Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Paediatric Pineal Region Cysts: Enigma or Impaired Glymphatic Neurofluid System?

Version 1 : Received: 11 May 2022 / Approved: 12 May 2022 / Online: 12 May 2022 (08:00:41 CEST)

How to cite: Ludwig, H.; Dreha-Kulaczewski, S.; Bock, C. Paediatric Pineal Region Cysts: Enigma or Impaired Glymphatic Neurofluid System?. Preprints 2022, 2022050161 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202205.0161.v1). Ludwig, H.; Dreha-Kulaczewski, S.; Bock, C. Paediatric Pineal Region Cysts: Enigma or Impaired Glymphatic Neurofluid System?. Preprints 2022, 2022050161 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202205.0161.v1).

Abstract

Proposal: Pineal region cysts (PCs) may affect the tectum and aqueduct and cause deep central vein congestion and endocrine dysfunction. In addition to headaches, PC often causes a broad range of symptoms, leading to prolonged diagnosis and therapy. The aims of this study are to reveal parameters that might explain the ambiguity of the symptoms and to identify factors association with the respiration driven neurofluid preload system. Methods: This retrospective study included 28 paediatric patients (mean age 11.6 years) who received surgical treatment for pineal region cysts and 18 patients (mean age 11.3 years) who were followed conservatively. Multiple clinical patient characteristics, such as symptoms, time to neuroimaging diagnosis, cyst size, ventricular indices, head circumference and postoperative outcome, were analysed. Four patients were investigated for CSF dynamics with real-time MRI. The mean follow-up time was 1.6 years. Results: The most common early onset symptoms were headaches (92%), blurred vision (42.8%), sleep disturbances (39.3%) and vertigo (32.1%). Tectum contact was observed in 82% of patients, and MRI examinations revealed that imaging flow void signals were absent in 32.1% of patients. The mean cyst diameters were 13.7 mm for the axial axis and 15.6 mm for the longitudinal axis. Together with a postoperative flow void signal, 4 patients recovered their respiration-driven CSF upward flow, which was not detectable before OP. After operation in 92.1% of patients, the leading symptoms improved without any mortality or morbidity. Conclusion: Despite proximity to the tectum and aqueduct with frequently absent aqueductal flow void signals, hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was never detected. Data from real-time MRI depicted a reduced preoperative filling of the ventricular CSF compartments, indicating a diminished fluid preload, which recovered postoperatively.

Keywords

Pineal cyst; hydrocephalus; microsurgery; real-time MRI; respiration; glymphatic system

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Clinical Neurology

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