REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV-1; HIV-1 splicing; HIV-1 oversplicing; HIV-1 latency
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:49:59 CET)
HIV-1 transcribes only one kind of transcript – the full length genomic RNA. To make the mRNA transcripts for the accessory proteins Tat and Rev, the genomic RNA must completely splice. The mRNA transcripts for Vif, Vpr, and Env must splice but not completely. Genomic RNA (which also functions as mRNA for the Gag and Gag/Pro/Pol precursor polyproteins) must not splice at all. HIV-1 can tolerate a surprising range in the relative abundance of individual transcript types, and a surprising amount of aberrant and even odd splicing; however, it must not over-splice, which results in the loss of full length genomic RNA and has a dramatic fitness cost. Cells typically do not tolerate unspliced/incompletely spliced transcripts, so HIV-1 has to circumvent this cell policing mechanism to allow some splicing while suppressing most. Splicing is controlled by RNA secondary structure, cis-acting regulatory sequences which bind splicing factors, and the viral protein Rev. There is still much work to be done to clarify the combinatorial effects of these splicing regulators. These control mechanisms represent attractive targets to induce over-splicing as an antiviral strategy. Finally, splicing has been implicated in latency, but to date there is little supporting evidence for such a mechanism. In this review we apply what is known of cellular splicing to understand splicing in HIV-1, and also present data from our newer and more sensitive deep sequencing assays quantifying the different HIV-1 transcript types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0493.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: HIV; HIV at workplace; District Implementation Plan; HIV and AIDS; Stakeholders; Funding
Online: 28 April 2020 (09:51:15 CEST)
The evaluation was conducted to find out whether the stipulated objectives of the policy are being followed, and at the same time find out whether the envisioned results of implementing such policy system have been achieved so far. The evaluation was expected to provide an opportunity for mending shortfalls of the whole system that would affect its sustainability and usefulness.A total of 33 participants were interviewed in this study and came from the study area (Nkhotakota District Council Office). Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. All study respondents were purposively selected where respondents considered having relevant information and they were interviewed to obtain wide range of perspectives.Seven themes were identified; knowledge on policy, limited stakeholder involvement, poor HIV and AIDS programming, ethical issues, future perspective of the policy, Other Recurrent Transaction (ORT) allocation, and availability of HIV and AIDS Committee. On knowledge on policy, the sub-themes included; objectives well outlined, and poor updates on the policy. On limited stakeholder involvement, the sub-themes were; lack of ownership, ignorance of involvement, and not involved/limited involvement. On the Poor HIV and AIDS programming theme, sub-themes identified were; exclusion of activities in the District Implementation Plan (DIP) and lack of funds. There was one sub-theme on ethical issues and future perspective.We found that the Nkhotakota District Council HIV and AIDS at workplace policy is not functioning properly due to poor coordination and lack of funding. However, there are some positives identified such as existence of the coordinating committee and allocation of funds through ORT. Although the system has been functional for some years in well-established structures, lack of participation by some stakeholders, non-inclusion of HIV and AIDS activities in the DIPs underpin its sustainability
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Hypertension; HIV; ARVs
Online: 22 August 2022 (03:49:48 CEST)
Medium-Long term impacts of Antiretroviral drugs on arterial blood pressure in people living with HIV in Malawi.SAGNO Jean Bpatiste2, Loenardo Palombi1 , Giuseppe Liotta1, Victor T Tolno2, Sangare H Mamary2, Jere Haswel 2.1= University of Tor vergata Roma, 2= Dream Health center MalawiKey Words: HIV, hypertension ABSTRACTIntroduction: We aimed to explore the medium-long term impacts of Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART) on Hypertension in a sample of HIV-positive in Malawi. Methodology: This was a retrospective case control study carried out at DREAM health Centre in Blantyre/Malawi on patients who were enrolled from 2005 to 2019, Information about age, gender, blood pressure, ART regimen, BMI, CD4 count, Viral load, Biochemistry, hemoglobin, marital status, education level, survival and period on ARVs were retrieved from data base from 01/01/2006 to 31/12/2015.. In total, we enrolled (alive and on HAART)1350 patients > 18 years (mean age: 43.4 and the SD was ±10.7 with 1031 (65.9%) females and 534 (34.1%) males who were taking (or have taken) ARVs for more than 6 months at the date of enrollment and who were not affected by hypertension or potentially related diseases like Renal failure at the enrollment. The mean observation time, from the HAART initiation was 77 months per person (SD±40). Results: The sample was made up by two groups of patients, 675 who developed hypertension and 675 who did not, with similar age and gender composition. Among patients with hypertension, 30/675 (4.4%) developed a stage 3 hypertension, 154 a stage 2 (22.8%) and 491 a stage 1 (72.8%). Hypertension stages were not associated to statistic significant differences of age and/or gender ( p=0.422, p=0.281 respectively). At baseline, patients who developed hypertension showed higher hemoglobin, higher CD4 count and lower VL ( P<0.001). Patients on AZT-based regimen and TDF based regimen were at high risk to develop hypertension while PI-based regimen was protective to hypertension (P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, factors independently associated to Hypertension were higher CD4 count and Body Mass Index at the visit date, while Baseline Viral Load and PI-Including regimes were protective factors. Education level was inversely associated with risk of hypertension, while being married was associated of risk of hypertension (p<0.001). Mortality rate among hypertensive patients was 1.6% for those treated for hypertension against the 3.6% for those not treated. Conclusion: this study shows a protective action of PI-including regimens compared with AZT based regimen that is associated to an increased risk of hypertension. Factors related to a better general health status are associated to an higher risk of hypertension as well as lower education, older age and male gender. Treatment should be started as soon as Hypertension stages 2-3 are reached and control by behavioral factors is no longer effective.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0269.v1
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:59:21 CEST)
Understanding the clinical conditions and outcomes of Covid-19 infected patients with immunodeficiency like HIV will be an information for improving management and treatment modalities. It was reported a patient of HIV plus clinical confirmed Covid-19 in this presentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0436.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: HIV; HCV; Health Literacy; HIV Knowledge; HCV Knowledge; Viral Infections
Online: 8 May 2023 (03:50:33 CEST)
The Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department of University of Brescia organized free rapid screening tests for HIV and HCV as part of the Fast Track City commitment. A cross-sectional study was conducted, consisting of an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire that was administered to individuals who underwent the screening or consultation. The study aimed to compare knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and HCV between age groups (18-40 vs. >40) and sexual orientations (heterosexual vs. LGBTQ+). Overall, 333 questionnaires were completed. Individuals over the age of 40 and those who identified as heterosexual had the lowest level of knowledge about HIV transmission (7.9% and 30% respectively), undetectable=untransmittable (19.7% and 39.4% respectively) and PrEP (9.2% and 18.2% respectively). They were also less willing to cohabit with people with HIV (PLHIV). Only 9.6% of the population demonstrated high levels of knowledge for both HIV and HCV. People over the age of 40 had the largest gaps in knowledge and would benefit the most from educational and prevention interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0565.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1 transcription; HIV-1 Tat; TAR RNA; small molecule inhibitors
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:04:21 CEST)
HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with TAR RNA and recruits CDK9/cyclin T1 and other host factors to induce HIV-1 transcription. Thus Tat-TAR RNA interaction, which is unique for HIV-1, represents an attractive target for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. To target Tat-TAR RNA interaction, we used a crystal structure of TAR RNA with acetylpromazine bound to the bulge of TAR RNA, to dock compounds from Enamine database containing 1.6 million individual compounds. Docking identified 173 compounds that were analyzed for the inhibition of HIV-1 infection. Top ten inhibitory compounds with IC50 ≤ 6 µM were selected and the three least toxic compounds, T6780107 (IC50=2.97 μM), T0516-4834 (IC50=0.2 μM) and T5628834 (IC50=3.46 μM), were further tested for HIV-1 transcription inhibition. Only T0516-4834 compound showed selective inhibition of Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription, whereas T6780107 compound inhibited equally basal and Tat-induced transcription and T5628834 compound only inhibited basal HIV-1 transcription. The T0516-4834 compound also showed strongest inhibition of HIV-1 gag RNA expression and p24 production in CEM T cells infected with HIV-1 IIIB. Of the three compounds, only the T0516-4834 compound disrupted Tat-TAR RNA interaction indicating that it might target TAR RNA. Also, of the three tested compounds, T5628834 but not T6780107 or T0516-4834 disrupted Tat-CDK9/cyclin T1 interaction. Taken together, our study identified novel compound T0516-4834 that disrupted Tat-TAR RNA interaction and inhibited Tat-induced transcription and HIV-1 infection suggesting that this compound might serve as a new lead for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0466.v1
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:34:46 CET)
Background: Pregnancy can be a period of increased psychological susceptibility for women living with HIV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with depression and psychological stress among women living with HIV during their perinatal period in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: This study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in three HIV treatment centers. The study population consisted of women living with HIV 18 years and above who were pregnant or had given birth within the last two years. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 25. Results: A total of 402 participants were eligible for this study. About 69.0% and 78.0% of the participants were depressed and had perceived stress respectively. Women who had positive partners (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.20-1.30) were found to be significantly associated with perceived depression. Women who reported having a gestational age between 29-40 weeks (OR=0.054 95% CI = 0.006, 0.500) were found to be significantly associated with perceived stress. Factors associated with the co-occurrence of symptoms of depression and perceived stress were partner status, income level, family support, gestational age, and years on ART. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of major depression, perceived stress, and the co-occurrence of depression and perceived stress among women living with HIV, mental health care should be incorporated into the routine maternal healthcare for all women, especially those living with HIV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0212.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Stigma, discrimination, HIV/AIDS
Online: 19 April 2021 (22:13:48 CEST)
ABSTRACTIntroduction:Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a global health problem that is almost recorded in every country. The long-term and long-term negative impacts of HIV cases are stigma and discrimination in people with HIV (PLHIV). The purpose of this study is to find out the stigma and discrimination felt by PLHIV.Method:This study design of systematic review from 4 electronic databases namely Scopus ScienceDirect, Sage and ProQuest by using keywords tailored to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) including "Stress", "covid", "nursing", "hospital". This study uses PICOS framework to prevent research bias and analysed using descriptive analysis.Results:The results of the analysis of the article showed from 761 articles have been identified title, abstract and full-text so that recorded 15 articles that can be reviewed. The article consists of various designs, namely RCT, cross sectional and qualitative studies. Analysis shows that stigma and discrimination are social phenomena that manifest in several social areas.Conclusion:Stigma and discrimination in people with HIV (PLHIV) is still common, stigma is carried out by the wider community to their own families. The family approach is necessary to improve well-being as well as improve the social community of the family.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1; HIV envelope; glycosylation; signal peptide; PNGs; broadly neutralizing antibodies; vaccine
Online: 8 February 2021 (13:09:28 CET)
The RV144 trial represents the only vaccine trial to demonstrate any protective effect against HIV-1 infection. While the reason(s) for this protection are still being evaluated, it serves as justification for widespread efforts aimed at developing new, more effective HIV-1 vaccines. Advances in our knowledge of HIV-1 immunogens and host antibody responses to these immunogens are crucial to informing vaccine design. While the envelope (Env) protein is the only viral protein present on the surface of virions, it exists in a complex trimeric conformation and is decorated with an array of variable N-linked glycans, making it an important but difficult target for vaccine design. Thus far, efforts to elicit a protective humoral immune response using structural mimics of native Env trimers have been unsuccessful. Notably, the aforementioned N-linked glycans serve as a component of many of the epitopes crucial for the induction of potentially protective broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Thus, a greater understanding of Env structural determinants, most critically Env glycosylation, will no doubt be of importance in generating effective immunogens. Recent studies have identified the HIV-1 Env signal peptide (SP) as an important contributor to Env glycosylation. Further investigation into the mechanisms by which the SP directs glycosylation will be important, both in the context of understanding HIV-1 biology and in order to inform HIV-1 vaccine design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0494.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV immunotherapy; photoimmunotherapy; photodynamic Therapy; porphyrin; phthalocyanine; HIV-infected cell; monoclonal antibody
Online: 23 October 2020 (14:55:47 CEST)
Different therapeutic strategies have been investigated to target and eliminate HIV-1-infected cells by using armed antibodies specific to viral proteins, with varying degrees of success. Herein, we propose a new strategy by combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) with HIV Env-targeted immunotherapy, and refer to it as HIV photoimmunotherapy (PIT). A human anti-gp41 antibody (7B2) was conjugated to two photosensitizers with different charges through different linking strategies; “Click” conjugation by using an azide-bearing porphyrin attached via a disulfide bridge linker with a drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) of exactly 4, and “Lysine” conjugation by using phthalocyanine IRDye 700DX dye with average DARs of 2.1, 3.0 and 4.4. These photo-immunoconjugates (PICs) were compared via biochemical and immunological characterizations regarding the dosimetry, solubility, and cell targeting. Photo-induced cytotoxicity of the PICs were compared using assays for apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), photo-cytotoxicity, and confocal microscopy. Targeted phototoxicity seems to be primarily dependent on the binding of PS-antibody to the HIV antigen on the cell membrane, whilst being independent of the PS type. This is the first report of the application of PIT for HIV immunotherapy by killing HIV Env-expressing cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: HIV/AIDS; community health worker; clinical trial; informed consent; HIV positive; STI
Online: 2 May 2020 (13:45:36 CEST)
Aim: The overall aim of the study was to assess the reasons and experiences of participants involved in Antibody Mediated Prevention (AMP) HIV prevention clinical trial at University of North Carolina (UNC) Project, Lilongwe, Malawi. We determined the participants’ reasons for participating in HIV Prevention clinical trials; and the experiences of participants in HIV Prevention clinical trials. Methods: We adopted the qualitative cross-sectional study method. Data were collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs). Purposive sampling was used to select 12 study participants who consented to take part in the study. All participants were the ones taking part in the AMP HIV prevention study at the UNC Project. Data analysis was done concurrently with data collection using content analysis. Results: Individuals were motivated to participate in HIV research due to a range of perceived benefits. These included personal, health, and financial benefits. Participants' research experiences and their continued participation in HIV research were influenced by the research clinic context and the nature of their interactions with research staff. Conclusion: When the clinical trial study participants’ expectations are met through what they experience in the study, the chances of them adhering to the study visits and procedures are high. Even for those who did not have any expectations prior to the study, feeling welcomed and being able to open up to the study staff encouraged their continued participation. In the end, this outweighed the negative comments made by the people in their communities or their friends
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0607.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Metformin; HIV transcription and replication; transactivation; gene expression; CREB phosphorylation; HIV LTR promoter
Online: 20 April 2023 (05:24:55 CEST)
Antiretroviral therapy has effectively suppressed HIV infection and replication and prolonged the lifespan of HIV-infected individuals. In the meantime, various complications including type 2 diabetes associated with long-term antiviral therapy have shown steady increases. Metformin has been the front-line anti-hyperglycemic drug of choice and the most widely prescribed medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the effects of Metformin on HIV infection and replication. In this study, we showed that Metformin treatment enhanced HIV gene expression and transcription in HIV-transfected 293T and HIV-infected Jurkat and human PBMC. Moreover, we demonstrated that Metformin treatment resulted in increased CREB expression and phosphorylation, and TBP expression. Furthermore, we showed that Metformin treatment increased the recruitment of phosphorylated CREB and TBP to the HIV LTR promoter. Lastly, we showed that inhibition of CREB activation significantly abrogated Metformin-enhanced HIV gene expression. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Metformin treatment increased HIV transcription, gene expression, and production though increased CREB phosphorylation and recruitment to the HIV LTR promoter. These findings may help design the clinical management plan and HIV cure strategy of using metformin to treat type 2 diabetes, a comorbidity with an increasing prevalence, in people living with HIV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0318.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV; cryptococcal meningitis; HIV-1 viral load; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape; Botswana
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:20:08 CEST)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape has been poorly described among people with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. We determined the prevalence of CSF viral escape and HIV-1 viral load (VL) trajectories in individuals treated for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed using paired CSF and plasma collected prior to and during the antifungal treatment of 83 participants recruited at the Botswana site of the phase-3 AMBITION-cm trial (2018-2021). HIV-1 RNA levels were quantified then CSF viral escape (CSF HIV-1 RNA ≥ 0.5 log10 higher than plasma) and HIV-1 VL trajectories were assessed. CSF viral escape occurred in 20/62 (32.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.9%-44.6%), 13/52 (25.0%; 95% CI: 15.2%-38.2%) and 1/33 (3.0%; 95% CI: 0.16%-15.3%) participants at days 1, 7 and 14 respectively. CSF viral escape was significantly lower on day 14 compared to days 1 and 7, p=0.003 and p=0.02, respectively. HIV-1 VL de-creased significantly from day 1 to day 14 post antifungal therapy in the CSF but not in the plasma (OR, 0.56; 95% CI: 0.41-0.77; p<0.001). CSF viral escape is high among individuals presenting with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis; however, antifungal therapy may reverse this, highlighting the importance of rapid initiation of antifungal therapy in these patients.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0943.v1
Online: 13 June 2023 (14:33:46 CEST)
HIV infection is well-known to be associated with the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) with extranodal involvement being exclusive bone marrow involvement is less common. Co-infection by other viruses such as the esptein Baar virus (EBV) increases the incidence of a frequent complication denominated hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH). We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with the above clinical spectrum who develops several serious complications during treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0216.v6
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:31:10 CEST)
Recent studies revealing varied responses of infected cells to LRAs underscore the limited effectiveness of these agents and emphasize the wide array of determinants contributing to the heterogeneity of reservoirs, including virus genetic background, cell model, cell type, silencing mechanisms, tissue reservoirs, integration sites, patient, and gender specific factors. The enhancer region of the HIV-1 LTR contains two adjacent NF-κB binding sites that play a central role in mediating inducible HIV-1 gene expression. Beyond the involvement of various transcription factors, such as NF-κB, epigenetic constraints also play a pivotal role in suppressing the initiation of latent HIV transcription. Consequently, even latent viruses containing functional NF-κB sites remain unresponsive to drugs that activate NF-κB. Thus, it is evident that the activation of NF-κB alone does not suffice to trigger latent HIV, contradicting the central hypothesis of this study. The author used bioinformatics methods to analyze the viral proteins and their primer binding sites. The results show that the amino acid sequence ARG of Gag proteins of HTLV-1, HTLV-2, STLV-1 and STLV-2 match their primer binding site GGGGGCTCG in the 3'-to-5' direction and that the amino acid sequence SPR of Gag proteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, SIV and FIV match their primer binding site GGCGCCCGA in the 3'-to-5' direction. Related studies have shown that the genomic Gag/Gag-Pol complex recruits the LysRS/tRNA complex. The selective packaging of the tRNA primer requires HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol, and an interaction between LysRS and Gag is observed in vitro. In HIV-1, Gag/LysRS interaction depends on Gag sequences within the CTD of CA around amino acids 283-363 and motif 1 of LysRS around amino acids 208-259. It should be noted that the amino acid sequence SPR of the Gag protein is located at amino acids 148-150 within the NTD of CA, specifically at the NTD-NTD interface 1. Although this research is purely bioinformatics analysis, the relevant studies have demonstrated that Gag proteins match the HIV-1 primer binding site and possess the potential to directly activate dormant retroviruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HIV; approach; strategies; patient; methodologies
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:44:38 CET)
HIV infection invariably attracts the attention of medical staff in complex medical specialties. To achieve the goal of elimination by 2020, various approaches are required, including the establishment of prevention, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, control measures. These should be supported by statistical studies that report on restricted or extended geographical areas, to the level of social class and age. Such an approach, combing the medical and social science perspectives (medicosocial) can prove useful for developing control measures. Due to the complexity of this immunodeficiency pathology, the condition also attracts comorbidities (most notably tuberculosis). Hence, prospective strategies need to be developed and oriented towards the goal of eradicating HIV infection. This paper presents strategies for consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Histoplasmosis; Antigen; HIV; Opportunistic infections
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:44:23 CET)
Among people with HIV, histoplasmosis represents an important cause of mortality. Previous studies have provided estimates of the disease incidence. Here, we compared those estimates with the results obtained from a screening program implemented in Guatemala, which included histoplasmosis detection for people with HIV. To compare the results of this program, with previous estimations, a literature search was done and reports about histoplasmosis incidence were analyzed. The screening program enrolled 6,366 patients. The overall histoplasmosis incidence in the screening program was 7.4%, which was almost double than those estimated by the previous studies. From 2017 to 2019, the screening program showed an upward trend in histoplasmosis cases from 6.5% to 8.8%. Histoplasmosis overall mortality among those who were newly HIV diagnosed showed a decrease at 180 days from 32.8% in 2017 to 21.2% in 2019. The screening approach using rapid diagnostic assays detects quickly more cases of histoplasmosis, allowing a specific treatment, which decreases the mortality of the disease. Therefore, the use of these new techniques, especially in endemic areas of histoplasmosis, must be implemented.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stressor; Coping Strategies; HIV/AIDS
Online: 16 April 2021 (09:59:38 CEST)
Background: A person living with HIV / AIDS bargains with stressors such as discrimination, stigma depression, and several psychological impacts. The stressors experienced by people with HIV/ AIDS will certainly have an impact on daily activities, welfare, and management of medications which in general will have an impact on the quality of life. To deal with these stressors, it is necessary to have good and proper coping from within the PLWHA. Coping strategies need to be owned and carried out by PLWHA in order to respond adaptively to the stressor conditions experienced. Purpose: The aim of this review is to describe the stress experienced and the coping strategies used among PLWHA. Methods: This literature review used keywords in the search for international references are coping strategy, stressor, HIV-AIDS. Inclusion criteria: selection of titles that are relevant to the formulation of the problem and objectives, full-text articles in English, articles published from 2019 to 2021. The exclusion criteria used were coping strategy articles that did not involve HIV patients. Search references from electronic database sources namely ProQuest, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect.Six articles that are deemed worthy of analysis are then discussed or analyzed. Results: Age, gender and sexual orientation have contributed to the emerging stressor among PLWHA. The internal and external coping strategies focusing on the problem are important for PLWHA in handling the stressor. Conclusion: People with HIV-AIDS have many stressors in their lives, but they also have proper coping strategies depending on their internal and external conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0507.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HIV; big data; Africa; epidemiology
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:14:08 CET)
Background. Predisposition to HIV+ is influenced by a wide range of correlated economic, environmental, demographic, social, and behavioral factors. While evidence among a candidate handful have strong evidence, there is lack of a consensus among the vast array of variables measured in large surveys. Methods. We performed a comprehensive data-driven search for correlates of HIV positivity in >600,000 participants of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) across 29 sub-Saharan African countries from 2003 to 2017. We associated a total of 7,251 and of 6,288 unique variables with HIV+ in females and males respectively in each of the 50 surveys. We performed a meta-analysis within countries to attain 29 country-specific associations. Results. We identified 344 (5.4% out possible) and 373 (5.1%) associations with HIV+ in males and females, respectively, with robust statistical support. The identified associations are consistent in directionality across countries and sexes. The association sizes among individual correlates and their predictive capability was low to modest, but comparable to established factors. Among the identified associations, variables identifying being head of household among females was identified in 17 countries with a mean odds ratio (OR) of 2.5 (OR range: 1.1-3.5, R2 = 0.01). Other common associations were identified with marital status, education, age, and ownership of land or livestock. Conclusions. Our continent-wide search for variables has identified under-recognized variables associated with HIV+ that are consistent across the continent and sex. Many of the association sizes are as high as established risk factors for HIV+, including male circumcision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0657.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HIV; workplace intervention; SMS; HIV testing; construction; mobile phone; Covid-19; health promotion; text messaging
Online: 27 September 2020 (03:02:41 CEST)
Background: HIV poses a threat to global health. With effective treatment options available, education and testing strategies are essential in preventing transmission. Text messaging is an effective tool for health promotion and can be used to target higher risk populations. This study reports on the design, delivery and testing of a mobile text messaging SMS intervention for HIV prevention and awareness, aimed at adults in the construction industry and delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Participants were recruited at Test@Work workplace health promotion events (21 sites, n=464 employees), including health checks with HIV testing. Message development was based on a participatory design and included a focus group (n=9) and message fidelity testing (n=291) with assessment of intervention uptake, reach, acceptability, and engagement. Barriers to HIV testing were identified and mapped to the COM-B behavioural model. 23 one-way push SMS messages (19 included short web links) were generated and fidelity tested, then sent via automated SMS to two employee cohorts over a 10-week period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Engagement metrics measured were; opt-outs, SMS delivered/read, number of clicks per web link, and four two-way pull messages exploring repeat HIV testing, learning new information, perceived usefulness and behaviour change. Results: 291 people participated (68.3% of eligible attendees). A total of 7,726 messages were sent between March and June 2020, with 91.6% successfully delivered (100% read). 12.4% of participants opted out over 10 weeks. Of delivered messages, links were clicked an average of 14.4%, max 24.1% for HIV related links. The number of clicks on web links declined over time (r= -6.24, p=0.01). Response rate for two-way pull messages was 13.7% of participants. Since the workplace HIV test offer at recruitment, 21.6% reported having taken a further HIV test. Qualitative replies indicated behavioural influence of messaging on exercise, lifestyle behaviours and intention to HIV test. Conclusion: SMS messaging for HIV prevention and awareness is acceptable to adults in the construction industry, has high uptake, low attrition and good engagement with message content, when delivered during a global pandemic. Data collection methods may need refinement for audience and effect of COVID-19 on results is yet to be understood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HIV; children; drug resistance; virologic failure
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:25:35 CEST)
Increasing HIV drug resistance (DR) among children with HIV (CHIV) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) is concerning. CHIV ages 1-14 years enrolled March 2019 to December 2020 from five facilities in Kisumu County, Kenya were included. Children were randomized 1:1 to control (standard-of-care) or intervention (point-of-care viral load (POC VL) testing every three months with targeted genotypic drug resistance testing (DRT) for VF (> 1000 copies/ml)). A multidisciplinary committee reviewed CHIV with DRT results and offered treatment recommendations. We describe DR mutations and present logistic regression models to identify factors associated with clinically significant DR. We enrolled 704 children in the study; median age was 9 years (interquartile range (IQR) 7,12), 344 (49%) were female and median time on ART was 5 years (IQR 3, 8). During the study period, 106 (15%) children had DRT results (84 intervention and 22 control). DRT detected mutations associate with DR in all participants tested, with 93 (88%) having major mutations, including 51 (54%) with dual class resistance. A history of VF in prior 2 years (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 11.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.3, 20.0) and less than 2 years on ART at enrollment (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1, 4.4) were associated with increased odds of major DR. DR is highly prevalent among CHIV on ART with VF in Kenya. Factors associated with drug resistance may be used to determine which children should be prioritized for DRT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0859.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: drug interactions; antiretroviral agents; HIV/AIDS
Online: 12 June 2023 (16:44:26 CEST)
Background: The clinical outcomes of antiretroviral drugs may be modified by drug interactions; thus, it is important to update the drug interactions in people living with HIV. Aim: To update clinically relevant drug interactions in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A systematic review in Medline/PubMed database from July 2017 to December 2022, using the Mesh terms: Anti-retroviral agents and drug interactions or herb-drug interactions or food-drug interactions. Publications with drug interactions in humans, in English or Spanish, and with full text were retrieved. The clinical relevance of drug interaction was grouped into 5 levels according to gravity and probability of occurrence. Results: 361 articles were identified and 148 were included, which allowed the identification of 894 drug interaction pairs. Among these 894 drug pairs, 355 have not been identified previously; and 89 (25.1%) and 72 (20.2%) were of levels 1 and 2, respectively. In addition, for 197 (55.5%) pairs the mechanism was pharmacokinetic. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the protease inhibitors (PIs) with 91 (25.6%) and 76 (21.4%) pairs, respectively were more frequent. Conclusions: In people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, we identify 355 new drug interaction pairs, of them 161 (45.3%) are assessed as levels 1 and 2 and thus, clinically relevant; a figure that is lower compared to 2014-2107 update. The pharmacokinetic mechanism is the most frequently identified. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and the protease inhibitors (PIs) are the antiretroviral groups with the highest number of clinically relevant drug interactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Pre-exposure prophylaxis; HIV; prevention strategies
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:11:28 CEST)
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective HIV prevention strategy that involves the continuous administration of antiretroviral drugs to HIV-negative individuals wit a substantial risk of contracting an HIV infection. The use of PrEP has shown a reduction in the risk of HIV acquisition through sexual intercourse by up to 99%. Despite its effectiveness, PrEP uptake remains low among populations at high risk of HIV infection. This highlights the need for further research in stratetegies to enhance awareness and uptake of PrEP amongst these specific populations
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0451.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: HIV; tobacco; electronic cigarettes; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:54:56 CEST)
People with HIV (PWH) experience higher rates of cardiovascular events (CVEs) compared with the general population. A substantial body of evidence supports that select biomarkers of inflammation (soluble CD14 [sCD14], soluble CD163 [sCD163], highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and coagulation (D-dimer) are elevated in PWH and related to increased rates of CVEs. Our previous work showed that smoking compared with nonsmoking was associated with significantly elevated sCD14, a biomarker of monocyte activation. We aimed to explore the effect of electronic cigarette (EC) provision on inflammatory biomarkers in PWH who smoked daily and then switched to an EC. Nineteen PWH were enrolled in a pilot study in which an EC and e-liquid were provided weekly or 8 weeks. Blood specimens for inflammatory biomarker analysis were obtained at baseline (BL) and at week 8. Biomarker levels were high at BL and did not differ significantly at week 8. There were small nonsignificant reductions in sCD163 and CRP levels. Non-significant increases in IL-6, D-dimer and sCD14 levels were also noted. Use of ECs for 8 weeks does not appear to significantly increase or decrease inflammatory biomarker levels in SWH. Further research with larger samples and a control group is needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0344.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Glycoprotein; gp120; HIV-1; conformation; immunity
Online: 25 October 2021 (11:50:08 CEST)
Infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) requires virus particle binding to host cell-surface receptor CD4 via the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. HIV-1 therapy and prevention efforts involve development of mimetic or recombinant gp120 vaccines or deployment of antiviral agents that target specific epitopes of gp120. The unliganded conformational state of gp120 is closed, whereas the CD4-bound state is open. However, in between, there exist dynamic conformational states, indicating intrinsically flexible region(s) of structural dynamics, imposing a structural challenge for developing drug or antibody targets. Known conformational states of gp120 were determined by X-ray crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy, and neither method captures the population of gp120 species arising from conformational plasticity, motions, and transitions. gp120 plasticity brings up several important questions. How will differences in conformation affect receptor binding, antibody recognition, and neutralization? Which regions are crucial for gp120 structural plasticity? How could structural dynamics influence HIV-1 evasiveness against host immunity and drugs or vaccines, and facilitate the viral entry into its host? This review explores the structural constraints presented by conformational states of the glycoprotein to antibodies or drugs and how these conformational states provide structural avenues for the virus to escape neutralizing agents and evade host immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza vaccine; HIV; vaccine hesitancy; Italy
Online: 4 October 2021 (09:44:35 CEST)
There are scarce data regarding flu vaccination among people with HIV infection (PWHIV). The goal of this explorative study is to assess hesitancy toward influenza vaccination in a group of PWHIV during the pandemic. A questionnaire was administered to 219 patients vaccinated at our clinic during the 2020-2021 campaign. It evaluated subjects’ adherence over the last 3 seasonal vaccination campaigns, vaccine confidence, complacency and convenience, and the effect of the pandemic on the choice to vaccinate. The population was divided into two groups: fully adherent (all 3 campaigns, 117 patients) and non-fully adherent (1 or 2 campaigns, 102 patients). Adherence increased in non-fully adherent group in 2020-2021, but the pandemic did not affect the choice. Misbelieves emerged: influenza vaccine was considered protective SARS-CoV-2 (22.8% of total population); almost half of all patients thought influenza vaccine could improve their CD4+ cell level (57.3% in fully adherent, 40.2% in non-fully adherent, p<0.05). A quarter of the non-fully adherent group would not have vaccinated in a location other than our clinic (24.5% vs 11.9% in fully adherent group, p<0.05). Conclusively, offering a secure and private space for vaccination seems to encourage vaccination; healthcare professionals should improve counselling to increase adherence and correct misbeliefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Men; Urban; HIV self-testing; Delivery
Online: 9 June 2021 (22:14:21 CEST)
Background: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is one of the recommended approaches for HIV testing services, particularly for helping reach populations who would not normally access facility-based HIV testing. HIVST must be tailored to different populations to ensure uptake. Objective: The main objective of this study was to develop an acceptable HIVST delivery strategy to help improve urban men’s engagement with HIV services. Methods: We invited key stakeholders for urban men’s HIV services to participate in a co-creation workshop aimed at developing HIVST delivery approaches for urban men, using eThekwini municipality as a study setting. We conducted purposive sampling to include health care users and health care providers, representing a range of views across the public sector and voluntary sector. We employed the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) method for data collection. The NGT workshop was conducted in two consecutive phases: phase one was focused on determining barriers for men’s engagement with the current/facility-based HIV testing services; phase two was aimed at determining HIVST delivery strategies. We used the results of the NGT to design a tailored HIVST strategy for urban men in eThekwini District. Results: Participants identified the following psychological factors as the most important barriers to uptake of HIV testing services by urban men: stigma, ignorance about the importance of testing and testing process as well as fear of positive test results. Key stakeholders suggested internal motivation strategies as a potentially effective approach to support HIVST delivery strategy. Guided by the NGT results, we designed a HIVST delivery strategy that is supported by a risk communication approach Conclusion: We designed an evidence-based risk communication mobile health (mHealth) strategy coupled with SARS COV-2 self-testing tailored to improve men’s uptake of HIVST. A follow-up study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing these approaches is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: fusion; purinergic; HIV-1; P2X1; P2X7
Online: 26 January 2020 (01:28:26 CET)
Purinergic receptors are inflammatory mediators activated by extracellular nucleotides released by dying or injured cells. Several studies have described an important role for these receptors in HIV-1 entry, particularly regarding their activity on HIV-1 viral membrane fusion. Several reports identify purinergic receptor antagonists that inhibit HIV-1 membrane fusion; these drugs are suspected to act through antagonizing Env-chemokine receptor interactions. They also appear to abrogate activity of downstream mediators that potentiate activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Here we review the literature on purinergic receptors, the drugs that inhibit their function, and the evidence implicating these receptors in HIV-1 entry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: AIDS; anti-HIV; natural products; SARs
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:15:50 CET)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is chiefly originated by a retrovirus named Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), has influenced about 70 million populations worldwide. Even though several advancements have been invented in the field of antiretroviral combination therapy, still HIV has become the dominant reason for death in South Africa, for example. The current antiretroviral therapies have achieved success in providing instant HIV suppression but with countless undesirable adverse effects. In the present day, the biodiversity of the plant kingdom is being explored by several researchers for the discovery of potent anti-HIV drugs with different mechanisms of action. The primary challenge is to afford a treatment that is free from any sort of risk of drug resistance and serious side effects. Hence, there is a strong demand to evaluate the drugs obtained from natural plants as well as the synthetic derivatives that have been derived from the natural compounds by various chemical reactions. Several plants such as Andrographis paniculata, Dioscorea bulbifera, Aegle marmelos, Wistaria floribunda, Lindera chunii, Xanthoceras sorbifolia and others have displayed significant anti-HIV activity showing more potent anti-HIV activity along with their structures, SARs & important key findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0228.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV, Tuberculosis, South Africa, Epidemic control
Online: 19 July 2019 (10:46:48 CEST)
South Africa is afflicted with the worst epidemic of HIV in the world a legacy of the system of oscillating migrant labour in the region and the consequent social disruption that was the legacy of Apartheid. The initial response from the national government was slow and ineffective but once the magnitude of the epidemic became apparent the government began to respond. The investment in HIV- and TB-related activities in 2013 was R22 Bn or (US$2.5; 2013 exchange rate) of which the South Africa government contributed 80% and the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) 17%. South Africa now has the more people on anti-retroviral therapy than any other country and treatment is being started much sooner after infection. Much of the best biomedical, virological, immunological, mathematical and social science around the treatment and prevention of HIV and AIDS and the associated epidemic of TB has been done by South African’s and their international collaborators. If the efforts to control the epidemic are maintained South Africa is on track to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90target by 2020 and to End AIDS by 2030 in spite of the magnitude of the problem. While individual, patient level data are increasingly available, especially in the Western Cape, much greater efforts need to be made to ensure that the information collected in this way is used to give feedback and support to clinic staff, to ensure that health clinics are providing the best possible service, and to individual patients and people living with HIV to ensure that they are receiving the best possible care and support. South Africa needs to make better use of the rich and detailed data that are being collected from individual clinics and their patients to identify problems or difficulties at the clinic level and to ensure that individual patients are retained on treatment, are virally suppressed and receive the best possible care and support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0056.v1
Online: 10 October 2017 (02:55:22 CEST)
This study aimed to know the conditioning factors of the transition process to the self-care of women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study was carried out from June to September 2015 with seven seropositive women, users of a specialized service in sexually transmitted diseases in the municipality of Imperatriz, Maranhão State, Brazil. For the data collection, an individual interview was used, and data analysis was performed by content analysis delineated by Hsieh and Shannon (2005). The resources that influence the self-care in the transition process of women with HIV/AIDS are represented by personal conditioning factors, such as the meaning they attribute to the living with the disease, personal attitudes and cultural beliefs, socioeconomic status, preparation and knowledge about the disease, and by conditioning factors found in the community and society. The transition theory can provide important insights about the resources present in the adaptation process of women diagnosed with HIV so that they can perform their self-care satisfactorily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0202.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: model developement; TB– HIV integrated model; TB and HIV; model; quantitative and qualitative data
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:39:06 CEST)
Few studies have examined the pros and cons of integrated TB and HIV service delivery in public healthcare facilities, and even fewer have proposed conceptual models for improved integration. This study intends to fill that vacuum by outlining the development of a facility-based paradigm for integrating TB, HIV and patients services. The design of the proposed model were in stages that involved the evaluation of existing TB-HIV integration model and synthesis of both quantitative and qualitative data from the study sites which were selected public healthcare facilities at both rural and peri-urban settings in Oliver Reginald (O.R) Tambo District Municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary data on 2009-2013 TB-HIV clinical outcomes were obtained from multiple sources for quantitative analysis. Qualitative data involved focus group discussions among patient and heath care staff, which was thematically analysed. The development of a possibly better model and validation of this model show that the district's health system was reinforced by the model's guiding principles, which placed a strong emphasis on inputs, processes, outcomes, and integration effects.The model is adaptable to different healthcare delivery systems but will require support from healthcare stakeholders and professionals to be successful.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0531.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Polydatin; HIV; Docking method; Swiss Dock Server
Online: 8 November 2023 (09:58:51 CET)
Summary— Introduction: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks and destroys one type of white blood cell in particular, the CD4 lymphocytes, which are responsible for the body's immune response. This weakens the immune system to such an extent that it can no longer fight other viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and tumours. Methods: We investigated the potential biological role of the natural compound Polydatin (or piceid) using SwissDock, a web service to predict the molecular interactions that can occur between a target protein and a small molecule. Discussion: For the first time, we have investigated the role of polydatin against HIV-1 protease and HIV-2 protease through a computational approach by comparing their estimated ΔG values (kcal/mol) and the nature of the interactions between the residues in the catalytic centre of the HIV proteases.Conclusion: From these simulations, Polydatin has excellent physical properties and an excellent estimated ΔG value (kcal/mol) of about -9.9 kcal/mol against HIV-2 protease and ΔG value (kcal/mol) of about -9.5 kcal/mol against HIV-1 protease. In addition, Polydatin was able to bind to two key amino acids of the catalytic triad sequence common to asparagine proteases (Asp25 and Gly27)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0441.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HIV control; HLA-C*03:02; Immunoinformatics
Online: 8 October 2023 (09:46:56 CEST)
Efforts towards an effective HIV-1 vaccine have remained mainly unsuccessful. There is increasing evidence for a potential role of HLA-C-restricted CD8+ T cell responses in HIV-1 control, including our recent report of HLA-C*03:02 among African children. However, there are no documented optimal HIV-1 CD8+ T cell epitopes restricted by HLA-C*03:02; additionally, the structural influence of HLA-C*03:02 on epitope binding is undetermined. Immunoinformatics approaches provide a fast and inexpensive method to discover HLA-restricted epitopes. Here, we employed immunopeptidomics to identify HLA-C*03:02-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes. We identified a clade-specific Gag-derived GY9 (GTEELRSLY) HIV-1 p17 matrix epitope exclusively restricted to HLA-C*03:02. Residues E62, T142, and E151 in the HLA-C*03:02 binding groove and positions p3, p6, and p9 on the GY9 epitope are crucial in shaping and stabilizing the epitope binding. Our findings support the growing evidence of the contribution of HLA-C molecules to HIV-1 control and provide a prospect for vaccine strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: mpox; monkeypox; sexually transmitted infections; HIV; immunosuppression
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:19:54 CEST)
We investigated differences in mpox clinical outcomes in people with HIV (PWH) and without HIV (PWoH) and the impact of vaccination in Catalonia, Spain. We used surveillance data and the PISCIS HIV Cohort. We included all confirmed mpox cases (May-December 2022). Of 2122 mpox cases, the majority had mild disease, 56% were Spanish, and 24% from Latin-America. Forty percent were PWH, with median CD4+T-cell 715 cells/µL, 83% had HIV-RNA<50 copies/ml and 1.8% CD4+T-cell<200 cells/L. PWH had no increased risk for complications, except in cases of immunosuppression. PWH with CD4+T-cell<200 cells/µL were more likely to be from Latin-America, had more generalized exanthema, and required hospitalization more frequently (p=0.001). Diagnosis of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was common, both at mpox diagnosis (17%) and 2 years before (43%). Dose-sparing smallpox vaccination was accompanied by a sharp decrease in mpox incidence in both populations (p<0.0001). In conclusion, PWH were not at increased risk of severe disease or hospitalization unless immunosuppressed. Mpox is a marker of high-risk sexual behavior and was associated with high HIV and STI rates, supporting the need for screening in all mpox cases. Ethnicity disparities underscore the need for interventions to ensure equitable healthcare access. Dose-sparing smallpox vaccination retained effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: HIV; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; late diagnosis; Nursing
Online: 19 July 2023 (11:40:18 CEST)
Introduction: This study aimed to identify factors associated with late diagnosis and clinically monitor newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Method: Retrospective longitudinal study, based on secondary data from a specialized unit at a tertiary hospital. Data collection included sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and laboratory data of newly diagnosed HIV patients between 2015-2019. Data analysis adopted inferential statistical tests using the SPSS program, considering α ≤ 0.05. Results: 314 individuals were newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. 70.3% (208) had a late diagnosis, and 57.1% (169) were diagnosed very late. There was an association of the very late diagnosis with the variables sex and education and with origin, entry, occurrence of opportunistic diseases, use of ARV therapy, and death, associated with late and very late diagnosis, respectively. The results of the regression model indicate that males had 2.28 [95% CI 1.11 - 4.46] higher chances of having a late diagnosis compared to females. Conclusions: This study evidenced a high prevalence of late and very late diagnoses in newly diagnosed male HIV patients who presented with opportunistic diseases, requiring hospitalization, and having a significant risk of progressing to death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1053.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Angola; HIV; comprehensive knowledge; Health literacy; Sexuality
Online: 17 July 2023 (05:23:03 CEST)
HIV/AIDS infection increases vulnerability to ill-health states and has a major impact on the general health status. This study aims to describe Angolan adolescents and adults’ comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its associated factors based on the 2016 demographic and health survey (DHS). Data from 19,785 individuals between the ages of 15 and 49 years old, who re-sponded to all the DHS questions between October 2015 and March 2016 were included in this study. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression was used to compute the adjusted odds ratio and respective 95% confidence intervals. In Angola, 47.7% of the respondents had general com-prehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The odds of having comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS were higher among individuals who watch television (aOR: 2.40; 95% CI: 2.11, 2.72) or read journals and magazines (aOR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.72, 2.30) more than once a week and, people with primary or higher-level education (aOR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.67, 2.00). Similarly, for people living in urban areas (aOR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.34, 1.71). These results may reflect important inequities and can assist decision-makers in advocating to continue to invest in health literacy for HIV but also in the development of tailored interventions in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0746.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1 subtype D; Phylodynamics; Genomic surveillance
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:33:40 CEST)
(1) Background: The HIV subtype D is generally associated with a faster decline in CD4+ T cell counts, a higher viral load, and a faster progression to AIDS. However, it is still poorly characterized in Brazil. In this study, we used genomics and epidemiological data to investigate the transmission dynamics of HIV subtype D in the state of Bahia, Northeast Brazil. (2) Methods: to achieve this goal, we obtained four novel HIV-1 subtype D partial pol genome sequences using the Sanger method. To understand the emergence of this novel subtype in the state of Bahia, we used phylodynamic analysis on a dataset comprising 3,704 pol genome sequences downloaded from the Los Alamos database. (3) Results: Our analysis revealed three branching patterns, indicating multiple introductions of the HIV-1 subtype D in Brazil from the late 1980s to the late 2000s and a single introduction event in the state of Bahia. Our data further suggest that these introductions most likely originated from European, Eastern African, Western African and Southern African countries. (4) Conclusion: Understanding the distribution of HIV-1 viral strains and their temporal dynamics is crucial for monitoring the real-time evolution of circulating subtypes and recombinant forms, as well as for designing novel diagnostic and vaccination strategies. We advocate for a shift to active surveillance, to ensure adequate preparedness for future epidemics mediated by emerging viral strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HPV; Cervical cancer; HPV vaccine; Women; HIV
Online: 23 March 2023 (02:45:10 CET)
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for most cervical cancer cases globally, with women living with HIV at higher risk of persistent HPV infection and HPV-associated disease. The HPV vaccine is a promising solution to reducing cervical cancer rates, but its uptake among women living with HIV in Nigeria is unknown. Methods: A facility-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1,371 women living with HIV to assess their knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine, as well as their willingness to pay for the vaccine at the HIV treatment clinic, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos. Willingness to pay for the HPV vaccine was also assessed. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to identify factors associated with willingness to pay for the HPV vaccine. Results: The study found that 79.1% of participants had not heard of the vaccine, and only 29.0% knew of its efficacy in preventing cervical cancer. Moreover, 68.3% of participants were unwilling to pay for the vaccine, and the average amount they were willing to pay was low. Knowledge of HPV, the HPV vaccine, cervical cancer, and income were factors associated with willingness to pay for the vaccine. Health workers were the primary source of information. Conclusion: The study found that 79.1% of participants had not heard of the vaccine, and only 29.0% knew of its efficacy in preventing cervical cancer. Moreover, 68.3% of participants were unwilling to pay for the vaccine, and the average amount they were willing to pay was low. Knowledge of HPV, the HPV vaccine, cervical cancer, and income were factors associated with willingness to pay for the vaccine. Health workers were the primary source of information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0496.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: hypertension, comorbidity, HIV, antiretroviral treatment, treatment outcomes
Online: 28 November 2022 (06:04:48 CET)
Globally, non-communicable diseases like hypertension are on the rise, existing concurrently with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in populations, especially those in low- to middle-income countries. The introduction of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV was welcomed with great enthu-siasm across populations. A cross-sectional study of 100 purposively selected adult participants on an-tiretroviral treatment living in the OR Tambo district was conducted to determine factors associated with treatment outcomes among patients living with HIV and hypertension comorbidity. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, with a p-value of 0.05 considered significant. A total of 86% of the female population, with a mean age of 39.76, was studied. Participants with improved viral load and CD4 cell count after initiation of ART increased from 63% to 68% and 74% to 90%, respectively whilst viral load suppression increased from 45.1% to 90.2%. Hypertension post-ART initiation increased from 9% to 34%, exacerbated by smoking (12%), alcohol (14%), vegetable consumption (39%), skipping breakfast (50%), sugar use (62%), and vigorous physical activity (12%). The onset of hypertension was linked to the start of ART, and risky behaviors influenced treatment outcomes. Primordial prevention, like strong health promotion inter-ventions for risk factors, is needed to improve life expectancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV; coinfection; Risk factors; Luanda; Angola
Online: 1 November 2022 (07:13:56 CET)
TB and HIV continue to increase and constitute major public health concerns worldwide, mainly in resource-limited countries, showing that we are not going to end HIV if we do not also end TB. Herein, we investigated the risk factors related to HIV infection among TB patients in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on the medical records of 117 TB patients from January to September 2016. Overall, the HIV/TB co-infection rate was 12%. The mean age of coinfected patients was 37.7±10.1 years. No statistically significant relationship was observed between sociodemographic or clinical features with HIV/TB co-infection (p>0.05). TB patients aged 30 years or older (OR: 4.13, p=0.072), female (OR: 1.08, p=0.898), residing in urbanized areas (OR: 1.90, p=0.578), with a history of treatment abandonment (OR: 3.74, p=0.083), with polyresistance (OR: 1.62, p=0.603), and MDR-TB (OR: 2.00, p=0.454), were more likely to have HIV/TB co-infection, while latent TB infection (OR: 0.63, p=0.559) and treatment-susceptible TB patients (OR: 0.56, p=0.616), presented a lower chance of HIV/TB coinfection. Our finding showed a slightly high HIV/TB coinfected rate, which suggests that the dual HIV/TB epidemic keeps evolving and poses a huge concern to the public health in Angola. Further studies on features related to HIV/TB coinfection and its impact on disease progression and clinical outcome in adults from high-risk Angolan communities, should be carried out to intensify and strengthen collaborative activities between national TB and HIV programs in Angola.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV; protease; CARD8; NNRTI; Inflammasome; Latent reservoir
Online: 24 May 2022 (03:54:52 CEST)
HIV-1 protease (PR) is a viral enzyme that cleaves viral polyprotein precursors to convert them into functional forms, a process essential to generate infectious viral particles. Due to its broad substrate specificity, HIV-1 PR can also cleave certain host cell proteins. Several studies have identified host cell substrates of HIV-1 PR and described the potential impact of their cleavage on HIV-1-infected cells. Of particular interest is the interaction between PR and the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) inflammasome. While PR typically has low levels of intracellular activity prior to viral budding, induction of premature PR activation to trigger CARD8-mediated cell killing may help eliminate latent reservoirs in people living with HIV. In this review, we discuss the viral and host substrates of HIV-1 protease and highlight potential applications and advantages of targeting CARD8 sensing of HIV-1 PR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; HIV; Mortality; cytokine release syndrome
Online: 13 May 2022 (09:47:23 CEST)
Introduction: Established predictors for COVID-19 related mortalities are diverse, with cytokine release syndrome (CRS), a key intermediator to the case fatalities being dominant and multi-faceted. The impact of these several risk factors on coronavirus mortality have been previously reported in several meta‐analyses limited by small sample sizes and premature data, and CRS not fully being accounted for. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the evidence on the risk of COVID-19 related CRS and mortality with HIV serostatus using published data, and a meta-regression to account for possible covariates. Method: Electronic databases including Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Web of Sciences (WOS), EMBASE, Medline/PubMed, COVID-19 Research Database, and Scopus, were systematically searched till 30th February, 2022. All human studies were included irrespective of publication date or region. Twenty-two studies with a total of 19,783,097 patients detailing COVID-related mortality and eleven with a total of 2,005,274 were included. To pool the estimate, a random-effects model with risk ration as the effect measure was used. Moreover, publication bias and sensitivity analysis were evaluated followed by meta-regression. The trial was registered (CRD42021264761) on the PROSPERO register. Results: The findings were consistent in stating the contribution of HIV infection for COVID-19 related CRS and mortality. The cumulative COVID-19 related mortality and CRS was 110270 (0.6%) and 48863 (2.4%) with total events of 2010 (3.6%), 108260 (0.5%) and 837(4.6%), 48026 (2.4%) among HIV-positive and negative persons respectively. HIV infection showed an increased risk of COVID-19 related CRS and mortality [RR= 1.48, 95% CI (1.16, 1.88) (P=0.002)] and [RR =1.19, 95% CI (1.02 -1.39) (P=0.00001)] respectively, both with substantial heterogeneity (I2 > 80%). The true effects size in 95% of all the comparable populations fell between 0.64 to 2.22 and 0.67 to 3.29 for mortality and CRS respectively. MC studies and COVID-19 mortality with HIV infection showed a significant association [RR = 1.305, 95% CI (1.092 -1.559) (P = 0.003)], similar to studies conducted in America (RR = 1.422, 95% CI 1.233–1.639) and South Africa (RR = 1.123, 95% CI 1.052–1.198). HIV infection showed a risk for ICU admission [(P=0.00001) (I² = 0%)] and mechanical ventilation [(P=0.04) (I² = 0%)] as parameters of CRS. Furthermore, risk of COVID-19 related CRS is influenced by the year a study was conducted (R² = 0.55) and the region (R² = 0.11) same for mortality (R² = 0.60). The variance proportion explained by covariates was significant for CRS (I² = 86.5%, Q = 73.99, df = 10, P = 0.0000) (R² = 0.78) and mortality (I² = 87.5%, Q = 168.02, df = 21, p = 0.0000) (R² = 0.67). Conclusion: Our updated meta-analysis indicated that HIV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk for both COVID-19 – CRS and mortality, which might be modulated by regions, study setting and year. Risk for ICU admission and mechanical ventilation are the key indicators of CRS. We believe the updated data further anchoring CRS will contribute to more substantiation of the findings reported by similar earlier studies (Dong et al., 2021; K. W. Lee et al., 2021; Massarvva, 2021; Mellor et al., 2021; Ssentongo et al., 2021)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0249.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV Nef; neurotoxicity; inflammatory cytokines; kynurenine metabolite
Online: 21 February 2022 (10:00:10 CET)
HIV-1 Nef is a multifunctional protein with well-known lethal properties. HIV infects various cells from the brain compartment and expressed nef is responsible for developing neuropathogenic potential. HIV-infected glial cells express nefvirotoxinand stimulate the cascade of various pathways to activate uninfected cells to release neurotoxic elements damaging cells themselves. A lot of genetic variabilities of this protein have been reported from patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. To determine the neurotoxic potential of subtype-specific nef plasmids and nef plasmids of clinical samples with and without HAND were transfected in normal human astrocytes (NHA) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) using nef-pCMV-HA plasmid constructs. Supernatants from subtype-specific Nef plasmids indicated the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The induced expression might be due to the nef genetic variability or variations in the transfection efficiency and expression levels of nef.The mRNA expression of IL-6, IP-10, and TNF-α indicated upregulation of 5.0-fold in NHA and 3-fold in MDM with respect to empty vector control transfection. Further, the kynurenine metabolites were also assessed from culture supernatants of NHA and MDM indicating the upregulation of IDO and KYNU in NHA by 3.0-fold and 3.2-fold in MDM.The expression levels of nef and cytokines at the translational level were confirmed by western blotting and bio-plex Pro cytokine estimation assay respectively along with controls expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).The oxidative stress was also found to be elevated as compared to control cells as determined by the estimation of nitric oxide from the culture supernatant to confirm the neurotoxic potential of HIV nef plasmids. The downregulation in the levels of cytokines, as well as kynurenine metabolites, was observed in culture supernatants after blocking the expression of nef using HIV nef siRNA. Phylogenetic analysis of Nef sequences indicated subtype C predominance except one sequence showing the partial sequence of HIV-1 subtype B sequence forming BC recombinantThe upregulation in the cytokine and pathway-specific metabolites might be linked with the neurotoxic potential of HIV-1 Nef leading to neuropathogenesis. In conclusion, the variation in the transfection efficiency, nef expression levels, and the genetic variability of Nef might be responsible for upregulating the expression levels of cytokines and kynurenine metabolites in astrocytes and MDM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: DOLAVI; Dolutegravir; Lamivudine; Real World Data; HIV
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:45:33 CET)
Background: Objectives were to determine the real-life effectiveness and safety of DT with dolutegravir (50 mg/QD) plus lamivudine (300 mg/QD) in multiple-tablet regimen (MTR) in naïve PLHIV followed up for 48 weeks and to evaluate the compliance and satisfaction of patients. Material and methods: Open, single-arm, multicenter, non-randomized clinical trial from May 2019 through September 2020 with 48-week follow-up. Results: The study included 88 PLHIV (91% male) with mean age of 35.9 years; 76.1% were MSM. Mean baseline CD4 was 516.4 cells/uL, with viral load (VL) of 104,828 cop/mL, and 11.4% were in AIDS stage. DT started within 7 days of first specialist consultation in all patients and the same day in 84.1%; 3.4% had baseline resistance mutations (K103N, V106I+E138A, and V108I); 12.5% were lost to follow-up. At week 48, 86.3% had VL< 50 cop/uL by intention-to-treat analysis and 98.7% by per-protocol (PP) analysis. Virological failure (VF) was recorded in 1.1%, with no resistance mutation. One blip was detected in 5.2%, without VF. Three reported anxiety, dizziness, and cephalgia, respectively, at week 4 and one insomnia at week 24; none reported adverse events at week 48. Mean weight was 4 kg higher at 48 weeks (p=0.0001) and abdominal circumference 3 cm larger at 24 weeks (p=0.022). No forgetfulness occurred in 98.7% of patients. Patient satisfaction was 90/100 at 4, 24, and 48 weeks. Conclusion: Real-world data demonstrate that dolutegravir plus lamivudine in MTR is effective, safe, and satisfactory, moderately increasing weight and abdominal circumference and administrable on a test-and-treat strategy.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Rwanda; Risk associated MTCT; HIV-exposed infants
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:18:07 CEST)
Several factors enhance the possibility of vertical HIV transmission in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, the data of the prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors in these populations remain limited in Rwanda. The study aimed to assess HIV prevalence and risk factors for infants born to mothers on ARV treatment at CHUB/Rwanda. MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out on infants who were born to mothers under ARV treatment at CHUB. The associated risk factors were retrospectively assessed using prevention vertical HIV transmission records, and Dried Blood spots (DBS) were prospectively tested using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Ethical clearance (Ref: CMHS/IRB/198/2017) was issued by University of Rwanda to fulfill research ethical consideration.ResultsAmong 185(100%) infants born to HIV-positive mothers under ARV treatment, 5(2.7%) were HIV positive. The most associated risk factors were increased to over 1log copies/ml mother’s viral load (OR 9.3, 95% CI 1.01-85.45, P= 0.04) and mother’s CD4 count lower than 350 cells/µl (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.03-40.06, P=0.04). The factors found to reduce the rate of vertical transmission of HIV were health facility as a delivery place (P=0.03), exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (P= 0.006), and attending the antenatal care (P=0.01) while feeding children and vaginal delivery were associated risks but not statistically significant.ConclusionThe current study supports that the more mothers’ viral load and CD4 count decrease, so does the risk of HIV to their infants. A fact which indicates that both prevalence and risk factors remain an alarming issue. Much effort and multi-disciplinary approach are highly recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma, HIV,; antiretroviral therapy; prognosis; etiopathogenesis
Online: 20 August 2021 (14:08:47 CEST)
Despite widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and increased life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related lymphomas (HRL) remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for PLWH, even in patients optimally treated with cART. While incidence of aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma decreased after cART advent, incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased among PLWH in recent decades. The coinfection of Epstein Barr virus plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HL in the HIV setting. Currently, PLWH with HRL, including HL, are treated similarly to HIV-negative patients and, importantly, the prognosis of HL in PLWH is approaching to that of the general population. In this regard, effective chem-otherapy is strongly recommended since it has been shown to improve survival rates in all lymphoma subtypes, including HL. As a consequence, interdisciplinary collaboration between HIV specialists and hemato-oncologists for the management of potential drug-drug interactions and overlapping toxicities between antiretroviral and antineoplastic drugs is crucial for the op-timal treatment of PLWH with HL. In this article the authors review and update the epidemio-logical, clinical and biological aspects of HL presenting in PLWH with special emphasis in the improvement on prognosis and the factors that have contributed to it.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma, HIV; antiretroviral therapy; prognosis; etiopathogenesis
Online: 2 June 2021 (11:53:29 CEST)
Despite widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) and increased life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related lymphomas (HRL) remain a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality for PLWH, even in patients optimally treated with ART. While incidence of aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma decreased after ART advent, incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has increased among PLWH in recent decades. The coinfection of Epstein Barr virus plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HL in the HIV setting. Currently, PLWH with HRL, including HL, are treated similarly to HIV-negative patients and, importantly, the prognosis of HL in PLWH is approaching to that of the general population. In this regard, effective chemotherapy is strongly recommended since it has been shown to improve survival rates in all lymphoma subtypes, including HL. As a consequence, interdisciplinary collaboration between HIV specialists and hemato-oncologists for the management of potential drug-drug interactions and overlapping toxicities between antiretroviral and antineoplastic drugs is crucial for the optimal treatment of PLWH with HL. In this article the authors review and update the epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of HL presenting in PLWH with special emphasis in the improvement on prognosis and the factors that have contributed to it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HIV; anatomical reservoirs; nervous system; persistence; cure strategies
Online: 6 November 2023 (11:31:26 CET)
There is currently no cure for HIV infection although adherence to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses replication of the virus in blood, increases CD4+ T-cell counts, reverses immunodeficiency, and increases life expectancy. Despite these substantial advances, ART is a lifelong treatment for people with HIV (PWH) and upon cessation or interruption, the virus quickly rebounds in plasma and anatomic sites including the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in disease progression. With recent advances in quantifying viral burden, detection of genetically intact viral genomes, and isolation of replication-competent virus from brain tissues of PWH receiving ART, it has become apparent that the CNS viral reservoir (largely comprised of macrophage type cells) poses a substantial challenge for HIV cure strategies. Other obstacles impacting the cure of HIV include ageing populations, substance use, comorbidities, limited antiretroviral drug efficacy in CNS cells and ART-associated neurotoxicity. Herein, we review recent findings including studies of the proviral integration sites, reservoir decay rates, and new treatment/prevention strategies in the context of the CNS, together with highlighting the next steps for investigations of the CNS as a viral reservoir.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1996.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HIV; preventive vaccines; therapeutic vaccines; AIDS; vaccine targets
Online: 31 October 2023 (06:13:14 CET)
As of the end of 2022, despite the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the global HIV epidemic persists, with 39 million individuals living with the virus and 1.3 million new infections reported in that year. Opportunistic infections associated with AIDS claimed the lives of over 630,000 people in 2022, contributing to a cumulative death toll exceeding 40.4 million since the disease's emergence in 1981. Although advances in HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy have transformed the disease into a manageable chronic condition, issues like drug resistance, low compliance, and high treatment costs persist. Until a vaccine becomes available, a comprehensive approach involving prevention and therapy is essential, particularly for high-risk populations. Research shows that prevention strategies are more cost-effective than treatment. The development of antiretroviral drugs has also spurred the creation of antivirals for other infections. The emergence of COVID-19 vaccines has opened new avenues for HIV vaccine development, as lessons from vaccine platform technologies like mRNA, viral vectors, and protein subunits can be applied to HIV. This review explores the most promising prophylactic and therapeutic HIV vaccine trials, emphasizing the need for a multi-pronged approach combining vaccines with non-vaccine strategies. Though significant progress is anticipated, the road to a viable HIV vaccine remains long, especially for high-risk populations, such as medical workers, blood transfusion recipients, and drug users. The combinatorial approach, capitalizing on various aspects of immunity, may hold the key to defeating HIV in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Varicella-Zoster Virus; VZV; HIV; Stroke; Vascular risk
Online: 6 October 2023 (06:16:58 CEST)
Background: The increased vascular risk associated to Varicella- Zoster Virus (VZV) reactivation is extensively established in the general population. This retrospective cohort study investigates whether this observation holds true for People Living With HIV (PLWH), a group already con-fronting heightened cardiovascular risk. Methods: Among PLWH who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) at our center and have been under our care for > 24 months since January 1st, 2005, individuals with a history of Herpes Zoster (HZ) were identified and compared their features with those of PLWH with no history of HZ. The prevalence of ischemic events (Deep Venous Thrombosis, Stroke, Acute Myocardial Infarction) was calculated and compared using Chi Square. Odds Ratios (O.R.) with 95% Confidence Intervals (C.I.) for ischemic events following HZ were evaluated through univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Overall, 45/581 PLWH reported HZ. Ischemic events followed HZ significantly more often than the other group (13% vs. 5%, p=0.01). Both positive serology for VZV and HZ correlated with increased ischemic risk (O.R. 4.01, 95% C.I. 1.38-11.6, p=0.01 and O.R. 3.14, 95% C.I. 1.12-7.68, p=0.02, respectively), though pre-existing heart disease demonstrated stronger predictive value in multivariate analysis(O.R. 8.68, 95% C.I. 2.49-29.50, p=0.001). Conclusions: VZV potentially exacerbates vascular risk for PLWH, particularly in the presence of other predisposing factors. Further research is needed to confirm our data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0844.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: IFITM; HIV-1 Env; dSTORM; envelope glycoprotein clustering
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:06:22 CEST)
The human interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins inhibit the fusion of a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses, both when expressed in target cells and when present in infected cells. Upon expression in infected cells, IFITMs incorporate into progeny virions and reduce their infectivity by a poorly understood mechanism. Since only a few Env glycoproteins are present on HIV-1 particles, and Env clustering has been proposed to be essential for optimal infectivity, we asked if IFITM protein incorporation modulates HIV-1 Env clustering. The incorporation of two members of the IFITM family, IFITM1 and IFITM3, into HIV-1 pseudoviruses verified by Western blotting correlated with a marked reduction of infectivity. Super-resolution imaging of Env distribution on single HIV-1 pseudoviruses did not reveal significant effects of IFITMs on Env clustering. However, IFITM3 markedly reduced the Env processing and incorporation into virions relative to control and IFITM1-containing viruses. These results suggest that IFITM1 and IFITM3 restrict progeny HIV-1 infectivity via distinct mechanisms. We propose that IFITM1 interferes with viral fusion by altering the properties of the viral membrane or Env functionality by means other than disrupting Env clusters, while IFITM3 also targets Env processing and incorporation into progeny virions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0217.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: HIV; intimate partner violence; childbearing; infant feeding practices
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:27:58 CEST)
Intimate partner violence (IPV), particularly sexual and emotional violence, against Black mothers who acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during childbearing age is a significant health and social concern worldwide requiring targeted interventions and precautions. IPV against women increases the chances of early mixed feeding, putting infants at high risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and increased infant morbidities. Although violence complicates many Black mothers’ lives, there is limited research evidence about the critical intersections of violence, HIV, and Black motherhood. Women's fears associated with IPV make them less likely to disclose their positive HIV status to their partners which subsequently prevents them from using the recommended guidelines for safe infant feeding practices. This review aims to explore the critical intersections between IPV and HIV and the impact of both on the infant feeding practices of Black mothers living with HIV. Furthermore, the theme of IPV and how it overlaps with other factors such as HIV-positive status and gender dynamics to compromise the Black motherhood experience are the focus of this narrative review of existing literature. Understanding the intersection of IPV and other factors influencing infant feeding practices among women living with HIV will help inform programming and policy interventions for HIV-positive Black mothers who may be experiencing IPV during the perinatal period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1633.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: post COVID-19 Sequelea; HIV; meta-analysis; covariates
Online: 23 August 2023 (05:48:24 CEST)
Aims: The aims of this meta-analysis were to assess: the prevalence of Post-Acute COVID-19 sequalae in HIV positive patients; average time of diagnosis; and meta-regress for possible moderators of PACS.Methods: A standard search strategy was used in PubMed, and then later modified according to each specific database to get the best relevant results. These included Medline indexed journals; PubMed Central; NCBI Bookshelf and publishers' Web sites in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Search terms included “long COVID-19 or post-acute COVID-19 syndrome/sequalae”, “persons living with HIV or HIV. The criteria for inclusion were published clinical articles reporting HIV in association with long COVID-19, further, the average time to an event of post-acute COVID-19 sequelae among primary infected patients with COVID-19. Random-effects model was used. Rank Correlation and Egger's tests were used to ascertain publication bias. Sub-group, sensitivity and meta-regression analysis were conducted. A 95% confidence intervals were presented and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Review Manager 5.4 and comprehensive meta-analysis version 4 (CMA V4) were used for the analysis. The review/trial was PROSPERO registered (CRD42022328509).Results: A total of 43 studies reported post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Of those, five reported post-acute COVID-19 sequalae in PLHIV. Prevalence of post-acute COVID-19 sequalae was 43.1% (95% CI 20.5% to 68.9%) in persons living with HIV (PLWH). The average time to PACS diagnosis was 4 months at 64% [0.64 (95% CI 0.230, 0.913) (P < 0.0000), I2= 93%] and at one year to PACS diagnosis was at 70 %, however with non-significant correlation (P > 0.05). On comorbidities, asthenia was associated with PACS at 17.6 % [0.176 (95% CI 0.067, 0.385) (P = 0.008), I2= 86%] while fatigue at 82%, however not related with PACS event incidence (P < 0.05). Americas, Asian and European regions showed PACS events rates of 82%, 43% and 19 % respectively (P<0.05) relative to HIV infection. Conclusion: PACS prevalence in PLWH was 43% occurring at an average time of 4 months at 64% and 70 % at 12 months however non-significant with PACS. Asthenia was significantly associated with PACS at 17.6 % while fatigue at 82%, however not related with PACS event incidence. Americas recorded the highest PACS event rates in PLWH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: HIV infection; Tuberculous meningitis; TB-DOTS; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Online: 18 July 2023 (08:44:17 CEST)
: Background and objectives: One of the most severe symptoms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TBEP) is tuberculous meningitis (TBM) which is linked to significant morbidity and high mortality. It is well recognized that HIV-positive people are more likely to develop TBEP, including TBM, especially if they have severe immunodeficiencies. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective clinical study based on hospital medical records of the diagnosed patients with HIV/AIDS and Tuberculous Meningitis in North-eastern Romania, hospitalized at "Sf. Parascheva" Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases from Iasi. We aim to highlight the profile and the caracteristics of the HIV/AIDS and Tuberculous Meningitis coinfection cases. The time frame under study was from January 1st, 2010, to December 1st, 2022. Results: Our Center has a total number of patients on record of 1692. Patients co-infected with HIV- TB were 195 of which 19 cases were HIV- TBM coinfection and it was more common in women. From this total, 6 cases were late presenters and 13 patients were already in the center's records with a deficient immunological viral status, non-compliant, and non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy. The average age in the study group was 27 years old. The mean admission day number was 17.73 days. CSF findings (qualitative and quantitaitve examination, biochemestry) were in accordance with the literature. Conclusions: The key to the management of the HIV-positive patient is the multidisciplinary approach and access to antiretroviral therapy. We must find and eliminate obstacles affecting patients and the healthcare system. In order to increase ART uptake among HIV-infected TB patients and to put an end to the TB and HIV epidemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1603.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Cryptococcal infection; Sepsis; qSOFA; blood culture; HIV; Africa
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:47:20 CEST)
Cryptococcosis is a leading cause of death among people with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Limited diagnostic and therapeutic options significantly impair treatment options in Africa. We investigated the burden of cryptococcosis and related mortality among people with HIV and suspected sepsis in Ethiopia. We conducted a prospective cohort at 1) Adama Hospital Medical College and 2) Asella Referral and Teaching Hospital from September 2019 to November 2020. We enrolled adult HIV-infected patients presenting with suspected sepsis and assessed 28-day survival. We performed blood cultures and cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing. In total, 82 participants were enrolled with a median age of 35 years and 61% being female. Overall, 11(13%) had positive CrAg tests, of which 5 had Cryptococcus detected in blood cultures. Despite high-dose fluconazole (1200mg/d) monotherapy in patients with positive CrAg tests, the 28-day mortality was 64%(7/11), being significantly higher than in CrAg-negative patients (9%(6/71); p<0.001). Cryptococcosis is the leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected sepsis patients. CrAg screening in HIV-infected patients attending emergency department can minimize the cryptococcosis missing case irrespective of CD4 count and viral load. These findings warrant the need of a bundle approach for diagnosis of HIV-infected persons presenting with sepsis in low- and middle-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV/AIDS patients; Nutritional; biochemical; Markers; immunological disease
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:10:36 CEST)
Background and Objectives: HIV infection is a global public health problem that can lead to the progression of AIDS. Nutritional status and biochemical markers can significantly contribute to the progression of AIDS in HIV/AIDS patients. The main objective of this study is to examine the association between the nutritional and biochemical markers as well as BMI in HIV/AIDS patients in the kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A retrospective cohort study, including 300 patients (248 males and 52 females) with HIV/AIDS in Bahrain. Various biochemical markers were collected from patients’ medical records including CD4^+ T cells counts, albumin, Hb, HCT, MCV, WBC, and creatinine. A semi-structured questionnaire using of a standardized food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used from which total energy and total macronutrients were calculate. Results: the mean BMI of participants was 27.20 kg/m2 with none of the participants had a BMI lower than 18.5 kg/m2 (underweight). The majority of patients’ dietary intake of macronutrients and total calories intake were either within or above the recommended RDA levels. The results also showed that all mean values of the nutritional and biochemical markers (CD4^+ T cells counts, albumin, Hb, HCT, MCV, WBC, and creatinine) are within the referenced normal ranges. A significant positive correlation of CD4^+ T cells counts, Hb, HCT and albumin at <0.05 level was found. There was no significant correlation between CD4^+ T cells counts and MCV, WBC and creatinine. A positive significant correlation was found between BMI, CD4^+ T cells counts, and WBC at <0.01 level. Conclusion: BMI values significantly correlated to biochemical markers of AIDS progression. Dietary pattern of participants was undiversified among participants, with high prevalence of obesity and overweight. Malnutrition among this study population was not present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HIV; dopamine; latency reversal; methamphetamine; macrophages; substance use
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:36:07 CEST)
There is a significant overlap between HIV infection and substance use disorders. Dopamine (DA) is the most abundantly upregulated neurotransmitter in Methamphetamine abuse, with receptors (DRD1-5) that are expressed by neurons as well as by a large diversity of cell types, including innate immune cells that are targets of HIV infection, making them responsive to the hyperdopaminergic environment that is characteristic of stimulant drugs. Therefore, the presence of high levels of dopamine may affect the pathogenesis of HIV, particularly in the brain. The stimulation of HIV-latently infected U1 promonocytes with DA significantly increased viral p24 levels in the supernatant at 24 hrs, suggesting effects on activation and replication. Using selective agonists to different DRDs, we found that DRD1 played a major role in activating viral transcription, followed by DRD4, which increased p24 with a slower kinetic. Transcriptome and systems biology analyses led to the identification of a cluster of genes responsive to DA, where S100A8 and S100A9 were most significantly correlated with the early increase of p24 levels following DA stimulation. Conversely, DA increased the expression of these genes’ transcripts at the protein level, respectively MRP8 and MRP14, which form a complex also known as Calprotectin. Interestingly, MRP8/14 was able to stimulate HIV transcription in latent U1 cells, and this occurred via binding to the receptor for advanced glycosylation end-product (RAGE). Using selective agonists, both DRD1 and DRD4 increased MRP8/14 on the surface and in the cytoplasm, as well as secreted in the supernatants. On the other hand, while DRD1/5 did not affect the expression of RAGE, DRD4 stimulation caused its downregulation, offering a mechanistic for the delayed effect via DRD4 on p24 increase. To cross-validate MRP8/14 as a DA signature with biomarker value, we tested its expression in HIV+ Meth users’ brains and peripheral cells. MRP8/14+ cells were more frequently identified in mesolimbic areas such as basal ganglia of HIV+ Meth+ cases compared to HIV+ non-Meth users or to controls. Likewise, MRP8/14+ CD11b+ monocytes were more frequent in HIV+ Meth users, particularly in participants with detectable viral load in the CSF. Overall, our results suggest that the MRP8 and MRP14 complex may serve as a signature to distinguish subjects using addictive substances in the context of HIV, and that this may play a role in aggravating HIV pathology by promoting viral replication in people with HIV who use Meth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0318.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: HIV; routine screening; financial benefits; Opt-out approach
Online: 21 October 2022 (03:45:01 CEST)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends everyone between 13-64 years be tested for HIV at least once as a routine procedure. HIV routine screening is reimbursable by Medicare, Medicaid, expanded Medicaid, and most commercial insurance plans. Yet, scaling-up HIV routine screening remains a challenge. We conducted a scoping review for studies on financial benefits and barriers associated with HIV screening in clinical settings in the U.S. to inform an evidence-based strategy to scale-up HIV routine screening. We searched Ovid MEDLINE®, Cochrane, and Scopus for studies published between 2006 - 2020 in English. The search identified 383 Citations; we screened 220 and excluded 163 (outside the time limit, irrelevant, or outside the U.S.). Of the 220 screened articles, we included 35 and disqualified 155 (did not meet the eligibility criteria). We organized eligible articles under two themes: financial benefits/barriers in healthcare settings (9 articles); and Cost-effectiveness in healthcare settings (26 articles). The review concluded recommendations in three areas: (1) Finance: Incentivize healthcare providers/systems for implementing HIV routine screening and/or separate its reimbursement from bundle payments; (2) Personnel: Encourage nurse-initiated HIV screening programs in primary care settings and educate providers on CDC recommendations; and (3) Approach: Use opt-out approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0271.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: MSM; PrEP uptake; socio-spatial analysis; HIV prevention
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:11:25 CEST)
PrEP uptake in the Netherlands is growing but remains at suboptimal levels. Hence, the analysis of hurdles is paramount. Given the initial focus of PrEP provision among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) via a demonstration project that was launched in June 2015, AmPrEP in Amsterdam, and pharmacies in the main urban areas (so called “Randstad”, entailing Amsterdam, Utrecht, Leiden, The Hague and Rotterdam), investigating regional differences is necessary. This study seeks to unravel regional differences jointly with psycho-social determinants of PrEP uptake. This cross-sectional study included 3,232 HIV-negative Dutch MSM recruited via the EMIS survey in late 2017. Prevalence and standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) of PrEP awareness, intention and uptake were measured on a regional level (Randstad vs. the rest of the country). Multilevel logistic modelling was conducted to identify the association of PrEP uptake with PrEP awareness and intention, sociodemographic, psycho-social determinants, and random effects from regional differences. MSM from the Randstad used more PrEP (SPR=1.4 vs. 0.7) compared to the rest of the country, but there were minor differences for awareness and intention. The regional distinction was estimated to explain 4.6% of the PrEP use variance. We observed a greater influence from PrEP intention (OR=4.5, 95%CI 2.0-10.1), while there was limited influence from the awareness of PrEP (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.04-4.4). Lower education (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.9) was negatively associated with PrEP uptake, however, no significant difference was found between middle and high education (OR=1.2, 95%CI 0.7-2.0). We showed that regional differences – MSM in non-urban regions – and other psycho-social determinants account for lower PrEP uptake. Based on these findings, more fine-tuned PrEP access with a focus on non-urban regions can be implemented, and tailored campaigns increasing intention/use can be conducted among target populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: female; HIV infections; breastfeeding; vertical transmission; patient’s autonomy.
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:55:13 CET)
Background: Vertical transmission of HIV infection can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or through breastfeeding. The recommendations issued by the various international guidelines (WHO 2010, EACS 2017, DHHS 2017) on the safety of breastfeeding of HIV-infected women in effective antiretroviral treatment do not provide univocal indications referring to individual countries the choice to advise or advise against such procedure. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a small cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women who, despite the information received, decided to breastfeed their children. The observation was carried out in the period between March 2017 and June 2021. In all newborns, prophylaxis therapy was initiated at birth, according to the treatment guidelines, the scheme adopted involved the administration of zidovudine (AZT) orally for 4 weeks, started immediately after the childbirth. Breastfeeding time was, on average, 5 months. Results: No contagion was diagnosed. All infants were tested for HIV-RNA at birth, 1, 3, and 6 months after birth, and 1, 3 and 3 months after stopping breastfeeding. Conclusions: The data obtained represent, in our opinion, a solicitation to discuss and re-evaluate scientific evidence that starting from "Undetectable Equals Untransmittable" (U = U) can open a scientific and cultural review of breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0489.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: mathematical model; delay differential equations; HIV; immune system
Online: 28 April 2020 (08:43:56 CEST)
A mathematical model, composed of two non-linear differential equations that describe the population dynamics of CD4 T cells in the human immune system, as well as viral HIV particles, is proposed. The invariance region is determined, classical equilibria stability analysis is performed using the basic reproduction number, and numerical simulations are carried out, in order to illustrate stability results. Later, the model is modified with a delay term, which describes the time that cells require for immunological activation. This generates a two-dimensional integro-differential system, which is transformed into a system with three ordinary differential equations, via auxiliary variable use. For the new model, equilibrium points are determined, their local stability is examined, and results are studied by way of numerical simulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019; chloroquine; drug repurposing; HIV; Africa
Online: 22 April 2020 (08:33:34 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. Unfortunately, finding a vaccine or developing drugs from the scratch is a time-consuming luxury given the widespread and high fatality rates of the virus. In the short term, repurposing of drugs already in use seem to be the most rational step to quickly and effectively curb the virus. Several antiviral agents had been proposed as possible remedies, but the 4-aminoquinolines, Chloroquine (CHQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCHQ) appear to be generating more interest. They are generic, cheaply available and have proven efficacy against malaria parasites in Africa. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), on the other hand, targets the immune system thereby reducing the patient’s ability to fight infections. Sadly, 68% of the global HIV burden occur in Africa. It is therefore anticipated that incidence of severe forms of COVID-19 could occur in Africa because of associated endemic conditions that compromise the immune system. With CHQ and HCHQ being considered for clinical use against COVID-19, there is a need to highlight their potential merits and confounding variables in the subgroup of patients with or without HIV.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: trichomonas vaginalis; compliance; treatment; STIs; HIV; cost-effectiveness
Online: 6 May 2019 (06:02:07 CEST)
Background: Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral STI globally and yet is not a reportable disease. Trichomonas Vaginalis is an important source of reproductive morbidity and may increase risk of acquisition and transmission of HIV. WHO and CDC recommend various regimens of Nitro-Imidazoles for treatment. The common Nitro-Imidazoles used for Trichomoniasis are Metronidazole and Tinidazole, which vary in their cost, efficacy and side effect profile and it is relevant to study these factors, for better management of the patients. Objectives: This study aims to compare and study the efficacy, compliance of various treatment regimens, their outcomes and side-effects for Trichomoniasis, among STI clinic attendees in Trinidad. Methods: A clinical trial study was designed and after obtaining the informed consent a routine clinical examination was conducted and the swabs for Trichomoniasis tests were collected for diagnosis from the 692 participants. Out of 692 participants, Eighty two (82) patients with established diagnosis of Trichomonas infection were quasi-randomly treated using different regimens. Compliance to treatment, side effects and outcome were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of the Trichomoniasis in population attending our STI clinic is 11.9% and prevalence of HIV is 9%. Of the total 82 participants for the treatment, 80% were females; nearly 90% of the patients belonged to age group 15-45 years and over 60% were below 30 yrs. Among those diagnosed for Trichomonas vaginalis, 13.3% had associated HIV infection. The compliance with respect to single dose treatment was significantly better than the long duration oral regimen and has significant relation with side effects of the treatment. The outcome is generally better and comparable and shows no significant difference between different treatment regimens used in the study. Conclusions: Metronidazole and Tinidazole are commonly used drugs in various regimens. compliance is better with those treated with Tinidazole and Metronidazole stat, than with other groups. Outcome is comparable between these regimens, especially when combined with other important factors like abstinence and treatment of the partners. The treatment regimens mainly differ in the compliance and side effects profile, which suggests that to improve the compliance the drugs with less side effects, short course regimen would be a preferred choice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0596.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1 assembly, Gag, single molecule microscopy, dynamics
Online: 26 November 2018 (14:12:08 CET)
HIV-1 assembly is a complex mechanism taking place at the plasma membrane of the host cell. It requires nice spatial and temporal coordination to end up with a full immature virus. Researchers have extensively studied HIV-1 assembly molecular mechanism during the past decades, in order to dissect the respective roles of viral proteins, viral genome and host cell factors. Nevertheless, the time course of the process has been observed in living cells only a decade ago. The very recent revolution of optical microscopy, combining high speed and high spatial resolution now permit to study assemblies and their consequences at the single molecule level within (living) cells. In this review, after a short description of these new approaches, we will show how HIV-1 assembly in cells has been revisited using these advanced super resolution microscopy techniques and how much it could make a bridge in studying assembly from the single molecule to the host cell.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbiome; probiotics, dietary supplements; nutrition; HIV infection, inflammation
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:10:17 CEST)
Microbiota plays a key role in various body’s functions, physiological, metabolic and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that resides on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer participate in interactions with the host immune system, and a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotics has been proposed in several bowel disorders or in aging-related dysfunctions. In HIV infected patients, the intestinal immune system is affected and inflammation persists during ART therapy too. Several studies are in progress to investigate the ability of probiotics to modulate epithelial barrier functions, microbiota composition and microbial translocation in HIV infection. This mini-review aims to suggest how the use of probiotics is beneficial not only in maintaining a healthy status but also to improve conditions in HIV subjects.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Polydatin; HIV; Docking method; Swiss Dock Server
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:21:25 CET)
Summary— Introduction: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks and destroys one type of white blood cell, in particular, the CD4 lymphocytes, which are responsible for the body's immune response. This weakens the immune system to such an extent that it can no longer fight other viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and tumors. Methods: We investigated the potential biological role of the natural compound Polydatin (or piceid) using SwissDock, a web service to predict the molecular interactions that can occur between a target protein and a small molecule. Discussion: For the first time, we have investigated the role of polydatin against HIV-1 protease and HIV-2 protease through a computational approach by comparing their estimated ΔG values (kcal/mol) and the nature of the interactions between the residues in the catalytic center of the HIV proteases.Conclusion: From these simulations, Polydatin has excellent physical properties and an excellent estimated ΔG value (kcal/mol) of about -9.9 kcal/mol against HIV-2 protease and ΔG value (kcal/mol) of about -9.5 kcal/mol against HIV-1 protease. In addition, Polydatin was able to bind to two key amino acids of the catalytic triad sequence common to asparagine proteases (Asp25 and Gly27)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1868.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Suicidal ideation and attempt, risk factors, women, HIV, Indonesia
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:40:42 CET)
HIV diagnosis and poor HIV management have various detrimental impacts on the lives of people living with HIV (PLHIV). As part of a large qualitative study investigating HIV risk factors and impacts, with the suicide topic not being a focus, this paper describes factors contributing to suicidal ideation and attempts that arose naturally in the stories of women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Yogyakarta and Belu districts, Indonesia. The participants were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Guided by a qualitative data analysis framework, the data were thematically analysed. Findings indicated participants experienced immense psychological challenges due to the infection, spousal transmission, fear of mother-to-child transmission, and losing a child due to AIDS, which triggered suicidal ideation and attempts. The women’s lack of awareness of HIV management strategies resulted in them feeling trapped and overwhelmed. Associated negative thoughts and the anticipation and experience of stigma relating to their HIV status were influencing factors for thoughts of suicide among participants. Lack of social support from family and friends during the early stage of HIV diagnosis, compounded with pre-existing financial difficulties, lack of income, unemployment, and feeling overburdened, also triggered the women’s thoughts of suicide. Other influencing factors for suicidal ideation and attempts among the women were family breakdown following HIV diagnosis and this was reflected in family disputes, husband-wife separation or divorce, mother-child separation by other family members, reported concern about future relationships, and fear of being rejected or abandoned by their partner due to their HIV positive status. The findings indicate the need for a nuanced approach to counselling within HIV care interventions for couples to support the acceptance of each other’s HIV status whilst maintaining psychological wellbeing. Additionally, the findings indicate the importance of HIV education and awareness among community members for the de-stigmatisation of HIV and to increase the acceptance of PLHIV within families and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: HIV; AIDS; antiretroviral therapy; COVID19; public health; medication adherence
Online: 30 August 2023 (09:45:38 CEST)
I. Introduction: Adherence to ART reduces morbidity and mortality among PLHIV by suppression of viral replication, restoration and preservation of immune function. However, poor adherence may lead to treatment failure and death. PLHIV have high probability of treatment interruptions due to lockdowns related to COVID-19 protocol. Mortality rate is higher among COVID-19 patients with HIV than those with COVID-19 only. This led to determination of the barriers to antiretroviral medication adherence in PLHIV at the time of COVID-19 pandemic and seek significant association between identified HIV treatment barriers and socio-demographic characteristics. II. Methods: A cross-sectional study using online survey questionnaire was distributed via social media. Sample size was computed using Open Epi software. Data was analyzed using Stata software. Categorical variables and quantitative data were summarized using frequencies and percentages, and mean and standard deviation respectively. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, whichever is more appropriate, was used to determine association between socio-demographic characteristics and HIV treatment barriers. III. Results: There is a total of 116 respondents, 115 were males, homosexual (59.5%), with mean age of 30.25 years old (SD = 6.22) and majority (53.4%) were from NCR. The most common HIV treatment barriers reported by PLHIV in accessing treatment and care were unavailability of transportation and cost of courier services for ARV delivery (62.1%), location of treatment hubs (52.6%) and financial assistance (37.9%). IV. Conclusion: There is significant association between location of treatment hubs and respondents who finished college/graduate studies; checkpoints and crossing borders and: 1. respondents from Northern Luzon, 2. unemployment; financial assistance and: 1. Respondents 18 to 25 years old, 2. unemployment, 3. respondents who finished elementary/high school; psychosocial support and: 1. Respondents from NCR, 2. Respondents 26 to 30 years old;
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0093.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: population growth; HIV/AIDS; GDP; per capita GDP; PMG
Online: 8 October 2022 (04:38:48 CEST)
Africa is expected to have a lion’s Share in the world’s population growth by 2050. At the same time, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that roughly 3.4 percent (1/25) of African adults live with HIV making the contient the most severely affected by the HIV pandemic. Consequently, this study, the first of its kind, investigates the impact of population growth and HIV incidence on economic growth and economic development in Africa by utilizing the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator on data from 1990 to 2020 across 29 countries. The results show that population growth has a postive long run impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) but has a negative long run impact on per capita GDP, albeit the effects are insignificant in the short run. The incidence of HIV has a negative long run impact on both GDP and per capita GDP although its effect is not significant in the short run. The study, therefore, calls for the advancement of family planning practices and the usage of contraceptives to simultaneously control population growth and curb the spread of HIV incidence. The study futher calls for African governments to increase budgetary allocations to the health and education sectors, as these policy perspectives have the potential of increasing the human capital stock and at the same time enhancing the health status of the work force for sustained growth and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0372.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: HIV; stigmatizing attitudes; women migrant workers; industrial zones; Vietnam
Online: 29 March 2022 (03:36:48 CEST)
Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0439.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HIV; Macrophages; MDM; restriction factors; transcription factors; macrophage polarization
Online: 23 November 2021 (16:19:11 CET)
In addition to CD4+ T lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and, particularly, differentiated macrophages, are targets of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection via interaction of gp120Env with CD4 and CCR5 or CXCR4. Both T cells and macrophages support virus replication although with substantial differences. In contrast to activated CD4+ T lymphocytes, HIV-1 replication in macrophages occurs in nondividing cells and it is characterized by virtual absence of cytopathicity both in vitro and in vivo. These general features should be considered in evaluating the role of cell-associated restriction factors aiming at preventing of curtailing virus replication in macrophages and T cells particularly in the context of designing strategies to tackle the viral reservoir in infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. In this regard, we will here also discuss a model of reversible HIV-1 latency in primary human macrophages and the role of host factor determining restriction or reactivation of virus replication in myeloid cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0525.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: HIV-RT; ribonuclease H; dual inhibitors; docking; putative binding
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:51:40 CET)
Current therapeutic protocols for the treatment of HIV infection consist of the combination of diverse anti-retroviral drugs in order to reduce the selection of resistant mutants and to allow for the use of lower doses of each single agent to reduce toxicity. However, avoiding drugs interactions and patient compliance are issues not fully accomplished so far. In this respect the identification of single agents with multitarget potential might represent the ideal solution. Accordingly, a small library of biphenylhydrazo 4-arylthiazoles derivatives has been synthesised and evaluated to investigate the ability of the new derivatives to simultaneously inhibit both associated functions of HIV reverse transcriptase. All compounds were active towards the two functions, although at different concentrations. The substitution pattern on the biphenyl moiety appears relevant to determine the activity.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0242.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; molecular docking; HIV protease inhibitor; nucleotide analogues
Online: 29 February 2020 (12:43:40 CET)
The outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections in 2019 is in dire need of finding potential therapeutic agents. In this study, we used molecular docking to repurpose HIV protease inhibitors and nucleoside analogues for COVID-19, with evaluations based on docking scores calculated by AutoDock Vina and RosettaCommons. Our results suggest that Indinavir and Remdesivir possess the best docking scores, and comparison of the docking sites of the two drugs reveal a near perfect dock in the overlapping region of the protein pockets. After further investigation of the functional regions inferred from the proteins of SARS coronavirus, we discovered that Indinavir does not dock on any active sites of the protease, which may give rise to concern in regards to the efficacy of Indinavir. On the other hand, the docking site of Remdesivir is not compatible with any known functional regions, including template binding motifs, polymerization motifs and nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding motifs. However, when we tested the active form (CHEMBL2016761) of Remdesivir, the docking site revealed a perfect dock in the overlapping region of the NTP binding motif. This result suggests that Remdesivir could be a potential therapeutic agent. Clinical trials still must be done in order to confirm the curative effect of these drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV+ older patients; ART; tat sequences; genetic diversity; CTL epitopes
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:55:01 CEST)
Despite advancements in antiretroviral therapy (ART) that reduces the viral load to undetectable levels, viral eradication has not been achieved due to HIV-1 persistence in resting CD4+ T-cells. We, therefore, characterized the tat gene, which is essential for HIV-1 replication, from 20 viro-logically controlled HIV-infected (HIV+) older patients on long-term ART with improved CD4+ T-cell counts. PBMC genomic DNA from HIV+ patients were used to amplify tat gene by PCR fol-lowed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that each patient’s tat sequences were confined to their own subtrees and well discriminated from other patients’ sequences. Moreover, there was a low degree of viral heterogeneity and lower estimates of genetic diversity within these patients’ tat sequences. Most patients’ Tat deduced amino acid sequences showed intact open reading frames and maintained the important functional domains for Tat functions, including transactivation, TAR binding and nuclear localization. Furthermore, Tat deduced amino acid sequences showed variation in previously characterized cytotoxic T lym-phocytes (CTL) epitopes, suggesting escape mutants. In conclusion, a low degree of genetic varia-bility and conservation of functional domains and variations in CTL epitopes were the features of tat sequences from 20 HIV+ older patients with undetectable viral load on long-term ART.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1808.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1; HERV-K; elite controllers; viremic controllers; restriction factors
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:09:21 CEST)
HIV-1 infection can activate the expression of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), particularly HERV-K (HML-2). HIV controllers (HICs) are rare people living with HIV (PLWH) who naturally control HIV-1 replication. The ability of HICs to control the expression of endogenous retroviruses has not been previously addressed. In this study, we measured ERVK-6 RNA expression in PBMCs of HICs (n = 23), antiretroviral (ART)-suppressed subjects (n = 8), and HIV-1-negative (NEG) individuals (n = 10) and correlated the transcript expression of ERVK-6 with multiple HIV-1 restriction factors. Our study reveals that ERVK-6 RNA expression in PBMCs from HICs was significantly downregulated compared with both ART and NEG control groups. Moreover, we detected that ERVK-6 RNA levels in PBMCs across all groups were negatively correlated with the expression levels of p21 and MCPIP1. In our previous study, these two cellular restriction factors were upregulated in HICs compared with control groups. Interestingly, p21 and MCPIP1 limit the activation of macrophages and T cells by downregulating the activity of NF-kB, a transcription factor that stimulates the LTR-driven transcription of HIV-1 and HERV-K proviruses. These findings support that HICs activate innate antiviral mechanisms that may simultaneously downregulate the transcription of both HIV-1 and endogenous retroviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1372.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Tourism; HIV; AIDS; Malaysia, mathematical model; reproduction number; sensitivity analysis
Online: 21 August 2023 (02:30:00 CEST)
To assess the impact of tourism on the incidence of HIV and AIDS using Malaysian epidemiological data over the period of 1986-2011 with additional consideration for newborns infected with HIV. A population-level mathematical model was used to investigate: i) the role of tourism in the spread of HIV and measures used to reduce HIV spread in Malaysia; ii) whether the stability of infectious disease transmission is dependent on the flow of visiting tourists. We first derived an equation for the reproduction number (R0) threshold to quantify the contagiousness of HIV in Malaysia. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effect of various parameters on HIV transmission with respect to the increase in tourism. Our findings suggest that a stable disease-free state is sustainable based on the low value of R0 was 0.0017. This result is encouraging from a public health perspective. Approximately 14% of outbound tourists who leave the country return infected with HIV and the difference between the rate at which tourists move to the susceptible category and the rate at which tourists leave the susceptible is category is 12%. Estimated parameters for the influx of tourist rates, δ=1.1540x10-3[1.1477x10-3 - 1.15954x10-3], δ1=7.7901x10-4[7.7867x10-4 - 7.79418x10-4], and δ2=1.4030x10-8[-7.2287x10-7-7.5096x10-7], significantly impacted the spread of HIV in Malaysia. Some significant adjustments were made to the expected parameters. The methods used are helpful to public health analyses and provide a framework for epidemiological modeling of HIV spread among tourists. The trend and magnitude of tourist inflows may be determinants in the incidence of HIV and AIDS in Malaysia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0612.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Polysubstance use; methamphetamine; oxycodone; HIV; transgenic rat; RNA-sequencing, bioinformatics
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:34:14 CEST)
In the 21st century, the effects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have been significantly reduced in individuals due to the development of antiretroviral therapies (ARTs). However, the growing epidemic of polysubstance use (PSU) has led to concern for the effects of PSU on HIV-seropositive individuals. To effectively treat individuals affected by HAND, it is critical to understand the biological mechanisms affected by PSU including identification of novel markers. To fill this important knowledge gap, we used an in vivo HIV-Transgenic (HIV-Tg) animal model, to investigate the effects of the combined use of chronic methamphetamine (METH) and oxycodone (oxy). RNA-Seq analysis on the striatum - a brain region that is primarily targeted by both HIV and drugs of abuse - identified key differentially expressed markers post-METH and oxy exposure. Furthermore, ClueGO analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed crucial molecular and biological functions associated with ATP-activated adenosine receptor, neuropeptide hormone activity, and the oxytocin signaling pathway to be altered between the different treatment groups. The current study further reveals the harmful effects of chronic PSU and HIV infection that can subsequently impact neurological outcomes in polysubstance users with HAND.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: mutate HIV protease inhibitors; carboxamides; heteroarenes; mammalian cells essay; ADME
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:32:28 CEST)
The Virus HIV-1 infection still represents a serious disease even if actually it is transformed in chronic pathology. Considering the crucial role of the enzyme Protease in life cycle of HIV many efforts have been made in the research of new organic compounds showing inhibitory activity. After development of several series of non peptidic inhibitors we report here the synthesis of novel simple HIV-Protease inhibitors containing heteroaryl carboxamides and their antiviral activity in vitro and in HEK293 cells. Benzofuryl- benzothienyl- and indolyl rings as well as aryl sulfonamides with different electronic properties have been introduced by efficient synthetic procedures. All compounds showed inhibitory activity similar to the commercial drug Darunavir, effective against both wild-type HIV-1 protease and that containing the V32I or V82A mutations. ADME properties were also evaluated, showing the potential of such compounds to be developed as drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Antibody; PG16; HIV-1; peptides; antibody mimetic peptides; molecular dynamics
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:08:46 CEST)
PG16 is a broadly neutralizing antibody that binds to the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 Env protein. The major interaction site is formed by the unusually long complementarity determining region (CDR) H3. The CDRH3 residue Tyr100H is known to represent a tyrosine sulfation site; however, this modification is not present in the experimental complex structure of PG16 with full-length HIV-1 Env. To investigate the role of sulfation for this complex, we modeled the sulfation of Tyr100H and compared the dynamics and energetics of the modified and unmodified complex by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that sulfation does not affect the overall conformation of CDRH3, but still enhances gp120 interactions both at the site of mutation and for the neighboring residues. This stabilization affects not only protein-protein contacts, but also the interactions between PG16 and the gp120 glycan shield. Further, we also investigated whether PG16-CDRH3 is a suitable template for the development of peptide mimetics. For a peptide spanning residues 93-105 of PG16 we obtained an experimental EC50 value of 3nM for the binding of gp120 to the peptide. This affinity can be enhanced by almost one order of magnitude by artificial disulfide bonding between residues 99 and 100F. In contrast, any truncation results in significantly lower affinity, suggesting that the entire peptide segment is involved in gp120 recognition. Their high affinity makes PG16-derived peptides useful building blocks for further optimization to obtain a potent inhibitor that efficiently blocks HIV-1 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0998.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Histoplasmosis; Brazil; Epidemiology; HIV positive; AIDS; Immunosuppression; Culture; Serology; Mortality
Online: 26 April 2023 (14:58:17 CEST)
Background: Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis, present globally. We aimed to describe cases of histoplasmosis (Hc) and to establish a risk profile associated to Hc in HIV-infected patients (HIV+). Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with a clinical-. laboratorial diagnosis of Hc. Data was fed into REDCap and statistical analysis was done with R . Results: We included 99 records, 65 HIV+ and 34 HIV-. Average age was 39 years. Median time from onset to diagnosis was 8 weeks in HIV- and 22 weeks in HIV+. Disseminated histoplasmosis occurred in 79.4% HIV+, vs 36.4% HIV-. Median CD4 count was 70. Co-infection with tuberculosis was present in 20% of HIV+. Blood cultures were positive in 32.3% of HIV+ vs 11.8% of HIV- (p=0.025); bone marrow culture was positive in 36.9% vs 8.8%(p=0.003). Most HIV+ patients (71.4%) were hospitalized. On univariate analysis, anemia, leukopenia, intensive care, use of vasopressors and mechanical ventilation were associated with death in HIV+. Conclusions: Most of our patients with histoplasmosis were HIV+, presenting advanced AIDS. Diagnosis was late in HIV+ patients, and they frequently presented disseminated Hc, required hospitalization, and died. Early screening for Hc in HIV+ and drug induced immunosuppressed patients is crucial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0687.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; HIV; COVID-19 pandemic; holistic care; PLWH
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:29:01 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown measures have been associated with substantial disruptions to health care services, including screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and management of people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods: Data from 3265 patients were examined in a retrospective cohort study. We compared outpatient follow-up for PLWH, the number of new patients, treatment adherence, hospitalizations, and deaths during the “pandemic period” (March 2020 to February 2021) to the “pre-pandemic period” (the equivalent timeframe in 2019) and the “post-pandemic period” (March to September 2021). Results: During the pandemic period, the number of new patients seen at the HIV clinic (116), as well as the requested viral load tests (2414), decreased significantly compared to the pre-pandemic (204 and 2831, respectively) and post-pandemic periods (146 and 2640, respectively)(p<0.01 for all the comparisons). However, across the three study periods, the number of drug refills (1385, 1330, 1411, respectively), the number of patients with undetectable viral loads (85%, 90%, 93%, respectively), and the number of hospital admissions among PLWH remained constant. Conclusions: Despite the COVID-19 pandemic impact, our findings show stability in the retention of clinical care, adherence to treatment, and viral suppression of PLWH, with no significant impact on hospitalization rates and all-cause mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: miRNA; mRNA; HIV; network; bioinformatics; HAND; viral infection; CNS damage
Online: 23 February 2022 (14:13:59 CET)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is an array of neurocognitive changes associated with HIV infection, and the roles of microRNAs in HAND are not completely revealed yet. Based on published data and publicly available databases, we constructed an integrated miRNA-mRNA network involved in HAND. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene ontology, network analysis, and KEGG pathway analysis, were applied for further study of the network and the genes of the network. The axon guidance KEGG pathway, three genes NTNG1, EFNB2, CXCL12, and 17 miRNAs which regulates them, are spotlighted in our study. This study provides new perspectives to the knowledge of miRNAs’ roles in the process of HAND, and our findings provided potential therapeutic targets and clues of HAND.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0165.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: HIV/TB co-infected Mortality; Residential Variations; Multilevel Logistic Regression
Online: 12 January 2022 (13:34:06 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that affect the mortality among adult HIV/TB co-infected patients and to see the nutritional difference among mortality in residence level. Retrospective cohort studies of 417 patients which fulfill our criteria were included. Multilevel logistic regression models were used. MLwiN and SPSS software are used to estimate the parameter. The variance of the random factor in the empty model was significant which indicates that there were residential differences in TB-HIV co-infected mortality and it shows multilevel analysis was an appropriate approach for further analysis. The prevalence of HIV/TB co-infected patients' death was 12.9% in study time. Functional status, age of patients, WHO clinical stages, nutritional status, CD4 counts, regimen, and BMI were found to be significant determinants of HIV/TB co-infected mortality. In our study, patients with the bedridden category of functional status, the fourth stages of WHO clinical stages (stage IV), patients with higher age, patients whose treatments were second-line regimen and low CD4 cell counts were more at risk of death. The study also revealed that; poor nutritional status increased the risk of mortality among HIV/TB co-infected patients and it varies among the residence of the patients (rural area were more at risk).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0272.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: HIV; AIDS; vulnerable group; young people; trainee teachers; health education
Online: 11 February 2021 (09:39:21 CET)
Discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS are prevalent. A Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS report (2019) indicated that more than 50% of the people surveyed in one of the studies spanning 26 countries expressed unfavorable attitudes towards HIV-positive people. The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of senior Education Studies students at a university in Spain towards people with HIV/AIDS so as to propose specific educational interventions. The study employed a quantitative methodological approach; a questionnaire with a 14-item attitude score served as the analytical instrument. The study sample comprised 613 students from the School of Education at the University of Huelva, Spain. The results showed that more than 50% of the School’s senior students had discriminatory attitudes towards HIV-positive people, some of whom were fellow classmates. This study proposes several formative approaches to reducing the stigma suffered by HIV-positive people, while also improving senior students’ skills and capabilities in the field of health promotion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0645.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: immune complex; antibodies; Fab; Fc; HIV-1; vaccine; steric; allosteric
Online: 25 December 2020 (07:46:51 CET)
Immune complexes (ICs) made of antibody-bound antigens exhibit immunomodulatory activities exploitable in a vaccination strategy to optimize vaccine efficacy. The modulatory effects of ICs are typically attributed to the Fc fragments of the antibody components, which engage Fc receptors, complement and complement receptors on various immune cells. These Fc-mediated functions facilitate the critical interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems to impact the quality and quantity of the elicited adaptive responses. In addition to the Fc contribution, the Fab fragment also plays an immunoregulation role. The antigen-binding domains of the Fab fragment can bind their specific epitopes at high affinity to sterically occlude these antigenic sites from recognition by other antibodies. Moreover, the Fab-mediated binding have been demonstrated to induce allosteric alterations at nearby or distant antigenic sites. In this review article, we survey published studies to illuminate how the immunomodulatory functions of ICs have been investigated or utilized in a vaccination strategy to fight against an array of infectious pathogens, culminating with IC vaccine designs aimed at preventing HIV-1 infection. In particular, we highlight IC vaccine candidates that exploit Fab-mediated steric and allosteric effects to direct antibody responses away or toward the V1V2 domain, the V3 loop, and other antigenic sites on the HIV-1 envelope gp120 glycoprotein. Like other HIV-1 vaccine approaches, the path for IC-based vaccines to reach the clinic faces major hurdles yet to be overcome; however, investigations into this vaccine strategy have provided insights into the multifaceted activities of antibodies beyond their conventional roles in the host defense against HIV-1 and other microbial pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0432.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: antisense; HIV-1 nef; stop codon readthrough; selenium; thioredoxin reductase
Online: 26 May 2020 (13:16:09 CEST)
The HIV-1 nef gene terminates in a 3’-UGA stop codon, which is highly conserved in the main group of HIV-1 subtypes, along with a downstream potential coding region that could extend the nef protein by 33 amino acids, if readthrough of the stop codon occurs. Antisense tethering interactions (ATIs) between a viral mRNA and a host selenoprotein mRNA are a potential viral strategy for the capture of a host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element (Taylor et al, 2016) . This mRNA hijacking mechanism could enable the expression of virally encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine (SeC). Here we show that readthrough of the 3’-terminal UGA codon of nef occurs during translation of HIV-1 nef expression constructs in transfected cells. This was accomplished via fluorescence microscopy image analysis and flow cytometry of HEK 293 cells, transfected with engineered GFP reporter gene plasmid constructs, in which GFP can only be expressed by translational recoding of the UGA codon. SiRNA knockdown of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) mRNA resulted in a 67% decrease in GFP expression, presumably due to reduced availability of the components involved in selenocysteine incorporation for the stop codon readthrough, thus supporting the proposed ATI. Addition of 20 nM sodium selenite to the media significantly enhanced stop codon readthrough in the pNefATI1 plasmid construct, by >100%, supporting the hypothesis that selenium is involved in the UGA readthrough mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: retroviruses; HIV-1; reverse transcriptase; mutation rate; drug resistance, allostery
Online: 7 February 2020 (11:50:11 CET)
The high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a major role in treatment resistance from the development of vaccines to long-lasting drugs. In addressing the crux of the issue, various attempts to estimate the mutation rate of HIV-1 resulted in a large range of 10-5 - 10-3 errors/bp/cycle due to the use of different types of investigation methods. In this review, we discuss the different assay methods, their findings on the mutation rates of HIV-1 and how the location of these mutations can be further analyzed for their potential allosteric effects to reveal potentially new inhibitors with different pharmacodynamics that can be used to circumvent fast occurring HIV drug resistance. Given that HIV is one of the fastest mutating viruses, it is a good model for comprehensive study of its mutations that can give rise to much horizontal understanding towards overall viral drug resistance as well as emerging viral diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0310.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: DNA vaccine; HIV-1; enhancer element; circovirus; dose sparing; immunogenicity
Online: 27 May 2019 (10:25:38 CEST)
DNA vaccines are stable, safe, cost effective to produce and relatively quick and easy to manufacture. However, to date DNA vaccines have shown relatively poor immunogenicity in humans despite promising preclinical results. Consequently, a number of different approaches have been investigated to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. These include the use of improved delivery methods, adjuvants, stronger promoters and enhancer elements to increase antigen expression, and codon optimization of the gene of interest. This review describes the creation and use of a DNA vaccine vector containing a porcine circovirus (PCV-1) enhancer element that significantly increases recombinant antigen expression and immunogenicity and allows for dose sparing. A 172bp region containing the PCV-1 capsid protein promoter (Pcap) and a smaller element (PC; 70 bp) within this were found to be equally effective. DNA vaccines containing the Pcap region expressing various HIV-1 antigens were found to be highly immunogenic in mice, rabbits and macaques, at 4 to 10-fold lower doses than normally used and to be highly effective in heterologous prime-boost regimens. By lowering the amount of DNA used for immunization, safety concerns over injecting large amounts of DNA into humans can be overcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0141.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp; C. parvum; gp60; 18S ribosomal; cowp; HIV / AIDS; Honduras
Online: 4 February 2021 (14:42:28 CET)
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important causes of gastroenteritis in the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. It is caused by the Apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium spp., and mainly affects children and immunosuppressed people, in whom it can pose a serious risk to their health, or even be life-threatening. In Honduras there are no data on parasite species or on molecular diversity or Cryptosporidium subtypes. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2019 and March 2020 for the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in 102 patients living with HIV who attended a national hospital in Tegucigalpa. Stool samples were analysed by direct microscopy, acid-fast stained smears, and a rapid lateral flow immunochromatographic test. All samples that tested positive were molecularly analyzed to identify the species and subtype of the parasite using three different markers: gp60, cowp, and 18Sr. PCR products were also sequenced. Four out of 102 samples (3.92%) were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum, and all were assigned to subtype IIa. These findings suggest a possible zoonotic transmission in this population.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV viral load; external quality assessment; verification; quality; thermostable; PrimeStore MTM
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:24:31 CET)
The tiered laboratory framework for HIV viral load monitoring accommodates a range of HIV viral load testing platforms, with quality assessment critical to ensure quality patient testing. HIV plasma viral load testing is challenged by the instability of viral RNA. An approach using an RNA stabilizing buffer is described for the Xpert® HIV-1 Viral Load (Cepheid) assay and was tested in remote laboratories in South Africa. EDTA-plasma panels with known HIV viral titres were prepared in PrimeStore molecular transport medium for per-module verification and per-instrument external quality assessment. The panels were transported at ambient temperatures to 13 testing laboratories during 2017 and 2018, tested according to standard procedures and uploaded to a web portal for analysis. A total of 275 quality assessment specimens (57 verification panels and two EQA cycles) were tested. All participating laboratories met study verification criteria (n=171 specimens) with an overall concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) of 0.997 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.996 to 0.998) and a mean bias of -0.019 log cp/mL (95% CI: -0.044 to 0.063). The overall EQA ρc (n=104 specimens) was 0.999 (95% CI: 0.998 to 0.999), with a mean bias of 0.03 log cp/mL (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.05). These panels are suitable for use in quality monitoring of Xpert® HIV-1 VL and are applicable to laboratories in remote settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0796.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV-1; HSV-1/2; CD4; CD8; Vaccines; Infection; Immunity; Keratitis
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:18:00 CET)
Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) were first described in 2009. While initially the major focus was on CD8 TRM, there has been recently an increased interest in defining the phenotype and the role of CD4 TRM in diseases. Circulating CD4 T cells seed tissue CD4 TRM, but there also appears to be an equilibrium between CD4 TRM and blood CD4 T cells. CD4 TRM are more mobile than CD8 TRM, usually localized deeper within the dermis/lamina propria and yet may exhibit synergy with CD8 TRM in disease control. This has been demonstrated in herpes simplex infections in mice. In human recurrent herpes infections, both CD4 and CD8 TRM persisting between lesions may control asymptomatic shedding through interferon gamma secretion, although this has been more clearly shown for CD8 T cells. The exact role of the CD4/CD8 TRM axis in the trigeminal ganglia and/or cornea in controlling recurrent herpetic keratitis is unknown. In HIV, CD4 TRM have now been shown to be a major target for productive and latent infection in cervix. In HSV and HIV co-infections, CD4 TRM persisting in the dermis support HIV replication. Further understanding of the role of CD4 TRM and their induction by vaccines may help control sexual transmission by both viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Integrase; HIV-1; Naturally occurring polymorphism; diversity; Molecular Modelling; Molecular Docking
Online: 5 February 2020 (11:02:15 CET)
The process of viral integration into the host genome is an essential step of the HIV-1 life cycle. The viral Integrase (IN) enzyme catalyses integration. IN is an ideal therapeutic enzyme targeted by several drugs; raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir (EVG), dolutegravir (DTG) and bictegravir (BIC) having been approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Due to high HIV-1 diversity, it is not well understood how specific naturally occurring polymorphisms (NOPs) in IN may affect the structure/function and binding affinity of Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (INSTIs). In this study, we applied computational methods of molecular modelling and docking to analyse the effect of NOPs on the full-length IN structure and INSTI binding. We identified 16 NOPs within the Cameroonian derived CRF02_AG IN sequences and further identified 17 NOPs within HIV-1C South African sequences. The NOPs in the IN structures did not show any effect on INSTI binding. INSTIs displayed similar binding affinities to each IN structure. All INSTIs are clinically effective against diverse HIV-1 strains from INSTI treatment naïve populations. This study supports the use of second-generation INSTI DTG as part of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens, due to DTG possessing a stronger genetic barrier to the emergence of drug resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: adiponectin; diagnosis; HIV; insulin; non-amplification nucleic acid detection; ultrasensitive ELISA
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:18:41 CEST)
For the diagnosis of disease, the ability to quantitatively detect trace amounts of the causal proteins from bacteria/viruses as biomarkers in patient specimens is highly desirable. Here we introduce a simple, rapid, and colorimetric assay as a de novo, ultrasensitive detection method. This ultrasensitive assay consists of sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and thionicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) cycling, forming an ultrasensitive ELISA, in which the signal substrate (i.e., thio-NADH) accumulates in a triangular manner, and the accumulated thio-NADH is measured at its maximum absorption wavelength of 400 nm. We have successfully achieved a limit of detection of ca. 10–18 moles/assay for a target protein. As an example of infectious disease detection, HIV-1 p24 could be measured at 0.0065 IU/assay (i.e., 10−18 moles/assay), and as a marker for a lifestyle-related disease, adiponectin could be detected at 2.3 × 10−19 moles/assay. In particular, despite the long-held belief that the trace amounts of adiponectin in urine can only be detected using a radioisotope, our ultrasensitive ELISA was able to detect urinary adiponectin. This method is highly versatile, because simply changing the antibody enables the detection of various proteins. This assay system requires only the measurement of absorbance, thus it requires equipment that is easily obtained by medical facilities, which facilitates diagnosis in hospitals and clinics. Moreover, we describe an expansion of our ultrasensitive ELISA to a non-amplification nucleic acid detection method for nucleic acids using hybridization. These de novo methods will enable simple, rapid, and accurate diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0063.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic evaluation; mathematical modeling; HIV vaccines; pre-exposure prophylaxis; cost-effectiveness
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:13:45 CEST)
This economic evaluation aims to support policy-making on the combined use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with HIV vaccines by evaluating the potential cost-effectiveness of implementation that would support the design of clinical trials for assessment of combined product safety and efficacy. The target study population is a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Policy strategies considered include standard HIV prevention, daily oral PrEP, HIV vaccine, and their combination. We constructed a Markov model based on clinical trial data and published literature. We used a payer perspective, monthly cycle length, a lifetime horizon, and a 3% discount rate. We assumed a price of $500 per HIV vaccine series in the base case. HIV vaccines dominated standard care and PrEP. At current prices,PrEP was not cost-effective alone or in combination. A combination strategy had the greatest health benefit but was not cost-effective (ICER=$463,448/QALY) as compared to vaccination alone. Sensitivity analyses suggest a combination may be valuable for higher-risk men with good adherence. Vaccine durability and PrEP drug prices were key drivers of cost-effectiveness. Results suggest that boosting potential may be key to HIV vaccine value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1501.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: plant triterpenoid; structure modifier; antiviral activity; HIV-1; HSV-1; maturation inhibitor
Online: 24 October 2023 (07:33:45 CEST)
The results of the most recent investigation of triterpenoid-based antiviral agents effective namely in the HIV-1 and HSV-1 treatment were reviewed and summarized. Several key historical achievements are included to stress consequences and continuity in this research. Most of the agents studied belong into a series of compound derived from betulin or betulinic acid, and their synthetic derivative called bevirimat. A termination of clinical trials of bevirimat in the Phase IIb initiated a search for more successful compounds partly derived from bevirimat or designed independently of bevirimat structure. Surprisingly, a majority of bevirimat mimics are derivatives of betulinic acid, while other plant triterpenoids, such as ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid or other miscellaneous triterpenoids, are relatively rarely involved in a search for novel antiviral agent. Therefore, this review article is divided into three parts based on the leading triterpenoid core structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1594.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Mozambique; Quality of life; Schooling; Meaning in life; Social support
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:28:51 CEST)
Increasing quality of life (QoL) is both an end in itself and a means to optimize the impact of treatment in HIV-infected persons. Possibly due to cultural and social influences, the predictors of QoL vary across studies, which highlights the importance of studying specific populations. In the present study, we wanted to determine the sociodemographic (age, sex, schooling) and psychosocial correlates (meaning in life, social support, positive and negative affect) of QoL in HIV-infected patients living in Mozambique, a country with high prevalence of HIV, but also with well-structured strategies to fight the disease. To that end, we made correlational analyses followed by regression models, and we examined potential mediation processes among predictors. All correlates were relevant except sex. Meaning in life was the strongest predictor, while social support was the weakest. Schooling was both directly and indirectly related with QoL - in the latter case, it was mediated by meaning in life, social support and positive affect. Our findings suggest that investments in education may be highly rewarding to Mozambicans, and that satisfying needs of self-actualization and purpose may be more urgent than improving social connections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0221.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Tucaresol; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; HIV; T helper cell; CD4 receptor
Online: 14 March 2023 (08:51:05 CET)
Abstract: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has significantly impacted world health and economic status. In response, much work has been undertaken to provide effective, safe vaccines, antibodies and antiviral drugs with which to address this pandemic. Treatment of a pandemic population presents multiple challenges in addition to the primary issue of drug efficacy and safety, such as large scale drug manufacture and distribution, drug stability, oral dosing and pharmacoeconomic considerations. Ideally, these factors must be addressed if new candidate drugs are to be advanced for treatment of large (pandemic) populations. Subsequently, new antivirals have reached the market but choices are few. According to the NIH Covid Treatment Guidelines, only three small molecule antiviral drugs are available to treat COVID-19 disease. As such, a significant part of the research towards discovery of new antiviral drugs has focused on screening and evaluation of ‘repurposed drugs’ or previously approved or clinical stage drugs. Yet, in spite of this increased research activity, one promising clinical stage candidate drug has received little attention regarding its potential as a monotherapy or component of combination therapy for treatment of COVID-19 disease. Tucaresol, with documented human safety and pharmacokinetic data, is an orally active, stable, small molecule amenable to large scale manufacture by a proprietary two-step synthesis developed by us. Tucaresol functions as a host-targeted antiviral by selective protection/reconstitution of CD4+ T helper cells as demonstrated in HIV patients and SIV macaques. In view of similarities between HIV and SARS-CoV-2, especially with respect to host CD4+ T helper cells, and the suitability of Tucaresol for facile treatment of pandemic populations, Tucaresol is presented herein for treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients but may also be useful for treatment of advanced disease accompanied by lymphopenia.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein; vaccine; HIV; IgA; IgG; neutralization
Online: 9 January 2023 (03:30:30 CET)
Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been pivotal in overcoming the Covid-19 pandemic yet understanding the subsequent outcomes and immunological effects remain crucial, especially for at-risk groups e.g. people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH). In this study we report the longitudinal IgA and IgG antibody titers, as well as antibody-mediated angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding blockade, against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) proteins after 1 and 2 doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a population of Black PLWH. Here, we report that PLWH (N = 103) did not produce an anti-S IgA response after infection or vaccination, however, anti-S IgG was detected in response to vaccination and infection, with the highest level detected for infected vaccinated participants. The anti-IgG and ACE2 blockade assays revealed that both vaccination and infection resulted in IgG production, however, only vaccination resulted in a moderate increase in ACE2 binding blockade to the ancestral S protein. Vaccination with a previous infection results in the greatest anti-S IgG and ACE2 blockade for the ancestral S protein. In conclusion, PLWH produce an anti-S IgG response to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine and/or infection, and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination with a previous infection produced more neutralizing antibodies than vaccination alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0529.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: CRISPR; Cas9 ribonucleoprotein; virus-like particles; exosomes; HIV assembly and disassembly; delivery
Online: 28 December 2022 (06:11:59 CET)
Rapid progress in gene editing based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) has revolutionized the study of gene and genome function and genetic disease correction. While numerous genetically modified cellular and animal models have been created to understand biological processes, the clinical application of CRISPR/Cas tools has been impeded by off-targeting and delivery problems. It is generally accepted that the delivery of CRISPR in the form of a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) substantially reduces the time of DNA exposure to the effector nuclease, minimizing off-target effects and facilitating clinical usage. This review focuses on CRISPR/Cas RNP delivery with retro/lentiviral particles and exosomes, whose parallel production by cells transfected with viral vectors is underestimated. We critically evaluate specific mechanisms of extracellular particle formation and loading with CRISPR/Cas for each system. Additionally, the details of Cas-nanoparticle entry and uncoating, previously unappreciated in the context of gene editing efficiency, are discussed. Based on existing knowledge about the consequences of intervention in retroviral assembly, entry, or exosome formation, we outline the potential problems with CRISPR/Cas delivery using extracellular nanoparticles and ways to address them.