocks in the real target system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0193.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: set covering; greedy; heuristic; real-time applications
Online: 2 June 2023 (11:45:25 CEST)
In this paper we exploit concepts from Information Theory to improve the classical Chvatal’s greedy algorithm for the Set Covering Problem. In particular, we develop a new greedy procedure, called Surprisal-Based Greedy Heuristic (SBH), incorporating the computation of a “surprisal” measure when selecting the solution columns. Computational experiments, performed on instances from the OR-Library, show that SBH yields a 2.5% improvement in terms of the objective function value over the Chvatal’s algorithm while retaining similar execution times, making it suitable for real-time applications. The new heuristic was also compared with Kordalewski’s greedy algorithm, obtaining similar solutions with much lower times on large instances, and Grossmann and Wool’s algorithm for unicost instances, where SBH obtained better solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0625.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: terrestrial modeling; real-time forecasting/monitoring; workflows
Online: 16 November 2018 (08:06:18 CET)
Operational weather and also flood forecasting has been performed successfully for decades and is of great socioeconomic importance. Up to now, forecast products focus on atmospheric variables, such as precipitation, air temperature and, in hydrology, on river discharge. Considering the full terrestrial system from groundwater across the land surface into the atmosphere, a number of important hydrologic variables are missing especially with regard to the shallow and deeper subsurface (e.g. groundwater), which are gaining considerable attention in the context of global change. In this study, we propose a terrestrial monitoring/forecasting system using the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TSMP) that predicts all essential states and fluxes of the terrestrial hydrologic and energy cycles from groundwater into the atmosphere. Closure of the terrestrial cycles provides a physically consistent picture of the terrestrial system in TSMP. TSMP has been implemented over a regional domain over North Rhine-Westphalia and a continental domain over European in a real-time forecast/monitoring workflow. Applying a real-time forecasting/monitoring workflow over both domains, experimental forecasts are being produced with different lead times since the beginning of 2016. Real-time forecast/monitoring products encompass all compartments of the terrestrial system including additional hydrologic variables, such as plant available soil water, groundwater table depth, and groundwater recharge and storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1216.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: experimental mathematics; general measurement; time operator; frame wavelets; optimal decomposition.
Online: 19 October 2023 (07:02:10 CEST)
Discussing quantum theory foundations, von Neumann noted that the measurement process should not be regarded in terms of a temporal evolution. A reason for his claim is insurmountability of the gap between reversible and irreversible processes. The time operator formalism that goes beyond such a gap is adequate framework for elaboration of the measurement problem. It considers signals to be stochastic processes, whether they correspond to variables or distribution densities. Signal processing like that utilizes statistical properties to perform its tasks, which is the definition of statistical signal processing. A hierarchy of the measurement process is indicated by crossing between states and devices, which implies an evolution in the temporal domain. The concept has generalized to an open system by the use of duality in frame theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0387.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Brownian motion; Parisian time; exact simulation; real-time gross settlement system
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:43:03 CEST)
In this paper, we study the Parisian time of a reflected Brownian motion with drift on a finite collection of rays. We derive the Laplace transform of the Parisian time using a recursive method, and provide an exact simulation algorithm to sample from the distribution of the Parisian time. The paper is motivated by the settlement delay in the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system. Both the central bank and the participating banks in the system are concerned about the liquidity risk, and are interested in the first time that the duration of settlement delay exceeds a predefined limit, we reduce this problem to the calculation of the Parisian time. The Parisian time is also crucial in the pricing of Parisian type options; to this end, we will compare our results with the existing literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Real-Time Networks; Scheduling; Time-Triggered; SMT Solvers; Cyber-Physical Systems
Online: 8 May 2019 (11:53:33 CEST)
Future cyber-physical systems may extend over broad geographical areas, like cities or regions, thus requiring the deployment of large real-time networks. A strategy to guarantee predictable communication over such networks is to synthesize an offline time-triggered communication schedule. However, this synthesis problem is computationally hard (NP-complete), and existing approaches do not scale satisfactorily to the required network sizes. This article presents a segmented offline synthesis method which substantially reduces this limitation, being able to generate time-triggered schedules for large hybrid (wired and wireless) networks. We also present a series of algorithms and optimizations that increase the performance and compactness of the obtained schedules while solving some of the problems inherent to segmented approaches. We evaluate our approach on a set of realistic large-size multi-hop networks, significantly larger than those considered in the existing literature. The results show that our segmentation reduces the synthesis time up to two orders of magnitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1425.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: 3D Reconstruction; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; Real-time Systems
Online: 21 August 2023 (05:31:35 CEST)
We present a near real-time solution for 3D reconstruction from aerial images captured by consumer UAVs. Our core idea is to simplify the multi-view stereo problem into a series of two-view stereo matching problems. Our method applies to UAVs equipped with only one camera and does not require special stereo-capturing setups. We found that the neighboring two video frames taken by UAVs flying at a mid-to-high cruising altitude can be approximated as left and right views from a virtual stereo camera. Leveraging GPU-accelerated real-time stereo estimation, efficient PnP correspondence solving algorithms and extended Kalman filter, our system simultaneously predicts scene geometry and camera position/orientation from the virtual stereo cameras. Also, this method allows user selection of varying baseline lengths, which provides more flexibility given the trade-off between camera resolution, effective measuring distance, flight altitude, and mapping accuracy. Our method outputs dense point clouds at a constant speed of 25 frames per second and is validated on a variety of real-world datasets with satisfactory results.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0341.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Sensors; Real-Time; Edge Computing
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:30:54 CET)
Rapid growth of IoT applications and their interference in our daily lives led to many different IoT devices which generates enormous data. The IoT devices’ resources are very limited, so storing and processing IoT data in the devices is very inefficient. Several resources of cloud-computing are efficiently used to handle some IoT resources issues. While using resources in the cloud centers cause some other issues, like latency in the IoT applications, which are time-critical. Thus, the technology of edge cloud has evolved recently. This technology permits storage and data processing at the network edge. This paper studies edge computing in-depth for timeless sensitive devices in IoT. In-depth, cutting-edge IoT computing systems (ECAs-IoT) are evaluated and characterized in this paper according to numerous criteria, such as information placement, improvisation facilities, reliability, and data visualization. Moreover, according to distinctive properties, the paper aims at comparing each structure in detail. The paper also highlights the significant limitations of the new ECAs-IoT and recommends solutions to them. The studies also introduce and propose solutions to some of the most important restrictions of the current ECAs-IoT. Consequently, in the edge computing domain, this survey outlines the IoT implementations. Lastly, with the use of IoT implementations for ECAs-IoT, the paper suggests four distinct scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: VP28; WSSV; real-time PCR; viral load; apoptosis
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:55:17 CET)
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has emerged as one of the most prevalent and lethal viruses globally, and infects both shrimps and crabs in the aquatic environment. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of WSSV in different ghers of Bangladesh and the virulence of the circulating phylotypes. We collected 360 shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and 120 crab (Scylla sp.) samples from the South-East (Cox’s Bazar) and South-West (Satkhira) coastal regions of Bangladesh. The VP28 gene-specific PCR assays and sequencing revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05, Kruskal Wallis test) differences in the prevalence of WSSV in shrimps and crabs between the study areas (Cox’s Bazar and Satkhira), and over the study periods (2017-2019). The mean Log load of WSSV varied from 8.40 (Cox’s Bazar) to 10.48 (Satkhira) per gram of tissue. The mean values for salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH were 14.71±0.76 ppt, 3.7±0.1 ppm, 34.11±0.38˚C and 8.23±0.38, respectively in the WSSV-positive ghers. The VP28 gene-based phylogenetic analysis showed an amino-acid substitution (E→G) at 167th position in the isolates from Cox’s Bazar (referred to as phylotype BD2) compared to the globally circulating one (BD1). Shrimp PL artificially challenged with BD1 and BD2 phylotypes with filtrates of tissue containing 0.423 X 109 copies of WSSV per mL resulted a median LT50 value of 73 hrs and 75 hrs, respectively. The in-vivo trial showed higher mean Log WSSV copies (6.47±2.07 per mg tissue) in BD1 challenged shrimp PL compared to BD2 (4.75±0.35 per mg tissue). Crabs infected with BD1 and BD2 showed 100% mortality within 48 hrs and 62 hrs of challenge, respectively with mean Log WSSV copies of 12.06±0.48 and 9.95±0.37 per gram tissue, respectively. Moreover, shrimp antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) penaeidin and lysozyme expression was lower in BD1 challenged group compared to BD2 challenged shrimps. These results collectively demonstrated that relative virulence properties of WSSV based on mortality rate, viral load and expression of host immune genes in artificially infected shrimp PL could be affected by single aa substitution in VP28.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bandwidth Employment; Real time protocol; TCP; header reduced
Online: 1 November 2021 (15:52:52 CET)
Timeworn telecommunication are progressively being substituted by a new one that run over IP networks, which is recognized as voice over internet protocol (VoIP). VoIP has a number of qualities (e.g., inexpensive call rate), which make it progressively widespread in the telecommunication domain. However, VoIP faces plentiful obstacles that slow its growth. One of the major obstacles is poorly utilizing the network bandwidth. A number of techniques have been offered to handle this obstacle, including packet multiplexing techniques. This paper designs an original multiplexing techniques, called packet multiplexing and carrier header (PM-CH), to decrease the quantity of the bandwidth consumed by VoIP. PM-CH protect the bandwidth by multiplexing the packets in a header and using the Timestamp field in the RTP header. The achievement of the PM-CH technique was examined depends on connection capacity and payload shortening. Simulation outcomes show that the PM-CH technique outperforms the contrast technique in the two factors. For instance, the PM-CH technique’s connection capacity outperforms the comparable technique by 58.9% when the connection bandwidth is 1000 kbps. Consequently, the PM-CH technique attains its objective of reducing the unexploited bandwidth caused by VoIP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0689.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Inhibitive assay; mercury; ficin; RSM; near real-time
Online: 31 August 2020 (03:53:15 CEST)
Heavy metals pollution in the Straits of Malacca warrants the development of rapid, simple and sensitive assays. Enzyme-based assays are excellent preliminary screening tool with near real-time potential. The heavy-metal assay based on the protease ficin was optimized for mercury detection using Response Surface Methodology. The inhibitive assay is based on ficin action on the substrate casein and residual casein is determined using the Coomassie dye-binding assay. Heavy metals strongly inhibit the hydrolysis. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was utilized to optimize detection. The results show a marked improvement for the concentration causing 50% inhibition (IC50) for mercury, silver and copper. Compared to One-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) optimization, RSM gave an improvement of IC50 from 0.060 (95% CI, 0.0300.080) to 0.017 (95% CI, 0.0160.019), from 0.098 (95% CI, 0.0770.127) to 0.028 (95% CI, 0.0220.037) and from 0.040 (95% CI, 0.035.045) to 0.023 (95% CI, 0.0200.027), for mercury, silver and copper, respectively. A near real-time monitoring of mercury concentration in the Straits of Malacca at one location in Port Klang was carried out over a 4-h interval for a total of 24 h and validated by instrumental analysis with the result revealing an absence of mercury pollution in the sampling site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0119.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: HTN planning; real-time strategy game; plan repair
Online: 19 April 2017 (04:41:22 CEST)
Real-time strategy (RTS) game has proposed many challenges for AI research for its large state spaces, enormous branch factors, limited decision time and dynamic adversarial environment. To tackle above problems, the method called Adversarial Hierarchical Task Network planning (AHTN) has been proposed and achieves favorable performance. However, the HTN description it used cannot express complex relationships among tasks and impacts of environment on tasks. Moreover, the AHTN cannot handle task failures during plan execution. In this paper, we propose a modified AHTN planning algorithm named AHTNR. The algorithm introduces three elements essential task, phase and exit condition to extend the HTN description. To deal with possible task failures, the AHTNR first uses the extended HTN description to identify failed tasks. And then a novel task repair strategy is proposed based on historical information to maintain the validity of previous plan. Finally, empirical results are presented for the μRTS game, comparing AHTNR to the state-of-the-art search algorithms for RTS games.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0519.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Real-Time; Stormwater; Control Measure; Low-Cost; Machine Learning; Time-series; LSTM
Online: 16 December 2022 (05:21:32 CET)
The alteration of natural land cover to impervious surfaces during development increases stormwater runoff. Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are used to manage water quantity and enhance water quality by restoring the hydrologic cycle altered by development. Often, SCMs have an outflow pipe to handle overflows or to manage the release of water detained when infiltration is not possible. Traditionally, these are static controls (e.g. a small orifice is used to restrict the volume of outflow), however, these systems can be improved by instituting real-time controls (RTC). RTC improve the functionality of SCMs by dynamically controlling outflows to adjust to environmental conditions. A major impediment to the widespread implementation of RTC is the high cost of installation and operation. This study utilized machine learning methods to develop a forecasting approach for the implementation of low-cost RTC that were implemented on a programmable gate of the outlet structure of a multi-stage basin in southeastern Pennsylvania. The goals were to decrease the peak flow exiting the basin during rain events, increase the volume of water detained, decrease the number of overtopping events, maintain healthy vegetation in the basin, and protect the downstream vegetation from erosion. Multiple popular data science algorithms were evaluated including multiple linear regression and long short-term memory. These algorithms were used with a dataset, which consisted of four years of historical sensor data, collected in 5-minute intervals, to train models to predict water levels to optimize operations. The accuracy of 30 models with three different methods of handling missing values were compared. A long short-term memory model configured with a 30-minute lead time produced the best results. Having an approximate same lag time of 30 minutes for the contributing drainage area of the SCM provided a sufficient RTC functioning period to improve the performance of the outlet structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis A; Hepatitis E; Norovirus; Real-time RT-qPCR
Online: 3 October 2023 (04:25:03 CEST)
Enteric viruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis and enteric hepatitis worldwide, but in some areas like Saudi Arabia little data is known about their presence in water sources. The available information from clinical samples is not enough to figure their actual prevalence. The aim of this study was to gather information for the first time in Saudi Arabia on the presence of Norovirus (NoV) genogroup GI and GII, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in water. For this purpose, thirteen monthly samples were collected in lake Wadi Hanifa and surrounding wells from December 2014 to November 2015. Viruses were detected and quantified by Real-time RT-qPCR. Despite HEV findings were anecdotic, our results highlight interesting behaviors of the other viruses. There was a higher prevalence of noroviruses in Wadi Hanifa samples than in well water samples (46.43% vs12.5% of NoV GI; 66.67% vs8.33% of NoV GII). On the contrary, similar levels of HAV positivity were observed (40.48% in surface water vs 43.06% in well water). Also, a strong influence of flooding events on HAV and NoV GI occurrence was observed in both surface and well water samples, being NoV GII apparently not affected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1312.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: real-time tracking; lightweight transformers; attention mechanism; deep learning
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:05:24 CEST)
Real-time tracking is one of the most challenging problems in computer vision. Most Transformer-based trackers usually require expensive computational and storage power, which leads to the inability of these robust trackers to achieve real-time performance in resource-constrained devices. In this work, we propose a lightweight tracker, AnteaTrack. To localize the target more precisely, we develop a scaling-invariant max-filtering operator employing a sliding window combined with local max-pooling, which filters out the suspected target from the feature and performs an augmented representation while suppressing the background. For a more tight bounding box, we employ Pixel-Shuffle to increase the resolution of the feature map and get a more fine-grained representation of the target. In addition, AnteaTrack can run in real-time at 47 frames per second(FPS) on the CPU. We tested AnteaTrack on 5 datasets, and a large number of experiments have shown that AnteaTrack provides the most efficient solution compared to the same type of CPU real-time trackers. The code will be available at https://github.com/cnchange/AnteaTrack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0319.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Pneumocystis pneumonia; immune status; real-time PCR; staining methods
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:55:05 CEST)
Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) commonly affects immunocompromised individuals, whereas in immunocompetent persons, it occurs relatively rarely, and in most cases the Pneumocystis infection is detected as an asymptomatic colonization. The present study aimed to establish the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in human hosts with different immune status (immunocompromised and immunocompetent), using molecular diagnostic methods, and to compare their diagnostic value with that of classical staining methods. Methods: We used the collected to this moment data from a prospective study on the prevalence of pneumocystosis among the Bulgarian population. Clinical specimens (including throat secretion, induced sputum, tracheal aspirate, and bronchoalveolar lavage collected from 220 patients suspected of PCP (153 immunocompetent and 67 immunocompromised patients) were examined with staining microscopic methods and real-time PCR for detection of P. jirovecii. Results: DNA of the pathogen was detected in 38 (17%) specimens (32 immunocompromised patients and 6 immunocompetent subjects). From all 220 clinical samples examined by staining methods, only in five (2%) P. jirovecii cysts were detected by the Gomori's stain. All patients with PCP were treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but in ten of them (HIV- positive patients) the disease was with fatal outcome. Conclusions: This study is the first for the country including the main available laboratory methods for diagnosis of human pneumocystosis in Bulgaria. Regarding the etiological diagnosis of PCP, in our study the sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher compared to the staining methods. The choice of a method for sample collection and examination has an important role in the efficiency of the laboratory diagnostics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0779.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: real-time systems; safety integrity level; scheduling; mixed-criticality
Online: 29 April 2021 (14:41:53 CEST)
In a safety-critical system typically not all provided services have the same criticality, which we call mixed-criticality systems. Criticality arithmetic, also called SIL arithmetic, is an approach to lower the development effort of a service by providing redundancy with tasks that are developed for a lower criticality level. In this paper we present ATMP-CA, which is a derivation of the multi-core scheduler ATMP. ATMP-CA is able to take into account the knowledge about the use of criticality arithmetic. ATMP-CA has a modified core allocation and procedure for utility optimisation, considering the context of the replicated tasks. We conducted experiments that show that ATMP-CA is able to provide the services using criticality arithmetic, while the reference schedulers were not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0587.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; surface morphology; real-time measurement; deep learning
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:01:50 CET)
Layer-wise 3D surface morphology information is critical for the quality monitoring and control of additive manufacturing (AM) processes. However, most of the existing 3D scan technologies are either contact or time consuming, which are not capable of obtaining the 3D surface morphology data in a real-time manner during the process. Therefore, the objective of this study is to achieve real-time 3D surface data acquisition in AM, which is achieved by a supervised deep learning-based image analysis approach. The key idea of this proposed method is to capture the correlation between 2D image and 3D point cloud, and then quantify this relationship by using a deep learning algorithm, namely, convolutional neural network (CNN). To validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method, both simulation and real-world case studies were performed. The results demonstrate that this method has strong potential to be applied for real-time surface morphology measurement in AM, as well as other advanced manufacturing processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0749.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bovine coronavirus; intersititial pneumonia; phylogenetic analysis; Real time PCR
Online: 31 July 2020 (13:46:21 CEST)
An outbreak of winter disease, complicated by severe respiratory syndrome, occurred in January 2020 in a high production dairy cow herd located in a hilly area of the Calabria region. Of the 52 animals belonging to the farm, 5 (9.6%) died with severe respiratory distress, death occurring 3-4 days after the appearance of the respiratory signs (caught and gasping breath). Microbiological analysis revealed absence of pathogenic bacteria whilst Real-time PCR identified the presence of RNA from Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) in several organs: lungs, small intestine (jejunum), mediastinal lymph nodes, liver and placenta. Since being the only pathogen identified, BCoV was hypothesized to be the cause of the lethal pulmonary infection. Like the other CoVs, BCoV is able to cause different syndromes. Its role in calfhood diarrhoea and in mild respiratory disease is well known: we report instead the involvement of this virus in a severe and fatal respiratory disorder, with symptoms and disease evolution resembling that of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biomass, Fusarium head blight, real-time PCR, trichothecenes, zearalenone
Online: 10 September 2019 (11:24:51 CEST)
The aim of the study was to determine the presence Fusarium species and mycotoxins in winter wheat grain in Poland. Grain samples from different locations in Poland in 2009 and 2010 were analysed for the content of biomass of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. In 2009 biomass of F. graminearum and F. poae was present in all samples, F. culmorum in 82% of samples, F. avenaceum in 55% of samples. F. sporotrichioides, F. tricinctum and F. equiseti were found only in individual samples. F. langsethiae was not detected. In 2010, five Fusarium species were detected with the exception of F. sporotrichioides. The highest content of biomass was found for F. graminearum followed by F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. langsethiae. The amount of F. culmorum biomass was very low. The most frequently occurring species was F. poae and F. graminearum. In 2009, deoxynivalenol was detected in all samples. In 2010, the average content of deoxynivalenol was lower than in 2009. Nivalenol was detected at very low concentration in both years. Significant correlations between content of F. graminearum biomass and deoxynivalenol concentration in grain and between content of F. poae biomass and nivalenol concentration in grain in 2009 were found. The most important finding of this study was that main Fusarium species infecting wheat kernels in Poland in both years was F. graminearum. The amount of biomass of F. graminearum was the highest in both years. It was present in the most samples. The other frequently detected species was F. poae, which in 2010 appeared in more samples than F. graminearum. However, the amount of F. poae biomass was lower. F. culmorum, species that was previously dominating as wheat pathogen in Poland, was found less frequently than F. graminearum. The amount of biomass of this species was the lowest in 2010.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rotary machinery; adaptive order tracking; online real-time monitoring.
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:02:45 CEST)
When a rotary machine is running, from which the acquired vibro-acoustic signals enable to reveal its operation status and health condition. The study proposed a DSP-based adaptive angular-velocity Vold-Kalman filtering order tracking (AV2KF_OT) algorithm with an online real-time nature for signal interpretation and machine condition monitoring. Theoretical derivation and numerical implementation of computation schemes are briefly introduced. An online real-time monitoring system based on the AV2KF_OT algorithm, which was implemented through both a digital signal processor and a user interface coded by using LabVIEW, was developed. Two experimental tasks were applied to justify the proposed technique, including (i) the detection of startup on the fluid-induced whirl performed through a journal-bearing rotor rig, and (ii) the separation of close orders from the measured signals of a multifunction transmission-element ball-bearing bench.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; real-time simulation; multiagent system; energy management system
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:53:44 CET)
This paper deals with the problem of real-time management of Smart Grids. For this sake, the energy management is integrated with the power system through a telecommunication system. The use of Multiagent Systems leads the proposed algorithm to find the best-integrated solution, taking into consideration the operating scenario and the system characteristics. The proposed technique is tested with the help of an academic microgrid, so the results may be replicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0442.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; molecular diagnostic; SARS-CoV-2; Real-time PCR
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:10:47 CEST)
RT-PCR tests have become the gold standard for detecting the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of the extreme number of cases in periodic waves of infection, there is a severe financial and logistical strain on diagnostic laboratories. For this reason, alternative implementations, and validations of academic protocols, that employ the lowest cost and most widely available equipment and reagents found in different regions, is essential. In this study, we report an alternative implementation of the EUA 2019-nCoV CDC assay which uses a previously characterized duplex PCR reaction for the N1 and RNAse P target regions and an additional uniplex reaction for the N2 target region. Taking advantage of the Abbott m2000 Sample Preparation System and NEB Luna Universal Probe One-Step RT-qPCR kit, some of the most widely available and lowest cost nucleic acid extraction and amplification platforms, this modified test shows a state-of-the-art analytical and clinical sensitivities and specificities, when compared with the Seegene Allplex-SARS-CoV-2 assay. This implementation has the potential to be verified and implemented by diagnostic laboratories around the world to guarantee low-cost RT-PCR tests that can take advantage of widely available equipment and reagents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Pineal cyst; hydrocephalus; microsurgery; real-time MRI; respiration; glymphatic system
Online: 12 May 2022 (08:00:41 CEST)
Proposal: Pineal region cysts (PCs) may affect the tectum and aqueduct and cause deep central vein congestion and endocrine dysfunction. In addition to headaches, PC often causes a broad range of symptoms, leading to prolonged diagnosis and therapy. The aims of this study are to reveal parameters that might explain the ambiguity of the symptoms and to identify factors association with the respiration driven neurofluid preload system. Methods: This retrospective study included 28 paediatric patients (mean age 11.6 years) who received surgical treatment for pineal region cysts and 18 patients (mean age 11.3 years) who were followed conservatively. Multiple clinical patient characteristics, such as symptoms, time to neuroimaging diagnosis, cyst size, ventricular indices, head circumference and postoperative outcome, were analysed. Four patients were investigated for CSF dynamics with real-time MRI. The mean follow-up time was 1.6 years. Results: The most common early onset symptoms were headaches (92%), blurred vision (42.8%), sleep disturbances (39.3%) and vertigo (32.1%). Tectum contact was observed in 82% of patients, and MRI examinations revealed that imaging flow void signals were absent in 32.1% of patients. The mean cyst diameters were 13.7 mm for the axial axis and 15.6 mm for the longitudinal axis. Together with a postoperative flow void signal, 4 patients recovered their respiration-driven CSF upward flow, which was not detectable before OP. After operation in 92.1% of patients, the leading symptoms improved without any mortality or morbidity. Conclusion: Despite proximity to the tectum and aqueduct with frequently absent aqueductal flow void signals, hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was never detected. Data from real-time MRI depicted a reduced preoperative filling of the ventricular CSF compartments, indicating a diminished fluid preload, which recovered postoperatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Real-time Control; Reinforcement Learning; Smart Stormwater Systems; Urban Flooding
Online: 20 October 2020 (15:03:45 CEST)
Climate change and development have increased urban flooding, requiring modernization of stormwater infrastructure. Retrofitting standard passive systems with controllable valves/pumps is promising, but requires real-time control (RTC). One method of automating RTC is reinforcement learning (RL), a general technique for sequential optimization and control in uncertain environments. The notion is that an RL algorithm can use inputs of real-time flood data and rainfall forecasts to learn a policy for controlling the stormwater infrastructure to minimize measures of flooding. In real-world conditions, rainfall forecasts and other state information, are subject to noise and uncertainty. To account for these characteristics of the problem data, we implemented Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG), an RL algorithm that is distinguished by its capability to handle noise in the input data. DDPG implementations were trained and tested against a passive flood control policy. Three primary cases were studied: (i) perfect data, (ii) imperfect rainfall forecasts, and (iii) imperfect water level and forecast data. Rainfall episodes (100) that caused flooding in the passive system were selected from 10 years of observations in Norfolk, Virginia, USA; 85 randomly selected episodes were used for training and the remaining 15 unseen episodes served as test cases. Compared to the passive system, all RL implementations reduced flooding volume by 70.5% on average, and performed within a range of 5%. This suggests that DDPG is robust to noisy input data, which is essential knowledge to advance the real-world applicability of RL for stormwater RTC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Raman spectra; mixed pesticides; apple; correction method; rapid; real-time
Online: 5 April 2019 (15:17:24 CEST)
In the study, a new correction method was applied to reduce error during detection on mixed pesticide residue in apples by using Raman spectra. Combined with self-built pesticide residues detection system by Raman spectroscopy and the application of surface enhancement technology, rapid real-time qualitative and quantitative analysis of deltamethrin and acetamiprid residues in apples can be applied effectively. In quantitative analysis, compared with the intensity value of characteristic peaks of single pesticide with same concentration, the intensity value of characteristic peaks of the two pesticides decreased after mixing the pesticides, which interferes the results severely. By comparing the difference in the intensity of characteristic peaks of single and mixed pesticides, a correction method is proposed to eliminate the influence of pesticides mixture. Characteristic peak intensity values of gradient concentration pesticide from 10-1 g•kg-1 to 10-6 g•kg-1 and Lagrangian interpolation are applied in the correction method. And a smooth surface is applied to describe the correction ratio of characteristic peak intensity. Through detecting the characteristic peak intensity values of the mixed pesticide, correction ratio will be obtained. Then real values of the peak intensity of pesticides and the content of each component of the mixed pesticide will be acquired by the correction method. Correlation coefficient of model validation exceeds 0.88 generally and Root Mean Square Error also decreases obviously after correction, which proved the reliability of the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Memory Delay; Multicore Systems; Interference Delay; Real-Time Systems; Testing
Online: 12 September 2018 (15:48:39 CEST)
In modern Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) multicore systems, cores can produce several simultaneous memory requests. The processing of such requests over the memory controller negatively impacts the interference delay triggered by running parallel tasks on the platform. In this paper, we propose a software-based testing approach for analyzing memory interference delay, when cores are exposed to extensive read/write requests that access in parallel their Cache Coherent Interconnect. The hardware targeted in this work is the well-known LayerScape QorIQ LS2085A, which can be approached as a potential successor to the Freescale QorIQ P4080. The test analysis was conducted based on a bare-metal operating system that we developed to guarantee a deterministic execution environment at all time points. Our testing was accomplished using a set of carefully designed synthetic benchmarks as well as TACLeBench benchmarks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: real‐time reconstruction; SLAM; kinect sensors; depth cameras; open source
Online: 7 August 2017 (11:03:23 CEST)
Given a stream of depth images with a known cuboid reference object present in the scene, we propose a novel approach for accurate camera tracking and volumetric surface reconstruction in real-time. Our contribution in this paper is threefold: (a) utilizing a priori knowledge of the cuboid reference object, we keep drift-free camera tracking without explicit global optimization; (b) we improve the fineness of the volumetric surface representation by proposing a prediction-corrected data fusion strategy rather than simple moving average, which enables accurate reconstruction of high-frequency details such as sharp edges of objects and geometries of high curvature; (c) we introduce a benchmark dataset CU3D containing both synthetic and real-world scanning sequences with ground-truth camera trajectories and surface models for quantitative evaluation of 3D reconstruction algorithms. We test our algorithm on our dataset and demonstrate its accuracy compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We release both our dataset and code as opensource1 for other researchers to reproduce and verify our results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: state estimation; model reference; sliding mode; real-time; parameter detuning
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:01:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to present an adaptive sliding mode luenberger state observer with improved disturbance rejection capability and better tracking performance under dynamic conditions. The sliding hyperplane is altered by incorporating the estimated disturbance torque with the stator currents. Also, the effects of parameter detuning on the speed convergence is observed and compared with the conventional disturbance rejection mechanism. The entire drive system is first built in simulink environment. Then, the simulink model is integrated with RT-Lab blocksets and implemented in a relatively new real-time environment using OP4500 real-time simulator. Real-time simulation and testing platforms have succeeded offline simulation and testing tools due to their reduced development time. The real-time results validate the improvement in the proposed state observer and also correspond to the performance of the actual physical model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1587.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: single board computers; embedded systems; real-time; multithreading; performance metrics; time measurements; benchmarking; μClinux; TWR-K70F120M
Online: 24 July 2023 (09:53:02 CEST)
Currently Single Board Computers (SBCs) are sufficiently powerful to run Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOSs) and applications with real-time attributes and requirements. SBCs serve as a foundation in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The NXP Semiconductors produces a series of SBCs based on ARM-processors for a variety of industrial applications. The continuous increase in real-time data generated by IoT devices adds further research issues about the efficiency of such systems and applications. The purpose of this research was to investigate the timing performance of an NXP TWR-K70F120M device with μClinux OS on running concurrently tasks with real-time features and constraints. A custom-built multithreaded application with specific compute-intensive sorting and matrix operations was developed and applied to obtain measurements in specific timing metrics, including task’s execution time, threads waiting time, and response time, under different threads variations. The performance of this device was additionally benchmarked and validated against favorite platforms, a Raspberry Pi4 and BeagleBone AI SBCs. The experimental results showed that this device stands well both in terms of timing and efficiency metrics. Execution times were quite lower than the others, by approximately 56% in the case of two threads, and by 29% in the case of thirty-two threads configurations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: industrial internet of things; random job arrival time; information entropy theory; self-adaption; real-time scheduling
Online: 6 August 2020 (06:00:12 CEST)
In recent years, the individualized demand of customers brings small batches and diversification of orders towards enterprises. The application of enabling technologies in factory, such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Cloud Manufacturing (CMfg), enhances the ability of customer requirement automatic elicitation and the manufacturing process control. The job shop scheduling problem with random job arrival time dramatically increases the difficulty in process management. Thus, how to collaboratively schedule the production and logistics resources in the shop floor is very challenging, and it has a fundamental and practical significance of achieving the competitiveness for an enterprise. To address this issue, the real-time model of production and logistics resources is built firstly. Then, the task entropy model is built based on the task information. Finally, the real-time self-adaption collaboration of production and logistics resources is realized. The proposed algorithm is carried out based on a practical case to evaluate its effectiveness. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms three existing algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0665.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ancillary services; secondary frequency control; tertiary frequency control; real time operation
Online: 8 August 2023 (13:34:09 CEST)
Modern electrical power systems integrate ancillary services to provide security and quality of service in real-time operation because of the intense variations in frequency caused by the massive development and uncertainty of solar-wind generation. Therefore, this ancillary services market focuses on power reserves for secondary and tertiary frequency control. Adjusting reserves and dispatching plants is a manual instruction executed by the system operator to maintain the frequency in the normal operating state (49.80≤f≤50.20 Hz). However, in the absence of an economic model for real-time power reserve reallocation in the ancillary services market, the reserve adjustments made by the system operator are not always optimal since they generate a displacement between the scheduled and actual marginal costs. Then, this work proposes a methodology for operating the ancillary services market in real-time through a dynamic and hourly mathematical model that integrates the variability of solar-wind generation, the demand monitoring curve, and the trajectory of the marginal cost. This model minimizes power reserve costs, which are governed by hourly price auctions, for candidate plants classified as supra/infra-marginal and can optimally reallocate power reserves for secondary and tertiary frequency control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0024.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: respiratory health; real-time air-quality monitoring; lung functionality; alert system
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:12:49 CEST)
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that impairs breathing. Management of asthma presents a significant challenge due to its inherent variability; that is, its symptoms can substantially differ among individuals, thereby complicating the prediction and management of exacerbations. Furthermore, individuals with asthma often have unique triggers that precipitate symptoms or attacks. The identification of these triggers can often prove to be a challenging, and at times, an impractical attempt. To address this, our research proposes a practical, personalized alert system, predicated on individual lung function tests conducted under varying environmental conditions classified by air-quality sensors. To validate this concept, we conducted an observational pilot study involving healthy individuals. We recruited twelve healthy participants and monitored their responses across a broad spectrum of environments, characterized by varying air quality, temperature, and humidity conditions. The lung function for each participant, assessed using peak expiratory flow (PEF) values, was recorded in each of these environments. Our results highlighted substantial variability in pulmonary responses to different environments. Utilizing these insights, we proposed a personalized alarm system that provides real-time air-quality monitoring and issues alerts when environmental conditions may potentially become unfavorable. We also explored the feasibility of employing basic machine learning techniques to predict PEF values in the aforementioned environmental conditions. This proposed system has the potential to empower individuals in actively safeguarding their respiratory health and mitigating discomfort caused by environmental conditions, especially in cases of asthma patients. By enabling timely and personalized interventions, the system aims to provide individuals with the necessary tools to minimize exposure to asthma’s possible triggers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0598.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: optical sensors; fiber optics; turbidity measurement; drinking water; real-time detection
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:12:03 CEST)
Turbidity is an important water quality parameter, especially for drinking water. The ability to actively monitor the turbidity level in Drinking Water Distribution Systems is of critical importance to the safety and wellbeing of the public. Traditional turbidity monitoring methods involve manual collection of water samples at set locations and times followed by laboratory analysis, which are labor intensive and time consuming. Fiber-optic measurement permits real-time, in-situ turbidity monitoring. But the current technology is based on plastic fibers, which suffer from high optical attenuation and hence are unsuitable for large-scale remote monitoring. In this paper, we report the demonstration of a fiber-optic turbidity sensor based on multi-mode glass fibers. The system uses a single fiber to both deliver laser light into the water sample and collect the back-scattered light for detection. A balanced-detection scheme is utilized to remove the common-mode noise to enhance the turbidity sensitivity. Highly linear turbidity responses are obtained and a turbidity resolution as low as 0.1 NTU is achieved. The test unit is also shown to have excellent reproducibility against repeated measurements and good stability against temperature changes. Turbidity measurement in real environmental matrices such as tap water and pond water is also reported with an assessment of the impact of flow rate. This work demonstrates the feasibility of future large scale distributed fiber-optic turbidity monitoring networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Neuroendoscopy; ETV; Hydrocephalus; ETVSS; T2 flow void; Real-time MRI; Inspiration
Online: 11 January 2022 (14:08:02 CET)
Purpose: ETV is indicated for treating obstructions of major CSF pathways. The outcome evaluation often yields success rates of only +- 70% for shunt independency. Hence, compromised CSF absorption seems to occur more often than expected. We searched for parameters suitable to assess the involved CSF dynamics. Material and Methods: This was a prospective study in 58 paediatric patients (7.7 yrs. mean age) between 2000 and 2020 with aqueductal stenosis (11/58), obstruction of the aqueduct due to tumor growth (22/58),and connatal hydrocephalus (9/58). The average follow-up interval was 4.7 years. Head circumferences, Evans- and fronto-occipital horn ratios before and 3 months after ETV were obtained as Delta-indices. Furthermore ETV success score (ETVSS), the patency of the aqueduct pre- and postoperatively as well as of the stoma were assessed by flow void signs on MRI. Evaluation on MRI also included the shape of the floor of the 3rd ventricle and whether or not the septum pellucidum showed signs of perforation. Four patients were analysed pre- and postoperatively via real-time MRI. At least the educational status regarding protected or unprotected education was analyzed. Results:The prevalence of a bowing of the floor of the 3rd ventricle was 72%, and the ETVSS was 71.0%. In 26 children a septal perforations or an open aqueduct prior to ETV (19) could be identified. Mean ER and FOHR were reduced by 0.03 and 0.05 , respectively. Maintained open (flow void on postop MRI) or perforation could successfully be carried out during endoscopic surgery in 44 patients (79%). The disproportionate increase of head circumference abated in 79.4% of patients. New shunt insertion occurred in 16 patients (27.5%). Intraoperatively upward CSF flow was detected in all cases. Statistical analyses(ANOVA) showed significant results for unprotected education, postoperative ER and FOHR but not for open stoma. Conclusion: The identification of flow through the stoma on postoperative MRI seems to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for ETV success. In our study, ventricular volumes were used as parameters to determine success rates as well as unprotected education. Furthermore, enabling upward CSF flow driven by inspiration seems crucial for successful ETV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cellular Nonlinear Networks; Stochastic Logic; real time processing; image processing; memristors.
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:48:16 CET)
Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are a concept introduced in 1988 by Leon Chua and Lin Yang as a bio-inspired architecture, capable of massively parallel computation. Later on, CNN have been enhanced by incorporating designs that incorporate memristors to profit from their processing and memory capabilities. In addition, Stochastic Computing (SC) can be used to optimize the quantity of required processing elements; thus it provides a lightweight approximate computing framework, quite accurate and effective, though. In this work, we propose utilization of SC in designing and implementing a memristor-based CNN. As a proof of the proposed concept, an example of application is presented. This application combines Matlab and a FPGA in order to create the CNN. The implemented CNN has then been used to perform three different real-time applications on a 512x512 gray-scale and a 768x512 color image: storage of the image, edge detection, and image sharpening. It has to be pointed out that the same CNN has been used for the three different tasks, with the sole change of some programmable parameters. Results show an excellent capability with significant accompanying advantages, like the low number of needed elements further allowing for a low cost FPGA-based system implementation, something confirming the system’s ability for real time operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0040.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Predictive Maintenance; Predictive maintenance-based process scheduling; Real-time anomaly detection
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:09:05 CEST)
Predictive maintenance (PM) algorithms are widely applied for detecting operational anomalies on industrial processes to trigger maintenance before a possible breakdown; however, much less focus has been devoted to the use of such PM predictions as feedback in automated process control mechanisms. They usually integrate preventive solutions to protect the machines, usually causing downtimes. The premise of this study is to develop a holistic adaptive process scheduling mechanism that incorporates PM analysis as a safety component to optimize the operation mode of an industrial process toward preventing breakdowns while maintaining its availability and operational state, thereby reducing downtimes. As PM is largely a data-driven approach; hence, relies on the setup, we first compare different PM approaches and identify a one-class support vector machine (OCSVM) as the best performing option for the anomaly detection on our setup. Then, we propose a novel pipeline to integrate maintenance predictions into a real-time adaptive process scheduling mechanism. It schedules for the most suitable operation, i.e., optimizing for machine health and process efficiency, according to the abnormal readings. To demonstrate the pipeline on action, we implement our approach on a small-scale conveyor belt system utilizing our Internet of Things (IoT) framework. The results show that our PM-based adaptive process control provides an efficient process with less or no downtime. We also conclude that a PM approach does not provide sufficient efficiency without its integration into an autonomous planning process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: MEMS gyroscopes; circuit phase delay; IQ coupling; real-time correction system
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:16:48 CEST)
With the development of designing and manufacturing level for micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes, the control circuit system becomes a key point to determine their internal performances. Nevertheless, phase delay of electron components may result in some serious hazards. This paper describes a real-time circuit phase delay correction system for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes. A detailed theoretical analysis is provided to clarify the influences of circuit phase delay on the in-phase and quadrature (IQ) coupling characteristics and zero rate output (ZRO) utilizing force-to-rebalance (FTR) closed-loop detection and quadrature correction system. By deducing the relationship between amplitude-frequency, phase-frequency of MEMS gyroscope and the phase relationship of the whole control loop, a real-time correction system is proposed to automatically adjust the phase reference value of phase-locked loop (PLL) and thus compensate for the real-time circuit phase delay. The experimental results show that the correction system can accurately measure and compensate the circuit phase delay in real time. Furthermore, the unwanted IQ coupling can be eliminated and the ZRO is decreased by 755% to 0.095°/s. This correction system realizes a small angle random walk of 0.978°/√h, and a low bias instability of 9.458°/h together with a scale factor nonlinearity of 255 ppm at room temperature. Besides, the thermal drift of ZRO is reduced to 0.0034°/s/°C at a temperature range from -20°C to 70°C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: D2D; 5G Cellular Networks; Real-Time Traffic; C2D Communication; Traffic Interference
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:46:01 CET)
In this paper, we propose a multi-zone service control scheme to maximize the performance of each service zone when a large number of cellular service zones and D2D (Device-to-Device) service zones are composed to 5G cellular network. This paper also improves performance of service zone by dividing traffic into real-time traffic and non-real-time traffic in order to minimize traffic interference. Real-time traffic and non-real-time traffic have a significant impact on communication performance. We propose a new self-detection traffic interference control technique to improve the QoS and throughput of D2D and C2D communication in a cellular network, STICS (Self-detecting Traffic Interference Control Scheme). The proposed STICS scheme distinguishes between short-term traffic congestion process and long-term traffic congestion process according to traffic characteristics to detect and control traffic. When the proposed scheme is applied to the 5G-based cellular network environment, it is expected that the traffic type will be efficiently classified by self-detecting the traffic according to the flow. Such classified traffic is less sensitive to communication between the D2D and C2D links, thereby reducing traffic overload. We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation and show that the proposed scheme is more efficient than other comparison schemes.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: storage tank; continuous real–time; release model; leakage test; hole discharge
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:34:54 CEST)
The calculation of the release of liquid hazardous chemicals storage tanks is an important part of the quantitative risk assessment of accidents. This paper mainly establishes a continuous real–time release model based on the instantaneous mass flow Qm model. Meanwhile, the software function module was analyzed, and programming software was developed using C# language for model solving. A series of experiments for repeated leakage tests was designed and the discharges through three small holes with different heights for 200 s were observed. The results show that the continuous real–time leakage model is effective, and the deviation between theoretical and experimental release amounts are within a reasonable range. The higher the liquid level above the leak hole is, and the smaller the height of the leak hole from the ground is, the greater the flow rate at the leak orifice is and the smaller discharge rate change is. Therefore, the deviation between the theoretical release amount Mt and the experimental average release amount Ma is greater while the height of the leak hole from the ground is smaller, which indicates that the smaller the distance from the leak orifice to the ground, the greater the influence of the empirical discharge coefficient C0 on the release amount M.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: real-time control; mechatronics; PZT actuators; vibration; hardware-in-the-loop
Online: 4 August 2016 (06:20:33 CEST)
This paper proposes an innovative mechatronic piezo-actuated module to control vibrations in modern machine tools. Vibrations represent one of the main issues that compromise seriously the quality of the workpiece. The active vibration control (AVC) device is composed by a host part integrated with sensors and actuators synchronized by a regulator, able to make a self-assessment and adjust to the environmental alteration. This study presents the mechatronic model based on the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the AVC device. To ensure a real time performance, a H2-LQG controller has been developed and validated by simulations involving machine tool, PZT actuator and controller models. The Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) architecture is adopted to control and attenuate the vibrations. A set of experimental tests has been performed to validate the AVC module on a commercial machine tool. The feasibility of the real time vibration damping is demonstrated and the simulation accuracy is evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0293.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: marine intrusion; induced polarisation; polarizability; decay time
Online: 16 November 2022 (02:34:59 CET)
This study presents the developments regarding the time-domain-induced polarisation method, as a supporting tool for resistivity soundings during investigations of coastal detrital aquifers that are salinised by marine intrusion. The interpretation of resistivity measurements in such aquifers, which have variable hydrochemistry and lithology, involves uncertainties owing to the presence of low-resistivity lithologies, such as clays. To reduce these uncertainties, the use of other geophysical parameters is necessary; hence, this study focuses on induced polarisation, since it can be measured simultaneously with resistivity. In detail, we propose the determination of induced polarisation using 1D techniques, while developing a different algorithm for processing the induced polarisation data. The aim is to extend the results of this phenomenon, using instead of chargeability, the concepts of polarisability and decay time, which are extracted from the decay curve, given that they represent more intrinsic properties of the various analysed subsurface media. We present results obtained by applying this methodology to a Quaternary aquifer of the Costa del Sol in the SE Iberian Peninsula (in the province of Almería) during two different campaigns, one before and one after winter (i.e., in October and February, respectively). The results reveal the position of the saline front during each campaign, while reflecting the seasonal movement of the marine intrusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1600.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; signal processing methods; Fourier transform; time-frequency analysis; statistical signal processing; EEG; signal characteristics; signal noise
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:00:28 CEST)
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is common in the elderly. This paper introduces the overview of Alzheimer's disease and the application of relevant signal processing methods in its detection. Signal processing is a technique that converts raw data into meaningful information and is widely used in the medical field. This paper lists common signal processing techniques, including Fourier transform, time-frequency analysis and statistical signal processing, and discusses their applications in the detection of Alzheimer's disease. Fourier transform can convert time domain signals into frequency domain representations, providing an effective tool for the study of EEG in Alzheimer's disease. Time-frequency analysis can perform a combined time and frequency analysis of the signal to help detect the signal characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. Statistical signal processing methods can be used to identify the features of Alzheimer's disease by building mathematical models. Finally, the challenges of Alzheimer's disease detection are discussed, including signal noise, diversity, and insufficient data volume. Through in-depth research and development of signal processing methods, it is expected to improve the accuracy and efficiency of early detection of Alzheimer's disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: autonomy; optimal; spacecraft; navigation guidance; attitude control; inertial sensors; star trackers; linear quadratic regulator; time-optimal control; optimal open loop; proportional plus derivative control; real-time optimal control; switched real-time optimal control
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:40:49 CET)
Autonomous navigation of spacecraft necessitates innovative technologies, methods, and algorithms, particularly when orbiting in proximity of other space objects. Optimization methods are useful for autonomous spacecraft navigation, guidance, and control, but their performance is hampered by noisy multi-sensor technologies and poorly modeled system equations, and real-time on-board utilization is generally computationally burdensome. Some proposed methods use noisy sensor data to learn the optimal guidance and control solutions real-time (online), where non-iterative instantiations are preferred to reduce computational burdens. This study aims to highlight efficacy and limitations of several common methods for optimizing guidance and control while proposing a few more, where all methods are applied to the full, nonlinear, coupled equations of motion including cross-products of motion from the transport theorem. Five disparate types of optimum guidance and control algorithms are presented and compared to a classical benchmark. Comparative analysis is based on tracking errors (both states and rates), fuel usage, and computational burden. Real-time optimalization with singular switching plus nonlinear transport theorem decoupling proves superior by matching open-loop solutions to the constrained optimization problem (in terms of state and rate errors and fuel usage), while robustness is validated in the utilization of mixed, noisy state and rate sensors and uniformly varying mass and mass moments of inertia. State tracking errors are reduced one-hundred ten percent. Rate tracking errors are reduced one-hundred thirteen percent. Control utilization (e.g., fuel) is reduced eighty four percent, while computational burden in reduced ten percent simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0471.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Aerosol spectrometer; Personal exposure; Real-time monitoring; Working environment; Particulate matter reduction
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:58:49 CEST)
As broiler farming facilities have become larger and more concentrated in response to external environmental changes, there is a possibility of increased concentrations of fine dust and aerosols inside these facilities due to enclosure. In particular, workers are exposed to high concentrations of organic particulate matter and harmful gases while performing their tasks, and as they age, they become more vulnerable to respiratory diseases. It is essential to directly monitor the concen-trations to which workers are exposed, along with the spatial distribution of aerosols inside broiler house. In this study, we analyzed the regional aerosol concentrations using passive samplers in commercial tunnel-ventilated broiler farms. Simultaneously, we employed active samplers at the height of the workers' breathing zones to monitor real-time aerosol concentrations by particle size along their work routes. Spatial aerosol concentrations generally increased from the inlet to the exhaust in the breathing zone. The average aerosol concentrations were TSP -1,042 µg/m³, PM-10 718 µg/m³, and PM-2.5 137 µg/m³. To analyze the workers' exposure environments, we categorized the tasks in the barn into Static work period (SWP) and Moving work period (MWP) based on video analysis. The results showed that during MWP, fine dust concentrations exceeded the standards by up to 214%. Particularly, during MWP, the concentrations were 1.74 times higher for TSP, 1.40 times higher for PM-10, and 1.22 times higher for PM-2.5 compared to SWP. It was observed that during the movement of workers, physical generation of particles around 10 µm, such as feces, feed, and bedding, occurred due to the movement of chicken, which influenced the aerosol concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Star image registration; Radial module feature; Rotation angle feature; Robustness; Real-time
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:16:38 CEST)
Star image registration is the most important step in the application of astronomical image differencing, stacking and mosaicking, which requires high robustness, accuracy and real--time of the algorithm, but there is no high--performance registration algorithm in this field. In this paper, we propose a star image registration algorithm that relies only on radial module features (RMF) and rotation angle features (RAF), which has excellent robustness, high accuracy, and good real--time performance. The test results on a large amount of simulated and real data show that the comprehensive performance of the proposed algorithm is significantly better than the four classical baseline algorithms in the presence of rotation, insufficient overlapping area, false stars, position deviation, magnitude deviation and complex sky background, which is a more ideal star image registration algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: real time; heart rate variability; psychological intervention program; complex posttraumatic stress disorder
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:42:40 CEST)
For a subject suffering from complex post-traumatic stress disorder, a psychological intervention program was designed, monitored in real-time during psychotherapy, and evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively after psychotherapy. One male subject participated in this program under consent. The proposed intervention program was designed using cognitive behavioral therapy and stabilization treatments for body-based sensory processes in four sessions of 90 min each. During psychotherapy, a wearable heart sensor and a communication application were utilized to determine the subject’s current psychological state. After the intervention, the effect of the proposed program was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using the Impact of Event Scale–Revised (IES-R-K), Athens insomnia scale (AIS), and heart rate variability (HRV). After the intervention program was conducted, the subject reconstructed his traumatic events and trained himself with certain psychological techniques to decrease his negative thoughts and emotions induced by his previous traumatic events. The IES-R-K and AIS ten months after the last session were changed positively by approximately 25% compared with the subject’s state before the first session. During psychotherapy, the HRV exhibited a significant correlation with the subject’s emotional state. The proposed intervention program induced a positive change in the subject. Although the HRV was well utilized in this investigation, more sophisticated statistical analysis will be required for clinical trials.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0746.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: field programmable gate array (FPGA); hardware implementation; real-time system; action clustering
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:07:29 CEST)
Video behavior recognition often needs to focus on object motion processes. In this work, a self-organizing computational system oriented to behavioral clustering recognition is proposed, which achieves the extraction of motion change patterns by binary encoding and completes motion pattern summarization using a similarity comparison algorithm. And in the face of unknown behavioral video data, a self-organizing structure with layer-by-layer accuracy progression is used to achieve motion law summarization by using a multi-layer agent design approach. Finally, the real-time feasibility is verified in the prototype system using real scenes to provide a new feasible solution for unsupervised behavior recognition and space-time scenes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0279.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chemotype; 3ADON; DNA; Fusarium; Fusarium head blight; NIV; real-time PCR; wheat
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:09:55 CET)
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a wheat disease caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. The aim of the study was to find relationships between the weather conditions in the experimental years and the locations and the amount of F. culmorum DNA and trichothecene genotypes, as well as the proportions between them. A three-year field experiment (2017, 2018 and 2019) was established at two locations (Poznań, Radzików). F. culmorum DNA was detected in all grain samples in an average amount of 20124 pg per 1 g of wheat DNA. The average amount of DNA from the 3ADON genotype was 4879 pg/μg and the amount of DNA from the NIV genotype was 3330 pg/μg. In the three experimental years, a large variability was observed in the coefficients of correlation between DNA concentrations and the FHB index, FDK, ergosterol, and the corresponding toxins. There were significant correlations between disease incidence, fungal biomass (quantified as the total amount of fungal DNA or DNA trichothecene genotypes) and toxins (DON, 3AcDON and NIV) concentrations. The 3ADON trichothecene genotype dominates over the NIV genotype (ratio 1.5); however, this varied greatly depending on environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sensor fusion; sensor noise; optimization; feedback; real-time optimization; velocity-based controller
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:27:25 CET)
Classical and optimal control architectures for motion mechanics with fusion of noisy sensors use different algorithms and calculations to perform and control any number of physical demands, to varying degrees of accuracy, precision, and cost. Their performances are tested for the purpose of comparison through the means of a Monte Carlo simulation that simulates how different parameters might vary under noise, representing real-world imperfect sensors. We find that improvements in one figure of merit often come at a cost in the performance in the others, especially depending on the presence of noise in the system sensors. If sensor noise is negligible, open-loop optimal control performs the best. However, in the overpowering presence of sensor noise, using a control law inversion patching filter performs as the best replacement, but has significant computational strain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0740.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: balance training; real-time visual feedback; smart wearable devices; center of pressure
Online: 30 September 2020 (11:00:33 CEST)
This study aims to explore the effect of real-time visual feedback (VF) information of the pres-sure of center (COP) provided by intelligent insoles on balance training in a one leg stance (OLS) and tandem stance (TS) posture. Thirty healthy female college students were randomly assigned to the visual feedback balance training group (VFT), non-visual feedback balance training group (NVFT), and control group (CG). The balance training includes: OLS, tandem Stance (dominant leg behind, TSDL), tandem stance (non-dominant leg behind, TSNDL). The training lasted 4 weeks, the training lasts 30 minutes at an interval of 1 days. There was a sig-nificant difference in the interaction effect between Groups*Times of the COP parameters (p<0.05) for OLS. There was no significant difference in the interaction effect between Groups*Times of the COP parameters (p>0.05) for TS. The main effect of the COP parameters was a significant difference in Times (p<0.05). The COP displacement, velocity, radius, and area in VFT significantly decreased after training (p < 0.05). Therefore, the visual feedback technology of intelligent auxiliary equipment during balance training can enhance the benefit of training. The use of smart wearable devices in OLS balance training may improve the visual and physical balance integration ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0018.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: allergenic pollen; ozone; automatic real-time device; image analysis; principal component analysis
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:02:31 CEST)
Alnus glutinosa is important woody plant in Lithuanian forest ecosystems. Knowledge of fluorescence properties of black alder pollen is necessary for scientific and practical purposes. By the results of the study we aimed to evaluate possibilities of identifying Alnus glutinosa pollen fluorescence properties by modeling ozone effect and applying two different fluorescence-based devices. To implement experiments, black alder pollen was collected in a typical habitat during the annual flowering period in 2018-2019. There were three groups of experimental variants, which differed in the duration of exposure to ozone, conditions of pollen storage before the start of the experiment, and the experiment start time. Data for pollen fluorescence analysis were collected using two methods. The microscopy method was used in order to evaluate the possibility of employing image analysis systems for investigation of pollen fluorescence. The second data collection method is related to the automatic device identifying pollen in real-time, which uses the fluorescence method in the pollen recognition process. Data were assessed employing image analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. Digital images of ozone-exposed pollen observed under the fluorescence microscope showed the change of the dominant green colour towards the blue spectrum. Meanwhile, the automatic detector detects more pollen whose fluorescence is at the blue light spectrum. It must be noted that assessing pollen fluorescence several months after exposure to ozone, no effect of ozone on fluorescence remains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0047.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: flow surface velocity; handbook; non-contact river monitoring; low-cost; real-time
Online: 5 February 2019 (10:01:28 CET)
Acquisition of real-time hydraulic data is an essential component for flood forecasting. However, we frequently face difficulties in obtaining discharge data using classical contact methods during high magnitude floods and for systems experiencing rapid hydro-geomorphological adjustment. Therefore, we developed low-cost, non-contact sensors and platforms that are designed to overcome these difficulties. These advances enable flood flow properties to be monitored at multiple locations across a river catchment, at low-cost, and communicated in near real-time by using an image velocimetry method. This is an optics-based approach for stream flow measurement using commercially available near-infrared digital cameras to acquire video footage in full HD (30fps). Video footage is then subjected to optical flow tracking techniques based on cross-correlation, and feature-based tracking, enabling the displacement rates of detected features (for example natural foam, seeds, woody debris, and turbulent structures) to be computed. This manual provides step by step guidance to install an image-based gauging station. It contains the list of necessary components, the calibration process of a new camera and the assembly procedure of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0009.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: 3D semantic mapping; incremental fusion; global optimization; real time; naturalistic road scenes
Online: 3 January 2019 (11:03:24 CET)
Fast 3D reconstruction with semantic information on road scenes is of great requirements for autonomous navigation. It involves issues of geometry and appearance in the field of computer vision. In this work, we propose a method of fast 3D semantic mapping based on the monocular vision. At present, due to the inexpensive price and easy installation, monocular cameras are widely equipped on recent vehicles for the advanced driver assistance and it is possible to acquire semantic information and 3D map. The monocular visual sequence is used to estimate the camera pose, calculate the depth, predict the semantic segmentation, and finally realize the 3D semantic mapping by combination of the techniques of localization, mapping and scene parsing. Our method recovers the 3D semantic mapping by incrementally transferring 2D semantic information to 3D point cloud. And a global optimization is explored to improve the accuracy of the semantic mapping in light of the spatial consistency. In our framework, there is no need to make semantic inference on each frame of the sequence, since the mesh data with semantic information is corresponding to sparse reference frames. It saves amounts of the computational cost and allows our mapping system to perform online. We evaluate the system on naturalistic road scenes, e.g., KITTI and observe a significant speed-up in the inference stage by labeling on the mesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0277.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Real-time systems; Industrial networks; calibration; measurements; access point; IEEE 802.11; WLAN
Online: 30 March 2018 (16:33:11 CEST)
In factory automation systems, hybrid wired/wireless networks are often deployed to connect devices of difficult reachability such as those mounted on mobile equipment. A widespread version of these networks makes use of Access Points (APs) to implement wireless extensions of Real--Time Ethernet (RTE) networks via the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN). Unfortunately, APs may introduce random delays in packet forwarding, mainly related to the their internal behaviors (e.g. code processing times) that negatively impact on the whole performance of the automation systems. Consequently, the knowledge of these delays represent a crucial design information. This paper presents an original and effective method to measure the delays introduced by APs, exploiting a hybrid loop-back link and a simple set-up with moderate instrumentation requirements. The method, which requires an initial calibration by means of a reference AP, has been successfully tested on some commercial APs. As it will be shown, the proposed measurement procedure is general and, as such, can be profitably adopted in even different scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Photovoltaic; Power-Hardware-In-Loop-Simulator; Supervisory control algorithm; Real-time processing;
Online: 22 September 2017 (16:13:11 CEST)
A programmable DC power supply with Real-time Digital Simulator (RTDS)-based photovoltaic (PV) Power Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL) simulators have been used to improve the control algorithm and reliability of PV Inverter. This paper proposes a supervisory control algorithm for PV PHIL simulator with non-RTDS device that is an alternative solution of high cost PHIL simulator. However, when such a simulator with conventional algorithm which is used in RTDS is connected to a PV inverter, the output is in the transient state and it makes it impossible to evaluate the performance of the PV Inverter. Therefore proposed algorithm controls the voltage and current target values according to the constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) modes to overcome the limitation of the Computing Unit, DC power supply and also uses a multi-rate system to account for the characteristics of each component of simulator. A mathematical models of a PV system, programmable DC power supply, isolated DC measurement device and Computing Unit are integrated to form a real-time processing simulator. Performance tests using a PV PHIL simulator which is applied proposed algorithm connected a PV inverter are carried out and proved superiority and utility of this method against conventional methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0739.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Event-Driven Processing, Speech recognition, Adaptive Resolution Analysis, Features extraction, Dynamic Time Warping, Classification
Online: 31 October 2018 (08:14:15 CET)
This paper proposes a novel approach, based on the adaptive rate processing and analysis, for the isolated speech recognition. The idea is to smartly combine the event-driven signal acquisition and windowing along with adaptive rate processing, analysis and classification for realizing an effective isolated speech recognition. The incoming speech signal is digitized with an event-driven A/D converter (EDADC). The output of EDADC is windowed with an activity selection process. These windows are later on resampled uniformly with an adaptive rate interpolator. The resampled windows are de-noised with an adaptive rate filter and their spectrum are computed with an adaptive resolution short time Fourier transform (ARSTFT). Later on, the magnitude, Delta and Delta-Delta spectral coefficients are extracted. The Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) technique is employed to compare these extracted features with the reference templates. The comparison outcomes are used to make the classification decision. The system functionality is tested for a case study and results are presented. An 8.2 times reduction in acquired number of samples is achieved by the devised approach as compared to the classical one. It aptitudes a significant computational gain and power consumption reduction of the proposed system over the counter classical ones. An average subject dependent isolated speech recognition accuracy of 96.8% is achieved. It shows that the proposed approach is a potential candidate for the automatic speech recognition applications like rehabilitation centers, smart call centers, smart homes, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0063.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; Real-Time Tracker; Common Symptoms; Data Visualization; Hypothesis Testing; ARIMA Time-Series Forecast; Penalized Logistic Regression
Online: 7 June 2020 (07:44:48 CEST)
While the COVID-19 outbreak was reported to first originate from Wuhan, China, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020 by WHO, and it has spread to over 180 countries by the time of this paper was being composed. As the disease spreads around the globe, it has evolved into a worldwide pandemic, endangering the state of global public health and becoming a serious threat to the global community. To combat and prevent the spread of the disease, all individuals should be well-informed of the rapidly changing state of COVID-19. In the endeavor of accomplishing this objective, a COVID-19 real-time analytical tracker has been built to provide the latest status of the disease and relevant analytical insights. The real-time tracker is designed to cater to the general audience without advanced statistical aptitude. It aims to communicate insights through various straightforward and concise data visualizations that are supported by sound statistical foundations and reliable data sources. This paper aims to discuss the major methodologies which are utilized to generate the insights displayed on the real-time tracker, which include real-time data retrieval, normalization techniques, ARIMA time-series forecasting, and logistic regression models. In addition to introducing the details and motivations of the utilized methodologies, the paper additionally features some key discoveries that have been derived in regard to COVID-19 using the methodologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1635.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: experimental study on time series prediction methods; investigation on time series model predictions; analysis of the effects of data pre-processing methods on time series prediction; long short-term memory models; stacked autoencoder; wavelet transformation
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:23:19 CEST)
Time-series analysis is a widely used technique across various fields and industries, as it helps in understanding, predicting, and forecasting the behavior of data points over time. These fields include but are not limited to finance, economics, healthcare, transportation, etc. In the case of this paper, we have focused on finance. Predicting future values of financial time series offers several benefits. Accurate forecasts can help investors make better decisions about their investments. To predict future values, deep learning algorithms are commonly used since it is an effective method with complex data. In this study, we conduct a study that investigates the use of different data pre-processing techniques on deep learning algorithms in predicting the time series values. To conduct this experimental study, we utilize an open source software, which using long short-term memory technique as the representative deep learning technique, published in github software code repository platform. With this study, we investigate the effects of autoencoder and discrete wavelet transform data pre-processing techniques in time-series prediction. We discuss the details of the experimental study and report our results. The results show that time series prediction (using backtesting methodology) without any data pre-processing leads to 12.6% for mean absolute percentage error. The results also show that, time series prediction with the data preprocessing techniques (Wavelet Transform and Stacked Autoencoder) lead to 3.4%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0939.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: transparent conducting oxide films; laser irradiation; photo-functionalisation; real-time monitoring; Nd:YAG laser
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:28:22 CEST)
Laser-induced functionalisation using excimer laser irradiation has been widely applied to transparent conductive oxide films. However, exploring suitable irradiation conditions is time-consuming and cost-ineffective as there are numerous routine film fabrication and analytical processes. Thus, we herein explored a real-time technique to monitor the laser-induced functionalisation of transparent conductive oxide films. We developed two types of monitoring apparatus, electrical and optical, and applied them to magnetron-sputtered Sn-doped In2O3 films grown on glass substrates and hydrogen-doped In2O3 films on glass or plastic substrates using a picosecond Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Both techniques could monitor the functionalisation from a change in properties of the films on glass substrates by laser irradiation, but electrical measurement was unsuitable for plastic samples because of a laser-induced degradation of the underlying plastic substrate, which harmed proper electrical contact. Instead, we demonstrated that the optical properties in the near-infrared region were suitable for the monitoring and the changes in the optical properties were visually detected in real-time by using a near-infrared camera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cyber-Security; Cyber-Physical Systems; Education; Power Systems; Real-Time testbed Smart Grids
Online: 18 July 2023 (14:22:05 CEST)
The increased adoption of information and communication technology for smart grid applications will require innovative cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds to support research and education in the field. The groundbreaking CPS testbeds with realistic and scalable platforms have progressively gained interest in recent years, with electric power flowing in the physical layer and information flowing in the network layer. However, CPSs are critical infrastructures and not designed for testing or direct training, as any misbehaving in an actual system operation could cause a catastrophic impact on its operation. Based on that, it is not easy to efficiently train professionals in CPSs. Aiming to support the advancement and encourage the training of industry professionals, this paper proposes and develops a complete testbed with commercial tools. The testbed can reliably replicate the performance of smart grid systems and the main potential cyber threats that electric grids may face. The complex interdependencies between the cyber and physical domains are discussed in detail, and different case scenarios are presented, providing insightful guidelines for key features and design decisions for future smart grid testbeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Multiplex PCR; Real time PCR; Human herpes viruses; clinical significance; Pediatric Leukemia patients
Online: 30 August 2022 (10:30:06 CEST)
Objectives: Human herpes viruses can cause life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised children, especially leukemic patients. Therefore, the aim of this study is to detect the human herpes viruses (HHV1-7) and to investigate its clinical significance in Middle Eastern Pediatric Leukemia Patients by using 2 Independent PCR assays. Methods: Detection of human herpes virus DNA has been done in blood samples of 200 pediatric leukemia patients in addition to 90 blood donors as a control group using multiplex PCR assays. When a ‘‘positive’’ result was observed, real-time PCR was performed to measure the viral load. Results: The most frequent herpes virus infection in Middle Eastern Pediatric Leukemia cases was CMV, followed by EBV, then HHV6, VZV, HHV7, HSV1, and HSV2, where they were 92/200 (46%), 76/200 (38%), 72/200 (36%), 48/200 (24%), 12/200 (6%), 8/200 (4%), and 2/200 (1%) respectively. Also, there was a statistically significance difference between leukemic patients and their controls regarding CMV, EBV, HHV6, and VZV (P <0.05). Correlation between percentage of co-infection, and clinical parameters for the 7 herpes viruses has been studied, and there is an increase in absolute neutrophilic count (ANC), total leukocyte count (TLC) and duration of fever and neutropenia in age group 6-11 years for HHV6/CMV, then in age group 12-18 years especially for EBV/CMV and CMV/HHV6. Also, our results show that multiplex PCR assay is close to single PCR assay in relation to specificity and sensitivity which in turn prove its validity for early diagnosis of herpes viral infection. Conclusions: Adopting multiplex PCR technique is helpful in screening of virus infections. It will save time, effort, cost effective and will assist in rapid diagnosis. However, the clinical relevance of the virus infection needs to be evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR which in turn will help patient's management by using appropriate antiviral treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0320.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever virus; laboratory diagnosis; commercial real-time PCR; performance; sensitivity; specificity
Online: 21 December 2021 (09:24:26 CET)
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the major threats to pig production, and real-time PCR (qPCR) protocols are integral part of ASF laboratory diagnosis. With the pandemic spread of ASF, commercial kits have risen on the market. In Germany, the kits have to go through an approval process and thus, general validation can be assumed. However, they were never compared to each other. In this study, 12 commercial PCR kits were compared to an OIE recommended method. Samples representing different matrices, genome loads, and genotypes were included in a panel that was tested under diagnostic conditions. The comparison included user-friendliness, internal controls, and the time required. All qPCRs were able to detect ASFV genome in different matrices across all genotypes and disease courses. With one exception, there were no significant differences when comparing the overall mean. The overall specificity was 100 % [95 % CI 87.66 - 100], and the sensitivity was between 95 % and 100 % [95 % CI 91.11 - 100]. As can be expected, variability concerned samples with low genome load. Concluding, all tests were fit for purpose. The test system can therefore be chosen based on compatibility and prioritization of the internal control system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0616.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: gait diagnosis; wearable device; graphical descriptor; real-time monitoring; tele-rehabilitation; digital biomarkers
Online: 25 March 2021 (13:52:03 CET)
The deterioration of gait can be used as a biomarker for ageing and neurological diseases. Continuous gait monitoring and analysis are essential for early deficit detection and personalized rehabilitation. The use of mobile and wearable inertial sensor systems for gait monitoring and analysis have been well explored with promising results in the literature. However, most of these studies focus on the technologies for gait characteristic assessment, few of them have considered the data acquisition bandwidth of the sensing system. Inadequate sampling frequency will sacrifice signal fidelity, thus leading to an inaccurate estimation especially for spatial gait parameters. In this work, we developed an inertial sensor based in-shoe gait analysis system for real-time gait monitoring and investigated the optimal sampling frequency to capture all the information on walking patterns. An exploratory validation study was performed using an optical motion capture system on four healthy adult subjects, where each person underwent five walking sessions, giving a total of 20 sessions. Percentage mean absolute errors (MAE%) obtained in stride time, stride length, stride velocity, and cadence while walking were 1.19%, 1.68%, 2.08%, and 1.23%, respectively. In addition, an eigen-analysis based graphical descriptor from raw gait cycle signals was proposed as a new gait metric that can be quantified by principal component analysis to differentiate gait patterns, which has great potential to be used as a powerful analytical tool for gait disorder diagnostics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0717.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; thickness measurement; non-destructive testing; lift-off; real-time monitoring
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:05:41 CEST)
Previously, various techniques have been proposed for reducing the lift-off effect on the thickness measurement of the non-magnetic films, including the peak-frequency feature and phase feature in the Dodd-Deed analytical formulation. To realise a real-time feedback response on the thickness monitoring, the phase term in the Dodd-Deeds formulation must be taken off the integration. Previous methods were based on the slow change rate of the phase term when compared to the rest of the term – the magnitude term. However, the change rate of the phase term is still considerable for a range of working frequencies. In this paper, a high-frequency feature has been found. That is, the ratio between the imaginary and real part of the phase term is proportional to the integral variable under high frequencies. Based on this proportion relationship, the phase term has been taken out; and a thickness algorithm has been proposed. By combing the measured impedance from the custom-built sensor (three coils), the thickness of the metallic film can be reconstructed. Experiments have been carried out for the verification of the proposed scenario. Results show that the thickness of the metal film can be reconstructed with a small error of less than 2 %, and immune to a reasonable range of lift-offs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: itch; scratch; automated real-time detection; machine-learning based image classifier; image sharpness
Online: 19 January 2020 (03:13:48 CET)
A 'little brother' of pain, itch is an unpleasant sensation that creates a specific urge to scratch. To date, various machine-learning based image classifiers (MBICs) have been proposed for quantitative analysis of itch-induced scratch behaviour of laboratory animals in an automated, non-invasive, inexpensive and real-time manner. In spite of MBICs' advantages, the overall performances (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) of current MBIC approaches remains inconsistent, with their values varying from ~50% to ~99%, for which the reasons underlying have yet to be investigated further, both computationally and experimentally. To look into the variation of the performance of MBICs in automated detection of itch-induced scratch, this article focuses on the experimental data recording step, and reports here for the first time that MBICs' overall performance is inextricably linked to the sharpness of experimentally recorded video of laboratory animal scratch behaviour. This article furthermore demonstrates for the first time that a linearly correlated relationship exists between video sharpness and overall performance (accuracy and specificity, but not sensitivity) of MBICs, and highlight the primary role of experimental data recording in rapid, accurate and consistent quantitative assessment of laboratory animal itch.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: millimeter wave imaging; orthogonal coded multiplexing; compressed sensing; real-time imaging; dynamic range
Online: 10 November 2019 (09:40:50 CET)
Millimeter wave wide-band imaging is widely studied for a variety of applications. However real-time millimeter wave wide-band imaging at frequencies above 30GHz for moving targets in a large field of view has not been realized commercially. A 2D sparse array with transmitter multiplexing is a promising solution to this problem. In this article, a method combining compressed sensing and orthogonal coded multiplexing was proposed, and the imaging performance was analyzed for different reconstruction algorithms and observation matrices by imaging simulation for a continuous object. Also the influence on the dynamic range of the original signal introduced by orthogonal coded multiplexing was studied. This work demonstrated that the proposed method was effective in reconstructing the image with a real-time capability. It is shown that different algorithms and matrices resulted in distinct performances, while the evaluation parameter selection also played a role. This work provided useful instructions for both the hardware and software design of a real-time 3D millimeter wave imaging system in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0260.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: evidence-based dentistry; public health dentistry; google trends; real-time analytics; predictive analytics
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:34:04 CET)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological sciences have been evolving at an exponential rate paralleled only by the comparable growth within the discipline of data science. Digital epidemiological studies are playing a vital role in medical science analytics for the past few decades. To date, there are no published attempts at deploying the use of real-time analytics in connection with the disciplines of Dentistry or Medicine. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES We deployed a real-time statistical analysis in connection with topics in Dental Anatomy and Dental Pathology represented by the maxillary sinus, posterior maxillary teeth, related oral pathology. The purpose is to infer the digital epidemiology based on a continuous stream of raw data retrieved from Google Trends database. MATERIALS AND METHODS Statistical analysis was carried out via Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS version 24. Google Trends database was used to retrieve data for digital epidemiology. Real-time analytics and the statistical inference were based on encoding a programming script using Python high-level programming language. A systematic review of the literature was carried out via PubMed-NCBI, the Cochrane Library, and Elsevier databases. RESULTS The comprehensive review of databases of the literature, based on specific keywords search, yielded 491813 published studies. These were distributed as 488884 (PubMed-NCBI), 1611 (the Cochrane Library), and 1318 (Elsevier). However, there was no single study attempting real-time analytics. Nevertheless, we succeeded in achieving an automated real-time stream of data accompanied by a statistical inference based on data extrapolated from Google Trends. CONCLUSION Real-time analytics are of considerable impact when implemented in biological and life sciences as they will tremendously reduce the required resources for research. Predictive analytics, based on artificial neural networks and machine learning algorithms, can be the next step to be deployed in continuation of the real-time systems to prognosticate changes in the temporal trends and the digital epidemiology of phenomena of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1546.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Chemical Physics Keywords: RT-TAO-DFT; TAO-DFT; multi-reference character; real-time electron dynamics; time-dependent properties; high-order harmonic generation
Online: 22 September 2023 (11:40:32 CEST)
Thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) has been an efficient electronic structure method for studying the ground-state properties of large electronic systems with multi-reference character over the past few years. To explore the time-dependent (TD) properties of electronic systems (e.g., subject to an intense laser pulse), in this work, we propose a real-time (RT) extension of TAO-DFT, denoted as RT-TAO-DFT. Besides, we employ RT-TAO-DFT to study the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectra and related TD properties of molecular hydrogen H2 at the equilibrium and stretched geometries, aligned along the polarization of an intense linearly polarized laser pulse. The TD properties obtained with RT-TAO-DFT are compared with those obtained with the widely used time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) method. In addition, issues related to the possible spin-symmetry breaking effects in the TD properties are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Acoustic Emission Monitoring; Capsule Neural Network; Dilated Convolutional Neural 20 Network; Tiny Machine Learning; Time of Arrival Estimation
Online: 17 May 2023 (05:17:33 CEST)
The timely diagnosis of defects at their incipient stage of formation is crucial to extend the life-cycle of technical appliances. This is the case of mechanical-related stress, either due to long aging degradation processes (e.g., corrosion) or in-operation forces (e.g., impact events), which might provoke detrimental damages, such as cracks, disbonding or delaminations, most commonly followed by the release of acoustic energy. The localization of these sources can be successfully fulfilled via adoption of Acoustic Emission (AE)-based inspection techniques through the computation of the Time of Arrival (ToA), namely the time at which the induced mechanical wave released at the occurrence of the acoustic event arrives to the acquisition unit. However, the accurate estimation of the ToA may be hampered by poor Signal-to-Noise ratios (SNRs). In these conditions, standard statistical methods typically fail. In this work, two alternative Deep Learning methods are proposed for ToA retrieval, namely a Dilated Convolutional Neural Network (DilCNN) and a Capsule Neural Network for ToA (CapsToA). These methods have the additional benefit of being portable on resource-constrained microprocessors. Their performance has been extensively studied on both synthetic and experimental data, focusing on the problem of ToA identification for the case of a metallic plate. Results show that the two novel methods can achieve localization errors which are up to 70% more precise than those yielded by conventional strategies, even when the SNR is severely compromised (i.e., down to 2 dB). Moreover, DilCNN and CapsNet have been implemented in a tiny machine learning environment and then deployed on microcontroller units, showing a negligible loss of performance with respect to offline realizations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1539.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: machine learning; reinforcement learning; deep learning; Gaussian process; artificial neural networks; real-time diagnostics
Online: 25 September 2023 (05:19:01 CEST)
Plasma technology shows tremendous potential for revolutionizing oncology research and treatment. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electromagnetic emissions generated through gas plasma jets, have attracted significant attention due to their selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. To leverage the full potential of plasma medicine, researchers have explored the use of mathematical models and various subsets of machine learning, such as reinforcement learning, and deep learning. This review emphasizes the significant application of AI algorithms in the adaptive plasma system, paving the way for precision and dynamic cancer treatment. Realizing the full potential of AI in plasma medicine, requires research efforts, data sharing and interdisciplinary collaborations. Unravelling the complex mechanisms, developing real-time diagnostics, and optimizing AI models will be crucial to harness the true power of plasma technology in oncology. The integration of personalized and dynamic plasma therapies, alongside AI and diagnostic sensors, presents a transformative approach to cancer treatment with the potential to improve outcomes globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0779.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: real time evaluation; deviated wells; hole cleaning index (HCI); case studies; drilling performance improvement
Online: 23 April 2023 (05:28:16 CEST)
When drilling oil and gas wells, hole cleaning efficiency is crucial, particularly in the curved or severely deviated sections. Although many hole-cleaning procedures and models have been developed, most of them have substantial limitations or are difficult to apply in real time. This study aimed to develop a model for the hole cleaning index (HCI) that could be integrated into the drilling operations to provide an automated and real-time evaluation of deviated drilling hole cleaning. The new model herein was developed based on the mechanical drilling parameters, enhanced estimated drilling fluid properties, and cuttings characteristics. This HCI model was validated and tested in the field, as it was applied when drilling 12.25”-intermediate directional sections in two wells with a total length of approximately 2000 ft each. The integration of the HCI helped to attain a much better well drilling performance (50% enhancement) and mitigation of potential problems like pipe sticking and the slower rate of penetration. Since the developed index incorporates the changes in wellbore geometry and other spontaneous field data, the new model could be utilized for real-time optimization and intermediate interventions by drilling teams, unlike commercial software tools which are only useful during the planning phase. For this reason, the HCI can be linked to the driller's control panel to provide timely evaluation and corrective measures related to hole cleaning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0268.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Real-time cell characterization; electrode polarization; cell membrane capacitance; cytoplasm resistance; dendritic gold nanostructures
Online: 16 December 2021 (11:39:56 CET)
Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is a promising cell screening method that can be used for diagnostic and drug discovery purposes. The primary challenge of using DS in physiological buffers is the electrode polarization (EP) that overwhelms the impedance signal within a large frequency range. These effects further amplify with miniaturization of the measurement electrodes. In this study, we present a microfluidic system and the associated equivalent circuit models for real-time measurements of cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance in physiological buffers with 10s increments. The current device captures several hundreds of biological cells in individual microwells through gravitational settling and measures the system’s impedance using microelectrodes covered with dendritic gold nanostructures. Using PC-3 cells (a highly metastatic prostate cancer cell line) suspended in cell growth media (CGM), we demonstrate stable measurements of cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance in the device for over 15 minutes. We also describe a consistent application of the equivalent circuit model, starting from the reference measurements used to determine the system parameters. The circuit model is tested using devices with varying dimensions, and the obtained cell parameters between different devices are nearly identical. Further analyses of the impedance data have shown that accurate cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance can be extracted using a limited number of measurements in the 5 MHz to 10 MHz range. This will potentially reduce the timescale required for real-time DS measurements below 1s. Overall the new microfluidic device can be used for dielectric characterization of biological cells in physiological buffers for various cell screening applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0641.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: entry; kinetics; luciferase; real-time; live assay, vesicular stomatitis virus; Ebola; Lassa; chikungunya; coronavirus.
Online: 25 November 2020 (13:05:59 CET)
Viral entry is the first stage in the virus replication cycle and, for enveloped viruses, is mediated by virally encoded glycoproteins. Viral glycoproteins have different receptor affinities and triggering mechanisms. We employed vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a BSL-2 enveloped virus that can incorporate non-native glycoproteins, to examine the entry efficiencies of diverse viral glycoproteins. To compare glycoprotein-mediated entry efficiencies of: VSV G, SARS-CoV-2 S, EBOV GP, LASV GP, and CHIKV E we produced recombinant VSV (rVSV) viruses that produce the five glycoproteins. The rVSV virions encoded a nano luciferase-PEST (NLucP) reporter gene, which we used in combination with the live-cell substrate Endurazine™ to monitor viral entry kinetics in real time. Our data indicate that rVSV particles with glycoproteins that require more post-internalization priming typically demonstrate delayed entry in comparison to VSV G. In addition to determining the time required for each virus to complete entry, we also used our system to evaluate viral cell surface receptor preferences, monitor fusion, and elucidate endocytosis mechanisms. This system can be rapidly employed to examine diverse viral glycoproteins and their entry requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein; COVID-19; Mutation; hACE2 Receptor; Real-time PCR; Vaccine
Online: 4 June 2020 (08:48:03 CEST)
Currently, entire world is crumbled due to COVID-19 caused by novel SARS-CoV-2. Globally, over 5 million people are infected by SARS-CoV-2 with 6% fatality rate. The surface spike (S) protein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 by mediating viral entry through human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptors on the host cell and there is a big global race to find viral neutralizing antibodies and vaccine against S protein of SARS-CoV-2. Since SARS-CoV-2 evolved into 10 different clades in a very short span, a study on sipke protein mutation is essential to have effective vaccine coverage globally. Based on the mutation analysis of S protein from 166 Indian SARS-CoV-2 genome, a total of 40 different SNPs comprising of 14 synonymous and 26 non-synonymous mutations were observed, and notably, Indian S protein diverged into two major clusters, D614 and G614, with 11 different types. Majority of Indian strains fall in A2a and O clusters. Alarmingly, we have observed six SNPs at RBD and notably two of them at RBM (S438F and S494P). S494P SNP, similar to Bat–SARS like-CoV, may indicate a low ACE2 binding affinity. Interestingly 38% of Indian strains harbor a characteristic D614G SNP which was found predominantly in A2a cluster, mostly comprising USA and European strains with high disease severity. The association of disease severity with D614G SNP is well-correlated in states with high death rate except Maharashtra. Notably, more than 50% of D614G mutation were observed in Northern part of India and 14% in Southern part but not in Kerala and Tamil Nadu strains. Highly conserved motif, D614 (608-VAVLYQDVNCT-618) in upstream and also few downstream, of S1/S2 furin cleavage site may indicate specific key role in efficient interaction with host proteases in pathogenesis. Further studies are warranted to clarify the impact of SD614G SNP association to disease severity . Interestingly, C2367T (Y789Y) synonymous SNP is observed in 37% of Indian strains and notably similar SNPs with degeneracy bases were observed which is a key indication for the possibility of misdiagnosis by Real-Time PCR and revised strategies are needed for the precise diagnosis. Circulation of high number of signature SNPs [D614G and C2367T (Y789Y)] in certain states may be an early indication of emergence of community transmission in India. Further large genome sequence data from India will aid in deep understanding on the diversity of circulating SASR-Cov-2 and its impact on disease severity, origin of imported cases to India, community spread, effect on diagnosis and vaccine coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0440.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Scrub typhus; qRT PCR; Quantitative PCR; real time PCR; IgM ELISA; North-East India
Online: 27 May 2020 (07:51:25 CEST)
Scrub typhus is a life-threatening infectious disease and always creating a diagnostic dilemma in terms of rapid turnaround time and accuracy, qRT PCR can become a very good option to achieve the desired result with the molecular level of accuracy and boost up the rapid patient management. This study was performed to evaluate the performance of qRT PCR in comparison to commonly used IgM ELISA and Weil-Felix tests to diagnose scrub typhus, as well as to look for the demographic and clinical profile of the disease in North-East India. It was a hospital-based prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India, over a period of 1 year, in which all the samples from suspected scrub typhus cases were screened by Weil-Felix test as per institute’s diagnostic protocol after which IgM ELISA for Scrub Typhus was performed. All the IgM positive samples and 20 highly suspected but ELISA negative samples were subjected to qRT PCR, targeting 56 kDa type-specific gene of O. tsutsugamushi. Statistical analysis was done by MS-Excel for Windows v2013® and MedCalc® v17.9 for Windows (MedCalc Software, Acacialaan 22, B-8400 Ostend, Belgium). In this study, we have successfully evaluated the performance of qRT PCR kit for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Out of 54 samples tested, 24 IgM ELISA positive samples and 3 IgM ELISA negative samples have shown the presence of bacterial DNA with quantification of DNA copies. It has also been observed that 21 out of 27 PCR positive samples (77.8%) were detected within the 1st 7 days of illness. All the demographic, as well as clinical data, were also analysed. The performance of the commercial qRT PCR kit used in our study is satisfactory, which provides the extra advantage of quantification of DNA copies and increases diagnostic accuracy within the 1st week of fever.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: ph sensors; reticulorumen; blood gas; automatic milking system; real-time monitoring; precision livestock farming
Online: 10 January 2020 (10:08:05 CET)
We hypothesized possibility that inline registered reticulorumen pH can be as biomarker of cows reproduction and health status. Aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of reticulorumen pH with biomarkers from automatic milking system (AMS) and some blood parameters and determinate reticulorumen pH as biomarker of cows reproduction and health status. According to cows reproductive status the cows were classified as belonging to the following four groups: 15-30 d. postpartum; 1-34 d. after insemination; 35 d. after insemination (non-pregnant); 35 d. after insemination (pregnant). According reticulorumen pH assay experimental animals were divided into four classes: 1) pH<6.22 (5.3% of cows), 2) pH - 6.22-6.42 (42.1% of cows), 3) pH - 6.42-6.62 (21.1% of cows), 4) pH >6.62 (10.5% of cows). Rumination time, body weight, milk yield, milk fat – protein ratio, milk lactose, milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk electrical conductivity of all quarters of udder were registered with the help of Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots. The pH, temperature of the contents of cow reticulorumens and cow activity were measured using specific smaX-tec boluses. Blood gas parameters were analyzed using a blood gas analyzer (EPOC, Canada). We found that pregnant cows has higher reticulorumen pH during insemination time, comparing with non-pregnant. Cows with lower reticulorumen pH has lowest milk fat – protein ratio, and lactose concentration, and highest SCC. Cows with lowest reticulorumen pH has lowest blood pH. With increase reticulorumen pH, increases blood potasium and hematocrit, decreases CO2, saturation and sodium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0072.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Sporadic tasks; fault tolerance; scheduling; real time system; virtualized clouding; petri net; distributive systems
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:50:40 CET)
Scheduling of real time tasks are very important aspect in systems as processes should complete its task at a specific time. There is a need of high energy efficiency and low response time in large data stream so for this energy efficient resources and optimized frameworks are needed. Both hard real time and mixed critically systems are targeted. Soft deadline can be handled while hard deadlines are difficult to cater. Different algorithms are used to schedule tasks like rate monotonic, earliest deadline first, deadline monotonic etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: urease immobilization; chemical cross-linking; surface modification; parylene-a; flow system; real-time monitoring
Online: 26 September 2019 (10:01:30 CEST)
A portable urea sensor for use in the fast flow condition was fabricated using porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes coated with amine-functionalized parylene, parylene-A, by vapor deposition. To generate a specific electrochemical sensor signal from urea, the urea-hydrolyzing enzyme urease was immobilized on the parylene-A-coated PTFE membranes via chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde. The urease-immobilized membranes were assembled in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluidic chamber, and a screen-printed carbon three-electrode system was used for electrochemical measurements. The success of urease immobilization was confirmed using fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The optimum concentration of urease for immobilization on the parylene-A-coated PTFE membranes was determined to be 48 mg/mL, and the optimum number of membranes in the PDMS chamber was found to be 8. Using these optimized conditions, we fabricated the urea biosensor and monitored urea samples under various flow rates ranging from 0.5 to 10 mL/min in the flow condition using chronoamperometry. To test the applicability of the sensor for physiological samples, we used it for monitoring urea concentration in the waste peritoneal dialysate of a patient with chronic renal failure, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0456.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: brachypodium; neutral red; root; casparian bands; PEG-6000; osmotic stress; real time imaging; PDMS
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:05:36 CET)
To elucidate dynamic developmental processes in plants, live tissues and organs have to be visualized frequently and for long time periods. The development of roots is studied in depth at a cellular resolution not only to comprehend the basic processes fundamental to maintenance and pattern formation but also study stress tolerance adaptation in plants. Despite technological advancements, maintaining continuous access to samples and simultaneously preserving their morphological structures and physiological conditions without causing damage presents hindrances in the measurement, visualization and analyses of growing organs including plant roots. We propose a preliminary system which integrates the optical real-time visualization through light microscopy with a liquid culture which enables us to image at the tissue and cellular level horizontally growing Brachypodium roots every few minutes and up to 24 hours. We describe a simple setup which can be used to track the growth of the root as it grows including the root tip growth and osmotic stress dynamics. We demonstrate the system’s capability to scale down the PEG-mediated osmotic stress analysis and collected data on gene expression under osmotic stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0553.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: e-Health domain; Differential Privacy; Blockchain; IoT; real-time data; health survey; electronic medical record
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:22:28 CEST)
A systematic and comprehensive review of critical applications of Blockchain Technol-ogy with Differential Privacy integration lies within the privacy and security enhancement. This paper aims to highlight the research issues in the e-health domain (e.g., Electronic Medical Rec-ords) and to review the current research directions in Differential Privacy integration with Blockchain Technology.(1) Background: The current state of the art in the e-health domain is identified as follows: (a) healthcare information poses a high level of security and privacy concerns due to its sensitivity; (b) due to vulnerabilities surrounding the healthcare system, a data breach is common and presents a risk for attacks by an adversary; and (c) the current privacy and security apparatus needs further fortification. (2) Methods: The methodology uses a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify and select relevant research papers and academic journals in DP and BT. (3) Results: The results are categorized into: e-Health Record Privacy, Real-Time Health Data, and Health Survey Data Protection to identify inherent issues with Differential Privacy integra-tion with Blockchain and technical challenges.(4) Conclusion: This review thoroughly surveyed and summarized Differential Privacy mechanisms in EMR privacy, real-time health data, and health survey data protection while highlighting challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0775.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: multi-agent system; GEO-spatial simulation model; COVID-19; modelling; geo-object; real-time simulation
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:31:07 CEST)
The paper proposed a modification of the GeoSER(D) model previously developed by us by detailing the age structure of the population, personal schedule on weekdays and working days, and individual health characteristics of the agents, this made it possible to build a more realistic model of the functioning of the city and its residents. The developed model made it possible to simulate the spread of 3 types of the strain of the COVID-19 virus, and to analyze the adequacy of this model in the case of unhindered spread of the virus among city residents. The paper showed that SARS COV 2 spreads mainly from contacts in workplaces and transport, and schoolchildren and preschool children are the consequence, not the initiator of the epidemic. Fluctuations in the dynamics of various indicators of the spread of SARS COV 2 associated with the difference in the daily schedule on weekdays and weekends. It has been shown that people's daily schedules strongly influence the spread of SARS COV 2. For the more contagious "rapid" strains of SARS COV 2 (omicron), immunocompetent people become a significant source of infection. For the less contagious "slow strains" (alpha) of SARS COV 2, the most active source of infection is immunocompromised individuals (pregnant women). The more contagious – "fast" strain of the SARS COV 2 virus (omicron) spreads faster in public transport. For less contagious – "slow" strains of the virus (alpha), the greatest infection occurs due to work and educational contacts.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1668.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Asset; Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS); IoT; LoraWAN; Low-power wide area networks; Real-time; Tracking.
Online: 24 May 2023 (02:21:29 CEST)
With the vast amount of goods being shipped around the world, there is a need to track and manage various types of assets, particularly shipping containers. Logistics industries dealing with small facilities, shipments, equipment, and vehicles must be tracked. There are many applied asset tracking systems such as Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID), Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Beacon, and Long-Range Radio (LoRa). This paper presents these systems and focuses on locating assets using LoRaWAN technology, which has a positive impact on the responsive and sustainable cities in Egypt. IoT-based Long Range (LoRa) is a low-power, wide-area communication technology that uses radio frequencies to transmit data over long distances. The extended range, low power consumption, low maintenance, and the ability to store location data when the end node that needs to connect to the asset is out of the gateway's coverage make LoRa a good choice for developing asset-tracking applications. This paper introduces a real-time tracking experiment as a result of a project implementation, whose goals are aligned with industry, innovation, and infrastructure and Sustainable Cities and Communities, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) No. 9 and 11.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0109.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: self-design setup; real-time imaging; GPU acceleration; quantitative phase imaging; differential phase contrast microscopy
Online: 12 April 2022 (10:19:06 CEST)
Quantitative differential phase contrast (qDPC) imaging has become an important method of optical measurement and life science research in microscopy because of its high reconstruction resolution and non-invasive, high-contrast and quantitative imaging of biological samples. Despite the continuous development of the principle and algorithm, the frame rate of the existing qDPC algorithm is still much lower than that of camera acquisition, so it is hardly applied to real-time image the fast-moving biological samples. In this paper, based on color-coded multiplexing strategy, a compact real-time quantitative phase imaging system is designed to realize multi-mode imaging. The system employs a programmable LED array to illuminate directly, and the phase reconstruction algorithm is deployed in the graphics processing unit (GPU) of the laptop to accelerate the calculation. The system can achieve high-speed quantitative phase imaging of non-stained biological samples, and the frame rate can reach 60fps. The device has the advantages of compact structure, low cost and portability. Thus, it is suitable for mobile medical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0332.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Near-net-shaped Blade; Adaptive Machining; Small Object Detection; Neural Network; Transformer; Real-Time Detection
Online: 4 January 2022 (11:12:43 CET)
In the leading/trailing edge’s adaptive machining of the near-net-shaped blade, a small portion of the theoretical part is retained for securing aerodynamic performance by manual work. However, this procedure is time-consuming and depends on the human experience. In this paper, we defined retained theoretical leading/trailing edge as the reconstruction area. To accelerate the reconstruction process, an anchor-free neural network model based on Transformer was proposed, named LETR (Leading/trailing Edge Transformer). LETR extracts image features from an aspect of mixed frequency and channel domain. We also integrated LETR with the newest meta-Acon activation function. We tested our model on the self-made dataset LDEG2021 on a single GPU and got an mAP of 91.9\%, which surpassed our baseline model, Deformable DETR by 1.1\%. Furthermore, we modified LETR’s convolution layer and named the new model after GLETR (Ghost Leading/trailing Edge Transformer) as a lightweight model for real-time detection. It is proved that GLETR has fewer weight parameters and converges faster than LETR with an acceptable decrease in mAP (0.1\%) by test results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: non-destructive; biosensors; real-time detection; circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA); high sensitivity; Internet of Things
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:28:29 CET)
Early diagnosis and treatment have always been highly desired in the fight against cancer, and detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has recently been touted as highly promising for early cancer screening. Consequently, the detection of ctDNA in liquid biopsy gains much attention in the field of tumor diagnosis and treatment, which has also attracted research interest from the industry. However, traditional gene detection technology is difficult to achieve low cost, real-time and portable measurement of ctDNA. Electroanalytical biosensors have many unique advantages such as high sensitivity, high specificity, low cost and good portability. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the latest development of biosensors for minimal-invasive, rapid, and real-time ctDNA detection. Various ctDNA sensors are reviewed with respect to their choices of receptor probes, detection strategies and figures of merit. Aiming at the portable, real-time and non-destructive characteristics of biosensors, we analyze their development in the Internet of Things, point-of-care testing, big data and big health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0688.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: droplet digital PCR; real time RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2; false negative; viral load; diagnosis
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:09:26 CEST)
Background: The reference test for SARS-CoV-2 detection is the reverse transcriptase real time PCR (real time RT-PCR). However, evidences reported that real time RT-PCR has a lower sensitivity compared with the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) leading to possible false negative in low viral load cases. Methods: We used ddPCR for viral genes N1 and N2 on 20 negative (no detection) samples from symptomatic hospitalized COVID-patients presenting fluctuating real time RT-PCR results and 10 suspected samples (Ct value>35) from asymptomatic not hospitalized subjects. Results: ddPCR performed on RNA revealed 65% of positivity for at least one viral target in the hospitalized patients group of samples (35% for N1 and N2, 10% only for N1 and 20% only for N2) and 50% in the suspected cases (30% for N1 and N2, while 20% only for N2). On hospitalized patients’ samples, we applied also a direct ddPCR approach on the swab material, achieving an overall positivity of 83%. Conclusion: ddPCR, in particular the direct quantitation on swabs, shows a sensitivity advantage for the SARS-CoV-2 identification and may be useful to reduce the false negative diagnosis, especially for low viral load suspected samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0595.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: real-time electronics; structural health monitoring; Lamb wave; piezoelectric sensors; impact localization, ultrasonic guided waves
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:14:03 CEST)
The work presents a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) electronic system with real-time ac-quisition and processing for the determination of impact location in laminates. The novelty of this work is the quantitative evaluation of impact location errors using the Lamb wave guided mode S0, captured and processed in real-time by up to eight piezoelectric sensors. The differential time of arrival is used to minimize an error function for the position estimation. The impact energy is correlated to the amplitudes of the antisymmetric (A0 ) mode and the electronic design is de-scribed to avoid saturation for signal acquisition. The same electronic is designed to acquire symmetric (S0 ) low level signals by adequate gain, bandwidth and signal to noise ration. Such signals propagate into a 1.4mm thick aluminum laminate at the group velocity of 5150m/s with frequency frequency components above 270kHz and can be discriminated from the A0 mode to calculate accurately the differential arrival time. The results show that the error is not improved better than S0 wavelength in impact localization by using six out of eight sensors connected to the electronic system.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial intelligence; machine learning; real-time probabilistic data; for cyber risk; super forecasting; red teaming;
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:18:14 CEST)
Multiple governmental agencies and private organisations have made commitments for the colonisation of Mars. Such colonisation requires complex systems and infrastructure that could be very costly to repair or replace in cases of cyber-attacks. This paper surveys deep learning algorithms, IoT cyber security and risk models, and established mathematical formulas to identify the best approach for developing a dynamic and self-adapting system for predictive cyber risk analytics supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning and real-time intelligence in edge computing. The paper presents a new mathematical approach for integrating concepts for cognition engine design, edge computing and Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to automate anomaly detection. This engine instigates a step change by applying Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning embedded at the edge of IoT networks, to deliver safe and functional real- time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. This will enhance capacities for risk analytics and assists in the creation of a comprehensive and systematic understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning technologies are migrated to the periphery of the internet and into local IoT networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Real-time MR imaging; CSF; cilia sensing; aquaporin; nitric oxide; amyloid-ß; glymphatic system; hydrocephalus
Online: 15 March 2021 (10:36:20 CET)
With the advent of real-time MRI, the motion and passage of cerebrospinal fluid can be visualized without gating and exclusion of low-frequency waves. This imaging modality gives insights into low-volume, rapidly oscillating cardiac-driven movement as well as sustained, high-volume, slowly oscillating inspiration-driven movement.Inspiration means a spontaneous or artificial increase in the intrathoracic dimensions independent of body position. Alterations in thoracic diameter enable the thoracic and spinal epidural venous compartments to be emptied and filled, producing an upward surge of cerebrospinal fluid inside the spine during inspiration; this surge counterbalances the downward pooling of venous blood toward the heart.Real-time MRI, as a macroscale in vivo observation method, could expand our knowledge of neurofluid dynamics, including how astrocytic fluid preloading is adjusted and how brain buoyancy and turgor are maintained in different postures and zero gravity.Along with these macroscale findings, new microscale insights into aquaporin-mediated fluid transfer, its sensing by cilia and its tuning by nitric oxide will be reviewed. By incorporating clinical knowledge spanning several disciplines, certain disorders—congenital hydrocephalus with Chiari malformation, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and adult idiopathic hydrocephalus—are interpreted and reviewed according to current concepts, from the basics of the interrelated systems to their pathology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-rate real-time simulation; the ideal source equivalent; the Norton equivalent; increment; extrapolation method
Online: 10 August 2020 (08:24:53 CEST)
For the problem of poor accuracy of the existing multi-rate simulation methods, this paper proposes a multi rate real-time simulation method based on the Norton equivalent, compared with multi-rate simulation method based on the ideal source equivalent. After the Norton equivalence of the fast subsystem and the slow subsystem, they are obtained simultaneously at the junction nodes. In order to reduce the amount of simulation calculation, the Norton equivalent circuit is obtained by incremental calculation. The data interface between the fast subsystem and the slow subsystem is realized by extrapolation method. For ensuring the real-time performance of the simulation, the method that the slow subsystem calculates ahead of the fast subsystem is given for the slow subsystem with a large amount of calculation. Finally, the AC/DC hybrid power system was simulated on the real-time simulation platform (FRTDS), and the simulation results were compared with the single-rate simulation, which verified the correctness and accuracy of the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0076.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Real time PCR; tree nuts; allergen detection; processed foods; thermal processing; pressure processing; DIC processing
Online: 16 May 2020 (19:18:21 CEST)
Tree nuts show nutritional properties and human health benefits. However, they contain allergenic proteins, which make them harmful to the sensitised population. The presence of tree nuts on food labelling is mandatory and, consequently, the development of suitable analytical methodologies to detect nuts in processed foods is advisable. Real-time PCR allowed a specific and accurate amplification of allergen sequences. Some food processing methods could induce structural and/or conformational changes in proteins by altering their allergenic capacity, as well as produce the fragmentation and/or degradation of genomic DNA. In this work, we analysed by means of Real-time PCR, the influence of pressure and thermal processing through Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) on the detectability of hazelnut,pistachio and cashew allergens have been tested. The detection of targets in hazelnut, pistachio and cashew (Cor a 9, Pis v 1 and Ana o 1, respectively) is affected by the treatment, in different extent depending on the tree nut. Results are compared to those previously obtained by our group in the analysis of different treatments on the amplificability of the same targets. Reduction in amplificability is similar to that reported for some autoclave conditions. Our assays might allow detecting up to 1000 mg/kg of hazelnut, pistachio and cashew flours after being submitted to DIC treatment in food matrices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0172.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: ticks; cattle, rna viruses; next-generation sequencing; phylogeny; microfluidic real-time pcr technology; Caribbean; lips
Online: 12 December 2019 (12:29:36 CET)
Ticks transmit a wide variety of pathogens including bacteria, parasites and viruses. Over the last decade, numerous novel viruses have been described in arthropods, including ticks, and their characterization has provided new insights into RNA virus diversity and evolution. However, little is known about their ability to infect vertebrates. As very few studies have described the diversity of viruses present in ticks from the Caribbean, we implemented an RNA-sequencing approach on Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks collected from cattle in Guadeloupe and Martinique. Among the viral communities infecting Caribbean ticks, we selected four viruses belonging to the Chuviridae, Phenuiviridae and Flaviviridae families for further characterization and designing antibody screening tests. While viral prevalence in individual tick samples revealed high infection rates, suggesting a high level of exposure of Caribbean cattle to these viruses, no seropositive animals were detected. These results suggest that the Chuviridae- and Phenuiviridae-related viruses identified in the present study are more likely tick endosymbionts, raising the question of the epidemiological significance of their occurrence in ticks, especially regarding their possible impact on tick biology and vector capacity. The characterization of these viruses might open the door to new ways of preventing and controlling tick-borne diseases.