ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: trauma; pancreas; abdominal injury; head injury; polytrauma
Online: 23 February 2021 (11:03:14 CET)
Background: We aimed to study the frequency, management, and outcomes of patients with blunt pancreatic trauma. Methods: We reviewed the medical records for all patients admitted with pancreatic injuries between 2011 and 2017 at the only level 1 trauma center in the country. Results: There were 71 patients admitted with pancreatic trauma (0.6% of trauma admissions and 3.4% of abdominal injury admissions) with a mean age of 31 years. Sixty-two patients had pancreatic injury grade I-II and 9 had grade III-IV. Thirty-eight percent had GCS <9 and 73% had ISS >16. The level of pancreatic enzymes was significantly proportional to the grade of injury. Over half of patients required a laparotomy, of them 12 patients had an intervention on the pancreas. Eight patients developed complications related to pancreatic injuries ranging from pancreatitis to pancreatico-cutaneous fistula while 35% developed hemorrhagic shock. Mortality was 31% and regardless of the grade of injury, the mortality was associated with high ISS, low GCS and presence of hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion: Pancreatic injuries following blunt trauma are rare and the injured subjects are usually young male. However, most injuries are of low-grade severity. This study shows that shock, higher ISS and lower GCS are associated with worse in-hospital out-comes. Non-operative management may suffice in patients with lower grade injuries, which may not be the case in patients with higher grade injuries unless carefully selected
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Injury mechanism; Muscle strengthening; Neuromotor; Neurocognitive; Injury Prevention
Online: 18 December 2020 (08:34:06 CET)
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear is currently a main issue in all of sports communities. Although the number of ACL injuries in football remains low, it’s consequences on both professional and personal lives remain a major concern of rehabilitation. If practitioners often require more time to bring athletes in the best condition, the fact remains that this concept of time before return to sport is nowadays considered as obsolete. Indeed, the better understanding of the mechanisms of lesion and the strains placed on the graft after reconstruction, allow us to establish a personalized program based on clinical criteria and the patient's objectives. The current scientific literature allows us today to optimize the return to play and performance by the use of neuromotor and neurocognitive approaches, muscle strengthening methods and a preventive program necessary to cover the previous level of the players while taking into account physiological and psychological changes due to ACL reconstruction. Indeed, it is important to have a systemic approach centered on the patient, the sports movement, as close as possible to the field in order to find an optimal function of the knee in interaction with its environment.If there is a risk of reinjury of the ACL, it appears important to be able to identify the risk factors so that the player can return to play in optimal conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0310.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: astroglial injury; GFAP; calpain; caspase; biomarkers; traumatic brain injury
Online: 22 June 2022 (08:28:02 CEST)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament III protein of astroglia cells which is upregulated in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here we reported that GFAP is truncated at both the C- and N-terminals by cytosolic protease calpain to GFAP breakdown products (GBDP) of 46-40K then 38K following pro-necrotic (A23187) and pro-apoptotic (staurosporine) challenges to primary cultured astroglia or neuron-glia mixed cells. In addition, with another pro-apoptotic challenge (EDTA) where caspases are activated but not calpain, GFAP was fragmented internally, generating a C-terminal GBDP of 20 kDa. Following controlled cortical impact in mice, GBDP of 46-40K and 38K were formed from day 3 to 28 post-injury. Purified GFAP protein treated with calpain-1 and -2 generates (i) major N-terminal cleavage sites between A-56 and A-75, and (ii) major C-terminal cleavage sites between T-383 and Q-388, producing a limit fragment of 38K. Caspase-6 treated GFAP was cleaved at D-78, R-79, D-266 and A-267, where GFAP was relatively resistant to caspase-3. We also derived a GBDP-38K N-terminal-specific antibody which only labels injured astroglia cell body in both cultured astroglia and mouse cortex and hippocampus after TBI. As a clinical translation, we observed that CSF samples collected from severe human TBI have elevated levels of GBDP-38K as well as two C-terminally released GFAP peptides (DGEVIKES and DGEVIKE). Thus, in addition to intact GFAP, both the GBDP-38K as well as unique GFAP released C-terminal proteolytic peptides species might have the potential in tracking brain injury progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Anorexia; adolescents; pediatric; liver injury; aminotransferase; renal injury; refeeding
Online: 2 June 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Background: Only few pediatric reports exist regarding the prevalence, cause and evolution of liver and renal injury in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of hepatic and renal failure at admission and during hospitalization, especially during refeeding in a cohort of hospitalized adolescents with AN.Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of adolescents with AN in a single hospital of Marseille from 2013 to 2019, we compared four groups on admission: elevated aminotransferases (AT)/normal AT and renal injury/no renal injury to analyze the differences between them (demographic factors, anthropometric factors, disease duration, initial prescribed calories, speed of refeeding, aminotransferase level, glomerular filtration rate). We observed the evolution of AT and renal injury for these four groups during refeeding (by the increase of kilocalories). Results: A total of 29 subjects with AN met eligibility criteria (age: 14.2 years, female (86.2%), BMI at admission (Z-score= -2.8 standard deviation (SD)) with elevated AT (20.7 %) and renal injury (13.8 %) on admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-4.05 vs -2 SD, p = 0.013), lower expected weight for height (69% vs 76%, p = 0.034) and longer disease duration (2.1 vs 0.9 years, p =0,032) were significantly associated with elevated liver enzymes at admission. Lower Z-score BMI (-3.35 vs -2.5 SD, p = 0.002), lower expected weight for height at admission (69% vs 74,5%, p = 0.002) and loss of weight before admission (0.66 vs à 0.20 kg per day, p = 0.002) were associated with renal injury at admission. Time nadir BMI (13.5 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.034) and duration of hospitalization (55 vs 41 days, p = 0.036) were longer in elevated enzymes on admission group. During refeeding, liver enzymes (95% confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) aspartate aminotransferase: -0.07 [-0.11; -0.03] and OR alanine aminotransferase: -0.16 [-0.27; -0.06]) and renal injury (95% CI, OR creatinine: -0.013 [-0.017; -0.008]) have normalized with the increase of calories, with significant association.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that degree of malnutrition is associated with liver and renal injury on admission. Theses failures disappeared with refeeding. In the future, prospective multicentric studies could examine evolution of renal and hepatic failure undergoing refeeding in large pediatric cohort of AN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0564.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Dendritic cell; Rapamycin; Mitochondria; Acute kidney injury; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:13:27 CEST)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique immune cells that can link innate and adaptive immune responses and Immunometabolism greatly impacts their phenotype. Rapamycin is a macrolide compound that has immunosuppressant functions and is used to prevent graft loss in kidney transplantation. The current study evaluated the therapeutic potential of ex-vivo Rapamycin treated DCs to protect kidneys in a mouse model of acute kidney injury (AKI). For the Rapamycin single (S) treatment (Rapa-S-DC), Veh-DCs were treated with Rapamycin (10 ng/ml) for 1 hour before LPS. In contrast, Rapamycin multiple (M) treatment (Rapa-M-DC) were exposed to 3 treatments over 7 days. Only multiple ex-vivo Rapamycin treatments of DCs induced a persistent reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism. These DCs had 18-fold more mitochondria, had almost 4-fold higher oxygen consumption rates, and produced more ATP compared to Veh-DCs (Veh treated control DCs). Pathway analysis showed IL10 signaling as a major contributing pathway to the altered immunophenotype after Rapamycin treatment compared to vehicle with significantly lower cytokines Tnfa, Il1b, and Il6, while regulators of mitochondrial content Pgc1a, Tfam, and Ho1 remained elevated. Critically, adoptive transfer of Rapamycin treated DCs to WT recipients 24 hrs before bilateral kidney ischemia significantly protected the kidneys from injury with a significant 3-fold improvement in kidney function. Last, the infusion of DCs containing higher mitochondria numbers (treated ex-vivo with healthy isolated mitochondria (10 µg/ml) one day before) also partially protected the kidneys from IRI. These studies demonstrate that pre-emptive infusion of ex-vivo reprogrammed DCs that have higher mitochondria content has therapeutic capacity to induce an anti-inflammatory regulatory phenotype to protect kidneys from injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: traumatic brain injury; fluid percussion injury; neurodegeneration; apoptosis; sensorimotor deficit
Online: 28 December 2017 (08:58:32 CET)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, which occur through a cascade of deleterious pathophysiological events over time. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that neurodegeneration caused by TBI leads to impairments in sensorimotor function. TBI induces the activation of the caspase-3 enzyme, which triggers cell apoptosis in an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We analyzed caspase-3 mediated apoptosis by TUNEL staining and PARP and annexin V western blotting. We correlated the neurodegeneration with sensorimotor deficits by conducting the animal behavioral tests including grid walk, balance beam, inverted screen test, and climb test. Our study demonstrated that the excess cell death or neurodegeneration correlated with the neuronal dysfunction and sensorimotor impairments associated with TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Cathinones; Designer drugs; Bath salts; Neuronal injury; astroglial injury; Calpain; Caspase
Online: 8 September 2022 (09:14:34 CEST)
This study aims to examine the cytotoxicity mechanisms of synthetic cathinone (bath salts) on rat primary cultured neurons and primary astroglial cells, and to assess their neurobehavioral effects on mice. We administered methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) to both rat primary cultured neurons and primary astroglial cells to assess cell injury. We also analyzed the effects of MDPV on these cell cultures using immunocytochemistry. We utilized western blotting to assess the breakdown of αII-spectrin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) induced by MDPV. The western blotting experiment also included calpain and caspase inhibitors (SNJ1945 and Z-D-DCB, respectively) and pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic agents (Staurosporine and calcium ionophore A23187, respectively). Lastly, we assessed MDPV’s effects on behavioral effects using rotarod, locomotor activity, elevated plus maze, Morris water maze, forced swimming, and open field tests. MDPV caused a dose-dependent release of LDH in both cerebrocortical neuron-astroglia mixed cultures and primary astroglial cultures. MDPV also caused neurite breakages and astroglial process retraction on immunocytochemistry. Lastly, MDPV induced αII-spectrin breakdown in western blotting experiments. Co-administration of calpain and caspase inhibitors reduced the degradation of αII-spectrin and GFAP. MDPV administration also increased anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity in the mice. Synthetic cathinones, which share structural similarities with methamphetamine, also induce significant neurotoxic effects and neurobehavioral effects on rodent models. These neurotoxic effects are likely mediated by calpain and caspase-induced apoptosis and necrosis, while astroglial death is likely only due to calpain activation. Therefore, further research may focus on pharmacological interventions targeting these pathways to mitigate the cytotoxic impact of cathinones in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: acute kidney injury; ischemia-reperfusion injury; dietary restriction; nutrition; preconditioning; endocannabinoids; AEA
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:59:13 CEST)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and critical complication in the clinical setting. In rodents AKI can be prevented effectively through caloric restriction (CR), which has also been shown to increase lifespan in many species. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity studies revealed that a marked CR-induced reduction of endocannabinoids may be a key mechanism. Thus, we hypothesized that regulation of endocannabinoids, in particular arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA), might also play a role in CR-mediated protection from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in mammals including humans. In male C57Bl6J mice, CR significantly reduced renal IRI and led to a significant decrease of AEA. Supplementation of AEA to near-normal serum concentrations by repetitive intraperitoneal administration in CR mice, however, did not abrogate the protective effect of CR. We also analyzed serum samples taken before and after CR from patients of three different pilot trials of dietary interventions. In contrast to mice and C. elegans, we detected an increase of AEA. We conclude that endocannabinoid levels in mice are modulated by CR, but CR-mediated renal protection does not depend on this effect. Moreover, our results indicate that modulation of endocannabinoids by CR in humans may differ fundamentally from the effects in animal models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0770.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: CDP-choline; citicoline; pharmacological neuroprotection; brain ischemia; traumatic brain injury; head injury
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:42:27 CEST)
Head injury is among the most devastating types of injury, specifically called Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). There is need to diminish the morbidity related with TBI and to improve the outcome of patients suffering TBI. Among the improvements on the treatment of TBI, neuroprotection is one of the upcoming improvements. Citicoline has been used in the management of brain ischemia related disorders, such as TBI. Citicoline has biochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacokinetic characteristics that make it a potentially useful neuroprotective drug for the management of TBI. A short review of these characteristics is included in this paper. Also, a narrative review of almost all the published or communicated studies performed with this drug in the management of patients with head injury is included. Based on the results obtained in these clinical studies, it is possible to conclude that citicoline was able to accelerate recovery of consciousness and to improve the outcome of this kind of patients, with an excellent safety profile. Thus, citicoline could have a potential role in the management of TBI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0449.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Central Nervous System; Ependymal Cells; Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells; NG2+ Cells; Regenerative Medicine; Retina Injury; Spinal Cord Injury; Traumatic Brain Injury.
Online: 16 June 2021 (15:02:02 CEST)
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to learning, memory, maintenance of homeostasis, energy metabolism and many other essential processes. They are highly heterogeneous populations that require input from a regionally distinct microenvironment including a mix of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, NG2+ glia, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and others. The diversity of NSPCs is present in all three major parts of the CNS, i.e., the brain, spinal cord, and retina. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals, e.g., neurotrophic and growth factors, master transcription factors, and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), collectively regulate activities and characteristics of NSPCs: quiescence/survival, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration. This review discusses the heterogeneous NSPC populations in the normal physiology and highlights their potentials and roles in injured/diseased states for regenerative medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0500.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Glioblastoma; Neurodegeneration; Injury; Regeneration; Drosophila
Online: 23 February 2021 (08:15:48 CET)
The c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signalling pathway is a conserved response to a wide range of internal and external cellular stress signals. Besides the stress response, the JNK pathway is involved in a series of vital regulatory mechanisms during development and adulthood that are critical to maintain tissue homeostasis. These mechanisms include the regulation of apoptosis, growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. The JNK pathway has such a diverse functionality and cell-tissue specificity, that it has emerged as a key player in regeneration, tumorigenesis and other pathologies such as neurodegenerative diseases. The JNK pathway is highly active in the central nervous system (CNS), and plays a central role for the cells to cope with pathophysiological insults during both development and adulthood. Among the many mechanisms described in the literature, in this review we focus on the JNK pathway functions in pathologies of the CNS. More specifically, we discuss some newly identified examples and mechanisms of JNK-driven tumor progression in glioblastoma, regeneration/repair after an injury in the CNS, neurodegeneration, and neuronal cell death. Recent studies have shown that the JNK pathway regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production in response to cytoneme/tumor microtubes formation and Wingless (Wg)/WNT pathway activation in glioblastoma cells. Thus, JNK pathway is essential for glioblastoma progression, infiltration and non-autonomous induction of neurodegeneration. In regeneration, the JNK pathway controls Draper (Drpr) expression in glial cells that mediate engulfment and regeneration of the CNS upon injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0706.v1
Online: 30 July 2020 (07:44:16 CEST)
Kinesio tape is considered one of the most common techniques which using recently, where it is used as a therapeutic technique for pain relief, correction of joint position, prevention of oedema and injuries, improve range of motion and muscular activity for the individual. This study is a descriptive research design and aims to identify the effect of using Kinesio tape on the neuromuscular activity of quadriceps muscle after the rehabilitation program of the knee joint. The study sample consists of (10) players from different sports (football, basketball …etc.) and suffering from knee joint injuries. This sample was taken from Kafr-El sheikh and Kaleen club. Results showed that Kinesio tape doesn’t have any explicit effect on the neuromuscular activity of muscle but acts as a catalyst for muscle and promote a person’s feeling of psychological wellbeing and reassurance.When comparing results of using Kinesio tape during performing leg squatting and balance test with not using tape, founded that when performing leg squatting and balance test with using Kinesio tape, there were significant effects on muscle activity compared to not using it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0382.v1
Online: 20 July 2018 (12:49:20 CEST)
While over half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur in the cervical region, the majority of preclinical studies have focused on models of thoracic injury. However, these two levels are anatomically distinct—with the cervical region possessing a greater vascular supply, grey-white matter ratio and sympathetic outflow relative to the thoracic region. As such, there exists a significant knowledge gap in the secondary pathology at these levels following SCI. In this study, we characterized the systemic plasma markers of inflammation over time (1, 3, 7, 14, 56 days post-SCI) after moderate-severe, clip-compression cervical and thoracic SCI in the rat. Using high-throughput ELISA panels, we observed a clear level-specific difference in plasma levels of VEGF, leptin, IP10, IL18, GCSF, and fractalkine. Overall, cervical SCI had reduced expressions of both pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins relative to thoracic SCI, likely due to sympathetic dysregulation associated with higher level SCIs. However, contrary to the literature, we did not observe level-dependent splenic atrophy with our incomplete SCI model. This is the first study to compare the systemic plasma-level changes following cervical and thoracic SCI using level-matched and time-matched controls. The results of this study provide the first evidence in support of level-targeted intervention and also challenge the phenomenon of high SCI-induced splenic atrophy in incomplete SCI models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Brain injury, coma, consciousness, cognitive motor dissociation, disorders of consciousness, ethics, neurorehabilitation, traumatic brain injury
Online: 6 December 2018 (10:05:52 CET)
Background: The vegetative state (VS)/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) denotes brain-injured, awake patients who are seemingly without awareness. Still, up to 15% of these patients show signs of covert consciousness when examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or EEG, which is known as cognitive motor dissociation (CMD). Most experts prefer the term unresponsive wakefulness syndrome to avoid the negative connotations associated with vegetative state and to highlight the possibility for CMD. However, the perception of VS/UWS by the public has never been studied systematically. Methods: Using an online crowdsourcing platform, we recruited 1297 participants from 32 countries. We investigated if vegetative state and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome might have a different influence on attitudes towards VS/UWS and CMD. Results: Participants randomized to be inquired about the vegetative state believed that CMD was less common (mean estimated frequency in unresponsive patients 38.07% ± SD 25.15) than participants randomized to unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (42.29% ± SD 26.63; p=0.016). Attitudes towards treatment withdrawal were similar. Most participants preferred unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (60.05%), although a sizeable minority favored vegetative state (24.21%; difference 35.84%, 95% CI 29.36 to 41.87; p<0.0001). Searches on PubMed and Google Trends revealed that unresponsive wakefulness syndrome is increasingly used by academics but not lay people.Discussion: Simply replacing vegetative state with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome may not be fully appropriate given that 1 of 4 prefer the first term. We suggest that physicians take advantage of the controversy around the terminology to explain relatives the concept of CMD and its ethical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: hypothermia; sportstr; brain injury; rehabilitation; hyperthermia
Online: 9 December 2022 (14:50:39 CET)
Sports traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for up to 20% of all sports injuries, and the number of cases is growing year by year due to an increase in the number of people involved in sports, the growing popularity of extreme and contact sports, as well as a high level of motivation to achieve record results. Mild TBI dominates, which can provoke the development of a very wide range of complications and negative consequences. In the programs for the prevention of complications and the rehabilitation of athletes after TBI, TBI features are not sufficiently considered, which significantly differ from household, road or criminal injuries. There are no instrumental methods for diagnosing the severity of the injury. Sports TBI is characterized by repeated frequent TBI, elevated body and brain temperature, peripheral redistribution of blood flow and hypocapnia, which significantly affect cerebral blood flow. Brain injury is an independent cause of the development of cerebral hyperthermia, which significantly worsens the consequences of TBI. To diagnose sports TBI, the method of microwave radiometry of the brain (MWR) can be used. For the prevention of complications, the technology of craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH), which allows for to reduce of physical general and cerebral hyperthermia, and increases the resistance of cerebral cortex neurons to hypoxia and trauma could be used However, these approaches in sports medicine are used sporadically, which, is due to the lack of awareness of coaches and doctors of sports teams. The purpose of the review is to present MWR and CCH in sports TBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Running; Joint force; Barefoot; Osteoarthritis; Injury
Online: 28 November 2022 (10:53:28 CET)
Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the magnitude of forces in the joints of the lower limb whilst running barefoot and compare them to the forces generated whilst wearing running shoes with a thick midsole.MethodsTwenty-three volunteers who utilised running as their main sport or a training aid ran as training aid were included in this study. Each volunteer would run down a fourteen-meter-long corridor both barefoot and with running shoes. Forces for joints of the lower limb were collected using a Vicon motion analysis system and force plates. The joint forces for the ankles, knees and hips were taken as the largest joint force experienced during the stance phase and then averaged over five running trials.ResultsThere was significant reduction in the joint forces for the ankles, knees, and hips when barefoot running compared to the shod condition.ConclusionBarefoot running could be utilised to prevent both acute and degenerative injuries of the lower limb.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: emotional intelligence; brain injury; cognitive impairment
Online: 20 September 2022 (13:14:54 CEST)
Background: Cognitive-behavioral alterations can occur after an acquired brain injury. It is a stressful situa-tion for patient and relatives. Objectives: To develop and evaluate a synchronous online training program on emotional intelligence (EI) for caregivers of adult patients with cognitive-behavioral impairment due to acquired brain injury. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was designed, a target population of ten caregivers attended to a one-month virtual synchronous course about EI. The emotional status of caregivers was registered one-month-previous and one-month-post program using comparative measures: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: Median age of the ten caregivers was 48 years, 80% of women with a median care-time of 6 years. 50% of them were spouses of the patients. 60% of the patients were affected by stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic cause). The main cognitive impairment of the patients reported by relatives was memory deficit. After re-ceiving training, favorable changes were found regarding emotional affect measured with the PANAS, both positive (increase) and negative (decrease), as well as with the TMMS-24-mood-repair area (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Training in EI helps caregivers to make their mood more positive and improve aspects of their emotional intelligence such as emotional regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0480.v1
Online: 29 August 2022 (09:36:50 CEST)
Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disabilities over the industrialized countries. Cognitive decline appears in the chronic phase of the pathology consecutively to cellular and molecular processes. Here we described the use of KCC2, a neuronal-specific potassium-chloride transporters as potent biomarker to predict cognitive dysfunctions after TBI. Methods. Using neuronal and total exosomes collection from blood serum in control and TBI subjects we were able to anticipate the decline of cognitive performance. Results. After TBI, we observed a significative and persistant loss of KCC2 expression in the blood exosomes that is correlated to changes in network activity and cellular processes such as secondary neurogenesis. Also we correlated this KCC2 loss in expression to the appearance of the cognitive decline observed in mice and more particularly we correlate the KCC2 loss of expression to the appearance of the depressive-like behavior. Conclusion. According to our protocol, we were able to confirm our previous findings in agreement with the potential therapeutic effect of bumetanide in the prevention of the post traumatic depression after TBI, by restoring the KCC2 expression thus preventing the massive neuronal death of interneurons and the secondary neurogenesis effect observed in such model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: helmet; military; sport; innovation; secondary injury
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:19:59 CEST)
Neurotrauma continues to contribute to significant mortality and disability. The need for better protective equipment is apparent. This review focuses on improved helmet design and the necessi-ty for continued research. We start by highlighting current innovations in helmet design for sport and subsequent utilization in the lay community for construction. The current standards by sport and organization are summarized. We then address current standards within the military envi-ronment. The pathophysiology is discussed with emphasis on how helmets provide protection. As innovative designs emerge, protection against secondary injury becomes apparent. Much research is needed, but this focused paper is intended to serve as a catalyst for improvement in helmet de-sign and implementation to provide more efficient and reliable neuroprotection across broad arenas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0075.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: chilling injury; mealiness; metabolomics; lipidomics; biomarker
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:42:26 CET)
Peach is the third most important temperate fruit crop considering fruit production and harvested area in the world. Exporting peaches represents a challenge due to the long-distance export markets. This requires fruit to be placed in cold storage for a long time, which can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI). The main symptom of CI is mealiness which is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. The purpose of this work was to identify and compare the metabolic and lipid profile between two siblings from a contrasting population for juice content, at harvest and after 30 days at 0°C. A total of 119 metabolites and 189 lipids were identified, which showed significant differences of abundance including mainly in amino acids, sugars and lipids. Our results indicate that some of the top metabolites and lipids could be used as biomarkers associated with mealiness at harvest and after cold storage.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0468.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Mentalization; Secure Attachment; Nonsuicidal Self-Injury; Adolescents
Online: 26 December 2022 (03:50:08 CET)
This paper, which is one of the few in the world dealing with this topic, presented the psychologist's work based on the concepts of mentalization and internal working models (IWMs) of attachment, with an adolescent girl who was prone to nonsuicidal self-injury. Gaga, a student in the first grade of high school, had visible scars from cutting her hands on the inner sides of both forearms. Gaga told the psychologist that her mother believes that this is an attempt to draw attention to her problems, and even a suicide attempt. Together with Gaga, the psychologist made a formulation of her mental difficulties. The main aim of the psychologist's work with Gaga was to control unpleasant impulses and emotions, so as to eliminate self-injury. This aim has been achieved through three global tasks: 1) that Gaga, in the relationship with the psychologist, builds her IWMs as positive, so that she can see herself as a person who is worthy of the love and support of close people; 2) to develop a stable capacity for mentalization; 3) to apply this acquired skills in the interpretation of her affective experiences. The mentalizing approach in working with Gaga was based on an attitude of emotional warmth, acceptance and authentic interest in her inner world. The psychologist's work with Gaga led to her better self-control, which resulted in the cessation of her self-injury. In her work with a psychologist, Gaga acquired positive IWMs, which she transferred into other significant interpersonal relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0285.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Botulinum toxin; bladder hypertrophy; spinal cord injury
Online: 19 October 2022 (11:08:17 CEST)
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), pathological reflexes develop that result in altered bladder function and sphincter dis-coordination, with accompanying changes in the detrusor. Bladder chemodenervation is known to ablate the pathological reflexes, but the resultant effects on the bladder tissue are poorly defined. In a rodent model of contusion SCI, we examined the effect of early bladder chemodenervation with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) on bladder histopathology and collagen deposition. Adult female Long Evans rats were given a severe contusion SCI at spi-nal level T9. The SCI rats immediately underwent open laparotomy and received detrusor injec-tions of either BoNT-A (10 U/animal) or saline. At 8 weeks post injury, the bladders were col-lected, weighed, and examined histologically. BoNT-A injected bladders of SCI rats (SCI-BoNT-A) weighed significantly less than saline injected bladders of SCI rats (SCI-saline) (241 ± 25 mg vs. 183 ± 42 mg; p<0.05). Histological analyses showed that SCI resulted in significantly thicker bladder walls due to detrusor hypertrophy and fibrosis compared to bladders from uninjured animals (339 ± 89.0 m vs. 193 ± 47.9 m; p<0.0001). SCI-BoNT-A animals had significantly thinner bladder walls compared to SCI-saline animals (202 ± 55.4 m vs. 339 ± 89.0 m; p<0.0001). SCI-BoNT-A animals had collagen organization in the bladder walls similar to that of uninjured animals. Detrusor chemodenervation soon after SCI appears to preserve bladder tissue integrity, by reducing the development of detrusor fibrosis and hypertrophy associated with SCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: brachial plexus; traction injury; surgical treatment; electrostimulation
Online: 9 July 2022 (16:47:09 CEST)
As the problem of traction injuries to brachial plexus is a common one and of high socio-economic significance, the analysis of the surgical outcomes in patients with this pathology is significant for neurosurgery, neurology, traumatology-orthopedics, and rehabilitation. The aim of the research is to compare the short-term outcomes of using various surgical methods for managing patients with closed traction injuries of brachial plexus. Material and methods. The research involved 61 patients with closed traction injury of brachial plexus divided into two groups homogeneous in sex, age and severity of their neurological deficit: Group I – 33 patients who underwent microsurgical neurolysis, Group II – 28 patients who underwent microsurgical neurolysis combined with one-level electrostimulation. The dynamic assessment of clinical and functional status of upper limbs was performed using scale methods and electrophysiological monitoring. Results. The research revealed a more evident recovery of the upper limb function in Group II patients suggesting the method of microsurgical neurolysis combined with electrostimulation to be preferable in case of closed traction injuries to brachial plexus. Conclusion. The combination of microsurgical neurolysis with one-level electrostimulation improves the short-term outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with closed traction injuries of brachial plexus due to a sooner decrease in pain in postoperative period, and positive dynamics of clinical and electrophysiological parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: Ischaemia/reperfusion injury; Development; Mitochondria; Immature Heart
Online: 10 January 2022 (13:38:07 CET)
Metabolic and ionic changes during ischaemia predispose the heart to the damaging effects of reperfusion. Such changes and the resulting injury differ between immature and adult heart. Therefore, cardioprotective strategies for adults need to be tested in immature heart. We have recently shown that simultaneous activation of PKA and EPAC confers marked cardioprotection in adult hearts. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of this intervention in immature hearts and determine whether the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is involved. Isolated perfused Langendorff hearts from both adult and immature rats were exposed to global ischaemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) following control perfusion or perfusion after an equilibra-tion period with activators of PKA and/or EPAC. Functional outcome and reperfusion injury were measured and in parallel, mitochondria were isolated following 5 min reperfusion to determine whether cardioprotective interventions involved changes in MPTP opening behaviour. Perfusion for 5 minutes preceding ischaemia of injury- matched adult and immature hearts with 5 µM 8-Br (8-Br-cAMP-AM), an activator of both PKA and EPAC, led to significant reduction in post-reperfusion CK release and infarct size. Perfusion with this agent also led to a reduction in MPTP opening propensity in both adult and immature hearts. These data show that immature hearts are innately more resistant to I/R injury than adults, and that this is due to a reduced ten-dency to MPTP opening following reperfusion. Further, simultaneous stimulation of PKA & EPAC causes cardioprotection which is additive to the innate resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0042.v1
Online: 2 July 2021 (09:05:08 CEST)
Introduction:In this study we evaluated the connivance of oxidative and antioxidative parameters in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the etiology and pathogenesis of SCI remain to be fully understood, it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of SCI. Furthermore, there is little information available in scientific literature about oxidative and antioxidative parameters in SCI patients. Methods:Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the levels of Lipid Peroxides (LPO) and Protein carbonyl in plasma and antioxidative parameters like Glutathione Reductase (GR), catalase and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in lysate in 40 SCI patients and 40 healthy subjects without SCI. However, pain was measured by McGill pain questionnaire. Results: Concentrations of catalase (p<0.01), GR (p<0.01) and GPx (p<0.01) were significantly lower in patients with SCI than in controls, and levels of oxidative stress parameters, LPO (p<0.01), Protein carbonyl (p<0.01) were significantly higher in patients than in controls. A significant positive correlation was found between LPO and pain score among SCI patients group. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was also found between Protein carbonyl and pain score among SCI patients group than in control group. Conclusion: The present results indicate that SCI patients are exposed to oxidative stress and this escalated oxidative stress may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, our results also show that increased oxidative stress parameters are more strongly amalgamated with pain in SCI patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Heart Failure; Acute Kidney Injury; Prognosis; Mortality.
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:09:49 CET)
Introduction: Decompensated heart failure (HF) is a complex and debilitating syndrome, which constitutes a severe emergency condition with high morbidity and mortality. The kidneys play fundamental roles in the pathophysiology of HF and, in the context of decompensations, acute kidney injury (AKI) has a bilateral cause-and-effect relationship, which can significantly worsen prognosis. However, the interaction between AKI and decompensated HF is poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of AKI in patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF and to analyze its prognostic impact during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective single-center observational study that included patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF in a tertiary-level teaching hospital, conducted between July 2017 and January 2020. Patients who developed AKI during hospitalization were compared with those who did not develop it, until hospital discharge or death. AKI was defined as a serum creatinine increase greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl in 48 hours, a 1.5-fold increase in baseline creatinine in seven days or urinary volume <0.5 ml/kg/h during six hours, according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The endpoints analyzed were death, need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and length of hospital stay. The Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and unpaired student t tests were used. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included, with a mean age of 65.4 ± 14 years, of which 47 (47.5%) were male and 52 (52.5%) were female. Reduced ejection fraction was observed in 77.8% of patients, whilst 22.2% had a diagnosis of HF with preserved EF. The decompensation clinical classifications were: dry and warm = 7 (7.1%), wet and warm = 72 (72.7%), wet and cold = 15 (15.1%) and dry and cold = 5 (5.1%). The average left ventricular ejection fraction was 38.3% ± 15. AKI ocurred in 22 patients (22.2%). Comparison between patients who evolved with and without AKI showed higher mortality (36.4% vs 10.4%, p = 0.004) and the need for IMV (54.5% vs 13%, p = 0.0001) in the first group. There was no significant difference regarding the length of in-hospital stay (22.9 ± 19 vs 18.8 ± 16 days, p = 0.26). Conclusions: The occurrence of AKI was frequent in patients with decompensated HF requiring hospitalization, affecting approximately one out of five patients. This complication was significantly associated with increased mortality and the need for IMV during hospitalization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0114.v1
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:57:14 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has resulted in a global pandemic. The clinical symptoms of the disease vary from mild illness to acute respiratory issues. Older age, diabetes, cardiac diseases predict poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Various reports mention the incidence of liver injury with transient elevations in the levels of aminotransferases (liver function enzymes). The clinical characteristics, etiology and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver damage in SARS-CoV2 infected patients need to be explored. This review highlights the severity of the hepatic injury in COVID-19.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ischemia-reperfusion injury; mesenchymal stem cells; treatment
Online: 11 June 2019 (04:28:04 CEST)
The shortage of donor organs is a major global concern. Organ failure requires the transplantation of functional organs. Organ donors are preserved in warm or cold ischemia. Ischemia and reperfusion damage the organs, due to the lack of oxygen during the ischemia step and the oxidative stress during the reperfusion step. Different methodologies were developed to prevent or diminish the level of injuries. Preservation solutions were first developed, followed by the addition of chemical compounds. In addition of inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase, inhibitors of the proteasome, mesenchymal stem cells started to be used 13 years ago to prevent or diminish the organ’s injuries. Mesenchymal stem cells (e.g bone marrow stem cells, adipose derived stem cells) have proven to be powerful tools in repairing damaged organs. This review will focus on the use of some bone marrow stem cells, adipose derived stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells on preventing or decreasing the injuries due to ischemia-reperfusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0266.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: genetics; injury; sport; soccer; DNA; inflammation; football
Online: 9 February 2018 (02:24:40 CET)
Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players were genetically tested. Ankle and knee injuries and the number of matches played were recorded during the 2014/15 season. Four genes were assessed in relation to injury. Genotypes found to be associated with injury included the TT genotype of the GDF5 gene, TT and CT genotypes of AMPD1 gene, TT genotype of COL5A1 and GG genotype of IGF2 gene. These genes were also associated with a decrease in the number of matches played.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: salidroside; inflammation; alcoholic liver injury; TLR4; TAK1
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:45:06 CEST)
The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14. SDS inhibited LPS-triggered phosphorylation of LPS-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were effectively blocked by SDS. SDS concentration-dependently suppressed LPS mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, as well as their downstream products, NO. SDS significantly inhibited protein secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. Additionally C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated SDS for continuous 5 days, followed by three gavages of ethanol every 30 min. Alcohol binge drinking caused the increasing of hepatic lipid accumulation and serum transaminases levels. SDS pretreatment significantly alleviated liver inflammatory changes and serum transaminases levels. Further investigation indicated that SDS markedly decreased protein level of IL-1β in serum. Taken together, these data implied that SDS inhibits liver inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: TBI; brain; injury; microglia; caspase; apoptosis; retina; degeneration
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:38:56 CET)
A Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the main causes of sudden death after head trauma. These injuries can result in severe degeneration and neuronal cell death in the CNS, including the retina which is a crucial part of the brain responsible for perceiving and transmitting visual information. The long-term effects of mild-repetitive TBI (rmTBI) are far less studied thus far, even though damages induced by repetitive injuries occurring in the brain are more common, especially amongst athletes. rmTBI can also have a detrimental effect on the retina and the pathophysiology of these injuries are likely to differ from the severe TBI (sTBI) retinal injury.Here we showed how rmTBI and sTBI can dissimilarly affect the retina. Our results indicate an increase in the number of activated microglial cells and Caspase3-positive cells in the retina in both traumatic models, suggesting a rise in the level of inflammation and cell death after TBI. The pattern of microglial activation appears evenly distributed and widespread but differs amongst the various retinal layers. sTBI induced microgial activation in both the superficial and deep retinal layers. In contrast to sTBI, no significant change occurred following the repetitive mild injury in the superficial layer, only the deep layer (spanning from the inner nuclear layer to the outer plexiform layer) shows microglial activation. This difference suggests that alternate response mechanisms play a role in the case of the different TBI incidents. The Caspase3 activation pattern showed a uniform increase in both the superficial and deep layers of the retina. This suggests a different action in the course of the disease in sTBI and rmTBI models and points to the need for new diagnostic procedures.Our present results suggest that the retina might serve as such a model of head injuries since the retinal tissue reacts to both forms of TBI and is the most accessible part of the human brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dauricine; STAT5; NF-κB; Inflammation; Ischemia-reperfusion injury
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:18:00 CEST)
Inflammatory reaction after ischemia-reperfusion contributes significantly to prognosis, and microglia activation is the main resource of inflammation in nervous system. STAT5 is proving to be a highly effective anti-inflammatory therapy with great potential, and inhibition of STAT5 has demonstrated significant anti-inflammation and therapeutic effects, but rarely focus on mechanism of neuroinflammation and brain injury from ischemia-reperfusion. It is the first time to found that the anti-inflammation of dauricine is mainly through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, might act as a STAT5 inhibitor. Dauricine suppressed the inflammation cytokines Eotaxin, KC, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-17α, and also inhibited the microglia activation. STAT5b mutant at Tyr-699 reversed the protective effect of dauricine on oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion injury of neurons, and reactivated the suppression of dauricine on P-NF-κB of microglia. These results suggest that dauricine might suppress the neuroinflammation and protect the neuron from the injury of post-ischemia-reperfusion via mediating the microglia activation through STAT5-NF-κB pathway, and ss a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammation, STAT5 needs to be raised concern in ischemic stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: traumatic optic neuropathy; mice; axon injury; TBI; neurodegeneration
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:26:51 CET)
Injury to the optic nerve, termed, traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a known comorbidity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is now known to cause chronic and progressive retinal thinning up to 35 years after injury. Although animal models of TBI have described the presence of optic nerve degeneration and research exploring acute mechanisms is underway, few studies in humans or animals have examined chronic TON pathophysiology outside the retina. We used a closed-head weight-drop model of TBI/TON in 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were euthanized 7-, 14-, 30-, 90-, and 150-days post injury (DPI) to assess histological changes in the visual system of the brain spanning a total of 12 regions. We show chronic elevation of FluoroJade-C, indicative of neurodegeneration, throughout the time course. Intriguingly, FJ-C staining revealed a bimodal distribution of mice indicating the possibility of subpopulations that may be more or less sus-ceptible to injury outcomes. Additionally, we show that microglia and astrocytes react to optic nerve damage in both temporally and regionally different ways. Despite these differences, as-trogliosis and microglial changes were alleviated between 14-30 DPI in all regions examined, perhaps indicating a potential critical period for intervention/recovery that may determine chronic outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0460.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: sepsis; renal tubulointerstitial injury; resolvin; ATRvD1; inflammation; kidney
Online: 20 July 2021 (15:47:50 CEST)
Current interventions are not effectives in preventing sepsis-induced acute kidney injury and its long-term outcomes or even after second renal insult. Therapeutic strategies using lipid mediators, as aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (ATRvD1), can contribute for resolution of acute and chronic inflammation. In this study, we examined the potential effect of ATRvD1 on long-term kidney dysfunction after severe sepsis. Fifteen days after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis-surviving BALB/c mice were subjected to a tubulointerstitial injury through intraperitoneal injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 7 days, called subclinical acute kidney injury (subAKI) animal model. ATRvD1 treatment was performed right before BSA injections. On day 22 after CLP, urinary protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), histologic parameters, fibrosis, cellular infiltration, apoptosis, inflammatory markers levels, and mRNA expression were determined. ATRvD1 treatment mitigated tubulointerstitial injury by reducing the proteinuria excretion, UPC ratio, glomerular cell number and extracellular matrix deposition. Pro-fibrotic markers, as transforming growth factor β (TGFb), type 3 collagen and metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and -9 were reduced after ATRvD1 administration. Post-septic mice treated with ATRvD1 were protected from renal apoptosis and recruitment of F4/80+ cells. Interleukin-1b (IL-1b) levels were increased in subAKI animal model, being attenuated by ATRvD1. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), IL-10 and IL-4 mRNA expression was increased in the kidney of BSA-challenged post-septic mice and it was also reduced after ATRvD1. These results suggest that ATRvD1 protects the kidney against a second insult as BSA-induced tubulointerstitial injury and fibrosis by suppressing inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators in renal dysfunction after sepsis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Post-cardiac injury syndrome; pericarditis; percutaneous coronary intervention.
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:48:46 CEST)
Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is known as a very rare possible trigger of pericarditis. Most frequently it develops after a latent period or early in case of periprocedural complications. In this report, we present an atypical early onset of pericarditis after the uncomplicated PCI. Case Summary: A 58-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for the PCI of the chronic total occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD) artery. An initial electrocardiogram (ECG) was unremarkable. PCI attempt was unsuccessful. There were no procedure related complications observed at the end of PCI attempt and patient was symptom free. Six hours after interventional procedure the patient complained of severe chest pain. The ECG demonstrated ST-segment elevation in anterior and lateral leads. Troponin I was mildly elevated but coronary angiogram did not reveal impairment of collateral blood flow to the LAD territory. Because of pericarditic chest pain, typical ECG findings and pericardial effusion with elevated C-reactive protein, the diagnosis of acute pericarditis was established, and a course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was initiated. Chest pain was relieved and ST-segment elevation almost completely returned to baseline after three days of treatment. The patient was discharged in stable condition without chest pain on the fourth day after symptom onset. Conclusions: Acute pericarditis is a rare complication of PCI. Despite the lack of specific clinical manifestation, post-traumatic pericarditis should be considered in patients with symptoms and signs of pericarditis and a prior history of iatrogenic injury or thoracic trauma.
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:10:31 CEST)
The meniscus is a meniscus-shaped fibrocartilage tissue located between the femur and tibia，it is mainly composed of meniscus cells and related extracellular matrix.The synovial limbus area of the knee joint capsule near the meniscus is divided into red areas with rich blood vessels and white areas with less blood supply according to the distribution of blood vessels,there is a transition zone called the red and white zone between the two;Red zone has better self-repair ability,The injury in this area can be treated by conservative treatment or surgical suture;Once the white area of the meniscus is torn and involves the free edge area,It is often necessary to partially remove the damaged meniscus.When most of the entire meniscus is severely torn and involved,not only the course of the disease is very long, but it cannot be repaired by sutures,Often a subtotal or total meniscus resection is required,whether it is a partial meniscus resection, a subtotal meniscus resection or a complete resection.In the later period, it may cause quadriceps atrophy and osteoarthritis (OA）.OA is a refractory multi-system disease,involve the patient’s peripheral joints,it has high disability and teratogenicity, and is very harmful to human health.Chondrocyte pyrolysis, degradation, and inflammation play a vital role in the destruction of OA articular cartilage and chondrocyte apoptosis.Meniscus stem cells have strong proliferation and differentiation ability,has become one of the hot spots in the field of meniscus repair,this article studies the role of meniscal stem cells in the development of OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: chilling injury; pepper; seed browning; maturity; harvest time
Online: 22 October 2020 (10:04:39 CEST)
Chilling injury (CI), which causes seed browning in pepper, may arise following long-term cold storage, and is a major cause of postharvest losses. To explore potential strategies of minimizing the associated postharvest losses, the present study investigated the optimal pepper harvest time that could reduce levels of seed browning, in addition to the relationship between fruit maturity and seed browning. Fruit harvested 15 days after flowering (DAF) were sensitive to cold storage at 4°C and exhibited 100% seed browning (CI index, 4.0); in contrast, the seed browning rate of fruit harvested 35 DAF was 10% (CI index, 0.4) within 7 d of cold storage. Seed antioxidant activity was higher in seeds harvested at early stages (15 DAF to 20 DAF) than in seeds harvested at later stages (40 DAF to 50 DAF) at the beginning of storage. Pericarps of fruit harvested at 50 DAF exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Lipoxygenase, catalase, and peroxidase activity, and the expression levels of cell wall-related genes, pectin methylesterase-like protein, and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were higher in seeds of immature fruit harvested 15 DAF than in seeds of mature fruit harvested 35 DAF. The endosperm separated from the seed coat in fruit harvested 35 DAF and the seeds did not brown under low-temperature storage. The lack of seed browning observed in mature fruit under low-temperature storage could be attributed to physical protection provided by the seed coat rather than cold stress resistance conferred by antioxidants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0133.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Wrist injury; motion capture; croquet; technique analysis; overuse
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:16:48 CEST)
This study investigated the relationship between wrist flexion and the dynamics of the swing of a croquet mallet. Twenty seven subjects participated in a study which used 3D motion capture equipment and high speed and high-definition video to determine if there is a correlation between the lateral twist of a croquet player’s swing and the flexion of the wrist during that swing. The study found a significant correlation between the amount of flexion of the wrist from the start of the stroke to the top of the backswing and the twist of the mallet head at the top of the backswing (r=0.330, p<0.01). The methodology and findings are relevant to all sports where minimising wrist flexion is favourable for improving consistency of stroke making. Additionally, reducing wrist motion in stroke-making may reduce the incidence of wrist pain and injury in croquet, further supporting recommendations to reduce the amount of wrist flexion during the croquet swing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bicycle; helmet; brain injury; EPS foam; impact; safety
Online: 30 April 2020 (14:10:36 CEST)
This study evaluates various safety aspects of standardized impacts that cyclists may suffer while wearing a bicycle helmet, by combining a partially validated finite element model of the cranio-cervical region and a newly developed bicycle helmet model. Under EN 1078 standardized impact conditions, the results of simulated impact tests show that the helmet can absorb 40% to 50 % of the total impact energy at impact velocities above 4 m/s. Further, based on a relationship between Head Injury Criterion and the risk of injury from field data, the results of the simulations suggest that minor injuries may occur at impact velocities of 10 km/h, serious injuries at 15 km/h, and severe injuries at 20 km/h. Fatal injuries will likely occur at impact velocities of 30 km/h and higher.
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:02:03 CET)
Novel coronavirus infection is a recent infective agent that causes severe potentially fatal pneumonia. The clinical presentation includes asymptomatic infection, severe pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. Data pertaining to the clinical presentation of solid organ transplant recipients are scarce. Two cases of novel coronavirus infection in two recipients of renal transplant with variable clinical presentations and outcomes are reported. The first patient presented with progressive respiratory symptoms, acute renal failure, and passed away, whereas the second one, although presented with respiratory tract symptoms and hypoxemia remained stable and exhibited an excellent clinical recovery despite recent reception of thymoglobulin induction. This paper reports rare cases of novel coronavirus infection in renal transplant recipients. For an enhanced insight of the novel coronavirus infection and acute kidney injury on the clinical presentation, severity, and outcome in solid organ transplant recipients, further investigations are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: endothelial disorders; glycocalyx injury; syndecan-1; nonlinear regression
Online: 28 June 2019 (07:42:18 CEST)
Endothelial disorders are related to various diseases. An initial endothelial injury is characterized by endothelial glycocalyx injury. We aimed to evaluate endothelial glycocalyx injury by measuring serum syndecan-1 concentrations in patients during comprehensive medical examinations. A single-center, prospective, observational study was conducted at Asahi University Hospital. The participants enrolled in this study were 1313 patients who underwent comprehensive medical examinations at Asahi University Hospital from January 2018, to June 2018. One patient undergoing hemodialysis was excluded from the study. At enrollment, blood samples were obtained, and study personnel collected demographic and clinical data. No treatments or exposures were conducted except for standard medical examinations and blood sample collection. Laboratory data were obtained by collection of blood samples at the time of study enrolment. According to nonlinear regression, the concentrations of serum syndecan-1 were significantly related to age (p = 0.016), aspartic aminotransferase concentration (AST, p = 0.020), blood urea nitrogen concentration (BUN, p = 0.013), triglyceride concentration (p < 0.001), and hematocrit (p = 0.006). These relationships were independent associations. Endothelial glycocalyx injury, which is reflected by serum syndecan-1 concentrations, is related to age, hematocrit, AST concentration, BUN concentration, and triglyceride concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0192.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: hepatic injury; sealants; metalloproteinases; inflammatory response; wound healing
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:52:27 CET)
This study examines the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the healing of liver injuries treated with biological adhesives Tachosil® and GelitaSpon® and the elastic cyanoacrylate Adhflex®. Hepatic lesions were induced in male rats using a Stiefel biopsy punch. Healing was assessed 2, 6, and 18 days after injury by quantifying tissue levels of MMP1, 2, 8, 9, and 13. Histopathological repair was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and immunohistochemical markers CD31 and CD68. The sealants contributed to complete healing. Histopathology and MMP findings indicate that Adhflex® has slower degradation and a strong inflammatory reaction at the onset of healing. Early on, all MMPs showed higher levels in Adhflex® and Tachosil®-treated animals, and MMP2 and MMP9 expressions were significantly higher in the Adhflex-treated group at 18 days post-injury (T3). The Adhflex® group had significantly higher MMP8 and MPP13 levels than other treated groups and showed a sustained overexpression of all MMPs, even in the latest healing stages. Notably, the overexpression did not negatively influence the histological healing process. All hepatic trauma injuries should be treated as emergencies, and any easy-to-use and rapid sealant like Adhflex® could be considered as an option for treating liver trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0334.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: hepatic injury; sealants; metalloproteinases; inflammatory response; wound healing
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:43:43 CEST)
. Sealants and adhesives are used in the repair and preservation of damaged solid organs. This study examines the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activity in the healing of liver injuries treated with two biological adhesives (Tachosil® and GelitaSpon®) as well as that of a new elastic cyanoacrylate (Adhflex®). Methods. We induced in 90 male rats hepatic lesions using a Stiefel biopsy punch in the liver. Wound healing was assessed 2, 6, and 18 days after injury by quantifying MMP1, 2, 8, 9, and 13 tissue levels. The histopathological repair was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and CD31, CD68 immunohistochemical marker. The three sealants used contributed to the complete healing of hepatic lesions. Both histopathology and MMP findings point to the fact that degradation with Adhflex® is slower and causes a strong inflammatory reaction at the onset of healing. Results. All the MMPs measured showed higher values early in the healing process in animals treated with Adhflex® and Tachosil, expression for MMP2 and MMP9 being significantly higher in the Adhflex-treated group. Animals treated with Tachosil had significant greater values of MMP8 and MPP13 than the Adhflex group. Animals treated with Adhflex® showed a sustained overexpression in all MMPs even at the latest wound healing stages. Conclusion. Notably, the overexpression of the MMPs did not negatively influence the histological healing process of liver injuries. Since all hepatic trauma injuries should be treated as emergencies, any easy-to-use and rapid sealant, like Adhflex®, could be considered an adequate treatment option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0262.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: hepatic injury; sealants; metalloproteinases; inflammatory response; wound healing
Online: 20 April 2018 (11:14:49 CEST)
Background. Adhesives and sealants can be used to repair and preserve solid damaged organs. This study explores the activity of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) during the healing of liver injuries treated with two biological adhesives (Tachosil and GelitaSpon) and a new synthetic elastic cyanoacrylate (Adhflex®). Methods. Liver traumatic injuries were experimentally induced in 90 male Wistar rats using a Stiefel biopsy punch in the liver. Wound healing was evaluated 2, 6, and 18 days after injury by determining MMP1, 2, 8, 9, and 13 expression. The histopathological repair was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining. The three sealants used supported complete healing of the liver lesions. Both histopathology and MMP findings indicate that the degradation process of Adhflex® is slower and produces a strong initial inflammatory reaction. Results. All the MMPs measured disclosed higher values at early stage of the healing process in animals treated with Adhflex® and Tachosil, being the expression of for MMP2 and MMP9 significantly higher in the Adhflex-treated group. Animals treated with Tachosil had significant higher values of MMP8 and MPP13 than the Adhflex-treated group. Animals treated with Adhflex® showed a maintained overexpression in all the MMPs tested even at the latest wound healing stages. Conclusion. Notably, this MMPs overexpression did not influence negatively the histological healing process of the hepatic injuries. Given that all hepatic trauma injuries should be considered emergencies, any easy-to-use and rapid sealant, such as Adhflex®, could be considered as a suitable treatment option.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0134.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: planting depth; drought; freeze injury; herbivory; mortality; survival; insects
Online: 7 February 2023 (14:01:52 CET)
Artificial regeneration is successful when high performing seedlings are transported with care to the planting site, stored for a short period in an environment without desiccation or fungal growth, and are planted in a deep hole so roots are in contact with moist soil. One of the requirements for success is the ability to avoid common planting mistakes. Due, in part, to use of container stock plus an increase in rainfall, average 1st year survival of pine seedlings (89%) in the southern United States is about 15% greater now than 45 years ago. However, when survival is less than 50% six months after planting, some landowners seek reimbursement for their loss. Some assume poor seedling quality was the cause without realizing that anaerobic soils or sudden freeze events or shallow planting holes or pruning roots, a lack of rain, or underground insects can kill pines. With a focus on pines planted in the southern United States, we list non-nursery factors that have killed seedlings in North America, Africa and Europe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: EEG; stroke; traumatic brain injury; neurorehabilitation; brain-machine interface
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:08:43 CET)
Background: There is an increasing interest in the role of EEG in neurorehabilitation. We primarily aimed to identify the knowledge base through highly influential studies. Our secondary aims were to imprint the relevant thematic hotspots, research trends, and social networks within the scientific community. Methods: We performed an electronic search in Scopus looking for studies reporting on rehabilitation in patients with neurological disabilities. The most influential papers outlined the knowledge base, while a word co-occurrence analysis imprinted the research hotspots. Likewise, co-citation analyses highlighted collaboration networks between Universities, authors, and countries. The results were presented in summary tables, burst detection plots, and geospatial maps. Finally, a content review based on the top-20 most cited articles completed our study. Results: Our current bibliometric study was based on 874 records from 420 sources. There was a vivid research interest in EEG use for neurorehabilitation, with an annual growth rate as high as 14.3%. The most influential paper was the study titled "Brain-computer interfaces, a review" by Nicolas-Alfonso LF and Gomez-Gill J, with 997 citations, followed by "Brain-computer interfaces in neurological rehabilitation" by Daly J. and Wolpaw JR (708 citations). The USA, Italy, and Germany were among the most productive countries. The research hotspots shifted with time from the use of “functional magnetic imaging” to EEG-based “brain-machine interface”, “motor imagery”, and “deep learning”. Conclusions: EEG constitutes the most significant input in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and can be successfully used in the neurorehabilitation of patients with stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and traumatic brain and spinal injury. EEG-based BCI facilitates training, communication, and control of wheelchair and exoskeletons. However, research is limited to specific scientific groups from developed countries. Evidence is expected to change with the broader availability of BCI and improvement in EEG filtering algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0405.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: reparative osteogenesis; vertebrae; injury; trauma; thoracic spine; lumbar spine
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:46:17 CEST)
Reparative osteogenesis in the damaged vertebrae is a complex cascade of morphological and biochemical processes that result in the consolidation of the vertebral body. This research was aimed at studying the features of reparative osteogenesis in damaged thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies at different time points after injury. We analyzed the morphological findings of the vertebral tissues harvested during surgical interventions in 43 patients with recent, subacute and long-standing injuries to thoracic and lumbar spine, and found that cell differentiation in osteogenesis is closely related to angiogenesis and the metabolic cascade. In areas with sufficient oxygenation, good partial pressure of oxygen, and active growth of microvasculature the normal cycle of development and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteocytes occurs, and hypoxia and acidosis lead to pathological osteogenesis. The reclination maneuver with dorsal tools on Day 10-12 of the injury may be ineffective due to the formation of adhesions between fragments, and reclination of the body of the damaged vertebra two weeks or more after the injury is apparently doomed to failure. Timely ventral fusion performed for objective indications is the key to successful rehabilitation of patients, on the one hand, and reduction of the surgical trauma volume in the future, on the other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0279.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Paramedic; Violence; Qualitative Research; Operational Stress Injury; Mental Health
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:04:48 CET)
Purpose Violence against paramedics is a complex – but underreported – problem. Extant research suggests organizational culture may play a role in sustaining cultural norms that downplay the significance and limit reporting. Our objective was to qualitatively explore paramedics’ experience with violence, with particular emphasis on understanding how organizational culture contributes to under-reporting. Approach We surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban service in Ontario, Canada, asking participants to describe their experiences with violence, including whether – and why or why not – the incidents were reported. Within a constructivist epistemology, we used inductive thematic analysis with successive rounds of coding to identify and then define features of organizational culture that limit reporting. Findings A total of 196 (33% of eligible) paramedics completed the survey. Fully 98% of participants disclosed having experienced some form of violence; however only a minority (40%) reported the incidents to management, or the police (21%). We defined a framework within which a lack of support from management, and consequences for offenders, implicitly positions the ability of paramedics to “brush off” violent encounters as an expected professional competency. Disclosing emotional or psychological distress in response to violent encounters invited questions as to whether the individual is personally suited to paramedic work. Originality While the extant research has indicated that underreporting is a problem, our findings shed light on why – a critical first step in addressing what has been described as a serious public health problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: intracranial compliance; intracranial pressure; intracranial hypertension; acute brain injury
Online: 7 October 2021 (10:54:26 CEST)
We validated a new noninvasive tool (B4C) to assess intracranial pressure waveform (ICPW) morphology in a set of neurocritical patients, correlating the data with ICPW obtained from invasive catheter monitoring. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring were consecutively evaluated using the B4C sensor. Ultrasound-guided manual internal jugular vein (IJV) compression was performed to elevate ICP from the baseline. ICP values, amplitudes, and time intervals (P2/P1 ratio and time-to-peak [TTP]) between the ICP and B4C waveform peaks were analyzed. Results: Among 41 patients, the main causes for ICP monitoring included traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke. Bland-Altman’s plot indicated agreement between the ICPW parameters obtained using both techniques. The strongest Pearson’s correlation for P2/P1 and TTP was observed among patients with no cranial damage (r = 0.72 and 0.85, respectively) in detriment of those who have undergone craniotomies or craniectomies. P2/P1 values of 1 were equivalent between the two techniques (area under the receiver operator curve [AUROC], 0.9) whereas B4C cut-off 1.2 was predictive of intracranial hypertension (AUROC 0.9, p < 000.1 for ICP > 20 mmHg). Conclusion: B4C provided biometric amplitude ratios correlated with ICPW variation morphology and is useful for noninvasive critical care monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RAS; acute kidney injury; immune response
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:20:36 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To contain the virus, numerous preventive measures have been taken including isolation of patients, careful infection control, social distancing, and taking vaccine. So far, new confirmed and death cases are still increasing. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells by using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is an essential enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7). ACE2 is expressed in different organs, including lung, heart, and kidney. A high number of COVID-19 patients developed kidney injury has been reported. Renal impairment and acute injury are associated with mortality of COVID-19, which is 14-16 times higher than other general patients. Acute Kidney Injury has been occured in 2.9 up to 43% of intensive care unit patients. The increasing evidence show that the components of RAS can activate the complement cascade, and cytokines production. Kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 is related mainly to systemic and local inflammation. Moreover, the uncontrolled immune responses mediated by SARS-CoV-2 including hypercytokinaemia, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, antibody dependent enhancement, complement system, and phagocytic cells activation can contribute in the virus pathogenesis leading to associated renal dysfunction. However, the role and crosstalk between of RAS components and immune response in mediating kidney injury remain undefined. In this review, we focus on the recent studies to provide the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 interacting with RAS and immune responses to mediate kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0091.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Sports injury, health-seeking behaviour, junior school footballers, Bangladesh
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:52:41 CEST)
Globally, football as a sport has recorded the highest rate of injury morbidity compared with other sports due to the high degree of contact between the players. Coaches play an important role in reducing injuries among the players. The objective of this study was to explore the pattern of football-related sports injuries among junior high school footballers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2019 to March 2019 in 20 junior high schools in Dhaka Metropolitan city. We observed 368 boys in the age range of 10 to 18 years old. A pre-structured questionnaire was provided to six trained junior physiotherapists to conduct the face-to-face interview with the boys in the school setting. Most students were from middle-income families. The injury prevalence of defenders was the most (157, 42.7%) followed by mid-fielders (132, 35.94%), forwards (63, 17.1%), and goalkeepers (16, 4.3%). Tackling was the main cause of injury in 21.1% of cases followed by foul play in 19.1% of the cases. In July, there were more injuries (69.0%) and associated muscle strain. Injured footballers did not visit sports physiotherapists as much as they did other health profession and the association was significant. When considering scientific knowledge, students were aware of fitness, flexibility & endurance (25.5%), sports massage (24.5%), the relation of body structure with sports Injury (21.2%), warm-up and/or cool down (19.6%). Based on the study, it was seen that students had no scientific knowledge of sports. As sports is a key activity for school-going children, comprehensive sports injury preventive knowledge is needed for students and sports teachers and coaches. Access to sports physiotherapists is also needed to prevent and manage sports injury at the field level and for rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0227.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: rehabilitation; stress; reptiles; injury; disease; euthanasia; trauma; clinical care
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:23:18 CET)
Direct and indirect anthropogenic factors play a massive role in driving wildlife species towards extinction. Longitudinal retrospective studies identify key ‘factors’ responsible for the decline in numbers of wildlife, however, lack the reasoning behind the events leading to mortality. The overarching aim of this study was to categorize these ‘factors’ into different stressor categories faced by reptiles to understand its impact on an individual, and to compare how each stressor category influences the survival of an individual. The results from this study indicated that almost half of the number of reptiles being hospitalized were due to exposure to preliminary stressors such as lawn mowing incidents and pet attack. Primary and secondary admissions were fairly equal in number, however the mortality rate for secondary admissions was drastically high (~80%). The discussion integrates species’ ecology and stress physiology which can prove to have multi-faceted benefits across the fields of ecology and animal welfare. Ecologists can use the results from this study to comprehend species’ activity patterns to better plan reptilian conservation programs, whereas, for wildlife clinicians and rehabilitators, assignment of stressor categories could be a beneficial tool for bolstering the welfare monitoring program for small native reptiles in clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Chilling injury; Ethylene response factor; Ripening; Tomato
Online: 2 February 2021 (14:26:34 CET)
The effect of CO2 pre-treatments on tomato quality prior to cold storage was investigated using physiochemical and transcriptome changes. Three hours CO2 treated fruits were firmer than untreated fruits and had a good appearance even after being transferred from 4°C storage to 20°C for 8 d. CO2 pretreatment with cold storage showed a synergistic effect on delayed ripening through reduced respiration; these tomatoes exhibited a lower lycopene content than untreated fruit under cold storage. Tomatoes treated with 30% CO2 had fewer pits than untreated fruits subjected to chilling temperatures, even after being transferred to 20°C for 8 d. Functional enrichment analyses from transcriptome and metabolome commonly showed that CO2-responsive genes or metabolites were involved in the sucrose and starch and biosynthesis of secondary metabolisms. The most frequently detected domain, ethylene-responsive factor domain and reduced glycolysis provide insights into the mechanism that CO2 regulates tomato quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0332.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: obesity; renal injury; lipocalin-2; collagen type IV; inflammation
Online: 22 August 2020 (03:56:22 CEST)
Rats fed a high-fat diet with a single streptozotocin (STZ) injection developed obesity, prediabetes, cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Here we aimed to explore the renal consequences of prediabetes in the same groups of rats. Male Long-Evans rats were fed normal chow (CON; n = 9) or high-fat diet containing 40% lard and were administered STZ at 20 mg/kg (i.p.) at week four (prediabetic rats, PRED, n = 9). At week 21 cardiac functions were examined (Koncsos et al., 2016) and blood and urine samples were taken. Kidney samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry and for analysis of gene expression. High-fat diet and streptozotocin increased body weight gain and visceral adiposity, and plasma leptin, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, despite hyperleptinemia, plasma C-reactive protein concentration decreased in PRED rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed elevated collagen IV protein expression in the glomeruli, and Lcn2 mRNA expression increased, while Il-1β mRNA expression decreased in both the renal cortex and medulla in PRED vs. CON rats. Kidney histology, urinary protein excretion, plasma creatinine, glomerular Feret diameter, desmin protein expression and cortical and medullary mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Nrf2, PPARγ were similar in CON and PRED rats. Reduced AMPKα phosphorylation of the autophagy regulator Akt was the first sign of liver damage, while serum lipid and liver enzyme levels were similar. In conclusion, glomerular collagen deposition and increased lipocalin-2 expression were the early signs of kidney injury, while most biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis were negative in the kidneys of obese, prediabetic rats with mild heart and liver injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: acute kidney injury; HPB surgery; perioperative care; critical care
Online: 18 May 2020 (17:29:02 CEST)
Aim: Aim of our study was to evaluate incidence and causative factors for acute kidney injury in hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgeries. Material and Methods: All the HPB surgeries performed between April 2018 to March 2020, in our institution have been analysed for acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury defined according to acute kidney injury network classification. Categorical variables were evaluated by chi square test and fisher t test wherever approptiate and continuous variables by Mann Whitney U test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We performed 195 HPB surgeries between April 2018 to March 2020, Which included 114 biliary surgeries, 57 liver surgeries and 23 pancreas surgeries. 10 patients developed Acute Kidney Injuries. (AKI) On Univariate analysis AKI was associated with open surgeries, intra operative hypotension and liver surgeries, higher ASA grade, increase operative time, more blood products used, higher CDC grade of surgery and more hospital stay before diagnosis of AKI. However on multivariate analysis only higher ASA score independently predicted Acute Kidney Injury. (p=0.003, odds ratio 15.659, 95% confidence interval 2.54-93.36). AKI was also significantly associated with mortality. (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Pre operative higher ASA grade independently predicted post operative acute kidney injury. Post operative AKI is significantly associated with mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0052.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: pressure ulcer; pressure injury; decubitus ulcer; position change; Ethiopia
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:10:34 CET)
Background: Pressure ulcers (PU) aﬀect millions of people worldwide and always occur over bony areas of the body where pressure and tissue distortion is greatest. The national pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer remains unknown. Hence, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of position change on pressure ulcer among hospitalized clients in Ethiopia. Methods: Studies were retrieved through search engines in PubMed, Scopus, WHO afro library, Google Scholar, Africa journal online, PsycINFO and web-science following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). Analysis was done using STATA version 14 software. We checked the between-study heterogeneity using the I2 and examined a potential publication bias by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger’s regression test statistic. The random-effect model was fitted to estimate the summary effects, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence interval (CIs) across studies. Results: Out of the reviewing 401 studies, 7 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was 11.7% (95% CI (7.28, 16.13%)). Based on the subgroup analysis, the estimated magnitude of pressure ulcer was 15.89% (95% CI: 35.34, 54.04) among studies their sample size were greater than or equals to 250. Those clients who have position change during hospitalization were 85% less likely to develop pressure ulcer [(OR 0.15, 95%CI (0.06, 0.4)] than their counter part. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was relatively high. Position change of the client during hospitalization had paramount benefit to reduce the burden of pressure ulcer. Therefore, policymakers could give special attention to minimize the magnitude of pressure ulcer in order to improve the overall quality of healthcare service. Further meta-analysis study is need to identify individual and health care service related factors to the occurrence of pressure ulcer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0074.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Heavy metals; Mining; Balochistan gerbil; liver injury; Kidney damage.
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:14:09 CEST)
Mining can impact the environment, biodiversity and human health through direct and indirect practices. This study investigated the effects of gold mining on Gerbillus nanus, pointing to organ dysfunction and redox imbalance. Soil samples, Lycium shawii and G. nanus were collected from a site near a mining planet and a control site. Soil and L. shawii samples from the mining site showed a significant increase cadmium (Cd), cupper (Cu), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). Hepatic, renal and pulmonary Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu, Fe, As and V concentrations were increased significantly in G. nanus at the mining site. Markers of liver and kidney function were elevated in serum, and several histological manifestations were demonstrated in liver, kidney and lung of G. nanus at the mining site. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were increased, and glutathione and antioxidant enzyme were declined in the liver and kidney of G. nanus. In conclusion, mining practices triggered tissue damage and oxidative stress in G. nanus living close to the mining site. These findings can represent the scientific basis for evaluating the environmental and health impact of mining in the on the nearby communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rhabdomyolysis; pigment nephropathy; haem; NLRP3 inflammasome; acute kidney injury
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:11:08 CEST)
Pigment nephropathy is an acute decline in renal function following the deposition of endogenous haem-containing proteins in the kidneys. Haem pigments such as myoglobin and haemoglobin are filtered by glomeruli and absorbed by the proximal tubules. They cause renal vasoconstriction, tubular obstruction, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Haem is associated with inflammation in sterile and infectious conditions, contributing to the pathogenesis of many disorders such as rhabdomyolysis and haemolytic diseases. In fact, haem appears to be a signaling molecule that is able to activate the inflammasome pathway. Recent studies highlight a pathogenic function for haem in triggering inflammatory responses through the activation of the nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Among the inflammasome multiprotein complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome has been the most widely characterized as a trigger of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-18 and -1β. In the present review, we discuss the latest evidence on the importance of inflammasome-mediated inflammation in pigment nephropathy. Finally, we highlight the potential role of inflammasome inhibitors in the prophylaxis and treatment of pigment nephropathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0529.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles, EVs , traumatic brain injury, bone loss, TBI
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:56:08 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from TBI exhibit a higher susceptibility to bone loss and an increased rate of bone fractures; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, we observed significantly lower bone quality and elevated levels of inflammation in bone and bone marrow niche after controlled cortical impact-induced TBI in in-vivo CD-1 mice. Further, we identified dysregulated NFB signaling, an established mediator of osteoclast differentiation and bone loss, within the bone marrow niche of TBI mice. Ex vivo studies revealed increased osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived cells from TBI mice, as compared to sham injured mice. Finally, we found bone marrow derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from TBI mice enhanced the colony forming ability and osteoclast differentiation efficacy of bone marrow cells and activated NFB signaling genes in bone marrow-derived cells. Taken together, we provide evidence that TBI-induced inflammatory stress on bone and the bone marrow niche may activate NFB leading to accelerated bone loss. Targeted inhibition of these signaling pathways may reverse TBI-induced bone loss and reduce fracture rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0035.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: neural; stem cells; compressed; spinal cord; injury; regeneration; rat
Online: 2 August 2018 (06:26:46 CEST)
Background: In spinal cord injury, radical treatment is still a persistent hope for patients and clinicians. Our study aimed to determine the different histological changes in central, cranial and caudal sites of compressed spinal cord as a result of neuroectodermal stem cells (NESCs) transplantation in rats. Material and methods: For extraction of NESCs, future brains were extracted from mice embryos (10-days old) and cultured. Eighty, male rats were divided randomly into control, sham (20 rats each); while 40 rats were subjected to compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI). Seven days after spinal cord injury, rats were subdivided into 2 groups (20 rats each); an untreated and treated with NESCs injected cranial and caudal to the site of the spinal cord injury. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after transplantations of NESCs and specimens from the spinal cord at the central, cranial and caudal to site of spinal cord injury were proceeded to be stained with haematoxylin & eosin, osmic acid and Immunohistochemistry of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Results: Sections of CSCI revealed areas of hemorrhages, necrosis and cavitation limited by reactive astrocytosis, with upregulation of GFAP expression. Evidence of remyelination and mitigation of histopathological features, reactive astrocytosis in CSCI sections were more pronounced in cranial than in caudal region. Conclusions: NESCs transplantation ameliorated the pathological changes, promoted remyelination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Ginsenoside Rh2; Lipopolysaccharide; Acute lung injury; MEK; Nrf-2;
Online: 23 July 2018 (13:05:06 CEST)
The anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) is one of the most important ginsenosides. The purpose of this study is to identify the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GRh2 after LPS challenge lung injury animal model. GRh2 reduced LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 productions in lung tissues. GRh2 treatment decreased the histological alterations in the lung tissues and BALF protein content and total cells number also diminished in LPS-induced lung injury mice. Moreover, GRh2 blocked iNOS, COX-2, the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK, JNK, p38, Raf-1 and MEK protein expression which is corresponded to the growth of HO-1, Nrf-2, catalase, SOD and GPx expressions in LPS-induce lung injury. An experimental study has suggested that GRh2 has provided with anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment lung diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Static; Stretching; Post-Match; Soccer; Recovery; DOMS; Injury; Performance
Online: 10 July 2018 (11:53:41 CEST)
Soccer is the most played sport worldwide, with over 265 million participants. It is an incredibly demanding sport, with many different technical skills and physical loads placed on the body. This makes post-match recovery strategies amongst high level soccer players of great importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature on stretching for post-match recovery, examining its relation to injury prevention, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS), and performance. Scientific evidence of the highest quality and relevance was extracted and reviewed. Despite its common practice, evidence does not support static stretching as a modality to improve recovery post-match amongst soccer players. Larger trials with important outcome measures are needed to determine if a post-match stretching regimen to facilitate recovery exists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: acute lung injury; fasudil, Rho kinase; endothelial function; inflammation
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:30:54 CEST)
Fasudil, a potent Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, can ameliorate LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice, but the mechanism remains obscure. In this study, a mice model of ALI was established by intra-tracheal instillation of LPS. Histological changes, cytokine levels, lung permeability, and endothelial apoptosis were determined to evaluate the effects of fasudil on lung injury. The cellular and molecular biological mechanisms were explored by culturing human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMECs). The results showed that fasudil reduced LPS-induced lung inflammation, pulmonary hyperpermeability, and endothelial apoptosis in mice. In cultured human PMECs, fasudil inhibited LPS-induced caspse-3 cleavage and cell apoptosis. It also decreased LPS-induced hyperpermeability of human PMECs monolayer by reversing the down-regulation of intercellular junctions. Moreover, fasudil inhibited LPS-induced overexpression of chemokines and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in human PMECs, which in turn suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-endothelial adhesion. Further molecular researches showed fasudil inhibited LPS-induced activation of ROCK, NF-κB, and p38 in human PMECs. Our findings demonstrated that fasudil alleviated LPS-induced ALI by protecting endothelial function via inhibiting endothelial apoptosis, maintaining endothelial barrier integrity, and reducing endothelial inflammation. These effects of fasudil could be attributed to the inhibition of ROCK and its downstream NF-κB and p38 signaling pathways.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Caveolin-1; kidney transplantation; graft rejection; ischemia; reperfusion injury (IRI)
Online: 1 December 2020 (14:08:33 CET)
Acute and chronic transplant rejections due to alloreactivity are essential contributors to graft loss. However, the strength of alloreactivity is biased by non-immunological factors such as ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Accordingly, protection from IRI could be favorable in terms of limiting graft rejection. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is part of the cell membrane and an important regulator of intracellular signaling. Cav-1 has been demonstrated to limit IRI and to promote survival of a variety of cell types including renal cells under stress conditions. Accordingly, Cav-1 could also play a role in limiting anti-graft immune responses. Here, we evaluated a possible association between pretransplant serum concentrations of Cav-1 and the occurrence of rejection during follow up in a pilot study. Therefore, Cav-1-serum concentrations were analyzed in 91 patients at the time of kidney transplantation and compared to the incidence of acute and chronic rejection. Higher Cav-1 levels were associated with lower occurrence of acute rejection episodes. Moreover, Cav-1 could be therapeutically useful for attenuating graft rejection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0584.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: burn injury; cardiac dysfunction; gene profiling; mitochondrial metabolism; oxygen consumption
Online: 23 November 2020 (13:59:47 CET)
Burn-induced cardiac dysfunction is thought to involve mitochondrial dysfunction although the mechanisms responsible are unclear. In this study, we used our established model of in vivo burn injury to understand the genetic evidence of burn-induced mitochondrial metabolism confusion by describing cardiac mitochondrial metabolism-related gene expression after burn. Cardiac tissue was collected at 24 hours after burn injury. An O2K respirometer system was utilized to measure cardiac mitochondrial function. Oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were determined using enzyme activity assays. RT Profiler PCR array was used to identify differential regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. Quantitative qPCR and Western Blotting were applied to validate differentially expressed genes. Burn-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction was supported by the finding of decreased state 3 respiration and decreased mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in complex I, III, IV, and V following burn injury. Eighty-four mitochondrial metabolism-related gene profiles were measured. The mitochondrial gene profile showed that one third of genes related to mitochondrial energy and metabolism was differentially expressed. Of these 28 genes, 15 were more than 2-fold upregulated and 13 were more than 2-fold downregulated. All genes were validated using qPCR; 4 genes had a protein level which correlated with the observed change in gene expression. This study provides preliminary evidence that a large percentage of mitochondrial metabolism-related genes in cardiomyocytes were significantly affected by burn injury.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; spinal cord injury; pigs; fibrin matrix
Online: 18 November 2020 (13:00:26 CET)
Peripheral blood is an available source of adult stem cells for both fundamental research and clinical use. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) contain a number of different multipotent populations of progenitor cells and possess a potential to differentiate into various types of cells under appropriate conditions. We have evaluated a regenerative potential of PBMCs embedded into fibrin matrix (FM) in a model of pig spinal cord injury. The distribution of transplanted PBMCs in the injured spinal cord was previously evaluated, which demonstrated the ability of these cells to penetrate into deep layers of the spinal cord and to concentrate mainly in the grey matter. The pilot study conducted demonstrated that the tissue structure could be improved and the conduction along posterior columns of the spinal cord could be partially recovered in animals in the setting of FM+РВМCs application. The multiplex analysis of blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed the cytokine imbalance to occur without significantly shifting towards pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokine cascades in the setting therapy provided.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; Cytokine Storm; Lung Injury; Thalidomide; Anti-inflammatory Drug
Online: 3 May 2020 (07:31:53 CEST)
The new pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide threatening health issue. Early progression of this disease starts in the lung airways with an exaggerated inflammation, triggered by the viral infection and characterized by a “cytokine storm” that can lead to lethal lung injuries. In the absence of an effective anti-viral molecule and until the formulation of a successful vaccine, anti-inflammatory drugs might offer a complementary tool for controlling the associated complications and thus decreasing the subsequent fatalities. Drug repurposing for several molecules has emerged as a rapid temporary solution for COVID-19. Among these drugs, Thalidomide, a historically emblematic controversial molecule that harbors an FDA approval for treating Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) and multiple myeloma (MM). Based on only one-case report of positive outcomes in a patient treated amongst others with Thalidomide, two clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of Thalidomide in treating severe respiratory complications in COVID-19 patients were registered. Conversely, the absence of any substantial, promising evidence on Thalidomide usage in that context along with the discontinued studies on the efficiency of this drug in similar pulmonary diseases might cause a significant obstacle for carrying on clinical studies. In this review, we will discuss the theoretical effectiveness of this drug in attenuating inflammatory complications that are encountered in patients with COVID-19 while pinpointing the lack of evidence that is needed to move forward with this drug.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: hepatitis B; hepatitis C; occupational health; dental education; needlestick injury
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:37:08 CEST)
Introduction: Dental health care workers, particularly dental medicine students (DMS), are at an increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of our study was to assess the level of knowledge on HBV and HCV, estimate needlestick injury (NSI) prevalence and reporting practice in DMS at the University of Zagreb and analyze how enrolment in obligatory and supplemental courses affects knowledge and needlestick injury reporting practice. Materials and methods: The knowledge was assessed by our questionnaires based on Centers for Disease Control general handouts. Additional information was collected to examine the prevalence and reporting practice of NSI. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis, independent-samples t-tests, proportion analyses and combined factor analyses of categorical and quantitative variables in SPSS and R. Results: In total, 206 students participated. The overall level of HBV and HCV-related knowledge was poor with average scores being 61.90% and 51.35% respectively. Moreover, students enrolled in the first year demonstrated significantly lower levels of knowledge in comparison with their older peers. Of all participants 18.2% sustained a needlestick injury, and majority of them (78.95%) never reported the injury. Conclusion: In conclusion, DMS have low levels of knowledge on important occupational pathogens and poor NSI reporting practice. Moreover, formal education in the current form failed to significantly improve competence of students and theoretical knowledge translates poorly into more conscientious injury reporting practice. We should look for a better way to increase student awareness and level of knowledge on this topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: nephrectomy; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; sevoflurane; desflurane; propofol
Online: 19 August 2019 (03:47:48 CEST)
The association between the choice of general anesthetic agents and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and long-term renal function after nephrectomy has not yet been evaluated. We reviewed 1087 cases of partial or radical nephrectomy. The incidence of postoperative AKI, new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3a and CKD upstaging were compared between different general anesthetic agent groups: propofol, sevoflurane, and desflurane. Four different propensity score analyses were performed to minimize confounding for each pair of comparison (propofol vs sevoflurane; propofol vs desflurane; sevoflurane vs desflurane; propofol vs volatile agents). Study outcomes were compared before and after matching. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis was performed to compare renal survival determined by the development of CKD stage 3a between groups up to 36 months after nephrectomy before and after matching. Propofol was associated with a lower incidence of AKI, CKD upstaging and a higher three-year renal survival after nephrectomy compared to sevoflurane or desflurane group after matching (AKI: propofol 23.2% vs. sevoflurane 39.5%, P=0.004, vs. desflurane 34.3%, P=0.031; CKD upstaging: propofol 27.2% vs. sevoflurane 58.4%, P<0.001, vs. desflurane 48.6%, P=0.017; Log-rank test propofol vs. sevoflurane P<0.001, vs. desflurane P=0.015). Propofol was also associated with a lower incidence of new-onset CKD after nephrectomy compared to sevoflurane after matching (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences between sevoflurane and desflurane. In conclusion, propofol, compared to volatile agents, may be the reasonable choice of general anesthetic agent for nephrectomy to attenuate postoperative renal dysfunction. Randomized prospective trials are warranted to test this hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0020.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: spinal cord injury; apoptotic cell death; XIAP; neuroprotection; miRNA-based therapies
Online: 11 January 2023 (11:39:24 CET)
Altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been described as being responsible for the main secondary responses, such as apoptosis. X-linked inhibitor apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a key apoptotic component involved in the progression of apoptotic programmed cell death. Several regulators have been described to modulate the XIAP's function, including the post-transcriptional regulator's miRNAs. The main aim of the present work is to identify miRNAs with altered expression after SCI which can regulate XIAP expression. Our bioinformatic analyses identified several candidate miRNAs that may regulate XIAP, among which miR-199a-5p may be involved in the downregulation of XIAP after SCI. Gene reporter assays and in vitro analyses in the neural C6 cell line confirmed the targeting of miR-199a-5p on the 3-UTR of the rat XIAP and its post-transcriptional regulation of XIAP protein level, but not at mRNA level. Analyses in a rat model of SCI revealed a trend towards increased expression of miR-199a-5p and a decrease in XIAP protein level at 3 days after injury. Finally, using a specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probe for miR-199a-5p, we characterized the expression pattern of miR-199a-5p in cells of uninjured and rat-contused spinal cords. These findings provide new insights into apoptotic miRNA-mediated mechanisms after SCI, which will help us develop therapeutic strategies based on miRNAs for treating SCI.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: muscle-skeletal traumas (MST); injury; fracture stabilization; local flaps; skin-grafting
Online: 9 December 2022 (07:13:55 CET)
The combined muscle-skeletal traumas (MST) are very frequent over the last few years. The emergency care try to save the life of the patient and to receive resuscitation treatment. The role of Trauma surgeon is to choose the right moment for surgery. Aim: To present the management of patient with combined height injury, fracture stabilization, partial foot amputation, local flaps, skin grafting and HIFU – thermotherapy as scar treatment. Materials and methods: 40 years old mail patient, injured after a fall from 8 meters in an elevator shaft. After resuscitation treatment to control the shock the Imaging results are: burst fracture of L3 with spinal canal stenosis, fracture of the sacral bone Denis I, fracture of the right humerus in the proximal third, Monteggia fracture of the left arm, fracture of the proximal third of the right tibia as well as comminuted fractures of both calves and of both heel bones. Results: After a few operations his final result was well healed bone fractures and a good quality soft tissue coverage allowing the patient a satisfactory quality of life. Conclusions: Combined traumas of the muscle- skeletal system are severe, serious and difficult to manage. The good outcome in their treatment requires a team approach between the different medical specialists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0087.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Echinoderm; Heat shock proteins; Ubiquitin; Regeneration; RNA-seq; Spinal cord injury
Online: 8 October 2022 (03:02:32 CEST)
Injury to the central nervous system (CNS), in most vertebrate animals, results in permanent damage and lack of function, due to their limited regenerative capacities. In contrast, echinoderms can fully regenerate their radial nerve cord (RNC) following transection, with little or no scarring. Investigators have associated the regenerative capacity of some organisms with the stress response and inflammation produced by the injury. Here we explore the gene activation profile of the stressed holothurian CNS. To do this, we performed RNA sequencing on isolated RNC explants submitted to the stress of transection and enzyme dissection and compared them to explants kept in culture for 3 days following dissection. We describe stress-associated genes, including members of heat-shock families, ubiquitin-related pathways, transposons, and apoptosis that were differentially expressed. Surprisingly, the stress response does not induce apoptosis in this system. Other genes associated with stress in other animal models, such as hero proteins and those associated with the integrated stress response, were not found to be differentially expressed either. Our results provide a new viewpoint on the stress response in the nervous system of an organism with an amazing regenerative capacity. This is the first step to deciphering the molecular processes that allow echinoderms to undergo fully functional CNS regeneration while also providing a comparative view for students of the stress response in other organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; spinal cord injury; disability; stroke; well-being; social isolation
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:35:32 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 restrictions impacted Canadians' daily living, especially those at higher risk of compromised health conditions. This study aimed to describe the physical, psychological, and social well-being of adults with disabilities, and older adults from May to June 2020. An online survey was used to administer standardized measures of mobility, anxiety and depression, boredom, resilience, technology readiness, social support, social networks, and participation. Seventy-two participants were recruited, with a mean age (SD) of 61.2 (13.8). 69.4% of participants had a disability, and 51.4% were older adults. 27.8% and 16.7% of participants exceeded the anxiety and depression cut-off scores, respectively. Boredom and restriction in participation were experienced by 76.4% and 80.1% of participants, respectively. Participants' mean (SD) resilience and life space scores were 72.4 (14.0) and 51.9 (24.0), respectively. Individuals with disabilities have comparatively higher mean anxiety (5.5 to 3.3), depression (4.8 to 2.9), and boredom (92.2 to 72.3) scores than those without. Individuals with a disability had lower resilience (69.9 to 78.0) and felt more life space restrictions (45.4 to 67.6). Our findings revealed issues with anxiety, boredom, participation, and life space activity. This information may provide supporting evidence when creating policies to mitigate existent health and social inequities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: rehabilitation medicine; magnetic resonance imaging; brain injury; executive function; personalized treatment
Online: 14 March 2022 (11:27:15 CET)
Cognitive rehabilitation is useful for many after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but we lack critical knowledge about which patients benefit the most from different approaches. Advanced neuroimaging techniques have provided important insight into brain pathology and systems plasticity after TBI and have potential to inform new practices in cognitive rehabilitation. In this study, we aimed to identify candidate structural brain measures with relevance for rehabilitation of cognitive control (executive) function after TBI. Twenty-eight patients (9 female, mean age 40.5 (SD = 13.04) years) with moderate/severe TBI (>21 months since injury) that participated in a randomized controlled cognitive rehabilitation trial (NCT02692352) were included in the analyses. Regional brain volume was extracted from T1-weighted MRI scans before treatment using tensor-based morphometry. Both positive and negative associations between treatment outcome (everyday cognitive control function) and regional brain volume were observed. The most robust structural brain measures with relevance for improvement in function were observed in midline fronto-parietal regions, including the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. The study pro-vides proof of concept and valuable insight for planning future studies focusing on neuroimaging in cognitive rehabilitation after TBI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID pulmonary fibrosis; lung injury; anti-fibrotic agents
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:32:07 CEST)
Total 219 countries and territories globally suffering from the recent pandemic COVID-19 is now in its second wave with more brutality, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) . It has several symptoms like as persistent fever; respiratory illnesses; cough; fatigue; shortness of breath; loss of appetite; persistent pain or pressure in the chest; dysgeusia; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) etc., and here the things to worry about is the development of pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19 in both peoples who had died of due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or those who survived. Due to COVID-19, dysregulated immune response and wound repair mainly in elderly patients causes this secondary pulmonary fibrosis. Thus using anti-fibrotic agents could be meaningful in these circumstances although their efficacy in treating COVID-19 is subject to more detailed laboratory research works. In this review article you will get to know about the lung fibrosis generation due to COVID-19 infection, about anti-fibrotic agents and the currents challenges of this field.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0278.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Growth Hormone; Recurrent nerve injury; Speech therapy; Neurostimulation; Vocal cord paralysis
Online: 13 May 2021 (09:27:48 CEST)
The aim of this study is to describe the cognitive and speech results obtained after growth hormone (GH) treatment and neurorehabilitation in a man that suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). 17 months after the accident, the patient was treated with growth hormone (GH), together with neurostimulation and speech therapy. At admission, the left vocal cord revealed paralyzed, in the paramedian position, a situation compatible with a recurrent nerve injury. Clinical and rehabilitation assessments revealed a prompt improvement in speech and cognitive functions, and following completion of treatment, endoscopic examination showed recovery of vocal cord mobility. These results, together with previous results from our group, indicate that GH treatment is safe and effective for helping neurorehabilitation in chronic speech impairment due to central laryngeal paralysis, as well as impaired cognitive functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0500.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: motor ablation; growth hormone; rehabilitation; cell proliferation; piriform cortex; brain injury
Online: 19 April 2021 (14:46:46 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury represents one of the main health problems in developed countries. Growth Hormone (GH) and rehabilitation have been claimed to significantly contribute to the recovery of lost motor function after acquired brain injury, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. In this work, we have investigated cell proliferation in the piriform cortex (PC) of adult rats with ablation of the frontal motor cortex treated with GH and rehabilitation, in order to evaluate if this region of the brain, related to the sense of smell, could be involved in benefits of GH treatment. Male rats were either ablated the frontal motor cortex in the dominant hemisphere or sham-operated and treated with GH or vehicle at 35 days post-injury (dpi) for five days. At 36 dpi, all rats received daily injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for 4 days. We assessed motor function through the paw-reaching-for-food task. GH treatment and rehabilitation at 35 dpi significantly improved the motor deficit caused by the injury and promoted an increase of cell proliferation in the PC ipsilateral to the injury, which could be involved in the improvement observed. Cortical ablation promoted greater number of BrdU+ cells in the piriform cortex that was maintained long-term, which could be involved in the compensatory mechanisms of the brain after injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vision rehabilitation; review of systems; traumatic brain injury; concussion; patient advocacy.
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:05:12 CET)
Treating a patient with traumatic brain injury requires an interdisciplinary approach because of the pervasive, profound and protean manifestations of this condition. In this review, key aspects of the medical history and review of systems will be described in order to highlight how the role of any provider must evolve to become a better patient advocate. Although this review is written from the vantage point of a vision care provider, it is hoped that patients, caregivers and providers will recognize the need for the team approach; it truly takes a village.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0544.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: adult neurogenesis; brain injury; neural stem cell; regeneration; stroke; zebrafish; mice
Online: 22 December 2020 (08:49:39 CET)
Adult neurogenesis is an evolutionary conserved process occurring in all vertebrates. However, striking differences are observed between the taxa, considering the number of neurogenic niches, the neural stem cell (NSC) identity and brain plasticity under constitutive and injury-induced conditions. Zebrafish has become a popular model for the investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in adult neurogenesis. Compared to mammals, the adult zebrafish displays a high number of neurogenic niches distributed throughout the brain. Furthermore, it exhibits a strong regenerative capacity without scar formation or any obvious disabilities. In this review, we will first discuss the similarities and differences regarding (i) the distribution of neurogenic niches in the brain of adult zebrafish and mammals (mainly mouse) and (ii) the nature of the neural stem cells within the main telencephalic niches. In the second part, we will describe the cascade of cellular events occurring after telencephalic injury in zebrafish and mouse. Our study clearly shows that most early events happening right after the brain injury are shared between zebrafish and mouse including cell death, microglia and oligodendrocyte recruitment, as well as injury-induced neurogenesis. In mammals one of the consequences following an injury is the formation of a glial scar that is persistent. This is not the case in zebrafish, which may be one of the main reasons that zebrafish display a higher regenerative capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: creatinine; vancomycin; amikacin; renal impairment; acute kidney injury; adverse drug reaction
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:42:59 CET)
Background: Disentangling adverse drug reactions from confounders remains a major challenge to assess causality and severity in neonates. Vancomycin and amikacin are perceived as nephrotoxic and often prescribed in neonates. We selected these compounds to assess their impact on creatinine dynamics as sensitive tool to detect a renal impairment signal. Methods: A recently developed dynamical model that characterized serum creatinine concentrations of 217 ELBW neonates (4036 serum creatinine observations) was enhanced with data on individual administration of vancomycin and/or amikacin to identify a potential effect of antibiotic exposure by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling analysis. Results: Of our ELBW patients, 77% were exposed to either vancomycin or amikacin. Antibiotic exposure resulted in transient lower overall creatinine clearance and a modest increase in serum creatinine. Dependency on gestational age was observed in the difference in serum creatinine when exposed to antibiotics during the third week after birth (difference in creatinine for a neonate at 24 weeks gestation decreased with 56% for a 32-week-old neonate). Conclusions: A previously described model on creatinine dynamics was used to explore and quantify the impact amikacin or vancomycin exposure on creatinine dynamics. Such tools can be used to explore minor changes, or compare minor differences between treatment modalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0022.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; grain sorghum; herbicide injury; remote sensing; sorghum breeding
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:47:27 CEST)
Manual evaluation of crop injury to herbicides is time-consuming. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and high-resolution multispectral sensors and machine learning classification techniques have the potential to save time and improve precision in the evaluation of herbicide injury in crops, including grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). The objectives of this research were to (1) evaluate three supervised classification algorithms (support vector machine, maximum likelihood, and random forest) for categorizing high-resolution UAS imagery to aid in data extraction and (2) evaluate the use of vegetative indices (VIs) collected from UAV imagery as an alternative to traditional methods of visual herbicide injury assessment in mesotrione-tolerant grain sorghum breeding trials. An experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design using a factorial treatment arrangement of three genotypes by four mesotrione doses. Herbicide injury was rated visually on a scale of 0 (no injury) to 100 (complete plant mortality). The UAS flights were flown at 9, 15, 21, 27, and 35 days after treatment. Results show the SVM algorithm to be the most consistently accurate, and high correlations (r = -0.83 to -0.94; p < 0.0001) were observed between the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) and ground-measured herbicide injury. Therefore we conclude that VIs collected with UAS coupled with machine learning image classification, has the potential to be an effective method of evaluating mesotrione injury in grain sorghum.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; paracetamol; NSAIDs; inflammation; lung injury; oxidative damage; glutathione; antioxidant.
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:02:20 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented sanitary threat: antiviral and host-directed medications to treat the disease are still urgently needed.A great effort has been paid to find drugs and treatments for hospitalized, severely ill patients. However, medications used for the domiciliary management of initial symptoms, notwithstanding their importance, have not been and are not presently regarded with the same attention. In analogy with other respiratory viral infections, COVID-19 patients in the early phase require specific antivirals (still lacking) and non-etiotropic drugs to lower pain, fever and control inflammation. Non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (PAC) are widely used as non-etiotropic agents in these conditions and hence are both theoretically repurposable for COVID-19. However, a warning from some research reports and National Authorities raised NSAIDs safety concerns because of the supposed induction of ACE2 protein levels (the receptor used by SARS-CoV2 to enter host airways cells), the risk of bacterial superinfections and masking of disease symptoms. As a consequence, the use of NSAIDs was, and is, strongly discouraged while the alternative adoption of paracetamol is still preferred.On the basis of novel data and hypothesis on the possible role of scarce glutathione (GSH) levels in the exacerbation of COVID-19 and of the GSH depleting activity of PAC, this commentary raises the question of whether PAC may produce an oxidative imbalance which could be detrimental in COVID-19 clinical outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: traumatic brain injury; return to play; risk aversion; choice behaviour; health
Online: 7 June 2020 (07:51:52 CEST)
Purpose: To explore the influence of education and other factors on an athlete’s decision to return to sport post-concussion injury, and whether general risk-taking tendencies are related to return to sport post-concussion decisions in these athletes. Participants and Methods: A self-administered electronic survey was designed to examine their decision-making process when faced with scenario-based questions regarding returning to sport post-concussion injury. Students from the Health Sciences and Medicine Faculty at Bond University were invited to participate. Participants were allocated to a concussion education or non-education group prior to commencement of questionnaire via the random generator on Qualtrics software function. The risk propensity scale was used to assess the risk aversion of each participant. Results: Sixteen respondents were randomized evenly to education and non-education groups. Seven (43.8%) had previously received concussion education training prior to completing the questionnaire, with one (14%) choosing to return to sport in the scenario-based questions. The education group reported two (25%) respondents return to sport, while three (75%) respondents out of four returned to sport with no education or previous concussion training. Influential factors that impacted the decision whether to return to sport or not included: game importance, concussion severity and symptoms, and various internal and external factors. Finally, there was a divergence in results from the risk propensity scale when deciding to return to sport and general risk-taking propensities. Conclusion: This study identified several influential factors including game importance, concussion severity and symptoms which play a significant role in the return to sport decisions post-concussion injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Acute Kidney Injury; Gastrointestinal surgery; HPB surgery; perioperative care; critical care
Online: 14 May 2020 (12:03:15 CEST)
AIM: Aim of our study was to evaluate incidence and causative factors for acute kidney injury in gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgeries. Material and methods: All the gastrointestinal surgeries performed between April 2018 to March 2020, in our institution have been analysed for acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury defined according to acute kidney injury network classification. Categorical variables were evaluated by chi square test and continuous variables by Mann Whitney U test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. P< 0.05 was considered significant Results: We performed 331 gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery from April 2018 to March 2020. After exclusion 317 patients were included in study population.14 patients (4.4%) were defined as having acute kidney injury according to acute kidney injury network classifications. On univariate analysis acute kidney injury was associated with open surgery (p= 0.002, Intra operative hypotension (p=0.006), CDC grade of surgery (p<0.001), increased used to blood products (p=0.004), higher ASA grade (p<0.0001), increased operative time(p<0.0001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis higher ASA grade (p=0.001) and increased operative time (0.015) independently predicted acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury was also significantly associated with 90 days mortality. ( p= <0.0001) Conclusion:Post-operative acute kidney injury was associated with significant mortality in gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery. Open surgery, higher CDC grade surgery, more blood products, higher ASA grades, increase operative time predicted acute kidney injury in post operative periods. Higher ASA grades and increased operative time predicted acute kidney injury.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Diabetic Cardiomyopathy; Hyperglycemia; Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Remote Conditioning; Exercise
Online: 17 March 2020 (08:52:25 CET)
Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and ischemic heart disease are among the leading causes of death and disability in Western countries. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is responsible for the most severe signs and symptoms. An important strategy for reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease is regular exercise. Remote ischemic conditioning has some similarity with exercise, and can be induced by short periods of ischemia and reperfusion of a limb, and it can be performed in people who cannot exercise. There is abundant evidence that exercise is beneficial in diabetes and ischemic heart disease, but there is a need to elucidate the specific cardiovascular effects of emerging and unconventional forms of exercise in people with diabetes. Also, remote ischemic conditioning may be considered among the options to induce beneficial effects in these patients. The characteristics and interactions of diabetes and ischemic heart disease, and the known effects of exercise and remote ischemic conditioning in the presence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, are analyzed in this brief review.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Andrographis paniculata; 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide; NLRP3 inflammasome; liver injury; steatohepatitis
Online: 16 January 2020 (03:07:25 CET)
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND), a diterpenoid in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, acts as a bioactive phytonutrient that can treat many diseases. To investigate the protective effects of deAND on reducing fatty liver disease, male mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet without or with 0.05% and 0.1% deAND supplementation. Cholesterol accumulation, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in liver and liver injury were evaluated after deAND treatment. The results show that deAND treatment for 7 weeks reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and lowered hepatic cholesterol accumulation, tumor nuclear factor-α, and histological lesions. 0.1% deAND treatment reduced HFHC diet-induced apoptosis by lowering the caspase 3/pro-caspase 3 ratio. After 11-weeks of deAND treatment, increased NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), capase-1, and interleukin-1β protein levels in liver were suppressed by deAND treatment. In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression, heme oxygenase-1 protein expression, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased in mice fed the HFHC diet. However, those activities of antioxidant enzymes or proteins were also upregulated by 0.1% deAND treatment. Furthermore, deAND treatment tended to lower hepatic lipid peroxides. Finally, deAND treatment reversed the depletion of hepatic glutamate level induced by HFHC diet. These results indicate that deAND may ameliorate HFHC diet-induced steatohepatitis and liver injury by increasing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: drug delivery system, muscle atrophy, nanoparticle, prostaglandin E1, sciatic nerve injury
Online: 24 January 2019 (08:51:02 CET)
The effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) encapsulated in nanoparticles (Nano PGE1) on motor dysfunction and muscle atrophy induced by sciatic nerve injury (SNI) was investigated in rats, and was compared with PGE1 encapsulated in lipid microspheres (Lipo PGE1) or PGE1 clathrated in cyclodextrin (PGE1-CD). The hind limb muscle weight ratio decreased until 2 weeks after SNI. All 3 PGE1 formulations significantly improved SNI-induced motor dysfunction. Nano PGE1 significantly promoted recovery from muscle atrophy at 2 and 3 weeks after SNI. Lipo PGE1 was also effective, but multiple doses were required. Compared with the SNI control group, the Nano PGE1 group showed upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and agrin expression in the injured sciatic nerve and atrophic muscles. Nano PGE1 accumulated prominently at the site of nerve injury and persisted for longer than Lipo PGE1 or PGE1-CD. Expression of all EP receptors was detected in the normal sciatic nerve, and EP2 expression increased after SNI. Finally, Nano PGE1 promoted ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. These findings suggest that PGE1 released from nanoparticles accumulates at sites of nerve injury and increases VEGF production by augmenting ERK1/2 phosphorylation via EP receptor signaling, thus promoting tissue repair and regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0316.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: acute injury; antioxidant; behavior; mitochondria; mitoquinone; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; repeated mild TBI
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:17:28 CEST)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion accounts for the bulk of all head injuries and represents a major health concern. Although an mTBI event may not manifest in neurobehavioral impairment, repeated injuries, known as repeated mTBI (rmTBI), can result in a cumulative effect that may progress to long-term cognitive and functional deficits. To date, there is no FDA-approved drug for TBI in general and rmTBI in particular. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the neuroprotective role of mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondrial antioxidant, in an open head injury model and a model of repeated mild TBI (rmTBI) at a chronic time point (30 days). In this work, we set out to assess the neuroprotective potential of MitoQ at acute (3 days) and subacute time points (7 days) post-injury in a controlled cortical impact model of rmTBI. C57BL/6 male mice were injected intraperitoneally with MitoQ (5 mg/kg) one hour after the first mTBI, and three days after the first injury in both the 3-day and 7-day MitoQ + rmTBI subgroups, with an additional injection four days after the second injection in the 7-day group. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) while gross and fine motor functions were evaluated by the pole climbing, grip strength, and ladder rung tests. Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was performed to evaluate oxidative stress while qRT-PCR was used to measure the gene expression of different antioxidant enzymes. Also, immunofluorescence staining was performed on brain tissue to assess the degree of microgliosis and astrocytosis. Our results showed that MitoQ conferred significant protection on days 3 and 7 post-injury against fine motor function impairment induced by rmTBI. Moreover, MitoQ enhanced cognitive function and reduced astrogliosis, microgliosis, and levels of oxidative stress on day 7 post-injury. However, antioxidant gene expression generally remained unaffected. In light of our results, MitoQ administration may be considered a preventive approach that helps to alleviate the neurological manifestations associated with rmTBI early before symptoms progress to long-term deficits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0692.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Ryanodine receptor; skeletal muscle; cardiac muscle; exercise and injury; heart function; diet
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:37:53 CEST)
The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscles and plays a key role in excitation-contraction coupling. The activity of the RyR is regulated by many intracellular factors such as divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nucleotides, associated proteins, and reactive oxygen species. Since these intracellular factors change depending on the condition of the muscle, e.g., exercise, fatigue, or disease states, the RyR channel activity will be altered accordingly. In this review, we describe how the RyR channel is regulated under various conditions and discuss the possibility that the RyR acts as a sensor for change in the cellular environment of muscles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Inflammatory; cytokines; biomarkers; intra-articular fracture; cartilage; joint injury; synovial fluid; osteoarthritis
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:08:12 CET)
Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960–February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants and included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to control. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Valproic acid; Drug-induced liver injury; Adverse drug reaction; Case-control study
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:11:04 CET)
Introduction: Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug extensively used for treating partial and generalised seizures, acute mania and as prophylaxis for bipolar disorder. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) persists as a significant issue related to fatal outcomes by VPA. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge about this condition and to better identify patients affected. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective case-control study that identified cases of DILI by VPA from the Pharmacovigilance Programme from our Laboratory Signals at La Paz University Hospital from January 2007 to December 2019. From the Therapeutic VPA Monitoring Programme, two control groups were assigned, VPA-tolerant patients and the other with patients who developed mild VPA-related hepatitis but who did not meet the DILI criteria, matched for date, age and sex. Results: A total of 60 patients were included in the study: 15 cases of DILI, 30 VPA-tolerant controls and 15 controls with mild hepatitis. Mean age for the cases was 45.7 years, 4(26.7%) were women and 5(33.34%) were children under 18 years, of them 3(20%) were fatal. Polytherapy with other antiepileptic drugs (p=0.047) and alcohol consumption (p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of developing DILI by VPA. A diagnosis of epileptic seizure was more frequently related to DILI when compared with the VPA-tolerant controls (p<0.001). The cases developed hepatocellular hepatitis (p<0.001), while the mild hepatitis controls had a higher rate of cholestatic hepatitis (p<0.001). The laboratory lactate dehydrogenase values were statistically higher (even at baseline) in patients with DILI than in both control groups (p= 0.033 and p=0.039). Conclusions: VPA hepatotoxicity remains a considerable problem. This study offers interesting findings for characterising VPA-induced liver injury and at-risk patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0700.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: renal progenitors; molecular mechanisms; kidney injury; single cell RNA sequencing; molecular signature
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:40:17 CET)
Kidneys of mice, rats and humans possess progenitors that maintain daily homeostasis and take part in endogenous regenerative processes following injury, owing to their capacity to proliferate and differentiate. In the glomerular and tubular compartments of the nephron, consistent studies demonstrated that well-characterized, distinct populations of progenitor cells, localized in the parietal epithelium of Bowman capsule and scattered in the proximal and distal tubules, could generate segment-specific cells in physiological conditions and following tissue injury. However, defective or abnormal regenerative responses of these progenitors can contribute to pathologic conditions. The molecular characteristics of renal progenitors have been extensively studied, revealing that numerous classical and evolutionarily conserved pathways, such as Notch or Wnt/β-catenin, play a major role in cell regulation. Others, such as retinoic acid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, TLR2 (Toll-Like Receptor 2) and leptin, are also important in this process. In this review, we summarize the plethora of molecular mechanisms directing renal progenitor responses during homeostasis and following kidney injury. Finally, we will explore how single cell RNA sequencing could bring the characterization of renal progenitors to the next level, while knowing their molecular signature is gaining relevance in the clinic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; Acute Cardiac Injury; Arrhythmia; Heart Failure; Cardiogenic Shock
Online: 11 August 2020 (07:47:51 CEST)
A newly identified novel coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus2 (SARS‐CoV 2) has given rise to the global pandemic. SARS-CoV2 which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a positive-stranded RNA virus with nucleocapsid. It binds to host angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) receptor through surface glycoprotein (S protein). These ACE 2 receptors are attached to the cell membranes of many organs. Thus, COVID-19 does not only result in acute respiratory distress syndrome but also affects multiple organ systems, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to manage this disease. COVID-19 can damage the myocardial cells and result in fulminant myocarditis, acute cardiac injury, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or arrhythmia. COVID-19 seeds harmful immune response through cytokine storm leading to indirect organ damage. In this literature review, the available data is comprehended regarding cardiovascular complications in COVID-19, and the correlation of biomarkers with the disease activity is discussed. This literature review also highlights the important treatment options and outcomes of the individual study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: growth hormone; traumatic brain injury; neural plasticity; neurogenesis; actin; nestin; striatum; thalamus
Online: 15 October 2019 (08:03:13 CEST)
Previously we demonstrated, in rats, that the treatment with growth hormone (GH) and rehabilitation, carried out immediately after a motor cortical ablation, significantly improved the motor affectation produced by the lesion and induced the re-expression of nestin in the contralateral motor cortex. Here we analyze cortical proliferation after ablation of the frontal motor cortex and investigate the re-expression of nestin in the contralateral motor cortex and the role of the striatum and thalamus in motor recovery. The rats were subjected to ablation of the frontal motor cortex in the dominant hemisphere or sham-operated and immediately treated with GH or vehicle (V), for five days. At 1 dpi (days after injury), 5 rats received daily injections (4 days) of bromodeoxyuridine and were sacrificed. The other 15 rats (n = 5 / group) underwent treatment and rehabilitation and were sacrificed at 25 dpi. GH induced the greatest number of proliferating cells in the perilesional cortex. GH and rehabilitation produced the functional recovery of the motor lesion and increased the expression of nestin in the striatum. In the thalamic ventral nucleus ipsilateral to the lesion, cells positive for nestin and actin were detected, but this was independent of GH. Our data suggest that GH-induced striatal nestin is involved in motor recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery; anesthetic technique; high-sensitivity troponin i
Online: 29 September 2019 (07:08:24 CEST)
The cardioprotective effects of volatile anesthetics versus total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) are controversial, especially in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Using current generation high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn), we aimed to evaluate the effect of anesthetics on the occurrence of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS). From February 2010 to December 2016, 3555 patients without preoperative hs-cTn elevation underwent non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were grouped according to anesthetic agent; 659 patients were classified into a propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) group, and 2896 patients were classified into into a volatile group. To balance the use of remifentanil between groups, a balanced group (n=1622) was generated with patients who received remifentanil infusion in the volatile group, and two separate comparisons were performed (TIVA vs. volatile and TIVA vs. balanced). The primary outcome was occurrence of MINS, defined as rise of hs-cTn I ≥ 0.04 ng/mL within postoperative 48 hours. The secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), and adverse events during hospital stay (mortality, type I myocardial infarction (MI), and new-onset arrhythmia). In propensity-matched analyses, the occurrence of MINS was lower in the TIVA group compared to the volatile group (OR 0.642; 95% CI 0.450-0.914; p = 0.014). However, after balancing the use of remifentanil, there was no difference between groups in the risk of MINS (OR 0.832; 95% CI 0.554-1.251; p-value = 0.377). There were no significant associations between the two groups in type 1 MI, new-onset atrial fibrillation, in-hospital and 30-day mortality before and after balancing the use of remifentanil. However, the incidence of postoperative AKI was lower in the TIVA group (OR 0.362; 95% CI 0.194-0.675; p-value = 0.001). After balancing the use of remifentanil, volatile anesthesia and TIVA showed comparable effects on MINS in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery without preoperative myocardial injury. Further studies are needed on the benefit of remifentanil infusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: cerebellar hemorrhage; intraventricular hemorrhage; preterm; MRI; neurodevelopment; outcome prediction; white matter injury
Online: 11 October 2018 (04:21:24 CEST)
Although the most common forms of brain injury in preterm infants have been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, existing MRI scoring systems lack specificity, do not incorporate clinical factors, and are technically challenging to perform. The objective of this study was to develop a web-based, clinically-focused prediction system which differentiates severe from normal-moderate neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years. Infants were retrospectively identified as those who were born ≤30 weeks gestation, had MR imaging at term-equivalent age, and neurodevelopmental testing at 18-24 months. Each MRI was scored on injury in three domains (intraventricular hemorrhage, white matter injury, and cerebellar hemorrhage) and clinical factors strongly predictive of outcome were investigated. A binary logistic regression model was then generated from the composite of clinical and imaging components. A total of 154 infants were included (mean GA = 26.1±1.8 weeks, BW = 889.1±226.2 grams). The final model (imaging score + ventilator days + delivery mode + antenatal steroids + ROP requiring surgery) had strong discriminatory power for severe disability (AUC=0.850), with a PPV of 76% and NPV of 90%. Available as a web-based tool, it can be useful for prognostication and targeting early intervention services to infants who may benefit most from such services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0015.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), ω3-PUFA, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), autophagy
Online: 4 August 2017 (12:56:08 CEST)
Regulated autophagy is involved in the repair of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) show protective effects against various renal injuries. It was recently reported that ω3-PUFAs regulate autophagy. We assessed whether ω3-PUFAs attenuated IR-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and evaluated associated mechanisms. C57Bl/6 background fat-1 mice and wild-type mice (wt) were divided into four groups: wt sham (n = 10), fat-1 sham (n = 10), wt IRI (reperfusion 35 min after clamping both the renal artery and vein; n = 15), and fat-1 IRI (n = 15). Kidneys and blood were harvested 24 h after IRI. Renal histological and molecular data were collected. The kidneys of fat-1 mice showed better renal cell survival, renal function, and pathological damage than those of wt mice after IRI. In addition, fat-1 mice showed less oxidative stress and autophagy impairment; greater amounts of LC3, Beclin-1, and Atg7; lower amounts of p62; and higher levels of renal cathepsin D and ATP6E than wt kidneys. They also showed more AMPK activation, which resulted in the inhibition of phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Collectively, ω3-PUFAs in fat-1 mice contributed to AMPK mediated autophagy activation, leading to a renoprotective response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0023.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: spinal cord injury; X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein; neuroprotection; apoptosis; transgenic mice
Online: 1 December 2022 (09:59:17 CET)
Trauma to the spinal cord causes extensive neuronal death contributing to the loss of sensory-motor and autonomic functions below the injury level. Apoptosis affects neurons after spinal cord injury (SCI) and is associated with increased caspase activity. Cleavage of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) after SCI may contribute to this rise of caspase activity. Accordingly, we have shown that the elevation of XIAP resulted in increased neuronal survival after SCI and improved functional recovery. Therefore, we hypothesize that neuronal overexpression of XIAP can be neuroprotective after SCI with improved functional recovery. In line with this, studies of a transgenic mouse with overexpression of XIAP in neurons revealed that higher levels of XIAP after spinal cord trauma favours neuronal survival, tissue preservation, and motor recovery after the spinal cord trauma. Using the human SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing XIAP we show further that XIAP reduced caspase activity and apoptotic cell death after pro-apoptotic stimuli. In conclusion, this study shows that the levels of XIAP expression are an important factor for the outcome after spinal cord trauma and identifies XIAP as an important therapeutic target for alleviating the deleterious effects of SCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: acute subdural hematoma; comorbidity; elderly; outcome; surgery; timing of surgery; traumatic brain injury
Online: 23 August 2022 (05:08:46 CEST)
Background: The incidence of traumatic acute subdural hematomas (ASDH) in elderly is increasing. Despite surgical evacuation, these patients have poor survival and low rate of functional outcome, and surgical timing plays a no clear role as predictor. We investigated if the timing of surgery has a major role in influencing outcome in these patients.Methods: We retrospectively retrieved clinical and radiological data of all patients ≥70 years operated on for post-traumatic ASDH in a 3 years period in 5 Italian Hospitals. Patients were divided in 3 surgical timing groups from hospital arrival: ultra-early (within 6h); early (6-24h); delayed (after 24h). Outcome was measured at discharge using two endpoints: survival (alive/dead) and functional outcome at Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Univariate and multivariate predictor models were constructed.Results: We included 136 patients. About 33% died for consequences of ASDH and among the survivors only 24% were in good functional outcome at discharge. Surgical timing groups appeared different according to presenting GCS, which was on average lower in ultra-early surgery group, and radiological findings, which appeared worse in the same group. Delayed surgery was more frequent in patients with subacute clinical deterioration. Surgical timing appeared associated neither with survival nor with functional outcome also after stratification for preoperative GCS. Preoperative midline shift was the strongest outcome predictor. Conclusions: An earlier surgery was offered to patients with worse clinical-radiological findings. Also after stratification for GCS it was not associated with better outcome. Among the radiological markers, preoperative midline shift was the strongest outcome predictor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0352.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Free radical scavenging, Autophagy, Ischemia/reperfusion injury, Hypox-ia/reoxygenation, Mitophagy
Online: 18 August 2022 (14:33:17 CEST)
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury results in cell death by inducing apoptosis. During I/R, early generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) can induce neighboring mitochondria to release additional ROS, a toxic cycle resulting in significant mitochondrial and cellular injury. Oxidative damage in the mitochondria contributes to various pathologies, including I/R injury. Accordingly, preventing mitochondrial oxidative damage should be therapeutically relevant for many disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. We recently discovered an Indole-Peptide-Tempo Conjugate (IPTC) that served as a novel bifunctional agent with both antioxidant and autophagy-modulating capacity. Here, we demonstrate that IPTC can protect H9C2 cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury that results from mtROS overproduction due to impaired mitophagy and resultant mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesize that the mechanism of action of IPTC involves the capacity to decrease mtROS combined with induction of mitophagy.