ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: long covid; symptom cluster; persistent symptoms; long-term; Mexico; survey
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:44:47 CEST)
Recently, several reports have emerged describing the long-term consequences of COVID-19 that may affect multiple systems, suggesting its chronicity. As further research is needed, we conducted a longitudinal observational study to report the prevalence and associated risk factors of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 by symptom clusters in patients discharged from the Temporary COVID-19 Hospital (TCH) in Mexico City. Self-reported clinical symptom data were collected via telephone calls over 90 days post-discharge. Among 4670 patients discharged from the TCH, we identified 45 symptoms across eight symptom clusters (neurological; mood disorders; systemic; respiratory; musculoskeletal; ear, nose, and throat; dermatological; and gastrointestinal). We observed that the neurological, dermatological, and mood disorder symptom clusters persisted in >30% of patients at 90 days post-discharge. Although most symptoms decreased in frequency between day 30 and 90, alopecia and the dermatological symptom cluster significantly increased (p<0·00001). Women were more prone than men to develop long-term symptoms and invasive mechanical ventilation also increased the frequency of symptoms at 30-days post-discharge. Overall, we observed that symptoms often persisted regardless of disease severity. We hope these findings will help promote public health strategies that ensure equity in the access to solutions focused on the long-term consequences of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1749.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: homosexual long-term care; elderly male homosexuals; long-term care services
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:38:21 CET)
The present study examines the long-term care service awareness, needs, and usage intention of elderly male homosexuals in Taiwan and their ideal long-term care service model. This study of five elderly male homosexual subjects aged 66 to 73 years was intended as a preliminary exploration. Interviews were used to collect data. The study determined that the five subjects had high awareness of long-term care services, as they had actual experience of long-term care services or even participated in care service staff training to obtain certificates. Some even had experience in applying for home care services and experienced problems during use. The subjects perceived that they were very likely to require long-term care services in the future and tended to use home care services if they required long-term care services. Due to their personal experiences, the subjects had negative awareness of long-term care services and worried that long-term care service staff had poor attitudes toward homosexuals. The subjects considered the most important aspects of long-term care to be basic medical care and lifestyle care. However, they worried that long-term care staff would delay or refuse to provide such services due to the subjects’ sexual orientation or stereotypes, and they were concerned above all about the “friendly attitude” of long-term care staff. They hoped that long-term care staff were friendly toward homosexuals and did not discriminate against them, and they felt that it would be more appropriate for homosexual long-term care staff to provide assistance. In terms of vision, while preferring organizations with homosexual employees, the subjects worried that they would be stigmatized and discriminated against . With regard to ideal long-term care services, while considering institutions with homosexual staff to be ideal, the subjects also worried that these would be labeled as institutions that were dedicated to homosexuals, potentially resulting in discrimination. Therefore, they hoped that the sexuality sensitivity of long-term care staff could be improved and that they would undergo professional continuing education to learn about homosexuals, the situation and care needs of homosexuals, and care techniques for homosexuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: long COVID; PASC; long haulers; NETosis; T cell; NK cell; DC; neutrophil; macrophage
Online: 24 October 2022 (02:12:06 CEST)
A significant number of persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience persistent, recurrent, or new symptoms several months after the acute stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) infection. This phenomenon, termed Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) or Long COVID, is associated with high viral titers during acute infection, a persistently hyperactivated immune system, tissue injury by NETosis-induced micro-thrombofibrosis (NETinjury), microbial translocation, complement deposition, fibrotic macrophages, the presence of auto-antibodies, and lymphopenic immune environments. Here, we review the current literature on the immunological imbalances that occur during PASC. Specifically, we focus on data supporting common immunopathogenesis and tissue injury mechanisms shared across this highly heterogenous disorder including NETosis, coagulopathy, and fibrosis. Mechanisms include changes in leukocyte subsets/functions, fibroblast activation, cytokine imbalances, lower cortisol, autoantibodies, co-pathogen reactivation, and residual immune activation driven by persistent viral antigens and/or microbial translocation. Taken together, we develop the premise that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in PASC as a consequence of acute and/or persistent single or multiple organ injury mediated by PASC determinants to include degree of host response (inflammation, NETinjury), residual viral antigen (persistent antigen) and exogenous factors (microbial translocation). Determinants of PASC may be amplified by co-morbidities, age, and sex. Keywords: long COVID, PASC, long haulers, NETosis, T cell, NK cell, DC, neutrophil,
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1197.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: TEVAR; long-term outcome; MACCE
Online: 16 August 2023 (09:17:03 CEST)
Background: To analyze long-term outcomes in patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Methods: All consecutive 97 patients undergoing TEVAR between September 2014 and September 2022 were included in the study. Primary outcome was long-term incidence of overall death and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results: Mean age was 70.4 years, and 22(23.2%) had cerebrovascular disease (CBVD). A total of 49(51.6%) of patients had prior cardiac surgery intervention and 8(8.5%) had prior aortic valve replacement. Twenty-eight patients(28.8%) presented with aortic dissection, 60(61.8%) had aortic aneurysm, 4(4.1%) had intramural hematoma, and 5(5.1%) had other presentations. An emergent procedure was performed in 6(6.2%) patients, an urgent procedure in 37(38.1%) patients and 54(55.7%) patients had an elective procedure. Intraoperatively, 78.3% had percutaneous TEVAR, 5.1% had ministernotomy TEVAR, while 10.3% had concomitant full sternotomy TEVAR repair. Hospital mortality was 7 patients(7.2%). At 8-years follow-up, 76% were alive, 25.8% had MACCE, 21.6% were diagnosed with endoleaks(13 patients type II and 2 patients type 1) while 10.3% un-derwent repeat intervention. Conclusions: This single center experience in patients undergoing TEVAR evidenced good short and long-term survival and MACCE. Nonetheless, almost half of the patients underwent an ur-gent/emergent procedure, clinical results were favourable for TEVAR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Long-COVID; cognitive disorders; rehabilitation
Online: 1 June 2022 (05:50:58 CEST)
There is mounting evidence that patients with severe COVID-19 disease may have symptoms that continue beyond the acute phase, extending into the early chronic phase. Often referred to as 'Long COVID'. Simultaneously, case investigations have shown that COVID-19 individuals might have a variety of neurological problems. The accurate and accessible assessment of cognitive function in patients post COVID-19 infection is thus of increasingly high importance for both public and individual health. Little is known about the influence of COVID-19 on the general cognitive levels but more importantly, at sub functions level. Therefore, we first aim to summarize current level of evidence supporting a negative impact of COVID-19 infection on cognitive functions. 27 studies have been included in the systematic review representing a total of 94,103 participants (90,317 COVID-19 patients and 3,786 healthy controls). We then performed a meta-analysis summarizing the results of 5 studies (959 participants, 513 patients) to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive functions. The overall effect, expressed in Standardized Mean Differences, is -0.56 [95%CI -0.79 ; -0.34]. To prevent disability, we finally discuss the different approaches available in rehabilitation to help these patients and to avoid long-term complication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0836.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Long covid; Post covid; Sleep disorders
Online: 11 May 2023 (09:42:22 CEST)
Objectives: To examine the long term impact of COVID-19 on sleep patterns and development of sleep disorders. Methods: Using the centralized Massachusetts General Brigham (MGB) Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR), SARS-CoV2 positive patients were surveyed about their sleep patterns before and after the viral infection. Information related to co-morbid conditions and medications were obtained through chart review. Results: Two hundred and forty five completed surverys were analysed. Average age was 53.3 ± 16.3 years, and participants were predominantly Non-Hispanic White (84.1%) and female (74.3%). Average BMI (kg/m2) was 29.9 ± 6.9, and a greater proportion was non-smokers (63.2%). After COVID-19, there was an increase in the percentage of participants reporting difficulty initiating (31 ± 46% vs. 39 ± 49%, P=0.01), and maintaining sleep (43 ± 49% vs. 57 ± 49%, P<0.001), and use of sleep aids (24 ± 43% vs. 30 ± 45% P=0.003) with an incidence rate of 24.3%, 37.4%, and 12.3% respectively. In addition, there was an increase in daytime fatigue and the need for napping (58 ± 49% vs. 36 ± 48%, P <0.0001) with an incidence of 8% and 23% respectively. The sleep symptoms persisted beyond 12 months among 28% of the participants and were predominantly seen among women. Conclusions: Infection with SARS-CoV2 has negative effects on sleep, and a significant proportion of adults experience insomnia and daytime sleepiness beyond 12 months after recovering from the initial infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Long COVID; Laboratory Markers; Haematological Tests
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:53:40 CET)
Long COVID affects a significant number of people after acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and haematological changes can persist in the COVID-19 phase. This study aimed to evaluate these haematological laboratory markers, linking them to clinical findings and long-term outcomes in patients with long COVID. This cross-sectional study selected participants from a ‘long COVID’ clinical care programme in the Amazon region. Clinical data and baseline demographics were obtained, and blood samples were collected for quantification of erythrogram-, leukogram-, and plateletgram-related markers. Long COVID was reported for up to 985 days. Patients hospitalised in the acute phase had higher mean red/white cell, platelet, and plateletcrit levels and red cell distribution width. In addition, haematimetric parameters were higher in shorter periods of long COVID. Patients presenting with more than six concomitant long COVID symptoms had a higher white blood cell count, shorter prothrombin time (PT), and increased PT activity. Within up to 985 days of long COVID, our results suggest a probable benign compensation for erythrogram-related markers. Increased levels of leukogram-related markers and increased coagulation activity were observed in the worse long COVID groups, also indicating an exacerbated response after the acute disturbance, which is uncertain and requires further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: long covid; children; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:37:24 CET)
Background The World Health Organization has recently recognized Long COVID, calling the international medical community to strengthen research and comprehensive care of patients with this condition. However, if Long COVID pertains to children as well is not yet clear. Methods An anonymous, online survey was developed by an organization of parents of children suffering from persisting symptoms since initial infection. Parents were asked to report signs and symptoms, physical activity and mental health issues. Only children with symptoms persisting for more than four weeks were included. Results 510 children were included (56.3% females) infected between January 2020 and January 2021. At their initial COVID-19 infection, 22 (4.3%) children were hospitalized. Overall, children had persisting COVID-19 for a mean of 8.2 months (SD 3.9). Most frequent symptoms were: Tiredness and weakness (444 patients, 87.1% of sample), Fatigue (410, 80.4%), Headache (401, 78.6%), Abdominal pain (387, 75.9%), Muscle and joint pain (309, 60.6%), Post-exertional malaise (274, 53.7%), rash (267, 52.4%). 484 (94.9%) children had had at least four symptoms. 129 (25.3%) children have suffered constant COVID-19 infection symptoms, 252 (49.4%) have had periods of apparent recovery and then symptoms returning, and 97 (19.0%) had a prolonged period of wellness followed by symptoms. Only 51 (10.0%) children have returned to previous levels of physical activity. Parents reported a significant prevalence of Neuropsychiatric symptoms. Conclusions Our study provides further evidence on Long COVID in children. Symptoms like fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, rashes and heart palpitations, and mental health issues like lack of concentration and short memory problems, were particularly frequent and confirm previous observations, suggesting that they may characterize this condition. A better comprehension of Long COVID is urgently needed..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0634.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Neutrino oscillations; neutrino mixing; long baseline
Online: 30 November 2018 (11:07:53 CET)
We study the possibility of determining the octant of the neutrino mixing angle 23, that is, whether 23 > 45 or 23 < 45, in long baseline neutrino experiments. Here we numerically derived the sensitivity limits within which these experiments can determine, by measuring the probability of the ! e transitions, the octant of 23 with a 5 certainty. The interference of the CP violation angle with these limits, as well as the effects of the baseline length and the run-time ratio of neutrino and antineutrino modes of the beam have been analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: long non-coding RNAs; cancer; multi-omics
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:02:42 CEST)
In this review, we will cover a general overview of the current panorama on lncRNAs with an actual or potential role as biological markers in cancer. We will discuss examples of multi-omics approaches that integrates information on somatic aberrations, gene expression and epigenomics, with the scope of providing a more comprehensive view of the functional impact of lncRNA profiles and how these paradigm can be exploited for the discovery and selection of lncRNAs with a functional role and their use as variables informing on progression and prognostic and help guiding the selection of therapeutic strategies for cancers. Finally, we propose a perspective for future evolution of the study of lncRNAs and the discovery of their functional and harnessing their potential to assist in clinical management of malignancies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARSCoV-2 virus; Long Covid; Spike protein
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:11:54 CEST)
The collective considerations presented here lead to a crucial question: What truly constitutes the primary public health challenge posed by SARSCoV-2 infection and its variants?The findings of Bowen et al.(1) and Noé et al.(4) have offered us new insights into the actual repercussions of SARSCoV-2 virus infections on public health. They unmistakably point to the late sequelae and complications arising as secondary effects of the viral infection, causing severe and long-term damage to global public health. Rather than the acute infection which has a very low mortality rate in the general population, as initially and commonly believed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0228.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: long-term care; workplace management; Synergy Model
Online: 4 July 2023 (12:13:49 CEST)
Background: There are ongoing workforce challenges with the delivery of long-term care (LTC), such as staffing decisions based on arbitrary standards. The Synergy tool, a resident-centered approach to staffing, pro-vides objective, real-time acuity and dependency scores (Synergy scores) for residents. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate the impact of the Synergy tool on LTC delivery. Methods: A longitudinal mixed methods study took place within two publicly-funded LTC homes in British Columbia, Canada. Quantitative data included weekly Synergy scores for residents (24 weeks), monthly aggregated resident falls data (18 months) and a six-month economic evaluation. Qualitative data were gathered from family caregivers and thematically analyzed. Results: Quantitative findings from Synergy scores revealed considerable variability for resident acuity/dependency needs within and across units; and falls decreased during implementation. The six-month economic evaluation demonstrated some cost savings by comparing Synergy tool training and implementation costs with savings from resident fall rates reductions. Qualitative analyses yielded three positive impacts themes (improved care delivery, better communication, and improved resident-family-staff relationships), and two negative structural themes (language barrier and staff shortages). Conclusions: The Synergy tool provides useful data for enhancing a ‘fit’ between resident needs and available staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Waves; Protein Synthesis; Resonance; Long Term Memory
Online: 12 December 2022 (12:11:00 CET)
Conclusive evidence that specic long-term memory formation relies on den- dritic growth and structural synaptic changes has proven elusive. Connec- tionist models of memory based on this hypothesis are confronted with the so-called plasticity stability dilemma or catastrophic interference. Other fun- damental limitations of these models are the feature binding problem, the speed of learning, the capacity of the memory, the localisation in time of an event and the problem of spatio-temporal pattern generation. This paper suggests that the generalisation and long-term memory mechanisms are not correlated. Only the development and the improvement of the feature ex- tractors in the cortex involves structural synaptic changes. We suggest the long-term memory has a separate mechanism which involves protein synthe- sis to encode the information into the structure of these proteins. A model of memory should be capable of explaining the dierence between memorisation and learning. Learning has in our approach two dierent mechanisms. The generalisation in the brain is handled by the proper development of the links between neurons via synapses. The Hebbian learning rule could be applied only for this part of learning. Storing an internal ring pattern involves, in our approach, a new mechanism which puts the information regarding this ring pattern into the structure of special proteins in such a way that it can be retrieved later. The hypotheses introduced in this article includes a physiological assumption which has not been yet verified because it is not currently experimentally accessible. Keywords: Waves, Protein Synthesis, Resonance, Long Term Memory Preprint submitted to Neural Networks
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Clustering; COVID-19; Long COVID; disease severity
Online: 2 November 2022 (01:02:16 CET)
The increasing number of people living with Long COVID requires the development of more personalized care, as for now limited treatment options and rehabilitation programs adapted to the variety of Long COVID presentations are available. Our objective was to design an easy-to-use Long COVID classification to help stratifying people with Long COVID. Individual characteristics and a detailed set of 62 self-reported persisting symptoms together with quality of life indexes 12 months after initial COVID-19 infection were collected in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in Luxembourg. A hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) was used to identify clusters of people. We identified 3 patterns of Long COVID symptoms with a gradient in disease severity. Cluster-Mild encompassed almost 50% of the study population and was composed of participants with less severe initial infection, fewer comorbidities, and fewer persisting symptoms (mean=2.9). Cluster-Moderate was characterized by a mean of 11 persisting symptoms and a poor sleep and respiratory quality of life. Cluster-Severe was characterized by a higher proportion of women and smokers as in the other clusters, with a higher number of Long COVID symptoms, in particular of vascular, urinary, and skin symptoms. Our study evidenced that Long COVID can be stratified in 3 sub-categories in terms of severity. If replicated in other populations, this simple classification will help clinicians to personalize the care of people with Long COVID.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Cameroon; rainfall; long-term variability; trend tests
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:17:50 CEST)
The rainfall study in the long term is essential for climatic change understanding and socioeconomic development. The main goal of this study is to explore the spatial and temporal variations of precipitation in different time scales (seasonal and annual) in Cameroon. The Mann–Kendall and Pettitt tests were applied to analyze the precipitation variability. On temporal plan, the different regions of Cameroon have recorded significant drops in annual rainfall that Pet-titt's test generally situates around the 1970s. The decreases observed for the northern part of Cameroon regions are between –5.4% (Adamawa) and –7.4% (Far North). Those of west-ern part regions oscillate between –7.5% (South-West) and –12.5% (West). The southern part of Cameroon regions recorded decreases varying between –4.3% (East) and –5.9% (Center). On spatial plan, the divisions of the northern, western and southern parts of Cameroon respectively recorded after the 1970s (a pivotal period in the evolution of precipitation on temporal plan), a precipitation decrease towards the South, the South-West and the West. This study's findings could be helpful for planning and managing water resources in Cameroon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; post Covid; Post-acute COVID
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:25:20 CET)
Abstract: COVID-19 Long Haulers, an estimated 3% to 12% of people infected globally with coronavirus having latter devasting symptoms 12 weeks after the initial infection is on the rise. We conducted a collaborative study with the long covid patient organization in Greece in order to estimate the prevalence, symptoms and problems that adult long haulers experience and then propose a management plan for these patients. Symptoms were obtained from 208 patients using unstructured qualitative free text entries in an anonymized online questionnaire. The majority of respondents (68.8%) were not hospitalized and had been diagnosed more than six months ago with lingering symptoms (66,8%). Eighteen different symptoms (fatigue, tachycardia, shortness of breath, parosmia etc) were mentioned in both hospitalized and community patients. Interestingly, patients with initial mild symptoms suffer from the same persistent symptoms as those who were hospitalized. Awareness of long covid sequelae seems to be low even among medical doctors. Treatment options incorporating targeted rehabilitation programs are either not available or still excluded from the management plan of long covid patients. Since long COVID is a multi-systemic entity, we propose a holistic interventional approach using a multidisciplinary medical team in order to securely and effectively diagnose and treat these specific patients. Academic and medical community must collaborate with long covid patients’ organizations so as to provide personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0270.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Road accidents; Brazil; fractional integration; long memory
Online: 19 January 2022 (11:45:26 CET)
This paper deals with the analysis of trends in road accidents on major highways in Brazil. Using updated time series techniques, our results indicate that a low degree of long memory was detected in the series with shocks having transitory effects over time. We further find that the number of accidents taking place in Brazil has been reducing over time, though in the presence of negative shocks, the recovery is not going to be immediate due to the long memory nature of the data. Despite the absence of relevant investment relating to infrastructure expansion, it is worth mentioning the consolidation of a nationwide tolled road system in Brazil involving concessions to private administrators, alongside more severe traffic laws that can impose limitations on driving licences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0413.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: long COVID; COVID 19 vaccination; COVID awareness
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:40:18 CET)
Background Recently, a surge of COVID 19 was observed globally, regionally and nationally. With increasing numbers of cases, the frequency of long COVID is on the rise. Management and control of long COVID depend on changes in respect of human behaviors and requires an understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding health threats. MethodsA descriptive cross sectional study using online survey to gather data on the socio-economic background, knowledge, attitudes and practices on long-term complications of COVID. Results: Out of 201 respondents, 89.2% participants have heard about long-term complications of COVID 19. Only 35.9% have demonstrated adequate knowledge in the questions relating to co-morbidities and risk factors of COVID-19. A total of 92.2% believe that they should adhere to preventive measures following vaccination. Less than 60 % were following the advice on avoiding unnecessary travel and crowded places. Further, less than 50% were following COVID preventive measures. ConclusionAlthough the majority of participants have heard about long-term complications and common symptoms, the knowledge regarding co-morbidities that can lead to severe disease and long COVID was not satisfactory. The attitudes of the participants indicated increasing concern about long COVID. Practices indicate lack of adherence to key measures such as avoiding crowded places. These findings highlight the need for further increasing of awareness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: sorghum; Canu; Miniasm; MinION; long-read sequencing
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:26:20 CEST)
The whole genome sequencing (WGS) has become a crucial tool to understand genome structure and genetic variation. The MinION sequencing of Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) is an excellent approach for performing WGS and has advantages in comparison with other Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS): It is relatively inexpensive, portable, has simple library preparation, can be monitored in real-time, and has no theoretical limits on read length. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is diploid (2n = 2x = 20) with a genome size of about 730 Mb, and its genome sequence information is released in the Phytozome database. Therefore, sorghum can be be used as a good reference. However, plant species have complex and large genomes compared to animals or microorganisms. As a result, complete genome sequencing is difficult for plant species. MinION sequencing that produces long-reads can be an excellent tool to overcome the weak assembly of short-reads generated from NGS by minimizing the generation of gaps or covering the repetitive sequence that appears on the plant genome. Here, we conducted the genome sequencing for S. bicolor cv. BTx623 using the MinION platform and obtained 895,678 reads and 17.9 gigabytes(Gb) (ca. 25X coverage of reference) from long-read sequence data. Through a de novo assembly using two different tools and mapped assembled contigs against the sorghum reference genome, a total of 6,124 contigs (covering 45.9%) were generated from Canu, and a total of 2,661 contigs (covering 50%) were generated from Minimap and Miniasm with a Racon pipeline. Our results provide a pipeline of long-read sequencing analysis for plant species using the MinION platform and a clue to determine the total sequencing scale for optimal coverage based on various genome sizes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0241.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Long afterglow; tunneling model; F centers; PDT
Online: 26 February 2019 (12:45:04 CET)
Here, we have discovered a X-ray excited long afterglow phosphor β-NaYF4: Tb3+. After the irradiation of X-ray, the green emission can persist for more than 240 h. After 36 h, the afterglow intensity arrived at 0.69 mcd•m-2, which can clearly be observed by naked eyes. Even after 84 h, the afterglow emission brightness still reached 0.087 mcd•m-2. Also, combined with the results of thermoluminescence and photoluminescence, the super long afterglow emission of β-NaYF4: Tb3+ can be ascribed to the tunneling model associated with F centers. More importantly, the super long green afterglow emission of β-NaYF4: Tb3+ has been successfully used as in vivo light source to activate g-C3N4 for photodynamic therapy（PDT）and bacteria destruction. Furthermore, super long persistent luminescence of β-NaYF4: Tb3+ could be repeatedly charged by X-ray for many circulations, which indicates that the phosphors have high photo stability under repeated cycles of alternating X-ray irradiation.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: long-term care, technology, therapy, virtual reality
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:34:02 CEST)
In this study, 6 residents of a long-term care facility were asked to try on Virtual Reality glasses and report their first experiences with Virtual Reality. The results show that Virtual Reality is of great interest to elderly residents of in-patient long-term care facilities. The wearing period was longer than expected and no symptoms of cyber sickness occurred. For the residents it was exciting to explore the virtual environments. Austrian destinations, nature scenes in the mountains and forests but also trips to the zoo, the museum, in churches or even densely populated areas like shopping streets or train stations would be places for the residents, they would like to explore virtually. Far-off destinations such as Rio de Janeiro or the Caribbean are more of an exception. Biographically relevant places such as the parental home or the location of their wedding were not named. Concerning the usability, an adjustment of the VR glasses is necessary for a longer-term use in any case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1145.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: muscarinic acetylcholine receptors; hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells; mossy fiber synapses; frequency facilitation; long-term depression; long-term potentiation
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:24:01 CEST)
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are well-known for their crucial involvement in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, but the exact roles of the various receptor subtypes (M1-M5) are still not fully understood. Here, we studied how M1 and M3 receptors affect plasticity at the mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse. In hippocampal slices from M1/M3 receptor double knockout (M1/M3-dKO) mice, the signature short-term plasticity of the MF-CA3 synapse was not significantly affected. However, the rather unique, NMDA receptor-independent and presynaptic form of long-term potentiation (LTP) of this synapse was much larger in M1/M3-deficient slices compared to wild type slices, in both field potential and whole-cell recordings. Consistent with its presynaptic origin, induction of MF-LTP strongly enhanced the excitatory drive onto single CA3 pyramidal cells, with the effect being more pronounced in M1/M3-dKO cells. In an earlier study , we found that deletion of M2 receptors in mice disinhibits MF-LTP in a similar fashion, suggesting that endogenous acetylcholine employs both M1/M3 and M2 receptors to constrain MF-LTP. Importantly, such synergism was not observed for MF long-term depression (LTD). Low-frequency stimulation, which reliably induced LTD of MF synapses in control slices, failed to do so in M1/M3-dKO slices and gave rise to LTP instead. In striking contrast, loss of M2 augmented LTD when compared to control slices. Taken together, our data demonstrate convergence of M1/M3 and M2 receptors on MF-LTP, but functional divergence on MF-LTD, the net effect being well-balanced bidirectional plasticity of the MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CA3-CA1 synapses; NMDA; AMPA; systems biology; multiscale modeling; synaptic plasticity; long term potentiation; long term depression; hippocampus
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:17:31 CET)
Inside hippocampal circuits, neuroplasticity events that individual cells may undergo during synaptic transmissions occur in the form of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long Term Depression (LTD). The high density of NMDA receptors expressed on the surface of the dendritic CA1 spines confers to hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, the ability to easily undergo NMDA-mediated LTP and LTD, that is essential for some forms of explicit learning in mammals. Providing a comprehensive kinetic model that can be used for running computer simulations of the synaptic transmission process is currently a major challenge. Here, we propose a compartmentalized kinetic model for CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission. Our major goal was to tune our model in order to predict the functional impact caused by disease associated variants of NMDA receptors related to severe cognitive impairment. Indeed, for variants Glu413Gly and Cys461Phe, our model predicts negative shifts in the glutamate affinity and changes in the kinetic behavior, consistent with experimental data. These results pinpoint to the predictive power of this multiscale viewpoint, which aims to integrate the quantitative kinetic description of large interaction networks typical of system biology approaches with a focus on the quality of few, key, molecular interactions typical of structural biology ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: long longitudinal slope; permeable pavement; porosity; road performance
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:12:47 CET)
Permeable asphalt pavement refers to an asphalt mixture layer with an air void content of more than 18% and internal water permeability and drainage capabilities, which can quickly drain away water on the road surface, improve rainy day travel safety and ride comfort. This paper aims to explore the optimal asphalt mixture mix design for long longitudinal slope roads. By using CT scanning technology to analyze the air void content of different rotated and compacted asphalt mixture specimens, and extensively testing and evaluating the performance of permeable pavement mixtures, the following conclusions are drawn: Based on the research philosophy of functional integration, a new asphalt mixture gradation suitable for long longitudinal slope roads is proposed, with the optimal key factor composition being: 0.075mm passing rate of 7%, 2.36mm passing rate of 20%, 9.5mm passing rate of 55%, and oil-stone ratio of 4.8%. The FAM mixture was divided into three parts for air void analysis, with the upper part having a slightly higher air void content than the lower part. The air void distribution diagram of the FAM mixture is concave, with higher air void rate curves on both sides and a lower middle curve. Compared with laboratory dry measurement method, CT scanning test showed slightly higher air void content in specimens. Through dynamic modulus testing, the strength requirement for road asphalt mixture in pavement structure design was evaluated. It was found that at high temperature conditions (50℃), the minimum dynamic modulus value of the FAM mixture was 323 MPa, with a peak value of 22746MPa at a temperature of -10℃ and a frequency of 25HZ. The dynamic modulus value at high temperature conditions is lower than at low temperature conditions, while the dynamic modulus value at high frequency conditions is higher than at low frequency conditions. This study provides useful information and experimental data for the design of new asphalt mixtures for long longitudinal slope roads, and has conducted in-depth research on the air void distribution and performance of the mixture, providing strong support for related research fields and practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2174.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Time-series; data availability; aggregation; long-term analyses
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:10:24 CEST)
Landsat and Sentinel-2 data archives provide ever-increasing amounts of satellite data for studying land cover and land use change (LCLUC) over the past four decades. However, the availability of cloud-, shadow-, and snow-free observations varies spatially and temporally due to climate and satellite data acquisition schemes. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity poses a major issue for some time-series analysis approaches, but can be addressed with pixel-based compositing that generates temporally equidistant cloud-free or near-cloud free synthetic images. Although much consideration is given to methods identifying the ‘best’ pixel value for each composite, determining the aggregation period receives less attention and is often done arbitrary, or based on expert intuition. Here, we evaluated data compositing windows ranging from five days to one year for 1984-2021 Landsat and 2015-2021 Sentinel‑2 time series across Europe. We considered separate and joint use of both data archives and analyzed spatio-temporal availability of composites during each calendar year and pixel-specific growing season. We reported mean annual composites’ availability investigating differences among biogeographical regions, checked feasibility of pan‑European analyses for three LCLUC applications based on annual, monthly and 10-day composites, and analyzed the shortest feasible compositing window ensuring ≥50% temporal data availability and interpolation of the remaining composites for individual years and across a variety of medium- and long‑term time windows. Our results highlighted low data coverage in the 1980s, 1990s, and in 2012, as well as spatial variability in data availability driven by climate and orbit overlaps, which altogether impact spatio-temporal consistency of medium- and long-term time series, limiting feasibility of some LCLUC analyses. We demonstrated that prior to 2011 monthly composites ensured overall 50-62% data coverage for each calendar year, and ~75% afterwards, with further increase to ~82% when Landsat and Sentinel-2 were combined. Temporal consistency of monthly composites was overall low and temporal interpolation augmenting up to 50% missing data each year and across a time window of interest, ensured feasibility of analyses. Applications based on shorter than monthly composites were challenging without joining Landsat and Sentinel‑2 archives after 2015, and beyond the Mediterranean biogeographical region. Using pixel-specific growing season data typically boosted data availability in most geographies and diminished most of the latitudinal differences, but feasibility of complete time series with sub-monthly compositing windows was still restricted to the most recent years, and required data interpolation. Overall, our analyses provided a detailed assessment of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data availability over Europe, and based on selected application examples, highlighted often lacking spatio-temporal consistency of time series with sub-monthly compositing windows and long-time periods, which might hinder feasibility of some LCLUC applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1570.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Asian dust; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; long-range transportation
Online: 23 August 2023 (03:35:05 CEST)
Asian dust (AD) events and total suspended particle (TSP) was observed at Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS), a Japanese background site, during the East Asian winter monsoon periods (from November to May of the following year) from 2010 to 2021. Nine kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in each TSP sample. In this study, a total of 54 AD events were observed. According to the different pathways of long-range transportation, AD events were divided into AD-high (transported at higher altitude, around 4000 m) and AD-low (transported at lower altitude, around 2500 m). The TSP concentrations in-creased sharply in the AD and was higher in AD-high (39.8 ± 19.5 μg/m³) than that in AD-low (23.5 ± 10.5 μg/m³). While AD didn’t have significant effect on ΣPAHs characteristic variation, as ΣPAHs concentration in non-AD periods, AD-high, AD-low were 543 ± 374, 404 ± 221, 436 ± 265 pg/m³, respectively. PAHs compositions were also consistent. As a result, TSP concentration was affected by the input air mass transported at higher altitude from the desert region while PAHs concentration was under the impact of air mass at lower altitude which carried the PAHs emitted from fossil fuels and biomass combustion in northeastern China. Moreover, the health risks of PAHs were calculated by inhalation lifetime cancer risk which ranged from 10−6 to 10−5 ng/m3, in-dicating a potential carcinogenic risk at KUWAMS during the East Asian winter monsoon period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1679.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: long-tailed image classification; contrastive learning; data augmentation
Online: 23 June 2023 (12:17:21 CEST)
To solve the problem that the common long-tailed classification method does not use the semantic features of the original label text of the image, and the difference between the classification accuracy of most classes and minority classes is large, the long-tailed image classification method based on enhanced contrast visual language trains the head class and tail class samples separately, uses text image to pre-train the information, and uses enhanced momentum contrast loss function and RandAugment enhancement to improve the learning of tail class samples. On the ImageNet-LT long-tailed dataset, the enhanced contrastive visual-language based long-tailed image classification method has improved all class accuracy, tail class accuracy, middle class accuracy, and F1 values by 3.4%, 7.6%, 3.5%, and 11.2%, respectively, compared to the BALLAD method. The difference in accuracy between the head class and tail class is reduced by 1.6% compared to the BALLAD method. The results of three comparative experiments indicate that the long-tailed image classification method based on enhanced contrastive visual-language has improved the performance of tail classes and reduced the accuracy difference between majority and minority classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Long COVID; EC16; EGCG-palmitate; Formulations
Online: 11 April 2023 (04:55:46 CEST)
Background: Chronic neurologic diseases are common sequelae of COVID. They severely impact the quality of life and increase the burden on healthcare systems. The long COVID neurological symptoms are due to the robust replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal neuroepithelial cells, leading to neuroinvasion and inflammation of the central nerve system (CNS). Currently used medications and vaccines do not inhibit the robust SARS-CoV-2 replication in the nasal epithelial cells. EGCG-palmitate (EC16), a multifunctional compound, has the potential to become a novel intranasal-delivered drug for minimizing post-COVID neurologic symptoms. Method: EC16-containing formulations were developed and tested in vitro against human β coronavirus OC43 (CoV-OC43) using a TCID50 assay following three test protocols differing in exposure sequence. Results: EC16 formulations in normal saline, phosphate buffered saline, and cell culture medium were found to effectively inhibit human β-coronavirus infection (>99.99%) after a 30-min contact. A single 10-min application to cells after infection (i.e., without direct contact with the virus) resulted in >99% inhibition of viral replication. Conclusion: With its antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, EC16 in nasal formulations could be further developed for clinical applications to COVID-19 patients for minimizing long COVID neurological symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; rehabilitation; virtual methods; multi-disciplinary team
Online: 19 November 2021 (15:00:47 CET)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected people from more deprived communities. The experience of Long Covid is similarly distributed but very few investigations have concentrated on the needs of this population. The aim of this project was to co-produce an acceptable intervention for people with Long Covid, living in communities recognised as more deprived. Methods: The intervention was based on a multi-disciplinary team using approaches from sport and exercise medicine and functional rehabilitation. The co-production process was undertaken with a stakeholder advisory group and patient public involvement representation. This study identified participants by postcode and the indices of multiple deprivation (IMD); recruitment and engagement were supported by an existing health and wellbeing service. A virtual ‘clinic’ was offered with a team of professional practitioners who met participants three times each; to directly consider their needs and offer structured advice. The acceptability of the intervention was based on the individual’s participation and their completion of the intervention. Results: Ten participants were recruited with eight completing the intervention. The partnership with an existing community health and wellbeing service was deemed to be an important way of reaching participants. Two men and six women ages ranging from 38 to 73 were involved and their needs were commonly associated with fatigue, anxiety and depression with overall de-conditioning. None reported serious hardship associated with the pandemic although most were in self-employment/part-time employment or were not working due to retirement or ill-health. Two older participants lived alone, and others were single parents and had considerable challenges associated with managing a household alongside their Long Covid difficulties. Conclusions: This paper presents the needs and perspectives of eight individuals involved in the process and discusses the needs and preferences of the group in relation to their support for self- managed recovery from Long Covid.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Human Memory; Long-term Memory; Episodic; Implicit; Explicit
Online: 2 April 2021 (12:02:21 CEST)
Memory is probably one of the most complex cognitive functions of the human, and in many years, thousands of studies have helped us to better recognize this brain function. One of the reference textbooks in neuroscience, which has also elaborated on the memory function, is written by Prof. Kandel and his colleagues. In this book, I encountered a number of ambiguities when it was explaining the memory system. Here, I am sharing those points, either to find an answer for them, or to let them be a suggestion for our future works. Prof. Kandel has spent most of his meritorious lifetime on studying the memory system; however, the brain is extremely complex, and as a result, we still have many years to comprehensively understand the neural mechanisms of brain functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0185.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: atmosphere; aerosol; background; particle size; long term; Mediterranean
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:56:35 CET)
The Eastern Mediterranean is a highly populated area with air quality problems as well where climate change already is noticed by higher temperatures and changing precipitation pattern. The anthropogenic aerosol affects health and changing concentra-tions and properties of the atmospheric aerosol affect radiation balance and clouds. Continuous long-term observations are essential in assessing the influence of anthro-pogenic aerosols on climate and health. We present 6 years of observations from Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), a new station located at the south west tip of Pelo-ponnese, Greece. The two sites at NEO, were evaluated to show the influence of the local meteorology but also to assess the general background aerosol possible. It was found that the background aerosol was originated from aged European aerosols and was strongly influenced by biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and industry. When subsiding into the boundary layer, local sources contributed in the air masses moving south. Mesoscale meteorology determined the diurnal variation of aerosol properties such as mass and number by means of typical sea breeze circulation, giving rise to pronounced morning and evening peaks in pollutant levels. While synoptic scale meteorology, mainly large-scale air mass transport and precipitation, strongly influenced the season-ality of the aerosol properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: long noncoding RNA; PVT1; MYC; bromodomain; multiple myeloma
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:31:37 CEST)
Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are deregulated in human cancers and are associated with disease progression. Plasmacytoma Variant Translocation 1 (PVT1), an lncRNA, is located adjacent to MYC, linked to multiple myeloma (MM). PVT1 is expressed in MM and is associated with carcinogenesis, however, its role and regulation machinery remain uncertain. We examined PVT1/MYC expression through real time PCR in plasma cells purified from 59 MGUS and 140 MM patients. MM cell lines KMS11, KMS12PE, OPM2, and RPMI8226 were treated with JQ1, a MYC superenhancer inhibitor, or MYC inhibitor 10058-F4. The expression levels of PVT1 and MYC were significantly higher in MM than in MGUS (p < 0.0001), and showed positive correlation with disease progression (r = 0.394, p < 0.0001). JQ1 inhibited cell proliferation and decreased the expression levels of MYC and PVT1. However, 10054-F4 did not alter the expression level of PVT1. The positive correlation between MYC and PVT1 in patients, synchronous downregulation of MYC and PVT1 by JQ1, and no effect of MYC inhibitor on PVT1 expression suggest that the expression of these two genes is coregulated by a superenhancer. Cooperative effects between these two genes may contribute to MM pathogenesis and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0640.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: long-term energy storage; fossil fuels; energy transition
Online: 26 July 2020 (16:38:35 CEST)
Great Britain’s stocks of coal, natural gas, and petroleum have seen major changes to the levels of stored energy over the years 2005 to 2019, a reduction of 200 TWh (35%) from 570 TWh to 370 TWh. The transformation of its electrical system over this timeframe saw a reduction in coal generation, leading to a corresponding reduction of the levels of stockpiled coal of 85 TWh (68%), partially offset by an increase in the stocks of biomass for electrical generation. The reduction in natural gas storage of 24 TWh (44%) was primarily due to the closure of Britain’s only long-term seasonal natural gas storage facility in January 2018. This was partially offset by the construction of medium-term natural gas storage facilities and the use of LNG storage in the years preceding its closure. For stocks of crude oil and oil products the reduction was 35 TWh (21%), linked to the overall reduction in demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: long term survival; Glioblastoma; IDH; EGFR; Ki67; p53
Online: 16 October 2019 (08:30:25 CEST)
Background: Glioblastomas (GBM) is generally burdened, to date, by a dismal prognosis, although Long Term Survivors have a relatively significant incidence. Our specific aim was to determine the exact impact of many surgery-, patient- and tumor-related variable on Survival parameters. Methods: The surgical, radiological and clinical outcomes of patients have been retrospectively reviewed for the present study. All the patients have been operated on in our Institution and classified according their Overall Survival in LTS (Long Term Survivors) and STS (Short Term Survivors). A thorough Review of our surgical series was conducted to compare the oncologic results of the patients in regards to 1. Surgical , 2. Molecular, and 3.Treatment related features. Results: A total of 177 patients were included in the final cohort. Extensive statistical analysis by means of univariate, multivariate and survival analyses disclosed a survival advantage for patients presenting a younger age, a smaller lesion and a better functional status at presentation. From the Histochemical point of view, Ki67(%) was the strongest predictor of better oncologic outcomes. A stepwise analysis of variance outlines the existence of 8 prognostic subgroups according to the molecular patterns of Ki67 overexpression and EGFR, p53 and IDH mutations. Conclusions: On the ground of our statistical analyses we can affirm that the following factors were significant predictors of survival advantage: KPS, Age, Volume of the lesion, Motor disorder at presentation, a Ki67 overexpression. A fine molecular profiling is feasible to precisely stratify the prognosis of GBM patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: long non-coding RNA; hESC; cardiomyocyte; RNA-seq
Online: 15 March 2019 (02:11:52 CET)
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to be involved in many biological processes, including the regulation of cell differentiation, but a complete characterization of lncRNA is still lacking. Additionally, there is evidence that lncRNAs interact with ribosomes, raising questions about their functions in cells. Here, we used a developmentally staged protocol to induce cardiogenic commitment of hESCs and then investigated the differential association of lncRNAs with polysomes. Our results identified lncRNAs in both the ribosome-free and polysome-bound fractions during cardiogenesis and showed a very well-defined temporal lncRNA association with polysomes. Clustering of lncRNAs was performed according to the gene expression patterns during the five timepoints analyzed. In addition, differential lncRNA recruitment to polysomes was observed when comparing the differentially expressed lncRNAs in the ribosome-free and polysome-bound fractions or when calculating the polysome-bound vs ribosome-free ratio. The association of lncRNAs with polysomes could represent an additional cytoplasmic role of lncRNAs, e.g., in translational regulation of mRNA expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0194.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: long-range dependence; Hurst effect; fractionallydifferenced models; Mandelbrot
Online: 26 May 2017 (18:36:50 CEST)
Long memory plays an important role in many fields by determining the behaviour and predictability of systems; for instance, climate, hydrology, finance, networks and DNA sequencing. In particular, it is important to test if a process is exhibiting long memory since that impacts the accuracy and confidence with which one may predict future events on the basis of a small amount of historical data. A major force in the development and study of long memory was the late Benoit B. Mandelbrot. Here we discuss the original motivation of the development of long memory and Mandelbrot's influence on this fascinating field. We will also elucidate the sometimes contrasting approaches to long memory in different scientific communities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: long-acting injectable; antipsychotic; decision-making; guidelines; schizophrenia
Online: 10 November 2016 (07:00:52 CET)
The purposes of this study were to identify clinician’s characteristics associated with higher prescription rates of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, as well as the information sources influencing medical decision-making about treatment of schizophrenia. We surveyed 202 psychiatrists during 6 regional French conferences (Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, Nice, Paris, Strasbourg). Data on the characteristics of practice, prescription rates of antipsychotic and information sources about their clinical decisions were collected. Most of psychiatrists used second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), and preferentially an oral formulation, in the treatment of schizophrenia. SGA LAI was prescribed to 30.4% of schizophrenic patients. The duration and the type of practice did not influence the class or formulation of antipsychotics used. The clinicians following the higher percentage of schizophrenic patients were associated with the higher use of LAI antipsychotics and the lower use of oral SGA. Personal experience, government regulatory approval and guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia were the 3 main contributing factors guiding the clinical decision-making of clinicians about treatment of schizophrenia. The more clinicians follow schizophrenic patients, the more they use LAI antipsychotic. The development of specialised programmes with top specialists should lead to better use of LAI in the treatment of schizophrenia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2111.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Post COVID syndrome; Concept map for management of long COVID; Health informatics; Public health; Management of long COVID
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:59:21 CEST)
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected millions of lives globally, with some individuals experiencing persistent symptoms even after recovering. Understanding and managing the long-term sequelae of COVID-19 is crucial for research, prevention, and control. As a result, to monitor the health of individuals affected by these conditions, they must maintain up-to-date health records using digital health informatics apps for surveillance. In this review, we provide an overview of the existing literature on identifying long COVID manifestations through hierarchical classification and the characterization of long COVID by different hierarchical groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). We outline the aspects of the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) and Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) in artificial intelligence (AI) to identify long COVID. Knowledge exploration, using the concept map for the clinical pathways of long COVID presented in this paper, provides an overview of the data needed to explore tackling the long-term effect of COVID-19 by integrating innovative cohesive frameworks and designing health informatics-based applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to explore the potential incorporation of long COVID as a variable risk factor within a digital health informatics application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Atherosclerosis; psoriasis; microRNA; extracellular vesicles; long non-coding RNA
Online: 17 November 2023 (02:35:39 CET)
It is generally accepted that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. The link between atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via metabolic, inflammatory, and immunoregulatory pathways is well established. The aim of our review was to summarize the associations between selected microRNAs (miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and atherosclerosis, psoriasis, T2DM, and RA. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNA molecules involved in cell signaling, intracellular communication, and gene expression. We reviewed the role of miR-146a, miR-210, miR-143, miR-223, miR-126, miR-21, miR-155, miR-145, miR-200, miR-133, miR-135, miR-221, miR-424, and let-7 in atherosclerosis, psoriasis, T2DM, and RA. LncRNAs are RNA transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that are involved in cellular processes such as apoptosis, metabolism, inflammation, cell differentiation, and proliferation. We evaluated the role of lncRNA-H19, lncRNA-MEG3, lncRNA-UCA1, and lncRNA-XIST in atherosclerosis and psoriasis, T2DM, and RA. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a method of intracellular signal transduction. Their function depends on surface expression, cargo, and the cell from which they originate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1572.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: axicons; thermo-optical devices; long focusing devices; THz radiation
Online: 25 September 2023 (05:42:04 CEST)
THz radiation has assumed a great importance thanks to the efforts in the development of technological tools used in this versatile band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Here we propose a reflecting bi-mirror axicon-like device with wavelength-independent long focusing performances in the THz band, by exploiting the high thermo-mechanical deformation of the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This deformation permits to achieve significant optical path modulations in the THz band and effective focusing. The surface of a PDMS layer is covered with a gold thin film, acting as heater thanks to its absorption for wavelengths below ~500 nm . An invariance property of the Fresnel integral has been exploited to verify experimentally the THz performances of the device with an ordinary visible laser source, finding excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions at 1 and 3 THz. The same property allowed also to verify experimentally that the axicon focus has a longitudinal extension much greater than that one exhibited by a benchmark cylindrical mirror with the same optical power. The axicon is thermo-mechanically stable up to a heating power of 270 mW, although it might be potentially exploited at higher powers with a minor degradation of the optical performances.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0776.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; IgG4; Tregs; long COVID; immune tolerance
Online: 9 August 2023 (11:18:47 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes theCOVID-19 disease, has been demonstrated to cause immune suppression in certain individuals. This can manifest as a reduced ability for the host's immune system to effectively control the infection. Studies have reported that patients with COVID-19 can exhibit a decline in white blood cell counts, including natural killer cells and T cells, which are integral components of the immune system's response to viral pathogens. These cells play critical roles in the immune response to viral infections, and their depletion can make it harder for the body to mount an effective defense against the virus. Additionally, the virus can also directly infect immune cells, further compromising their ability to function. Some individuals with severe COVID-19 pneumonia may develop a "cytokine storm," an overactive immune response that may result in tissue damage and organ malfunction. The underlying mechanisms of immune suppression in SARS-CoV-2 are not entirely comprehended at this time, and ongoing research is being conducted to gain a more comprehensive understanding. Research has shown that severe SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes the synthesis of IgG4 antibodies. In this work, we propose the hypothesis that the IgG4 antibody produced by B cells in response to infection by SARS-CoV2 generates immunological tolerance that prevents its elimination, and leads to persistence and chronic infection. In sum, we believe that this constitutes another immune evasion mechanism that bears striking similarities to that developed by cancer cells to evade immune surveillance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1537.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Long-term Observations; Trace Elements; Seasonal variation; Atmospheric pollutants
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:17:40 CEST)
The atmospheric concentrations of sodium, aluminum, silicon, sulphur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, bromine and lead were measured in air filters at the Finnish Meteorological Institute station, in Helsinki, Finland, during a period of 44 years (1962-2005). The mean annual concentrations were calculated and are presented from the lowest values to the highest ones Cr<Ni<Ti<Br<V<Mn<Cu<Zn<Cl<Al<Fe<K<Ca<Na<Pb<Si<S. Most of the elements (Fe, Si, Ti, K, Ca, Zn, Br, Pb, V, Ni, S, Cr, Na, Al, Cl) present higher values during spring and winter season while in summer the elements (Ti, Ca, S, Na) are found in higher concentrations. There is a strong correlation between the elements (V-Ni, Si-Pb, Fe-Ca, V-Cr, Si-K, K-Ca, Fe-Ti, K-Na, Si-Ca, V-S), indicating their common source. The identification of the sources of trace elements was performed based on positive matrix factorization analysis, using SoFi software. Four PM sources were identified: road dust (due to usage of leaded fuel), heavy oil combustion/secondary sulfates, traffic emissions and natural dust (soil). For the total of 44 years studied, significant decreases in concentrations were observed for all trace elements, most of which were over 50%: Na (-74%), Al (-86%), Si (-88%), S (-82%), K (-82%), Ca (-89%), Ti (-80%), V (-89%), Cr (-82%), Mn (-77%), Fe (-77%), Ni (-61%), Zn (-72%), Pb (-95%). The current data are consistent with previous air studies covering the whole territory of Finland. Finally, a significant decline has been observed in the majority of the elemental concentrations since the end of 70s, underlying the effectiveness of different environmental policies that have been applied during the last decades.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Long COVID; mRNA vaccines side effects; immunothrombosis; spike protein
Online: 17 July 2023 (09:33:51 CEST)
Abstract Long COVID syndrome, known as Long COVID, refers to a series of debilitating symptoms that arise after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These symptoms are similar to those experienced by some people after vaccination with vaccines based on mRNA platforms (Pfizer, Moderna). With more than 200 million Long COVID patients worldwide and an increase in cases of moderate to severe reactions after administration of mRNA vaccines (VSITV), the effects on quality of life and economics are significant, for what is necessary to pay urgent attention to understand its pathophysiology and to provide an adequate diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we describe our perspective that both Long COVID and common side effects of mRNA vaccines (VSITV) induce persistent and prolonged expression of the spike protein (SPIKE) in various tissues and organs of the body. This would induce coagulopathy, microscopic vasculitis, and endothelitis as the main drivers of the disease, and may also cause or worsen other common pathologies in Long COVID, such as mast cell activation syndrome, dysautonomia, and sudden deaths due to arrhythmias and heart attacks, reports of which continue to rise. Given that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can independently induce fibrinoid microclot formation, platelet activation, and endothelitis, we predict that the persistence of the spike protein will be a key mechanism driving ongoing coagulopathy in Long COVID and in the VSITV. We discuss various treatment goals to address coagulopathy, endothelitis, and vasculitis and predict that treatment, especially if given early, with a combination of anticoagulants, antiplatelets, corticosteroids, and rapamycin/everolimus, will provide significant relief for many patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0699.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 infection; pandemic; clinical manifestations; complications; Long-COVID
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:47:37 CEST)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2), later renamed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019. Initially, the China office of the World Health Organization was informed of numerous cases of pneumonia of unidentified etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province on December 31, 2019. This would subsequently result in a global pandemic with over 76 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 6.9 million deaths reported to the WHO. We have analyzed most of the data published since the beginning of the pandemic to compile this comprehensive review of SARS-CoV-2. We look at the core ideas, such as the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostics, histopathologic findings, consequences, therapies, and vaccines. We have also included the long-term effects and myths associated with some therapeutics of COVID-19. This study comprehensively assesses of the SARS-CoV-2 virology, vaccines, medicines, and significant variants identified during the pandemic. Our review article is intended to provide medical practitioners with a better understanding of the fundamental sciences, clinical treatment, and prevention of COVID-19. As of June 2023, this paper contains the most recent data made accessible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0344.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Long Covid; Covid-19 vaccine; thrombosis; clots; inflammation; therapeutics
Online: 12 April 2023 (10:04:23 CEST)
In the wake of the Covid-19 crisis, a need has arisen to prevent and treat two related conditions, Covid vaccine injury and long Covid, both of which have a significant vascular component. Therefore, the management of these conditions require the development of strategies to prevent or dissolve blood clots and restore circulatory health. This review summarizes the evidence on strategies that can be applied to treat both long and vaccine injuries based on similar mechanisms of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Germinal Center; Herpesvirus; Recombinant protein; rgD5; Vaccine; Long-Lasting
Online: 14 June 2022 (16:21:47 CEST)
Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV)-5 is a worldwide distributed pathogen usually associated with a lethal neurological disease (meningoencephalitis) in dairy and beef cattle resulting in important economic losses due to the cattle industry. Using recombinant glycoprotein D of BoHV-5 (rgD5), we evaluated the long-duration humoral immunity of the recombinant vaccines in a cattle model. Here we report that two doses of intramuscular immunization, particularly with the rgD5ISA vaccine, are superior to iBoHV-5ISA immunization in the induction of long-lasting antibody responses. Recombinant gD5 antigen elicited tightly mRNA transcription of the Bcl6 and the chemokine receptor CXCR5 which mediate memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells in germinal centers (GCs). In addition, using an in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) we observed higher and earlier responses of rgD5-specific IgG antibody and the upregulation of mRNA transcription of IL2, IL4, IL10, IL15 and IFN-γ cytokines in rgD5 vaccinated cattle, indicating a mixed immune response. We further show that rgD5 immunization provides protection against both BoHV -1 and -5. Our findings indicate that the rgD5-based vaccine represents an effective vaccine strategy to induce an efficient control of alpha-herpesviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: peri-implantitis; electrolytic cleaning; air abrasive; augmentation; long term
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:06:56 CEST)
Background: this RCT assesses the 18 months clinical outcomes after regenerative therapy of periimplantitis lesions using either an electrolytic method (EC) to remove biofilms or a combination of powder spray and electrolytic method (PEC). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients (24 implants) suffering from periimplantitis were randomly treated by EC or PEC followed by augmentation and submerged healing. Probing pocket depth (PPD), Bleeding on Probing (BoP), suppuration and standardized radiographs were assessed before surgery (T0), 6 months after augmentation (T1), 6 (T2) and 12 (T3) months after replacement of the restoration. Results: Mean of PPD changed from 5.8 ± 1.6 mm (T0) to 3.1 ± 1.4 mm (T3). While BoP and suppuration at T0 was 100 % BoP decreased at T2 to 36.8 % and at T3 to 35.3 %. Suppuration could be found 10.6% at T2 and 11.8% at T3. Radiologic bone level measured from the implant shoulder to the first visible bone to implant contact was 4.9 ± 1.9 mm at me-sial and 4.4 ± 2.2 mm at distal sites (T0) and 1.7 ± 1.7 mm and 1.5 ± 17 mm at T3. Conclusions: Significant radiographic bone fill and improvement of clinical parameters were demonstrated 18 months after therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cardiac arrest; normothermia; EEG; SSEP; GWR; long term predictors
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:26:27 CET)
Introduction Early prediction of long term outcomes in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest (CA) is still challenging. Guidelines suggested a multimodal approach combining multiple predictors. We evaluated whether the combination of the electroencephalography (EEG) reactivity, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) cortical complex and Gray to White matter ratio (GWR) on brain computed tomography (CT) at different temperatures could predict survival and good outcome at hospital discharge and after six months. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study including consecutive adult, non-traumatic patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital CA who remained comatose on admission to our intensive care unit from 2013 to 2017. We acquired SSEPs and EEGs during the treatment at 36°C and after rewarming at 37°C, Gray to white matter ratio (GWR) was calculated on the brain computed tomography scan performed within six hours of the hospital admission. We primarily hypothesized that SSEP was associated with favorable functional outcome at distance and secondarily that SSEP provides independent information from EEG and CT. Outcomes were evaluated using the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale at six months from discharge. Results Of 171 resuscitated patients, 75 were excluded due to missing of data or uninterpretable neurophysiological findings. EEG reactivity at 37 °C has been shown the best single predictor of good outcome (AUC 0.803) while N20P25 was the best single predictor for survival at each time point. (AUC 0.775 at discharge and AUC 0.747 at six months follow up) Predictive value of a model including EEG reactivity, average GWR, and SSEP N20P25 amplitude was superior (AUC 0.841 for survival and 0.920 for good outcome) to any combination of two tests or any single test. Conclusion Our study, in which life-sustaining treatments were never suspended, suggests SSEP cortical complex N20P25, after normothermia ad off sedation, is a reliable predictor for survival at any time. When SSEP cortical complex N20P25 is added into a model with GWR average and EEG reactivity, the predictivity for good outcome and survival at distance is superior than each single test alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0779.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Social isolation; risk factors; older adults; long-term care
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:24:17 CET)
Objectives: A wealth of literature has established risk factors for social isolation among older people, however much of this research has focused on community-dwelling populations. Relatively little is known about how risk of social isolation is experienced among those living in long-term care (LTC) homes. We conducted a scoping review to identify possible risk factors for social isolation among older adults living in LTC homes. Methods: A systematic search of five online databases retrieved 1535 unique articles. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Thematic analyses revealed that possible risk factors exist at three levels: individual (e.g., communication barriers), systems (e.g., location of LTC facility), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). Discussion: Our review identified several risk factors for social isolation that have been previously documented in literature, in addition to several risks that may be unique to those living in LTC homes. Results highlight several scholarly and practical implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: C2H2 proteins; CTCF; LDB1; chromatin insulator; long-distance interactions
Online: 8 December 2020 (08:29:36 CET)
In higher eukaryotes, enhancers determine the activation of developmental gene transcription in specific cell types and stages of embryogenesis. Enhancers transform the signals produced by various transcription factors within a given cell, activating the transcription of the targeted genes. Often, developmental genes can be associated with dozens of enhancers, some of which are located at large distances from the promoters that they regulate. Currently, the mechanisms that underly the specific distance interactions between enhancers and promoters remain unknown. This review describes the properties and activities of enhancers and discusses the mechanisms of distance interactions and potential proteins involved in this process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: laser excimer; myopia surgery; long term; Femto-LASIK; PRK
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:53:46 CEST)
Refractive surgery is an increasingly popular procedure to decrease spectacle or contact lens dependency. The two most commonly used surgical techniques to correct myopia is Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and Femtosecond- Lasik (FS-LASIK)There are few publications that gathers such a long term follow up of both surgical techniques (2) Methods It has been performed a retrospective non-randomized study 509 PRK eyes and 310 FS-LASIK surgeries were followed for 10 years for the treatment of myopia and compound myopic astigmatism. Patients were followed up three months, one year, 2 years, 5 and 10 years. The safety index of both procedures was defined as a quotient between the postoperative BCVA (Best Corrected Visual Acuity) and the preoperative BCVA. The predictability is calculated as difference between the expected spherical equivalent and the achieved spherical equivalent. The efficacy index was calculated as a quotient between postoperative UCVA divided by the preoperative BCVA (3) Results. The results were: a safety index higher than 100% (109%) and an efficacy index of 82.4% after 10 years of PRK surgery in both groups. FS-LASIK was the safest surgery after 10 years and the most efficacy technique although in this case there were no statistically significant differences (4) Conclusions. All these data demonstrated better indexes for FS-LASIK
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0248.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: long memory; persistence; structural change; pandemics; growth; and unemployment
Online: 12 July 2020 (08:26:52 CEST)
This paper studies long economic series to assess the long-lasting effects of pandemics. We analyze if periods of time that cover pandemics have a change in trend and persistence in growth, and in level and persistence in unemployment. We find that there is an upward trend in the persistence level of growth across the centuries. In particular, shocks originated by pandemics in recent times seem to have permanent effect in growth. Moreover, our results show that the unemployment rate increases and it becomes more persistent after a pandemic. In this regard, our findings support the design and implementation of counter-cyclical policies to soften the shock of the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0294.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: signaling pathway; microRNA; long-noncoding RNA; chemoresistence; cervical cancer
Online: 17 April 2020 (08:12:52 CEST)
Cervical cancer is known as one of the most important cancers in women worldwide. Chemotherapy is a standard treatment for advanced/recurrent cervical cancer in which the prognosis of the disease is really poor and the 1-year survival chance in these patients is maximally 20%. However, resistance to anticancer drugs is a major problem in treating cancer. Cervical cancer stem cells are considered as a fundamental cause of chemo and radio-resistance and also relapse after primary successful treatment. Signaling pathways include a wide range of molecular mechanisms contribute to drug resistance. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are announced as a group of molecular biomarkers involving in response to chemotherapy in cancer patients. As the miRNAs, there are some long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) which their aberrant expression is considered as a biomarker for monitoring chemoresistance. In this review, we summarized current reports about the involvement of signaling pathways during chemoresistance in cervical cancer. Then, genes that have been demonstrated their involvement during drug resistance in cervical cancer were tabulated. Further, miRNAs that have been reported as biomarkers during treatment are listed. By bioinformatic analysis, we predictedmiR-335-5p and miR-16-5p as the most potential biomarkers for monitoring resistance to chemotherapy. Finally, long non-coding RNAs that have been introduced in recent studies as novel biomarkers during the response to chemotherapy were mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0183.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: ARDL; Inflation; Interest; Long-run; RGDPPC; Short-run; Unemployment
Online: 16 October 2019 (09:40:00 CEST)
Research background: Relationship between inflation rate, unemployment rate, interest rate and real gross domestic product per capita in Nigeria. However, there seems to be a short-run or long-run relationship among the macroeconomic variables.Purpose: This study investigated the impact of the inflation rate, unemployment rate and interest rate on real gross domestic product per capita (RGDPPC) (proxy for economic growth) and proffered recommendations towards enhancing economic growth and to reduce the distasteful effects of inflation rate, unemployment rate and interest rate in Nigeria in this present time economic challenges.Research methodology: This study applied a linear dynamic model Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling technique to analyze the short-run dynamics and long-run relationship of the economic growth in Nigeria over the sample period between 1984 and 2017 using annual secondary data extracted from World Bank Development Indicators Report (last updated January 2019).Results: The empirical results showed that there was long-run relationship between inflation rate, unemployment rate and interest rate on real gross domestic product per capita (proxy for economic growth) in Nigeria. The result further revealed that only unemployment rate had a significant positive impact on real gross domestic product per capita in the long-run and inflation rate had a significant negative impact on real gross domestic product per capita in the short-run.Novelty: Therefore, the study concluded that unemployment rate and inflation rate proved to have significant impacts on economic growth in the long-run and short-run respectively. Formulation of policies to reduce unemployment through the adoption of labour concentrated technique of production, entrepreneurship development and policy to keep the inflation rate at single digit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0359.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deeply buried tunnels; deep soft rocks; elasto-visco-plastic creep constitutive model; closed-form solutions; long-term stability; structural integrity; long-term monitoring
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:40:19 CEST)
The time-dependent behavior and long-term stability of deep-buried tunnels in soft rocks have received lots of considerations in tunnel engineering and allied sciences. To better explore and deepen the engineering application of rock creep, extensive research studies are still needed, although fruitful outcomes have already obtained in many related investigations. In this article, the Weilai Tunnel in China’s Guangxi province is studied taking its host rocks as the main research object. In fact, aiming at forecasting the time-varying deformation of this tunnel, a novel elasto-visco-plastic creep constitutive model with two variants is proposed, by exploiting the typical complex load-unload process of rock excavation. The model is well validated and good agreements are found with the relevant experimental data. Moreover, the time-dependent de-formation rules are properly established for the surrounding rocks, by designing two new closed-form solutions based on the proposed creep model and the Hoek-Brown criterion. The convergence deformations calculated from the closed-form solutions conform well to the on-site monitoring data. In only 27 days after excavation, the creep deformation of the Weilai tunnel overtakes 400 mm, which is enormous. To guarantee the long-term stability of this tunnel, a ro-bust support scheme and its long-term monitoring with appropriate remote sensors are strongly suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deformation monitoring; distributed monitoring; single-cell box girder; long-gage strain; long-gage Fiber Bragg Grating; strain distribution; shear lag effect; shear action
Online: 12 June 2018 (05:47:08 CEST)
Distributed deformation based on Fiber Bragg Grating sensors or other kinds of strain sensors can be used to evaluate safety in operating periods of bridges. However, most of the published researches about distributed deformation monitoring are focused on solid rectangular beam rather than box girder—a kind of typical hollow beam widely employed in actual bridges. Considering that the entire deformation of a single-cell box girder contains not only bending deflection but also two additional deformations respectively caused by shear lag and shearing action, this paper again revises the improved conjugated beam method (ICBM) based on the LFBG sensors to satisfy the requirements for monitoring two mentioned additional deformations. The best choice for the LFBG sensor placement in box gilder is also proposed in this paper due to strain fluctuation on flange caused by shear lag effect. Results from numerical simulations show that most of the theoretical monitoring errors of the revised ICBM are 0.3%~1.5%, and the maximum error is 2.4%. A loading experiment for a single-cell box gilder monitored by LFBG sensors show that most of the practical monitoring errors are 6%~8%, and the maximum error is 11%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0659.v1
Subject: Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: coagulation; platelet aggregation; equine; first long-term training; Thoroughbred racehorse
Online: 11 December 2023 (06:45:46 CET)
Training has a significative effect on physiology of blood coagulation both in humans and in horses. Several hemostatic changes have been reported after exercise in the horse but data available are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the platelet activation and primary platelet-related hemostasis modifications in young untrained Thoroughbred racehorses in the first 4-month timeframe incremental training period in order to improve knowledge on this topic. Twenty-nine clinically healthy, untrained, 2-year-old Thoroughbred racehorses. Never trained Thoroughbreds were followed during their incremental 4-month sprint exercise schedule. Blood collection was performed once a month (T-30, T0, T30, T60, and T90). Platelet aggregation was measured by light transmission aggregometer in response to various agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen and calcium ionophore A23187. Platelet function was evaluated using the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100®) using collagen/ADP and collagen/adrenaline cartridges. Nitrite-nitrate (NOx) plasma concentrations were measured by a colorimetric assay to assess in vivo nitric oxide bioavailability. Platelet activation was investigated also through gene expression analyses (selectin P-SELP, ectonucleotidase CD39-ENTPD1, prostaglandin I2 synthase-PTGIS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3-NOS3). Differences among the time points were analyzed and mean±SEM were calculated. Significant modifications were identified compared with T-30 with increase of platelet aggregation (collagen:32.6±4.8 vs 21.6±4.9%; ADP: 35.5±2.0 vs 24.5±3.1%; A23187: 30±4.7 vs 23.8±4%) and a shorter closure time of C-ADP cartridges (75.6±4.4 vs 87.7±3.4 sec) that tended to return to baseline value at T90. NOx concentrations in plasma significantly increased after 30 days of training program compared with baseline. The first long-term training period induce platelet hyperactivity already after 30 days in untrained Thoroughbreds. Regular physical training blunts the negative effects of acute efforts on platelets activation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: railway; derailment; safety; assessment; long rails transportation; FEM; beam element
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:17:05 CET)
The study proposes a theoretical method for evaluating the 'safety against derailment' indicator of a specialized train composition for the transportation of very long rails. A composition of nine wagons, suitable for the transportation of rails with a length of 120 m, is considered. For the remaining recommended rail lengths, the number of wagons is reduced or increased, the method being modified depending on the required configuration. In accordance with the requirements of EN 14363:2019, the composition is in a curve with a radius of R=150 m. The rails bend, some of them contact the vertical stanchions of the wagon and cause additional transverse forces, which are balanced in the rail track. This is a prerequisite for derailment of the vehicle. The goal of the study is to determine the additional transverse forces that arise because of the bent rails. The task is statically indeterminate, and considering the dimensions of the rails, its solution becomes seriously difficult. For the purposes of the study, the finite element method was used. Based on the displacements of the support points of the rails (caused by the geometry of the curve) the bending line of the elastic load is determined and the forces in the supports are calculated. A group of five rails is considered, with results multiplied proportionally for cases other than five. The resulting forces are considered when determining the derailment safety criterion defined by EN 14363:2019.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0462.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Diutan gum; Scleroglucan; Rheological behavior; Extreme reservoir; Long-term stability
Online: 9 October 2023 (07:35:26 CEST)
The chemically synthesized polymer polyacrylamide (HPAM) in conventional reservoirs has achieved excellent oil displacement, but its oil displacement is poor in extreme reservoir environments. To develop biopolymer oil flooding agent under extreme reservoir conditions, the viscosity increasing and rheological properties of three biopolymers, diutan gum, xanthan gum, and scleroglucan, were studied under extreme reservoir conditions (high salt, high temperature, strong acid, and alkali), and the effects of temperature, mineralization, pH, and other factors on their viscosities and long-term stability properties were analyzed and compared. The results showed that under the temperature of 90℃ and below, the three kinds of biopolymers had the best viscosity-increasing ability. The viscosity of the three kinds of biopolymers was 80.94, 11.57, and 59.83mPa·s, respectively, when the concentration was 1500mg/L and the salinity was 220g/L. At the shear rate of 250s-1,100℃~140℃, scleroglucan has the best viscosification. At 140℃, the solution viscosity is 19.74mPa·s, and the retention rate can reach 118.27%. The results of the long-term stability study showed that the solution viscosity of scleroglucan with mineralization level of 220 mg/L was 89.54% viscosity retention in 40 days, and the diutan gum could be stabilized for 10 days, and the viscosity was maintained at 90 mPa·s. All three biopolymers are highly acid and alkali-resistant, with viscosity variations of less than 15% in the pH3~10 range. Rheological tests have shown that both of them have better viscoelastic properties than xanthan gum due to the peculiar double-helix structure of xanthan gum and the rigid triple-helix structure of scleroglucan. Therefore, the two biopolymers, diutan gum, and scleroglucan have the potential for extreme reservoir oil displacement applications, and it is recommended to use diutan gum for oil displacement in reservoirs up to 90℃ and scleroglucan for oil displacement in reservoirs between 100℃ and 140℃.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Humeral resurfacing arthroplasty; long-term outcomes; rheumatoid arthritis; avascular necrosis
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:03:19 CEST)
Humeral resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) entails the substitution of the articular surface alone with a prosthetic cap without stem. It is a more conservative procedure which can be easily converted in a total arthroplasty if necessary. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiographical outcomes in a series of patients treated with HRA. 33 patients with a mean fol-low-up of 11 years were clinically (Constant score; Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score, DASH) and radiographically assessed before and after surgery. Constant and DASH score improved significantly after surgery, and only 2 cases needed revision surgery. HRA represents a valid therapeutic option in selected cases to improve the quality of life and delaying the need for more invasive procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0492.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: long sunshine; Medicago truncatula; developmental period; transcriptome analysis; functional annotation
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:54:19 CEST)
To explore the expression characteristics and biological functions of related genes of medicago terrestris under long day conditions, and to lay a foundation for revealing the molecular mechanism of medicago terrestris under long day conditions. The leaves of 'R108' tribulus Medicago sativa at branch stage (A), bud stage (B), initial flowering stage (C) and full flowering stage (D) were sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. The genome of Medicago sativa, a related species of Tribulus tribulus, was used as a reference genome for sequence comparison. The transcriptomes of three adjacent periods (A vs B, B vs C, C vs D) were analyzed for differentially expressed genes and photoperiod related differentially expressed genes were screened. A total of 6875 differentially expressed genes were detected. GO functional analysis showed that differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biological processes, cell components and molecular functions, among which the most differentially expressed genes were involved in cell components. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in circadian rhythm, photosynthesis - antenna protein, ribosome metabolism and other pathways. The number of single nucleotide variants detected by cSNP analysis was 312875, and the frequency of A/G and C/T were the highest. The function of eggNOG was divided into 23 categories, with a total of 26745 genes having similarities, 9008 genes were classified as function unknown, 2669 genes were classified as signal transduction mechanism, 2194 genes were classified as transcription, etc. In different developmental stages (A vs B, B vs C, C vs D), 3463 up-regulated and 3412 down-regulated differentially expressed genes were found. The difference between up-regulated and down-regulated genes was the most obvious between bud stage and initial flowering stage. In addition, a total of 79 flowering genes were found, of which 51 differential genes were screened out to participate in photoperiodic regulation pathway, 23 differential genes were up-regulated, and 28 differential genes were down-regulated. The ratio of gene-LOC11410562(GI), gene-LOC11435974(CO), gene-LOC11422615(TOC1) and gene-LOC11432385(LHY) was higher than that of gene-LOC25500742(PHYA) and gene-LOC11 431402(ELF3), gene-LOC11434778(Col13), gene-LOC25498015(Col6), and gene-LOC11415514(Col9) were preexpressed. The above differentially expressed genes were significantly expressed in different development stages of Terrestris alfalfa, which laid a foundation for further study of the molecular mechanism of Terrestris alfalfa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0659.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Endothelium; VE-cadherin; ACE2; SARS-CoV2 infection; Long COVID syndrome
Online: 9 June 2023 (03:43:57 CEST)
Long COVID-19 syndrom appears after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2) infection with acute damages to microcapillaries, microthombi and endotheliitis. However, the mech-anisms involved in these processes remain to be identified. All blood vessels are lined with a monolayer of endothelial cells called vascular endothelium of which one of the major properties is to prevent coagulation. VE cadherin is a component of endothelial cell junctions responsible for maintenance of the integrity of the vessels through homophilic interaction of its Ca++- dependent adhesive extracellular domain. We first provide evidence that VE-cadherin is a target in vitro for ACE2 cleavage because its extracellular domain (hrVE-ED) contains two amino acid sequences for ACE2 substrate recognition at the po-sitions 256P-F257 and 321PMKP-325L. Indeed, incubation of hrVE-ED with the active ecto-peptidase hrACE2 for 16 hrs in the presence of 10M ZnCl2 showed a dose-dependent (from 0.2 ng/ul to 2 ng/ul) decrease of the VE-cadherin immunoreactive band. In vivo, in the blood from patients having severe COVID-19, a circulating form of ACE2 was detected with an apparent molecular mass of 70 kDa while it was barely detectable in patients with mild infection. Of importance, in the patients with severe COVID-19 disease, the presence of three soluble fragments of VE-cadherin (70, 62, 54 kDa) were detected using the antiEC1 antibody while only the 54 kDa fragment was present in patients with mild disease. Altogether, these data clearly support a role for ACE2 on VE-cadherin cleavage leading to potential biomarkers in SARS-CoV2 infection related with the vascular disease in “Long COVID-19”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0437.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deep neural network; long short-term memory; suspended sediment; discharge
Online: 16 December 2022 (08:08:08 CET)
The dynamics of suspended sediment involves inherent non-linearity and complexity as a result of the presence of both spatial variability of the basin characteristics and temporal climatic patterns. As a result of this complexity, the conventional sediment rating curve (SRC) and other empirical methods produce inaccurate predictions. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have emerged as one of the advanced modeling techniques capable of addressing inherent non-linearity in hydrological processes over the last few decades. DNN algorithms are used to perform predictive analysis and investigate the interdependencies among the most pivotal water quantity and quality parameters i.e., discharge, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and turbidity. In this study, the Long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm of DNNs is used to model the discharge-suspended sediment relationship for the Stony Clove Creek. The simulations were run using primary data on discharge, SSC and turbidity. For the development of the DNN models and examining the effects of input vectors, combinations of different input vectors (namely discharge, and SSC) for the current and previous days are considered. Furthermore, a suitable modelling approach with an appropriate model input structure is suggested based on model performance indices for the training and testing phases. The performance of developed models is assessed using statistical indices such as root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and coefficient of determination (R2). Statistically, the performance of DNN-based models in simulating the daily SSC performed well with observed sediment concentration series data. The study demonstrates the suitability of the DNN approach for simulation and estimation of daily SSC, opening up new research avenues for applying hybrid soft computing models in hydrology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0278.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Long Short-Term Memory; time series forecasting; commodities; technical analysis
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:00:55 CET)
This article presents the implementation of a model to estimate the future price of commodities in the Brazilian market from time series of short-term technical evaluation. For this, data from two databases were used, one referring to the foreign market (opening values, maximum, minimum, closing, closing adjustment and volume) and the other, from the Brazilian market (the price of the day), considering commodities, sugar, cotton, corn, soybean and wheat. Subsequently, the technical indicators were calculated from the TA-Lib technical analysis library. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied, records with low correlation were removed, and then the database was consolidated. From the pre-processed data, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks were used to perform data prediction at the one and three day interval. These models were evaluated using the mean square error (MSE), obtaining results between 0.00010 and 0.00037 on test data one day ahead, and from 0.00017 to 0.00042 three days ahead. However, based on the results obtained, it was observed that the developed model obtained a promising forecasting performance for all the commodities evaluated. As a main contribution, there is the consolidation of databases that can be used in future scientific research. Furthermore, based on its interpretation, it can assist in decision making regarding the buying and selling of commodities to increase financial gains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sequelae; COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; long-COVID; systematic review
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:50:08 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 made its debut as a pandemic in 2020; since then, more than 607 million cases and at least 6.5 million deaths have been reported worldwide. While the burden of disease has been described, the long-term effects or chronic sequelae are still being described. Objective: To describe the findings of a current systematic review of the long-term effects related to post-COVID-19 sequelae. Design: A systematic review was carried out in which cohort studies, case series, clinical case reports were included, and the PubMed, Scielo, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases were ex-tracted. Information published 2020 to June 1, 2022, was sought. Results: We reviewed 300 manuscripts during the first step of the literature review process. Then 260 abstracts were analyzed. In the end, we included 32 manuscripts: 9 for pulmonary, 6 for cardiac, 2 for renal, 9 for neurological and psychiatric, and 8 for cutaneous sequelae. Conclusion: Studies show that the most common sequelae are those linked to the lungs, followed by skin, cutaneous and psychiatric alterations. Women report a higher incidence of the sequelae, as well as those with comorbidities and severer COVID-19 history. The COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused death and disease since its apparition but has also sickened millions of people around the globe who potentially suffer from serious illnesses that will continue to add to the list of health problems and further burden healthcare systems around the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: repolarization variability; beat-to-beat; entropy; delayed repolarization; long QT
Online: 13 May 2022 (10:44:15 CEST)
Previous studies have quantified repolarization variability using time-domain, frequency-domain and non-linear analysis in mouse hearts. Here, we investigated the relationship between these parameters and ventricular arrhythmogenicity in a hypokalaemia model of acquired long QT syndrome. Methods: Left ventricular monophasic action potentials (MAPs) were recorded during right ventricular regular 8 Hz pacing during normokalaemia (5.2 mM [K+]), hypokalaemia modelling LQTS (3 mM [K+]) or hypokalaemia with 0.1 mM heptanol in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts. Results: During normokalaemia, mean APD was 33.5±3.7 ms. Standard deviation (SD) of APDs was 0.63±0.33 ms, coefficient of variation was 1.9±1.0% and the root mean square (RMS) of successive differences in APDs was 0.3±0.1 ms. Low- and high-frequency peaks were 0.6±0.5 and 2.3±0.7 Hz, respectively, with percentage powers of 38±22 and 61±23%. Poincaré plots of APDn+1 against APDn revealed ellipsoid morphologies with SD along the line-of-identity (SD2) to SD perpendicular to the line-of-identity (SD1) ratio of 4.6±1.1. Approximate and sample entropy were 0.49±0.12 and 0.64±0.29, respectively. Detrended fluctuation analysis revealed short- and long-term fluctuation slopes of 1.62±0.27 and 0.60±0.18, respectively. Hypokalaemia provoked ventricular tachycardia in six of seven hearts, prolonged APDs (51.2±7.9 ms), decreased SD2/SD1 ratio (3.1±1.0), increased approximate and sample entropy (0.68±0.08 and 1.02±0.33) and decreased short-term fluctuation slope (1.23 ± 0.20) (ANOVA, P<0.05). Heptanol prevented VT in all hearts studied without further altering the above repolarization parameters observed during hypokalaemia. Conclusion: Reduced SD2/SD1, increased entropy and decreased short-term fluctuation slope are associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis in hypokalaemia. Heptanol exerts anti-arrhythmic effects without affecting repolarization variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0051.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Glioblastoma; survival prediction; Machine Learning; biomarkers; HumanPSDTM; Long-term survivor
Online: 3 February 2022 (12:00:23 CET)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a very aggressive malignant brain tumor with the vast majority of patients surviving less than 12 months (Short-term survivors [STS]). Only around 2% of patients survive more than 36 months (Long-term survivors [LTS]). Studying these extreme survival groups might help in better understanding GBM biology. This work aims at exploring application of machine learning methods in predicting survival groups(STS, LTS). We used age and gene expression profiles belonging to 249 samples from publicly available datasets. 10 Machine learning methods have been implemented and compared for their performances. Hyperparameter tuned random forest model performed best with accuracy of 80% (AUC of 74% and F1_score of 85%). The performance of this model is validated on external test data of 16 samples. The model predicted the true survival group for 15 samples achieving an accuracy of 93.75%. This classification model is deployed as a web tool GlioSurvML. The top 1500 features which retained classification efficiency (Accuracy of 80%, AUC of 74%) were studied for enriched pathways and disease-causal biomarker associations using the HumanPSDTM database. We identified 199 genes as possible biomarkers of GBM and/or similar diseases (like Glioma, astrocytoma, and others). 57 of these genes are shown to be differentially expressed across survival groups and/or have impact on survival. This work demonstrates the application of machine learning methods in predicting survival groups of GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: acoustic emission; long-range correlations; natural time analysis; heterogeneous materials
Online: 3 December 2021 (11:37:56 CET)
This work focuses on analyzing acoustic emission (AE) signals as a means to predict failure in structures. Two main approaches are considered: (i) long-range correlation analysis using both the Hurst (H) and the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) exponents, and (ii) natural time domain (NT) analysis. These methodologies are applied to the data collected from two application examples: a glass fiber reinforced polymeric plate and a spaghetti bridge model, where both structures were subjected to increasing loads until collapse. A traditional (AE) signal analysis is also performed to reference the study of the other methods. Results indicate that the proposed methods yield a reliable indication of failure in the studied structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: vesicular stomatitis virus; IVV, transcriptome; nanopore sequencing; long-read sequencing
Online: 9 August 2021 (12:44:21 CEST)
Indiana Vesiculovirus (IVV; formerly as Vesicular stomatitis virus and Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus) causes a disease in livestock that is very similar to the foot and mouth disease thereby an outbreak may lead to significant economic loss. Long-read sequencing (LRS) -based approaches revealed a hidden complexity of the transcriptomes in several viruses already. This technique was utilized already for the sequencing of the IVV genome, but our study is the first for the application of this technique for the profiling of IVV transcriptome. Since LRS is able to sequence full-length RNA molecules, and thereby providing more accurate annotation of the transcriptomes than the traditional short-read sequencing methods. The objectives of this study were to assemble the complete transcriptome of using nanopore sequencing, to ascertain cell-type specificity and dynamics of viral gene expression and to evaluate host gene expression changes induced by the viral infection. We carried out a time-course analysis of IVV gene expression in human glioblastoma and primate fibroblast cell lines using a nanopore-based LRS approach and applied both amplified and direct cDNA sequencing, as well as cap-selection for a fraction of samples. Our investigations revealed that, although the IVV genome is simple, it generates a relative complex transcriptomic architecture. In this study, we also demonstrated that IVV transcripts vary in structure and exhibit differential gene expression patterns in the two examined cell types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0252.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Recurrent neural network; Long-term short memory; Gated recurrent unit
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:03:06 CEST)
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have made a huge impact in the field of machine learning by providing unbeatable humanlike performance to solve real-world problems such as image processing and natural language processing (NLP). Convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) are two typical architectures that are widely used to solve such problems. Time sequence-dependent problems are generally very challenging, and RNN architectures have made an enormous improvement in a wide range of machine learning problems with sequential input involved. In this paper, different types of RNN architectures are compared. Special focus is put on two well-known gated-RNN’s Long Term Short Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU). We evaluated these models on the task of force estimation system in pouring. In this study, four different models including multi-layers LSTM, multi-layers GRU, single-layer LSTM and single-layer GRU) were created and trained. The result suggests that multi-layer GRU outperformed other three models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0177.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: bias; simulation; long-term monitoring; Delta Smelt; San Francisco Estuary
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:50:11 CEST)
In fisheries monitoring, catch is assumed to be a product of fishing intensity, catchability, and availability, where availability is defined as the number or biomass of fish present and catchability refers to the relationship between catch rate and the true population. Ecological monitoring programs use catch per unit of effort (CPUE) to standardize catch and monitor changes in fish populations; however, CPUE is proportional to the portion of the population that is vulnerable to the type of gear that is used in sampling, which is not necessarily the entire population. Programs often deal with this problem by assuming that catchability is constant, but if catchability is not constant, it is not possible to separate the effects of catchability and population size using monitoring data alone. This study uses individual-based simulation to separate the effects of changing environmental conditions on catchability and availability in environmental monitoring data. The simulation combines a module for sampling conditions with a module for individual fish behavior to estimate the proportion of available fish that would escape from the sample. The method is applied to the case study of the well-monitored fish species Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) in the San Francisco Estuary, where it has been hypothesized that changing water clarity may affect catchability for long-term monitoring studies. Results of this study indicate that given constraints on Delta Smelt swimming ability, it is unlikely that the apparent declines in Delta Smelt abundance are due to an effect of changing water clarity on catchability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0722.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Dementia; multicomponent training; long-term care home; social ethical approach
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:45:37 CEST)
Multicomponent training is recommended for people with dementia living in long-term care homes. Nevertheless, evidence is limited and people with severe dementia are often excluded from trials. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate (1) the feasibility and (2) the requirements regarding a multicomponent training for people with moderate to severe dementia. The study was conducted as an uncontrolled single arm pilot study with a mixed methods approach. 15 nursing home residents with a mean age of 82 years (range: 75-90 years; female: 64%) with moderate to severe dementia received 16 weeks of multicomponent training. Feasibility and requirements of the training were assessed by a standardized observation protocol. Eleven participants regularly attended the intervention. The highest active participation was observed during gait exercises (64%), the lowest during strength exercises (33%). It was supportive if exercises were task-specific or related to everyday life. This study confirms that a multicomponent training for the target group is (1) feasible and well accepted. To enhance active participation (2) individual instructions and the implementation of exercises related to everyday life is required. The effectiveness of the adapted training should be tested in future randomized controlled trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0765.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ribosome biogenesis; rRNA processing; RNase MRP; long/short 5.8S rRNA
Online: 29 April 2021 (07:54:07 CEST)
Processing of the RNA polymerase I pre-rRNA transcript into the mature 18S, 5.8S, and 25S rRNAs requires removing the “spacer” sequences. The canonical pathway for the removal of the ITS1 spacer, located between 18S and 5.8S rRNAs in the primary transcript, involves cleavages at the 3’ end of 18S rRNA and at two sites inside ITS1. The process generates a long and a short 5.8S rRNA that differ in the number of ITS1 nucleotides retained at the 5.8S 5’ end. Here we document a novel pathway that generates the long 5.8S for ITS1 while bypassing cleavage within ITS1. It entails a single endonuclease cut at the 3’-end of 18S rRNA followed by exonuclease Xrn1 degradation of ITS1. Mutations in RNase MRP increase the accumulation of long relative to short 5.8S rRNA; traditionally this is attributed to a decreased rate of RNase MRP cleavage at its target in ITS1, called A3. In contrast, we report here that the MRP induced switch between long and short 5.8S rRNA formation occurs even when the A3 site is deleted. Based on this and our published data, we propose that the switch may depend on RNase MRP processing RNA molecules other than pre-rRNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Hazel Grouse; Bohemian Forest; Long-Term Monitoring; Population Trend; TRIM.
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:33:25 CET)
The population dynamics of Hazel Grouse was studied by presence/ absence recording at stationary sites along fixed routes (110 km) during 1972-2019 in the central part of the Bohemian Forest (Šumava, Czech Republic). The 100-km² study area covered altitudes between 600 m (Rejstejn) and 1,253 m a.s.l., (mount Sokol). Our data base contained indices of Hazel Grouse occupancy: positive sites/ controlled sites for a yearly increasing number of Hazel Grouse occurrence sites (N = 134) for 48 years. We used a loglinear Poisson-regression method to analyze the long-term population trend for Hazel Grouse in the study area. In the period 1972 to 2006 we found a stable Hazel Grouse population (p = 0.83). From 2006-2007 to 2019, the population index dropped (-3.8% per year, p < 0.05) for the last 13 years. This decline is assumed to be influenced by habitat loss due to succession resulting in older, more open forest stands, by strongly increasing forestry and windstorm “Kyrill” followed by clear cutting, bark-beetle damage, and removal of pioneer trees in spruce plantations, which diminished buds and catkins, the dominant winter food. The influence of disturbance by increasing touristic activities and/or predation is discussed. Our results could help to optimize conservation efforts for Hazel Grouse in the Bohemian Forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0561.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polyethylene; blend; long-chain branch; thermorheological complexity; activation energy spectrum
Online: 22 January 2021 (13:06:37 CET)
Long-chain branched metallocene-catalyzed high-density polyethylenes (LCB-mHDPE) were solution blended to obtain blends with varying degrees of branching. A high molecular LCB-mHDPE was mixed with low molecular LCB-mHDPE are varying concentrations, whose rheological behavior is similar but whose molar mass and molar mass distribution is significantly different. Those blends were characterized rheologically to study the effects of concentration, molar mass distribution, and long-chain branching level of the low molecular LCB-mHDPE. Owing to the ultra-long relaxation times of the high molecular LCB-mHDPE, the blends started behaving clearly more long-chain branched than the base materials. The thermorheological complexity showed an apparent increase in the activation energies Ea determined from G’, G”, and especially δ. Ea(δ), which for LCB-mHDPE is a peak function, turned out to produce even more pronounced peaks than observed for regular LCB-mPE and also LCB-mPE with broader molar mass distribution. Thus, it is possible to estimate the molar mass distribution from the details of the thermorheological complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0310.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Variola major; phylogeographical analysis; long-term calibrations; short- term calibrations
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:21:34 CET)
In order to reconstruct the origin and pathways of variola virus (VARV) dispersion, we analyzed 47 VARV isolates available in public databases and their SNPs. The mean substitution rate of the whole genomes was 9.41x10-6 (95%HPD:8.5-11.3x10-6) substitutions/site/year. The time of the tree root was estimated to be a mean 68 years (95%HPD:60.5–75.9). The phylogeographical analysis showed that the Far East and India were the most probable locations of the tree root and of the inner nodes, respectively, whereas for the outer nodes it corresponded to the sampling locations. The Bayesian Skyline plot showed that the effective number of infections started to grow exponentially in 1915-1920, peaked in the 1940s, and then decreased to zero. Our results suggests that the VARV major strains circulating between 1940s-1970s probably shared a common ancestor originated in the Far East; subsequently moved to India, which became the center of its dispersion to eastern and southern Africa, and then to central Africa and the Middle East, probably following the movements of people between south-eastern Asia and the other places with a common colonial history. These findings may help to explain the controversial reconstructions of the history of VARV obtained using long- and short- term calibrations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: FOLFIRINOX; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; surgery; liver metastases; long term survival
Online: 27 August 2019 (05:16:03 CEST)
Metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma pancreatic (PDAC) is characterized by poor prognosis and short survival. Today, the use of new polytherapeutic regimens increases clinical outcome of these patients opening new clinical scenario. A crucial issue related to the actual improvement achieved with these new regimens is represented by the occasional possibility to observe a radiological complete response of metastatic lesions in patients with synchronous primary tumor. What could be the best therapeutic management of these patients? Could surgery represent an indication? Herein we reported a case of a patient with a PDAC of the head with multiple liver metastasis, who underwent first line chemotherapy with mFOLFIRINOX. After 10 cycles, he achieved a complete radiological response of liver metastases and a partial response of pancreatic lesion. A, duodenocephalopancreasectomy was performed. Due to liver a lung metastases after 8 months from surgery, a second line therapy was started with a disease free survival and overall survival of 8 months and 45 months, respectively. Improvement in the molecular characterization of PDAC could help in the selection of patients suitable for multimodal treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: long-term; sex ratio; action threshold; pest management; insecticide use
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:19:10 CEST)
A long-term investigation of D. suzukii dynamics in wild blueberry fields from 2012 - 2018 demonstrates relative abundance is still increasing seven years after initial invasion. Relative abundance is determined by physiological date of first detection and air temperatures the previous winter. Date of first detection of flies does not determine date of fruit infestation. The level of fruit infestation is determined by year, fly pressure, and insecticide application frequency. Frequency of insecticide application is determined by production system. Non-crop wild fruit and predation influences fly pressure; increased wild fruit abundance results in increased fly pressure. Increased predation rate reduces fly pressure, but only at high abundance of flies, or when high levels of wild fruit are present along field edges. Male sex ratio might be declining over the seven years. Action thresholds were developed from samples of 92 fields from 2012 - 2017 that related cumulative adult male trap capture to the following week likelihood of fruit infestation. A two-parameter gamma density function describing this probability was used to develop a risk-based gradient action threshold system. The action thresholds were validated from 2016-2018 in 35 fields and were shown to work well in two of three years (2016 and 2017).
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mucosal melanoma; dogs; transcriptome sequencing; long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)
Online: 3 May 2019 (13:59:22 CEST)
Mucosal melanomas (MM) are rare aggressive cancers in humans and one of the most common forms of oral cancers in dogs. Similar biological and histological features are shared between MM in both species making dogs a powerful model for comparative oncology studies of melanomas. Although exome sequencing recently identified recurrent coding mutations in canine MM, little is known about changes in non-coding gene expression and more particularly in canine long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are commonly dysregulated in human cancers. Here, we sampled a large cohort (n= 52) of canine normal/tumor oral MM from three predisposed breeds (poodles, Labrador retrievers and golden retrievers) and used deep transcriptome sequencing to identify more than 400 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs. We further prioritized candidate lncRNAs by comparative genomic analysis to pinpoint 26 dog-human conserved DE lncRNAs, including SOX21-AS, ZEB2-AS and CASC15 lncRNAs. Using unsupervised co-expression networks analysis with coding genes, we inferred potential functions of DE lncRNAs suggesting associations with cancer-related genes, cell cycle and carbohydrate metabolism GO terms. Finally, we exploited our multi-breed design to identify DE lncRNAs per breed. This study provides a unique transcriptomic resource for studying oral melanoma in dogs and highlights lncRNAs that may potentially be diagnostic or therapeutic targets for human and veterinary medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0105.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: depression; total protein; elder people; physical function; long-term care
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:41:35 CEST)
Due to its devastating consequences, late life depression is an important public health problem. The aim of the study was the analysis of variables which may potentially influence risk of depression (GDS-SF). Furthermore, the aim was to study possible mediating effect of given variables on the relationship between the total protein concentration and risk of depression in older-adults with chronic diseases, and physical function impairment. The research sample included a total of 132 older adults with chronic conditions and physical function impairments, remaining under a long-term care in residential environment. Negative linear correlation was observed between patients’ physical functionality, total protein concentration, concentration of HDL cholesterol, arm circumference, and the risk of depression. Considerably stronger relationship was observed between total protein concentration, and GDS-SF, in elderly suffering from sensory dysfunction (b = −6.42, 95% CI = −11.27; −1.58). The effect of the mediation between depression risk is correlated to total protein concentration in blood serum, and the mediators are probably low function impairment and low levels of 25 (OH)D vitamin. Cohort control research is suggested to confirm the hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: long-term care, elderly people, behavior assessment, factor analysis, independence
Online: 19 June 2018 (10:59:03 CEST)
The rapid growth rate of the elderly population is a serious current issue in most countries, affecting them economically through needed medical treatment and healthcare planning. The priority concern is how to reduce the number of elderly people requiring long-term healthcare and raise the number who are able to live independently. This study executed a behavior assessment of elderly person’s self-reported use of electric scooters and analyzed their degree of acceptance of these assisted living tools, partly through a related factor analysis of our survey instrument. We used this questionnaire survey as our research method, applying SPSS22 software for factor analysis that revealed five survey facets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0004.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Bayesian modeling, long memory/anti-persistence; continuous time modeling; MCMC
Online: 4 July 2016 (09:57:31 CEST)
Using recent developments in econometrics and computational statistics we consider the estimation of the instantaneous rate of asset return process when the underlying Data Generating Mechanism (DGM) is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, driven by fractional noise, and sampled at fixed intervals of length h. To address the problem we adopt throughout the paper an exact discretization approach. This enable us to exploit the fact that a flow sampling scheme arises naturally when observing the DGM. For, while the instantaneous rate of return process is unobservable at points in time, its time integral over successive observations is observable since it equals the increment of log-prices. Exact discretization delivers an ARIMA(1,1,1) model for log-prices with a fractional driving noise. Building on the resulting exact discretization formulae and covariance function, a new Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme is proposed and we examine the properties of both the time and frequency domain likelihoods / posteriors through Monte Carlo. For the exact discrete model we adopt a general sampling interval of length h. This allow us to determine the optimal choice of h independent of the sample size. An empirical application using high frequency stock price data is presented showing the relevance of aggregation over time issues in modelling asset prices.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ME/CFS; education; medical school; teaching; long Covid; patient safety, NICE Guidelines, Health Act 1983, General Medical Council, GMC, Medical Schools Council, MSC, Long Covid.
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:16:27 CET)
Background and objectives: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ME/CFS is a common complex multi-system disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients and their families, yet the majority of ME/CFS patients go unrecognised or undiagnosed. For two decades the medical education establishment in the UK has been challenged to remedy these failings, but little has changed. This study was designed to ascertain the current UK medical school education on ME/CFS and to identify challenges and opportunities to inform the future of medical education. Materials and methods: A questionnaire, developed under the guidance of the Medical Schools Council, was sent to all 34 UK Medical Schools to collect data for the academic year 2018-2019. Results: Responses were provided by 22 out of a total of 34 medical schools (65%). 59% of respondents taught ME/CFS, led by specialists drawn from 6 medical disciplines. Teaching delivery was usually by lecture; however, discussion case studies and e-learning were used. 7 schools included questions on ME/CFS in their examinations and 3 schools reported likely clinical exposure to ME/CFS patients. 64% of respondents were interested in receiving further teaching aids in ME/CFS. None of the schools shared details of their teaching syllabus so it was not possible to ascertain what students were being taught. Conclusions: UK medical school teaching in ME/CFS is shown to be inadequate. Several medical disciplines, with known differences about the disease, need to set these aside to give greater clarity in teaching undergraduates so they can more easily recognise and diagnose ME/CFS. Improvements are proposed in ME/CFS medical education consistent with the international paradigm shift in biomedical understanding of this disease. Many medical schools (64% of respondents) acknowledge this need by expressing a strong appetite for the development of further teaching aids and materials. The GMC and MSC are called upon to use their considerable influence to bring about the appropriate changes to medical school curricula so future doctors can recognise, diagnose and treat ME/CFS. The GMC should also consider creating a registered speciality encompassing ME/CFS, post viral fatigue and Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiopulmonary exercise test; Takotsubo syndrome; Long-term functional limitations; Heart failure
Online: 5 December 2023 (14:40:09 CET)
In patients with prior Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), long lasting functional cardiac limitations were described as compared with normal subjects. Emotions-triggered Takotsubo syndrome (E-TTS) has more favorable outcomes than TTS preceded by a physical trigger or by no identifiable fac-tors. The aim of the present study was to assess long-term cardiac functional limitations in a co-hort of asymptomatic E-TTS patients. We enrolled n=39 asymptomatic patients with a diagnosis of E-TTS. Cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) were performed at 30 [12-40] months median fol-low-up from the acute event. A cohort of n=39 individuals matched for age, sex, body mass index and comorbidities served as control. Despite recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction, patients with prior E-TTS had lower peak VO2 and percentage of predicted peak VO2 (17.8 ± 3.6 vs 22.5 ± 6.5; P < 0.001 and 75.2 ± 14.1 % vs 100.6 ± 17.1%, P <0.001), VO2 at anaerobic threshold (AT) (11.1 [10.1-12.9] vs 14.4 [12.5-18.7]; P <0.001), peak O2 pulse (9.7 ± 2.5 vs 13.1 ± 3.5; P <0.001) and higher VE/VCO2 slope (30.4 ± 3.7 vs 27.2 ± 3.5; P <0.001) compared with matched controls. We found no statistically significant differences in heart rate reserve (HRR), respiratory equivalent ratio (RER), mean blood pressure and peak PetCO2 between patients and controls. Despite its favorable out-come, patients with E-TTS in our population were found to have subclinical long-term functional cardiac limitations as compared with a control cohort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0621.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: RNA polymerases; long non-coding RNAs; olive, stress conditions; fruit development
Online: 30 November 2023 (14:11:08 CET)
Transcription is carried out in most eukaryotes by three multimeric complexes (RNA polymerases I, II and III). However, plants contain two additional RNA polymerases (IV and V), which have evolved from RNA polymerase II. RNA polymerases II, IV and V contain both common and specific subunits that may specialize some of their functions. In this study, we conducted a search for the genes that putatively code for the specific subunits of RNA polymerases IV and V, as well as the corresponding of RNA polymerase II in olive. Based on the homology with the genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 13 genes that putatively code for the specific subunits of polymerases IV and V, and 16 genes that code for the corresponding specific subunits of polymerase II in olive. The transcriptomic analysis by RNA-Seq revealed that the expression of the RNA polymerases IV and V genes was induced during the initial stages of fruit development. Given that RNA polymerases IV and V are involved in the transcription of long non-coding RNAs, we investigated their expression and observed relevant changes in the expression of this type of RNAs. Particularly, the expression of the intergenic and intronic long non-coding RNAs tended to increase in the early steps of fruit development, suggesting their potential role in this process. The positive correlation between the expression of RNA polymerases IV and V subunits and the expression of non-coding RNAs supports the hypothesis that RNA polymerases IV and V may play a role in fruit development throughout the synthesis of this type of RNAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1819.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Xinjiang; Long-staple cotton; Maxent model; Potential distribution area; Distribution coordination
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:19:06 CEST)
Cotton cultivation and sustaining its productivity is challenging in temperate arid regions around the globe. Exploring suitable cotton cultivation areas to improve productivity in such climatic regions is essential. Thus, this study explores the ecologically suitable areas of cotton cultivation using the Maxent model, having 375 distribution points of long-staple cotton and various factors, including 19 climatic factors, 2 terrain factors, and 6 soil factors in Xinjiang. The area under the curve (AUC) of the predicted results was greater than 0.9, indicating that the model's predictions had fairly high accuracy. However, the main environmental factors that affect cotton's growth are the lowest temperature in the coldest month, the hottest month, the precipitation in the driest season, and the monthly average temperature difference. Further, the temperature factors contribute 71%, while the contribution ratio of terrain and soil factors is only 22%. The research shows that the current planting area is consistent with the predicted area in many areas of the study. Still, some areas, such as the Turpan region, northwest of Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, are supposed to be suitable for planting cotton, but it is not planted. The current potential distribution area of long-staple cotton is mainly located in Aksu Prefecture and the northern part of the Kashgar Prefecture region. The climatic prediction shows that the growing area of long-staple cotton may expand to southern Altay, central Aksu, and Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture. This study will be helpful for cotton cultivation suitability areas in Xinjiang and other regions with similar environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1945.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: memory loss; long COVID; post COVID; depression; mental confusion; COVID-19
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:28:13 CEST)
Long Covid is a term used for patients who have recovered from COVID-19 but exhibit persistent cognitive dysfunction, including mental confusion, difficulties in attention, impairment in executive functions and slow movements, among other common symptoms. A study was conducted with 65 patients who had a positive RT-PCR diagnosis and reported symptoms of cognitive impairment, such as memory loss and attention difficulties after recovery. The patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation and completed questionnaires on cognition, mood, and quality of life. During the cognitive screening, 71% of the patients showed alterations, with deficits in visual memory (69%), language (54%), visuospatial construction (49%), verbal episodic memory (37%), executive functions (36%), attentional abilities (34%), and premorbid intelligence (12%). It is important to highlight the need for treatments and further studies to understand the long-term side effects of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0788.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: patent foramen ovale; complex PFO anatomy; GSO; long-term residual shunt
Online: 12 July 2023 (07:55:03 CEST)
Background: PFO (Patent foramen ovale) is a common defect that affects about 25% of the population. Although its presence is asymptomatic in the majority of the cases, the remaining part becomes overt with different symptoms, including cryptogenic stroke. The PFO closure procedure is widely available to date with the most used Amplatzer PFO Occluder, also in complex anatomy, but the performance of another device, the GORE Septal Occluder (GSO), has not been completely explored with regard to different septal anatomies. Methods: From March 2012 to June 2020, 118 consecutive patients with an indication for PFO closure were treated using the GSO system and included in a prospective analysis and followed. After 12 months, every patient underwent transcranial Doppler to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Results: of 111 patients evaluated, 107 showed effective PFO closure (96,4%) and 4 showed a residual shunt (3,6%). To better evaluate the device performance, the overall population was sorted into 2 clusters based on the echocardiographic characteristics. The main difference between groups was for PFO width (4,85 ± 1,8 vs 2,9 ± 1 mm, p <0,001) and PFO tunnel length (12,6 ± 3,8 vs 7,2 ± 2 respectively, p <0,001), allowing identification of complex anatomy and simple anatomy, respectively. Regardless of the aforementioned cluster, the GSO performance to reach an effective closure was independent of anatomy type and the chosen device size. Conclusion: GSO device showed efficacy and safety at 1-year follow-up in patients with at least 1 anatomical factor of complexity of PFO, irrespectively from the level of complexity itself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0603.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: IKs; Long QT Syndrome; polyunsaturated fatty acids; zebrafish heart; ML-277
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:15:56 CEST)
Background: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) can lead to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. The most common congenital cause of LQTS is mutations in the channel subunits generating the cardiac potassium current IKs. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been proposed as a powerful system to model human cardiac diseases due to the similar electrical properties of the zebrafish heart and the human heart. Methods: We used high resolution all-optical electrophysiology on ex-vivo zebrafish hearts to assess the effects of IKs analogues on the cardiac action potential. Findings: We found that chromanol 293B (an IKs inhibitor) prolonged the action potential duration (APD) in the presence of E4031 (an IKr inhibitor applied to drug-induced LQT2) and to a lesser extent in the absence of E4031. Moreover, we show that PUFA analogues slightly shorten the APD of the zebrafish heart. However, PUFA analogues failed to reverse the APD prolongation in drug-induced LQT2. However, a more potent IKs activator, ML-277, partially reversed the APD prolongation in drug-induced LQT2 zebrafish hearts. Interpretation: Our results suggest that IKs plays a limited role in ventricular repolarizations in the zebrafish heart under resting conditions but plays a more important role when IKr is compromised, as if IKs in zebrafish serves as a repolarization reserve as in human hearts. This study shows that potent IKs activators can restore the action potential duration in drug-induced LQT2 in zebrafish heart.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1903.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fasting; autophagy; long-COVID; post-vaccination syndrome; spike protein; mitochondria; mitophagy
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:33:46 CEST)
Fasting, a practice with historical roots in various cultures, has recently garnered significant interest in the field of medicine. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying fasting-induced autophagy and its therapeutic applications for spike protein associated pathology. We explore the therapeutic potential of fasting on spike protein-related pathology and the role of interventions to upregulate autophagy, including compounds like spermidine, resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin. In conclusion, fasting, coupled with an understanding of its nuances, holds promise as a therapeutic intervention for spike protein related diseases; with broad implications for human health. This review presents the therapeutic possibility of using autophagy to treat spike protein related diseases, and details the interventions to deploy this therapeutic modality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fasting; autophagy; long-COVID; post-vaccination syndrome; spike protein; mitochondria; mitophagy
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:39:57 CEST)
Fasting, a practice with historical roots in various cultures, has recently garnered significant interest in the field of medicine. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying fasting-induced autophagy and its therapeutic applications for spike protein associated pathology. We explore the therapeutic potential of fasting on spike protein-related pathology. Additionally, we discuss factors that affect fasting, such as duration, type (dry vs. water), and the role of specific compounds like spermidine, resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin. Furthermore, we analyse the interactions between fasting and other practices such as exercise, and highlight important considerations regarding participant characteristics, including pregnancy, breastfeeding, medication interactions, and metabolic disorders. In conclusion, fasting, coupled with an understanding of its nuances, holds promise as a therapeutic intervention with broad implications for human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0934.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Time Series; Forecasting, Deep Learning; Genetic Algorithm; Long Short-Term Memory
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:07:28 CEST)
Fluctuating stock prices make it difficult for investors to see investment opportunities. One tool that can help investors overcome this is forecasting techniques. Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) is one of deep learning methods used in forecasting time series. The training and success of deep learning is strongly influenced by the selection of hyperparameters. This research uses a hybrid method between the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and LSTM to find a suitable model for predicting stock prices. GA is used in optimizing the architecture such as the number of epochs, window size, and the number of LSTM units in the hidden layer. Tuning optimizer is also carried out using several optimizers to achieve the best value. From method that has been applied, it shows that the method has a good level of accuracy with MAPE values below 10% in every optimizer used. The error rate generated is quite low, in case-1 with a minimum RMSE value of 93.03 and 94.40, & in case-2 with an RMSE value of 104.99 and 150.06 during training and testing. A fairly stable and small value is generated by setting it using the Adam Optimizer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0308.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cooperative learning; professional capital; learning of education professionals; long-term project
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:41:46 CEST)
This article presents the research results on developing professional capital in Lithuanian schools during the national project "Time for leaders". The longitudinal national initiative aimed to develop professional capital as the synergy of human, social and decisional components (Hargreaves and Fullan, 2019) of schools through the various cooperation-based learning experiences of educational professionals. The article provides an overview of project interventions (activities that stimulated cooperative learning of educational professionals) in the light of cooperative learning principles. The assessment of change over two project years in education professionals' perceptions of professional capital is presented using Cohen's d effect size measure. The measurement sample consisted of teachers (n1=5105; n2=4683) and school leaders (n1=439; n2=405) from 189 schools in 30 Lithuanian municipalities. The findings show a statistically significant medium positive change in professional capital. The most considerable change was estimated in the social and decisional capital dimensions and the relatively smallest - in the field of human capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0512.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: fish; functional data analysis; long-term monitoring; habitat; occupancy; modeling; California
Online: 21 March 2023 (10:25:11 CET)
Coincident changes in abundance and behavior pose a challenge for interpreting abundance data from monitoring programs. In the San Francisco Estuary, long-term monitoring documented the declines of many species including the anadromous Longfin Smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys). We identified seasonal patterns in reginal presence of Longfin Smelt through its life cycle using monitoring data and generalized additive modelling. We then investigated the year-to-year variability in the seasonal patterns of presence using functional data analysis (FDA). FDA separated the variability due to population size from variability due to differences in timing of presence. We found that Longfin Smelt have consistent seasonal distribution patterns and that two trawl types were needed to accurately describe those patterns. After accounting for variability due to year-class strength, shifts in the timing of presence were evident in three regions. The most variable period for the upstream regions Suisun Bay and West Delta was for age-0 fish in summer and for the downstream region Central Bay was for age-0 fish in late fall. This manifested as a delay in the typical fall re-occupation of upstream regions that comprise the study area for another monitoring study (Fall Midwater Trawl). Thus, a portion of the recent reductions in Fall Midwater Trawl abundance of Longfin Smelt resulted from changes in behavior rather than a decline in abundance. The presence of multiple monitoring surveys allowed analysis of distribution from one data set to aid interpretation of patterns in abundance from another monitoring survey. This study highlights how identifying portions of the life cycle with the most and least variability in distribution can help inform the types of management strategies that will be most effective. It also illustrates an analytical method that can be used to address the problem of confounded effects of abundance and behavior on patterns in monitoring data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma; tumor mutation load; cuproptosis; long noncoding RNA; immunotherapeutic response
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:08:33 CET)
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histological subtype. However, the prognostic and predictive outcomes differ because of the heterogeneity of programmed cell death. The purpose of this work is to investigate and develop a cuproptosis-associated lncRNA-based LUAD prediction marker. We firstly performed bioinformatic analysis of the Cuprotosis database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to obtain 19 cuprotosis-related gene datasets and transcriptional data for LUAD. Univariate, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and multivariate Cox regression analysis were utilized to construct cuproptosis-associated lncRNA modes. LUAD patients were thus classified into high-risk and low-risk categories based on prognostic risk values, with a median of It acted as a boundary. Risk models were evaluated and validated using Kaplan-Meier analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and nomograms. Utilizing the TCGA-LUAD dataset, we identified seven predicted cuproptosis-associated lncRNAs in tumor microenvironment to create the risk model. 95.54% (214/224) of high-risk category tumor samples included cuproptosis-associated gene alterations, compared to 85.65% (203/237) of low-risk category tumor samples, with TP53 accounting for the bulk of occurrences. According to these findings, risk value was superior to other clinical variables and tumor mutation burden as a predictor of 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS). The predictive validity of the cuproptosis-associated lncRNA-based risk model for LUAD is high, and this may have implications for how lung cancer patients are treated individually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0104.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: hydrological research basin; precipitation; temperature; long-term trends; climate change; evapotranspiration
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:35:58 CEST)
While the ongoing climate change is well documented, the impacts exhibit a substantial variability, both in direction and magnitude, visible even at regional and local scales. However, the knowledge of regional impacts is crucial for the design of mitigation and adaptation measures, particularly when changes in the hydrological cycle are concerned. In this paper we present hydro-meteorological trends based on observations from a hydrological research basin in Eastern Austria between 1979-2019. The analysed state variables include the air temperature, the precipitation, and the catchment runoff. Additionally, trends for the catchment evapotranspiration were derived. The analysis shows that while the mean annual temperature was decreasing and annual temperature minima remained constant, the annual maxima were rising. The long-term trends indicate a shift of precipitation to the summer with minor variations observed for the remaining seasons and at an annual scale. Observed precipitation intensities mainly increased in spring and summer between 1979-2019. The catchment evapotranspiration, computed based on catchment precipitation and outflow, showed an increasing trend for the observed time period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Virus; plant virus; long noncoding RNA; replication; positive sense RNA virus
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:01:56 CEST)
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of virus origin accumulate in cells infected by many positive strand (+) RNA viruses to bolster viral infectivity. Their biogenesis mostly utilizes exoribonucleases of host cells that degrade viral genomic or subgenomic RNAs in the 5’-to-3’ direction until being stalled by well-defined RNA structures. Here we report a viral lncRNA that is produced by a novel replication-dependent mechanism. This lncRNA corresponds to the last 283 nucleotides of the turnip crinkle virus (TCV) genome, hence is designated tiny TCV subgenomic RNA (ttsgR). ttsgR accumulated to high levels in TCV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana cells when the TCV-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), also known as p88, was overexpressed. Both (+) and (-) strand forms of ttsgR were produced in these cells in a manner dependent on the RdRp functionality. Strikingly, templates as short as ttsgR itself were sufficient to program ttsgR amplification, as long as the TCV-encoded replication proteins, p28 and p88, were provided in trans. Consistent with its replicational origin, ttsgR accumulation required a 5’ terminal G3(A/U)4 motif shown by others to be crucial for the replication of a TCV satellite RNA. More importantly, introducing a new G3(A/U)4 motif elsewhere in the TCV genome was alone sufficient to cause the emergence of another lncRNA. Collectively our results unveil a replication-dependent mechanism for the biogenesis of viral lncRNAs, thus suggesting that multiple mechanisms, individually or in combination, may be responsible for viral lncRNA production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Coronaviruses; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Viral Persistence; Reinfection; Long COVID
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:44:52 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to wreak havoc threatening the public health services and imposing economic collapse worldwide. Tailoring public health responses to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic depends on understanding the mechanism of viral replication, disease pathogenesis, and accurately identifying acute infections and mapping the spreading risk of hotspots across the globe. However, effective identification and isolation of persons with asymptomatic and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections remain the major obstacles to efforts in controlling the SARS-CoV-2 spread and hence the pandemic. Understanding the mechanism of persistent viral shedding, reinfection, and the post-acute sequalae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) is crucial in our efforts to combat the pandemic and provide better care and rehabilitation to survivors. Here we present a living literature review on SARS-CoV-2 viral persistence, reinfection and PASC. We also highlight potential areas of research to uncover putative links between viral persistence, intra-host evolution, host immune status, and protective immunity to guide and direct future basic science and clinical research priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Machine learning; Ultrasonic measurements; Long Short-Term Memory; Industrial Digital technologies
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:31:43 CET)
Beer fermentation is typically monitored by periodic sampling and off-line analysis. In-line sensors would remove the need for time-consuming manual operation and provide real-time evaluation of the fermenting media. This work uses a low-cost ultrasonic sensor combined with machine learning to predict the alcohol concentration during beer fermentation. The highest accuracy model (R2=0.952, MAE=0.265, MSE=0.136) used a transmission-based ultrasonic sensing technique along with the measured temperature. However, the second most accurate model (R2=0.948, MAE=0.283, MSE=0.146) used a reflection-based technique without the temperature. Both the reflection-based technique and the omission of the temperature data are novel to this research and demonstrate the potential for a non-invasive sensor to monitor beer fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0616.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: pseudorabies virus; herpesvirus; transcriptome; Pacific Biosciences; nanopore sequencing; long-read sequencing
Online: 24 December 2020 (11:30:22 CET)
In the last couple of years, the implementation of long-read sequencing (LRS) technologies for transcriptome profiling has uncovered an extreme complexity of viral gene expression. In this study, we carried out a systematic analysis on the pseudorabies virus transcriptome by combining our current data obtained by using Pacific Biosciences Sequel and Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencings with our earlier data generated by other LRS and short-read sequencing techniques. As a result, we identified a number of novel genes, transcripts, and transcript isoforms, including splice and length variants, and also confirmed earlier annotated RNA molecules. One of the major findings of this study is the discovery of a large number of 5’-truncated putative mRNAs embedded into larger host mRNAs. A large fraction of these RNA molecules contain in-frame ORFs, which may encode N-terminally truncated polypeptides. These study demonstrates that the PRV transcriptome is much more complex than previously appreciated.